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1. Tay A, Scheithauer BW, Cameron JD, Myhre MJ, Boerner MJ: Retinal ependymoma: an immunohistologic and ultrastructural study. Hum Pathol; 2009 Apr;40(4):578-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most are syndrome associated and include pilocytic astrocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Acquired, more conventional, diffuse astrocytomas are less frequent.
  • The tumor was sporadic in occurrence and unilateral, low grade, and of cellular type.

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  • (PMID = 18835620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Jenkins RB, Blair H, Ballman KV, Giannini C, Arusell RM, Law M, Flynn H, Passe S, Felten S, Brown PD, Shaw EG, Buckner JC: A t(1;19)(q10;p10) mediates the combined deletions of 1p and 19q and predicts a better prognosis of patients with oligodendroglioma. Cancer Res; 2006 Oct 15;66(20):9852-61
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  • Paraffin-embedded tissue was obtained from 21 Mayo Clinic patients and 98 patients enrolled in 2 North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) low-grade glioma trials.
  • Among NCCTG patients, CEP1/19p12 fusion prevalence was 55%, 47%, and 0% among the oligodendrogliomas, mixed oligoastrocytomas, and astrocytomas, respectively.
  • The median OS for patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma was 9.1 years without fusion and 13.0 years with fusion (P = 0.01).
  • Like combined 1p/19q deletion, the 1;19 translocation is associated with superior OS and progression-free survival in low-grade glioma patients.

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  • (PMID = 17047046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114740; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA85799; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108961
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CNTRL protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins
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3. Schramm J, Aliashkevich AF: Surgery for temporal mediobasal tumors: experience based on a series of 235 patients. Neurosurgery; 2007 Feb;60(2):285-94; discussion 294-5
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  • The largest tumor groups were astrocytomas (38.0%), gangliogliomas (29.8%), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (11.1%), and glioblastomas (11.1%).
  • Thirty-eight patients with low-grade tumors had undergone surgery previously.

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  • [ReprintIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1272-82 [18695547.001]
  • (PMID = 17290179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Buccoliero AM, Franchi A, Castiglione F, Gheri CF, Mussa F, Giordano F, Genitori L, Taddei GL: Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA): Is it an astrocytoma? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Neuropathology; 2009 Feb;29(1):25-30
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  • [Title] Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA): Is it an astrocytoma? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.
  • Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a rare intra-ventricular low-grade tumor which frequently occurs as a manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • In spite of this, in the recently revised WHO classification of the CNS tumors, SEGA has been still included in the group of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18564101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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5. Henderson MA, Fakiris AJ, Timmerman RD, Worth RM, Lo SS, Witt TC: Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2009;87(3):161-7
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  • [Title] Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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6. Xiang C, Sarid R, Cazacu S, Finniss S, Lee HK, Ziv-Av A, Mikkelsen T, Brodie C: Cloning and characterization of human RTVP-1b, a novel splice variant of RTVP-1 in glioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2007 Oct 26;362(3):612-8
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  • In contrast, RTVP-1 and RTVP-1b showed similar patterns of expression in astrocytic tumors; highly expressed in glioblastomas as compared to normal brains, low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

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  • (PMID = 17825796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-R21-96965; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA095809
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLIPR1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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7. Haseley A, Alvarez-Breckenridge C, Chaudhury AR, Kaur B: Advances in oncolytic virus therapy for glioma. Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov; 2009 Jan;4(1):1-13
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  • The World Health Organization grossly classifies the various types of astrocytomas using a grade system with grade IV gliomas having the worst prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 19149710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-8898
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent patents on CNS drug discovery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K01 NS059575-01A1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS064607; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA069246; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS064607-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA069246-090004; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K01 NS059575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA069246-090004; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS064607-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS059575-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Number-of-references] 115
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS104668; NLM/ PMC2720101
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8. Kinjo S, Hirato J, Nakazato Y: Low grade diffuse gliomas: shared cellular composition and morphometric differences. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):455-65
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  • [Title] Low grade diffuse gliomas: shared cellular composition and morphometric differences.
  • Low grade diffuse gliomas arising in the brain are challenging to treat because of their ability to infiltrate adjacent tissue.
  • We attempted to clarify the cellular composition and histopathological features of low grade gliomas by utilizing morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses.
  • Seventy-eight cases of low grade gliomas were examined including 21 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 36 oligodendrogliomas (OL), and 21 oligoastrocytomas (OA), based on the WHO classification system.

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  • (PMID = 18282166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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9. Chaichana KL, McGirt MJ, Niranjan A, Olivi A, Burger PC, Quinones-Hinojosa A: Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing low-grade gliomas in adults and a review of the literature. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):931-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing low-grade gliomas in adults and a review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Survival and tumor recurrence for patients with low-grade gliomas is heterogeneous, with reported survival and recurrence times varying by several months to years.
  • The prognostic implications of a contrast-enhancing low-grade glioma remain less well understood.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients who underwent a craniotomy for a hemispheric low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) from 1996 to 2006 at a single institution.
  • Furthermore, a review of the literature for all works on low-grade gliomas and contrast enhancement was conducted.
  • RESULTS: One hundred eighty-nine patients (87 fibrillary astrocytomas, 89 oligodendrogliomas and 13 mixed gliomas) were available for analysis, with 64 (34%) and 125 (66%) contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumors, respectively.
  • The majority of these published works had design-related limitations including small population size as well as the inclusion of non-WHO grade II gliomas, pediatric patients and patient undergoing biopsy.
  • DISCUSSION: This study may provide insights into risk stratifying patients with low-grade gliomas and most specifically those that contrast enhance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Craniotomy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19215664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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10. Li M, Jia ZZ, Gu HM, Zhou XJ, Tang LM: [Application of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy in identification of tumor component and grading of brain astrocytoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Dec 23;88(47):3352-5
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  • [Title] [Application of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy in identification of tumor component and grading of brain astrocytoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in identification of tumor element and grading of brain astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients with histologically confirmed astrocytoma underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and conventional MRI before operation.
  • The values of ADC and FA of different regions in the same tumor and of astrocytoma of different grades were measured and compared.
  • There were no significant differences in the ADC and FA values among the tumors at different grades, however, there was a tendency of ADC to decrease and of FA to increase along the increase of grade of tumor, although not significantly.
  • CONCLUSION: ADC value plays an important part in distinguishing tumor components and determining tumor boundary, and plays a certain role in judging the grade of astrocytomas.
  • FA value is vital to determine the tumor boundary, and has certain value in differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19257968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Ducreux D, Lepeintre JF, Fillard P, Loureiro C, Tadié M, Lasjaunias P: MR diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking in 5 spinal cord astrocytomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Jan;27(1):214-6
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  • [Title] MR diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking in 5 spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • Spinal cord astrocytomas are rare neoplasms that can result in alteration of the spinal cord structural integrity, which can be assessed by using diffusion tensor imaging methods.
  • Our objective was to visualize the deformation of the posterior spinal cord lemniscal and corticospinal tracts in 5 patients with low-grade astrocytomas compared with 10 healthy volunteers by using 3D fiber-tracking reconstructions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16418387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Zorlu F, Ozyigit G, Gurkaynak M, Soylemezoglu F, Akyol F, Lale Atahan I: Postoperative radiotherapy results in primary spinal cord astrocytomas. Radiother Oncol; 2005 Jan;74(1):45-8
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  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy results in primary spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the therapeutic outcomes of patients with primary spinal cord astrocytomas treated with conventional radiotherapy at our institute.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 1975 and December 1997, 26 patients with histologically proven spinal cord astrocytomas were treated with conventional radiotherapy, and twenty-four eligible patients were evaluated.
  • Fourteen of astrocytomas were grade I, 6 of them grade II and 4 grade III.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15683668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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13. Voelzke WR, Petty WJ, Lesser GJ: Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Feb;9(1):23-31
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  • [Title] Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • OPINION STATEMENT: High-grade astrocytomas, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), are the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumors in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18247132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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14. Eckerich C, Schulte A, Martens T, Zapf S, Westphal M, Lamszus K: RON receptor tyrosine kinase in human gliomas: expression, function, and identification of a novel soluble splice variant. J Neurochem; 2009 May;109(4):969-80
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  • RONDelta90 transcripts are expressed in normal human brain as well as in low grade astrocytomas but only in approximately 50% of highly malignant astrocytomas.


15. Grimm S, Chamberlain MC: Adult primary spinal cord tumors. Expert Rev Neurother; 2009 Oct;9(10):1487-95
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  • Intramedullary tumors are comprised predominantly of gliomas (infiltrative astrocytomas and ependymomas).
  • Primary treatment is surgery in essentially all spinal cord tumors, and predictors of outcome include preoperative functional status, histological grade of tumor and extent of surgical resection.

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  • (PMID = 19831838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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16. Varan A, Akyüz C, Akalan N, Atahan L, Söylemezoglu F, Selek U, Yalçin B, Kutluk T, Büyükpamukçu M: Astrocytic tumors in children: treatment results from a single institution. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Mar;23(3):315-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to evaluate the patients with astrocytomas and to investigate survival rates and prognosis.
  • The histopathologic distribution was as follows: low grade, 55 patients; high grade, 43 patients.
  • OS rates were 93.3 and 22.4% for low-grade and high-grade histopathology, respectively (p=0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Low-grade astrocytomas are highly responsive to the surgery, and they do not need any further treatment unless the patient has relapse or recurrence.
  • Still, the treatment of the high-grade tumors is a problem, and it needs new treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17058082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
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  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; COPP protocol
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17. Lang FF, Gilbert MR: Diffusely infiltrative low-grade gliomas in adults. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Mar 10;24(8):1236-45
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  • [Title] Diffusely infiltrative low-grade gliomas in adults.
  • Diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas (WHO grade 2).

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  • (PMID = 16525178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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18. Massimino M, Biassoni V: Use of high-dose chemotherapy in front-line therapy of childhood malignant glioma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 May;6(5):709-17
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  • High-grade or malignant glioma, among which anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastoma are the most prevalent histotypes, represent 10% of pediatric brain tumors and, taken as a whole, are the second most frequent malignant histotype after medulloblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16759162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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19. Rousseau A, Nutt CL, Betensky RA, Iafrate AJ, Han M, Ligon KL, Rowitch DH, Louis DN: Expression of oligodendroglial and astrocytic lineage markers in diffuse gliomas: use of YKL-40, ApoE, ASCL1, and NKX2-2. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Dec;65(12):1149-56
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  • Based on data from the literature and from expression microarrays, we selected molecules relevant to gliogenesis and glial lineage specificity and then used immunohistochemistry to assess expression of these molecules in 55 diffuse gliomas, including 8 biphasic oligoastrocytomas, 21 oligodendrogliomas (all with 1p/19qloss), 21 astrocytomas, and 5 glioblastomas.
  • GFAP, YKL-40, and ApoE reliably distinguished grade II-III oligodendrogliomas from grade II-IV astrocytomas (p < 0.0001, p = 0.002, and p < 0.0001, respectively).
  • Among the oligodendroglial lineage markers (Olig2, Sox10, ASCL1, and NKX2-2), ASCL1 and NKX2-2 displayed significantly different immunostaining between oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas (p = 0.017 and 0.004, respectively), but none clearly differentiated between the 2 glial populations of oligoastrocytomas.
  • In addition to GFAP, therefore, YKL-40, ApoE, ASCL1, and NKX2-2 represent promising tumor cell markers to distinguish oligodendrogliomas from astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipokines. Apolipoproteins E / analysis. Apolipoproteins E / metabolism. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / analysis. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glycoproteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lectins. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Predictive Value of Tests. Transcription Factors / analysis. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17146289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 57683; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 95616
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASCL1 protein, human; 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Nkx-2.2 homedomain protein; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / apolipoprotein E1
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20. Lo HW: Targeting Ras-RAF-ERK and its interactive pathways as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2010 Dec;10(8):840-8
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  • In contrast to the initial negative results on the somatic mutations of H-Ras, K-Ras and BRAF, recent breakthrough studies on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas uncovered genetic alterations of the BRAF gene involving copy number gains and rearrangements.

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  • (PMID = 20718706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA118423; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5K01-CA118423; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA118423-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 2P50-NS020023-26
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS357377; NLM/ PMC3615246
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21. Stark AM, Fritsch MJ, Claviez A, Dörner L, Mehdorn HM: Management of tectal glioma in childhood. Pediatr Neurol; 2005 Jul;33(1):33-8
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  • Tectal glioma is a topographical diagnosis including tumors of different histology, mainly low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Histology was obtained in 5 cases (low-grade astrocytoma, n = 4; ependymoma, n = 1).

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  • (PMID = 15876519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Parhar P, Ezer R, Shao Y, Allen JC, Miller DC, Newcomb EW: Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Jun 13;137(1-2):98-103
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  • [Title] Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this study, we scored 135 brain tumor samples (92 adult and 43 pediatric cases consisting of 64 high-grade astrocytomas and 71 non-astrocytomas) for the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms.
  • (ii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas compared with non-astrocytomas (P = 0.002); and (iii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas containing transdominant as well as recessive p53 mutations compared with controls (P = 0.002).
  • Our results suggest a possible association between P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms and susceptibility to brain tumors, particularly high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Codon / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15950766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U10 CA13539-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90290
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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23. Silber J, Lim DA, Petritsch C, Persson AI, Maunakea AK, Yu M, Vandenberg SR, Ginzinger DG, James CD, Costello JF, Bergers G, Weiss WA, Alvarez-Buylla A, Hodgson JG: miR-124 and miR-137 inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells and induce differentiation of brain tumor stem cells. BMC Med; 2008 Jun 24;6:14
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  • METHODS: We used quantitative RT-PCR to assess microRNA expression in high-grade astrocytomas and adult mouse neural stem cells.
  • To assess the function of candidate microRNAs in high-grade astrocytomas, we transfected miR mimics to cultured-mouse neural stem cells, -mouse oligodendroglioma-derived stem cells, -human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells and -glioblastoma multiforme cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Our studies revealed that expression levels of microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 were significantly decreased in anaplastic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (World Health Organization grade IV) relative to non-neoplastic brain tissue (P < 0.01), and were increased 8- to 20-fold during differentiation of cultured mouse neural stem cells following growth factor withdrawal.

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  • (PMID = 18577219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-7015
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS028478; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS28478; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA101777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA101777; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS028478
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MIRN124 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2443372
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24. Pirotte BJ, Lubansu A, Massager N, Wikler D, Van Bogaert P, Levivier M, Brotchi J, Goldman S: Clinical interest of integrating positron emission tomography imaging in the workup of 55 children with incidentally diagnosed brain lesions. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 May;5(5):479-85
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  • Histological examination results demonstrated neither malignant nor evolving tumor tissue but yielded 9 indolent tumors (6 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumors, 2 low-grade astrocytomas, and 1 low-grade astrocytoma and dysplasia) and 7 nontumoral lesions (3 cases of vasculitis, 3 of gliosis, and 1 of sarcoidosis).


25. Fruehauf JP, Brem H, Brem S, Sloan A, Barger G, Huang W, Parker R: In vitro drug response and molecular markers associated with drug resistance in malignant gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;12(15):4523-32
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  • We determined the in vitro drug response profiles for 478 biopsy specimens from patients with the following malignant glial histologies: astrocytoma (n = 71), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 39), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 259), oligodendroglioma (n = 40), and glioma (n = 69).
  • High-grade glioblastomas showed a lower level of extreme drug resistance than low-grade astrocytomas to cisplatin (11% versus 27%), temozolomide (14% versus 27%), irinotecan (33% versus 53%), and BCNU (29% versus 38%).

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  • (PMID = 16899598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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26. Khalil AA: Biomarker discovery: a proteomic approach for brain cancer profiling. Cancer Sci; 2007 Feb;98(2):201-13
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  • Gliomas in the form of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are the most common brain tumors in humans.
  • Fifty human brain tissues comprising varying diagnostic groups (non-tumor, grade I, grade II, grade III and grade IV) were run in duplicate together with an internal pool sample on each gel.


27. Marie SK, Okamoto OK, Uno M, Hasegawa AP, Oba-Shinjo SM, Cohen T, Camargo AA, Kosoy A, Carlotti CG Jr, Toledo S, Moreira-Filho CA, Zago MA, Simpson AJ, Caballero OL: Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas. Int J Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;122(4):807-15
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  • [Title] Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas.
  • We have performed cDNA microarray analyses to identify gene expression differences between highly invasive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and typically benign pilocytic astrocytomas (PA).
  • In the examination of more than 100 tumors of the central nervous system, we found progressively higher expression of MELK with astrocytoma grade and a noteworthy uniformity of high level expression in GBM.
  • We found neither gene promoter hypomethylation nor amplification to be a factor in MELK expression, but were able to demonstrate that MELK knockdown in malignant astrocytoma cell lines caused a reduction in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in in vitro assays.
  • Among them, MELK correlated with malignancy grade in astrocytomas and represents a therapeutic target for the management of the most frequent brain tumors in adult and children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17960622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.1.- / MELK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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28. Raab P, Hattingen E, Franz K, Zanella FE, Lanfermann H: Cerebral gliomas: diffusional kurtosis imaging analysis of microstructural differences. Radiology; 2010 Mar;254(3):876-81
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  • Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to test for the parameter with the best sensitivity and specificity for glioma grade discrimination.
  • RESULTS: In 34 patients with cerebral gliomas (five World Health Organization [WHO] grade II astrocytomas, 13 WHO grade III astrocytomas, and 16 WHO grade IV glioblastomas multiforme), significantly different diffusion patterns were found among the three glioma groups.
  • Significant differences between astrocytoma grades WHO II and WHO III were demonstrated only by DK values.
  • Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was highest for normalized MK (0.972) during testing to discriminate between low- and high-grade gliomas.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates specific diffusion patterns for low- and high-grade gliomas, showing that DK imaging is able to depict microstructural changes within glioma tissue and is able to help differentiate among glioma grades. (c) RSNA, 2010.

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  • (PMID = 20089718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Pöpperl G, Kreth FW, Herms J, Koch W, Mehrkens JH, Gildehaus FJ, Kretzschmar HA, Tonn JC, Tatsch K: Analysis of 18F-FET PET for grading of recurrent gliomas: is evaluation of uptake kinetics superior to standard methods? J Nucl Med; 2006 Mar;47(3):393-403
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  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether extended analyses of O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) uptake kinetics provide results superior to those of standard tumor-to-background ratios in predicting tumor grade in patients with pretreated gliomas.
  • Results were correlated with the histopathologic findings of MRI/PET-guided stereotactic biopsies and were evaluated with respect to their discriminatory power to separate low- from high-grade tumors using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses.
  • RESULTS: The parameters taking into account the individual time course of 18F-FET uptake were able to differentiate low-grade from high-grade recurrent astrocytomas with high diagnostic accuracy, reaching the best differentiation with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.94.
  • Time-activity curves (5-40 min after injection) slightly and steadily increased in tumor-free patients and in low-grade tumors, whereas high-grade tumors showed an early peak around 10-15 min after injection followed by a decrease.
  • CONCLUSION: This study has shown differences in the dynamics of 18F-FET uptake between recurrent low- and high-grade gliomas.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Nucl Med. 2006 May;47(5):806
  • (PMID = 16513607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / O-(2-fluoroethyl)tyrosine; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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30. Nakamura M, Shimada K, Ishida E, Nakase H, Konishi N: Genetic analysis to complement histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors. Histol Histopathol; 2007 03;22(3):327-35
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  • Glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) may develop de novo (primary glioblastomas) or through progression from lower-grade astrocytomas (secondary glioblastomas), while both glioblastomas show similar histological features.
  • Oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II) account for 2.7% of brain tumors and 5-18% of all gliomas.
  • The difficulty is that histological differentiation of oligodendrogliomas from diffuse astrocytomas is highly subjective in cases without typical morphological features and there is a lack of reliable immunohistochemical markers.
  • While histological distinction of low-grade gliomas from reactive astrocytes is also often difficult, reactive astrocytes usually lack genetic alterations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / chemistry. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17163407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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31. Vezzalini M, Mombello A, Menestrina F, Mafficini A, Della Peruta M, van Niekerk C, Barbareschi M, Scarpa A, Sorio C: Expression of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma) in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Histopathology; 2007 Apr;50(5):615-28
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  • Conversely, cytoplasmic positivity was found in 37% of lymphomas, mainly of high-grade histotypes, while normal lymphocytes were negative.
  • Brain tissue showed PTPgamma expression in a few neuronal and glial elements and PTPgamma was overexpressed in the majority of high-grade astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 17394498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPRG protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5
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32. Hakan T, Aker FV: Case report on a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and a frontal cystic glioblastoma. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2008 Jul-Aug;42(4):362-5
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  • Astrocytomas, especially low-grade optic nerve tumours, are frequently harboured in these patients.


33. Becher OJ, Peterson KM, Khatua S, Santi MR, MacDonald TJ: IGFBP2 is overexpressed by pediatric malignant astrocytomas and induces the repair enzyme DNA-PK. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1205-13
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  • [Title] IGFBP2 is overexpressed by pediatric malignant astrocytomas and induces the repair enzyme DNA-PK.
  • To identify targets critical to malignant childhood astrocytoma, we compared the expression of receptor tyrosine kinase- associated genes between low-grade and high-grade pediatric astrocytomas.
  • The highest differentially overexpressed gene in high-grade astrocytoma is insulin-like growth factor- binding protein-2 (P = .0006).
  • Insulin-like growth factor- binding protein-2 stimulation had no effect on astrocytoma cell growth and migration, and minimally inhibited insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated migration, but not insulin-like growth factor-2-mediated migration.
  • DNA-PKcs is also highly overexpressed by high-grade astrocytomas.
  • These findings suggest insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 plays a role in astrocytoma progression by promoting DNA-damage repair and therapeutic resistance.

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  • (PMID = 18952587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA092056; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA92056-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / DNA-Activated Protein Kinase; EC 2.7.11.1 / PRKDC protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS473094; NLM/ PMC3674842
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34. Zarghooni M, Bartels U, Lee E, Buczkowicz P, Morrison A, Huang A, Bouffet E, Hawkins C: Whole-genome profiling of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas highlights platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as potential therapeutic targets. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Mar 10;28(8):1337-44
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  • A major contributor to the failure of therapeutic trials is the assumption that biologic properties of brainstem tumors in children are identical to cerebral high-grade gliomas of adults.
  • RESULTS: Analysis of DIPG copy number alterations showed recurrent changes distinct from those of pediatric supratentorial high-grade astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 20142589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP 82727
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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35. Opstad KS, Bell BA, Griffiths JR, Howe FA: An assessment of the effects of sample ischaemia and spinning time on the metabolic profile of brain tumour biopsy specimens as determined by high-resolution magic angle spinning (1)H NMR. NMR Biomed; 2008 Nov;21(10):1138-47
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  • In addition, we have compared biochemical changes that occur in normal rat brain during HRMAS (spun continuously at 5 kHz for 4 h at 4 degrees C as could be required for a two-dimensional acquisition) with those that occur in biopsy samples from low-grade and high-grade adult human astrocytomas, during the same HRMAS procedure.
  • In particular, the 18% total creatine increase observed is unlikely to be de novo synthesis of creatine.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18666093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3480
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1459/A2592
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons; 0 / Spin Labels
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36. Dixit VD, Weeraratna AT, Yang H, Bertak D, Cooper-Jenkins A, Riggins GJ, Eberhart CG, Taub DD: Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility. J Biol Chem; 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16681-90
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  • [Title] Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility.
  • Here, we demonstrate that the human astrocytoma cell lines U-118, U-87, CCF-STTG1, and SW1088 express 6-, 11-, 15-, and 29-fold higher levels of GHS-R compared with primary normal human astrocytes.
  • The ligation of GHS-R by ghrelin on these cells resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium mobilization, protein kinase C activation, actin polymerization, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, and astrocytoma motility.
  • In addition, ghrelin led to actin polymerization and membrane ruffling on cells, with the specific co-localization of the small GTPase Rac1 with GHS-R on the leading edge of the astrocytoma cells and imparting the tumor cells with a motile phenotype.
  • The relevance of ghrelin and GHS-R expression was verified in clinically relevant tissues from 20 patients with oligodendrogliomas and grade II-IV astrocytomas.
  • Analysis of a central nervous system tumor tissue microarray revealed that strong GHS-R and ghrelin expression was significantly more common in high grade tumors compared with low grade ones.
  • Together, these findings suggest a novel role for the ghrelin/GHS-R axis in astrocytoma cell migration and invasiveness of cancers of central nervous system origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Peptide Hormones / physiology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16527811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000758-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS41150; NLM/ PMC2271047
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37. Brown MC, Staniszewska I, Lazarovici P, Tuszynski GP, Del Valle L, Marcinkiewicz C: Regulatory effect of nerve growth factor in alpha9beta1 integrin-dependent progression of glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Dec;10(6):968-80
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  • The level of expression of alpha9beta1 on astrocytomas is correlated with increased grade of this brain tumor and is highest on glioblastoma, whereas normal astrocytes do not express this integrin.

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  • (PMID = 19074980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS036466; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100145; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100145; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS36466
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / integrin alpha 9 beta 1; 9061-61-4 / Nerve Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2719011
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38. Riemenschneider MJ, Jeuken JW, Wesseling P, Reifenberger G: Molecular diagnostics of gliomas: state of the art. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Nov;120(5):567-84
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  • Owing to the recent advancements in molecular neurooncology, the neuropathological assessment of brain tumors is no longer restricted to provide information on a tumor's histological type and malignancy grade, but may be complemented by a growing number of molecular tests for clinically relevant tissue-based biomarkers.
  • In addition, the frequent oncogenic aberration of BRAF in pilocytic astrocytomas may serve as a novel diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

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  • (PMID = 20714900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955236
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39. Ohnishi M, Matsumoto T, Nagashio R, Kageyama T, Utsuki S, Oka H, Okayasu I, Sato Y: Proteomics of tumor-specific proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with astrocytoma: usefulness of gelsolin protein. Pathol Int; 2009 Nov;59(11):797-803
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  • [Title] Proteomics of tumor-specific proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with astrocytoma: usefulness of gelsolin protein.
  • To detect biomarkers in high-grade astrocytomas, the differential expression of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed from two cases each of diffuse astrocytoma (grade II), and glioblastoma (grade IV) using agarose 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE).
  • It was found that the expression of gelsolin protein decreased with histological grade.
  • To examine whether gelsolin is a useful indicator of tumor aggressiveness or patient outcome, its expression was further studied on immunohistochemistry in 41 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded astrocytomas.
  • The positive cell rate of gelsolin in tumors was 59.4% in grade II, 30.0% in grade III and 29.4% in grade IV, respectively.
  • Gelsolin expression was significantly lower in high-grade astrocytomas (grade III or IV) than in low-grade astrocytomas (grade II; P < 0.05).
  • Moreover, in astrocytomas the overall survival of patients in the low-expression group was significantly poorer than in the high expression group (P < 0.05).
  • These data suggest that gelsolin is a prognostic factor in astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Gelsolin / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 19883430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gelsolin
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40. Fathi AR, Vassella E, Arnold M, Curschmann J, Reinert M, Vajtai I, Weis J, Deiana G, Mariani L: Objective response to radiation therapy and long-term survival of patients with WHO grade II astrocytic gliomas with known LOH 1p/19q status. Strahlenther Onkol; 2007 Sep;183(9):517-22
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  • [Title] Objective response to radiation therapy and long-term survival of patients with WHO grade II astrocytic gliomas with known LOH 1p/19q status.
  • BACKGROUND: WHO grade II gliomas are often approached by radiation therapy (RT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients subjected to RT were selected from the own database of WHO grade II gliomas diagnosed between 1991 and 2000.
  • RESULTS: There were 24 astrocytomas and three oligoastrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Approximately 50% of patients with astrocytic WHO grade II gliomas respond to RT despite the absence of LOH for 1p/19q.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / radiation effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / radiation effects. Cranial Irradiation. Loss of Heterozygosity / radiation effects. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 17762927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Pareés I, Alonso J, Rovira A, Martínez E, Montalban X: [Diffuse astrocytoma presenting as an optic-spinal syndrome]. Rev Neurol; 2009 Apr 1-15;48(7):354-6
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  • [Title] [Diffuse astrocytoma presenting as an optic-spinal syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome opticomedular como forma de presentación de un astrocitoma difuso.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord involvement is a rare presentation of grade II astrocytomas.
  • A patient with an optic-spinal syndrome due to a fibrillary astrocytoma is described.
  • A new MRI with spectroscopy revealed an infiltrative lesion involving the right frontal lobe, optic chiasm, internal capsule, brainstem and cervical spinal cord, which was suggestive of low-grade astrocytoma.
  • Brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Demyelinating Diseases. Optic Neuritis. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19319816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligoclonal Bands
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42. Faria C, Miguéns J, Antunes JL, Salgado D, Nunes S, Barroso C, Martins Mdo C, Nunes VM, Roque L: Pediatric brain tumors: genetics and clinical outcome. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Mar;5(3):263-70
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  • METHODS: The authors performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization studies in 14 low-grade and 12 high-grade brain neoplasms in 26 children who underwent surgery between 2005 and 2007.
  • RESULTS: Complex comparative genomic hybridization alterations were observed in 2 (14.3%) of the 14 lowgrade lesions and in 8 (66.6%) of the 12 high-grade lesions.
  • Gains of 1q were detected in 2 low-grade and 6 high-grade lesions that were classified as ependymomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, oligoastrocytomas, and gangliogliomas.
  • When the authors correlated genetics with outcome, they noted that among the low-grade neoplasms only the 2 patients who presented with complex comparative genomic hybridization alterations had to undergo reoperation because of recurrent disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Complex genetic alterations are indicative of a less favorable outcome in low-grade tumors.
  • In this study, they were able to verify that a 1q gain correlates with a poor clinical outcome, independent of tumor grade and histological type.

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  • (PMID = 20192643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Hidaka T, Hama S, Shrestha P, Saito T, Kajiwara Y, Yamasaki F, Sugiyama K, Kurisu K: The combination of low cytoplasmic and high nuclear expression of p27 predicts a better prognosis in high-grade astrocytoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):597-603
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  • [Title] The combination of low cytoplasmic and high nuclear expression of p27 predicts a better prognosis in high-grade astrocytoma.
  • No previous reports have examined the subcellular localization of p27 in glioma which was evaluated here regarding the prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The pattern of subcellular localization of p27 expression was examined immunohistochemically in 49 patients with high-grade astrocytoma who were over 20 years of age.
  • Cox multiple regression analysis showed the combination of high nuclear and low cytoplasmic p27 expression associated with a significantly better prognosis in high-grade astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A combination of low cytoplasmic and high nuclear expression of p27 predicts a better prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas and thus the subcellular localization of p27 expression is useful for predicting the prognosis for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19331209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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44. Tchoghandjian A, Fernandez C, Colin C, El Ayachi I, Voutsinos-Porche B, Fina F, Scavarda D, Piercecchi-Marti MD, Intagliata D, Ouafik L, Fraslon-Vanhulle C, Figarella-Branger D: Pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway: a tumour deriving from radial glia cells with a specific gene signature. Brain; 2009 Jun;132(Pt 6):1523-35
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway: a tumour deriving from radial glia cells with a specific gene signature.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in childhood.
  • Understanding the molecular basis responsible for the aggressive behaviour of hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas is a prerequisite to setting up new molecular targeted therapies.
  • We used the microarray technique to compare the transcriptional profiles of five hypothalamo-chiasmatic and six cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Results demonstrate that cerebellar and hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas are two genetically distinct and topography-dependent entities.
  • Numerous genes upregulated in hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas also increased in the developing chiasm, suggesting that developmental genes mirror the cell of origin whereas migrative, adhesive and proliferative genes reflect infiltrative properties of these tumours.
  • Of particular interest, NOTCH2, a gene expressed in radial glia and involved in gliomagenesis, was upregulated in hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • In order to find progenitor cells that could give rise to hypothalamo-chiasmatic pilocytic astrocytomas, we performed a morphological study of the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region and identified, in the floor of the third ventricle, a unique population of vimentin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells highly suggestive of radial glia cells.
  • Therefore, pilocytic astrocytomas of the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region should be considered as a distinct entity which probably originates from a unique population of cells with radial glia phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19336457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Vimentin
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45. Wang H, Qi ST, Guo ZW, Wang KW, Liu XJ, Zhang GZ: [Histomorphology of angiogenesis patterns in different areas of human astrocytomas]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Feb;29(2):326-9
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  • [Title] [Histomorphology of angiogenesis patterns in different areas of human astrocytomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study angiogenesis patterns in the edematous area and the center of human astrocytomas by histological observation, and to reveal histological basis of vasculogenic mimicry.
  • METHOD: Tissue samples were drawn from the tumor center and the edematous area in 51 patients with human astrocytomas during operation MR and were examined by CD34 endothelial marker periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) dual staining.
  • RESULTS: Vessels or capillaries stained by both PAS and CD34 were found in edematous areas of human astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vasculogenic mimicries in the center of some high-grade astrocytomas may be caused by blood capillary dysplasia, while angiogenesis patterns are vessels or capillaries in the edematus area and the center of most human astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19246314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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46. Guan X, Lai S, Lackey J, Shi J, Techavipoo U, Moulding HD, Flanders AE, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1322-36
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  • [Title] Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging.
  • Infiltrating tumors were WHO Grade IV astrocytomas and all expansive tumors were either WHO Grade III astrocytomas or WHO Grade II astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed software that visually enhances the anatomic details of the tumor/fiber interface in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • These data support the existence of a subgroup of patients within the WHO Grade III classification with expansive tumors and a significantly better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Payne CA, Maleki S, Messina M, O'Sullivan MG, Stone G, Hall NR, Parkinson JF, Wheeler HR, Cook RJ, Biggs MT, Little NS, Teo C, Robinson BG, McDonald KL: Loss of prostaglandin D2 synthase: a key molecular event in the transition of a low-grade astrocytoma to an anaplastic astrocytoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 2008 Oct;7(10):3420-8
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  • [Title] Loss of prostaglandin D2 synthase: a key molecular event in the transition of a low-grade astrocytoma to an anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Reduction in the mRNA and protein expression of lipocalin-like prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) synthase (PGDS), the main arachidonic acid metabolite produced in neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system, is a significant biological event involved in the malignant progression of astrocytomas and is predictive of poor survival.
  • This finding has exciting implications for early interventional efforts for the grade 2 and 3 astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 18852145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Lipocalins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 5.3.- / Intramolecular Oxidoreductases; EC 5.3.99.2 / prostaglandin R2 D-isomerase; RXY07S6CZ2 / Prostaglandin D2
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48. Van Brocklyn JR, Jackson CA, Pearl DK, Kotur MS, Snyder PJ, Prior TW: Sphingosine kinase-1 expression correlates with poor survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme: roles of sphingosine kinase isoforms in growth of glioblastoma cell lines. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Aug;64(8):695-705
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  • We investigated the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors and the enzymes that form sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingosine kinase (SphK)-1, and -2 in human astrocytomas.
  • Astrocytomas of various histologic grades expressed three types of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors, S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3; however, no significant correlation with histologic grade or patient survival was detected.
  • Expression of SphK1, but not SphK2, in human astrocytoma grade 4 (glioblastoma multiforme) tissue correlated with short patient survival.

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  • (PMID = 16106218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS41517
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Lysosphingolipid; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor); EC 2.7.1.- / sphingosine kinase
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49. Lee EJ, Lee SK, Agid R, Bae JM, Keller A, Terbrugge K: Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1872-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histopathologic grade of glial tumors is inversely correlated with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • We assessed the diagnostic values of minimum ADC for preoperative grading of supratentorial astrocytomas that were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 118 patients with astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV), 16 who showed typical MR imaging findings of low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging were included.
  • To assess the relationship between the minimum ADC and tumor grade, we performed the Mann-Whitney U test.
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cutoff value of the minimum ADC that had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Eight of the 16 patients (50%) were confirmed as having high-grade astrocytomas (WHO grades III and IV), and the other 8 patients were confirmed as having low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II).
  • The median minimum ADC of the high-grade astrocytoma (1.035 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • sec(-1)) group was significantly lower than that of the low-grade astrocytoma group (1.19 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • CONCLUSION: Measuring minimum ADC can provide valuable diagnostic information for the preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18719036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Zhang W, Kawanishi M, Miyake K, Kagawa M, Kawai N, Murao K, Nishiyama A, Fei Z, Zhang X, Tamiya T: Association between YKL-40 and adult primary astrocytoma. Cancer; 2010 Jun 1;116(11):2688-97
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  • [Title] Association between YKL-40 and adult primary astrocytoma.
  • The objectives of this study were to explore YKL-40 protein expression status and World Health Organization (WHO) pathologic grades of primary human astrocytoma and to investigate the role of YKL-40 in the proliferation of both established and primary astrocytoma cells in vitro.
  • METHODS: WHO grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 primary astrocytomas (210 patients) were evaluated for YKL-40 protein expression status in immunohistochemical analyses.
  • The YKL-40 immunoreactivity score increased markedly with increased pathologic grade (F = 18.89; P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: YKL-40 expression status correlated well with the pathologic grade of primary astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Lectins / metabolism


51. Darken RS, Bogitch R, Leonard J, Perry A, McKinstry RC, Gutmann DH, Rubin JB: Brainstem glioma presenting as pruritus in children with neurofibromatosis-1. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Dec;31(12):972-6
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  • The most common intracranial tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, which most frequently involve the optic pathway, and less often, the brainstem.

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  • (PMID = 19935099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Schramm J, Aliashkevich AF: Surgery for temporal mediobasal tumors: experience based on a series of 235 patients. Neurosurgery; 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1272-82
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  • The largest tumor groups were astrocytomas (38.0%), gangliogliomas (29.8%), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (11.1%), and glioblastomas (11.1%).
  • Thirty-eight patients with low-grade tumors had undergone surgery previously.

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  • [ReprintOf] Neurosurgery. 2007 Feb;60(2):285-94; discussion 294-5 [17290179.001]
  • (PMID = 18695547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Murakami R, Hirai T, Kitajima M, Fukuoka H, Toya R, Nakamura H, Kuratsu J, Yamashita Y: Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas. Acta Radiol; 2008 May;49(4):462-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are usually well-enhanced tumors that may mimic high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18415792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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54. Minniti G, Traish D, Ashley S, Gonsalves A, Brada M: Risk of second brain tumor after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma: update after an additional 10 years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):800-4
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  • Eleven patients developed a second brain tumor, including five meningiomas, four high grade astrocytomas, one meningeal sarcoma, and one primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 15562021.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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55. Mehling M, Simon P, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Ferrone S, Weller M, Wiendl H: WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism? Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Aug;114(2):111-9
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  • [Title] WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism?
  • We investigated the expression of APM components in astrocytomas without detectable defects in HLA class I antigen expression and correlated it with grade of malignancy.
  • Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of astrocytomas revealed reduced expression of the cytosolic proteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2), the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) transporter associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1), and the ER chaperone beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in astrocytoma cells when compared to astrocytes from nonpathological brain.
  • Among human WHO grade II-IV astrocytomas, downregulation of LMP2, TAP1 and beta2m correlated with grade of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, astrocytoma cell lines (n = 12) expressed all APM components analyzed at levels comparable to dendritic cells (DC), which were used for comparative purposes.
  • However, upregulation of beta2m after stimulation with inflammatory cytokines was significantly lower in astrocytoma cell lines than in control cells.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that coordinated downregulation or impaired upregulation of certain HLA class I APM components may serve as a mechanism for astrocytoma cells to evade the host's immune response, even if HLA class I antigen surface expression is not altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen Presentation / immunology. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Tumor Escape / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17541610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / TAP1 protein, human; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases
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56. Krueger DA, Care MM, Holland K, Agricola K, Tudor C, Mangeshkar P, Wilson KA, Byars A, Sahmoud T, Franz DN: Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis. N Engl J Med; 2010 Nov 4;363(19):1801-11
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  • [Title] Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical resection is the standard treatment for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • METHODS: Patients 3 years of age or older with serial growth of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas were eligible for this open-label study.
  • The primary efficacy end point was the change in volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas between baseline and 6 months.
  • Everolimus therapy was associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in volume of the primary subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma, as assessed on independent central review (P<0.001 for baseline vs. 6 months), with a reduction of at least 30% in 21 patients (75%) and at least 50% in 9 patients (32%).
  • There were no new lesions, worsening hydrocephalus, evidence of increased intracranial pressure, or necessity for surgical resection or other therapy for subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma.
  • Single cases of grade 3 treatment-related sinusitis, pneumonia, viral bronchitis, tooth infection, stomatitis, and leukopenia were reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus therapy was associated with marked reduction in the volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas and seizure frequency and may be a potential alternative to neurosurgical resection in some cases, though long-term studies are needed. (Funded by Novartis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00411619.).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Seizures / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Tuberous Sclerosis / drug therapy


57. Hussein MR, El-Ghorori RM, El-Rahman YG: Alterations of p53, BCL-2, and hMSH2 protein expression in the normal brain tissues, gliosis, and gliomas. Int J Exp Pathol; 2006 Aug;87(4):297-306
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  • To test our hypothesis and to examine these issues, we immunostained 60 specimens entailing normal brain tissues, gliosis, and gliomas (Grade I, II, III, IV) for p53, BCL-2, and hMSH2 protein expression.
  • As compared with the normal brain and gliosis, examination of the average weighted scores in gliomas (Grade I, II, III, IV, respectively) showed significant up-regulation of: (i) p53 protein (0.0 +/- 0.0; 0.0 +/- 0.0; 0.9 +/- 0.5; 1.6 +/- 0.8; 1.7 +/- 0.5; and 4.1 +/- 0.8, P < 0.0001) (ii) hMSH2 (1.3 +/- 0.3; 1.5 +/- 0.7; 1.9 +/- 1.1; 2.2 +/- 0.5; 4.1 +/- 1.5; and 4.7 +/- 1.1, P < 0.0006), and (iii) BCL-2 (0.8 +/- 0.5; 1.9 +/- 0.5; 1.9 +/- 0.6; 2.0 +/- 0.6; 4.4 +/- 1.2; and 4.6 +/- 0.8, P < 0.001).
  • The expression values (p53, BCL-2, and hMSH2) were statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) in astrocytomas (Grade III) than in other gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Chemistry. Case-Control Studies. Gliosis / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods

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  • (PMID = 16875495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.6.1.3 / MSH2 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.3 / MutS Homolog 2 Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517375
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58. Matsuda K, Sakurada K, Mouri W, Saino M, Sato S, Saito S, Kayama T, Nakazato Y: [Operative case of isomorphic astrocytoma]. Brain Nerve; 2007 Aug;59(8):881-6
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  • [Title] [Operative case of isomorphic astrocytoma].
  • Diffuse astrocytomas are classified as WHO Grade II tumors.
  • Recently, a subtype presenting with better prognosis has been proposed, and it is known as "isomorphic astrocytoma."
  • The pathological diagnosis was diffuse astrocytoma, but this tumor was considered to be the isomorphic subtype.
  • Isomorphic astrocytoma is characterized by prolonged epileptic seizures, a low MIB-1 LI, and better prognosis.
  • In our case, since the MIB-1 LI was higher in some parts of the tumor, the appropriate therapy for WHO Grade II tumors was performed.
  • However, this case was considered representative of isomorphic astrocytoma.
  • Therefore, this report is the first case of isomorphic astrocytoma reported to Japanese literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17713125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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59. Weber MA, Vogt-Schaden M, Bossert O, Giesel FL, Kauczor HU, Essig M: [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas]. Radiologe; 2007 Sep;47(9):812-8
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  • [Title] [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas].
  • [Transliterated title] MR-Perfusions- und spektroskopische Bildgebung bei WHO-Grad-II-Astrozytomen.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates whether MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas, whether these areas are co-localized, and whether the prognosis can be better predicted.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (nine female, six male, aged 42+/-14 years) with WHO grade II astrocytomas but without preceding radio- or chemotherapy were examined every 3 months with MR perfusion imaging and MRSI (mean follow-up 18 months).
  • The progressing tumors had already had higher perfusion (rrCBF 2.1+/-1.4; rrCBV 1.9+/-1.1) parameters than the stable astrocytomas (rrCBF 1.2+/-0.6, p=0.01; rrCBV 1.4+/-0.8, p=0.05) at first examination.
  • However, the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios only tended to be higher than in stable astrocytomas (Cho/NAA 2.4+/-1.0 vs. 2.0+/-1.5, p=0.23; Cho/Cr 1.7+/-0.6 vs. 1.4+/-0.5, p=0.06).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MR perfusion imaging can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas earlier than conventional MRI and thus enables a better prediction of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 16924439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Heimberger AB, McGary EC, Suki D, Ruiz M, Wang H, Fuller GN, Bar-Eli M: Loss of the AP-2alpha transcription factor is associated with the grade of human gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;11(1):267-72
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  • [Title] Loss of the AP-2alpha transcription factor is associated with the grade of human gliomas.
  • Anderson Cancer Center since 1986 to include 72 glioblastomas, 49 anaplastic astrocytomas, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 37 oligodendrogliomas, 37 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 15 mixed oligoastrocytomas, 20 anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytomas, and 7 gliosarcomas.
  • RESULTS: AP-2alpha expression was lost on 99% (P < 0.001) and 98% (P < 0.001) of glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas, respectively, compared with grade 2 astrocytomas and normal brain, all of which (100%) maintained expression of AP-2alpha.
  • However, there was no significant effect of loss of AP-2alpha expression on survival observed after adjustment for patient age, Karnofsky Performance Scale score, tumor grade, and extent of resection (rate ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-2.2; P = 0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AP-2alpha expression correlates inversely with glioma grade, suggesting a direct role in glioma tumorigenicity, possibly through subsequent deregulation of target genes.
  • Of all the previously characterized markers of progression, the loss of AP-2alpha would be the most common (96.2%) molecular marker as an astrocytic tumor evolves from grade 2 to 3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amino Acid Motifs. Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD146. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / biosynthesis. Middle Aged. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Time Factors. Transcription Factor AP-2. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15671555.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / T-32-09666
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD146; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCAM protein, human; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / TFAP2A protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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61. Ng WH, Lim T: Targeting regions with highest lipid content on MR spectroscopy may improve diagnostic yield in stereotactic biopsy. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 May;15(5):502-6
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  • Gliomas are heterogeneous brain tumors and prognosis and treatment are dependent on the highest histological grade present.
  • MRS studies in brain tumors have found increased levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho) and decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and phosphocreatine (PCr) which are all associated with increased grade of glioma.
  • We propose the use of MRS-guided stereotactic biopsy of astrocytomas to increase diagnostic yield and reduce the sampling error rate.
  • MRS was performed on two patients undergoing stereotactic biopsy for suspected astrocytoma.
  • Histological grade was found to be different in one case: the region with a high Lip/Cr and Cho/NAA ratios showed glioblastoma, whereas the region with high Cho/NAA but low Lip/Cr ratios showed anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The second patient had high Cho/NAA ratio but low Lip/Cr ratio in both targets and the histology revealed anaplastic astrocytoma in both samples.
  • MRS is a useful biomedical imaging tool for diagnosing and grading astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18334298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids
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62. Carson-Walter EB, Winans BN, Whiteman MC, Liu Y, Jarvela S, Haapasalo H, Tyler BM, Huso DL, Johnson MD, Walter KA: Characterization of TEM1/endosialin in human and murine brain tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:417
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  • METHODS: In situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IH) and immunofluorescence (IF) were used to localize TEM1/endosialin expression in grade II-IV astrocytomas and metastatic brain tumors on tissue microarrays.
  • Analysis of 275 arrayed grade II-IV astrocytomas demonstrated TEM1/endosialin expression in 79% of tumors.
  • Robust TEM1/endosialin expression occurred in 31% of glioblastomas (grade IV astroctyomas).
  • CONCLUSION: TEM1/endosialin was induced in the vasculature of high-grade brain tumors where its expression was inversely correlated with patient age.

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  • (PMID = 19948061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS046461; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS046461; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES007026
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD248 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2793264
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63. Antonelli M, Buttarelli FR, Arcella A, Nobusawa S, Donofrio V, Oghaki H, Giangaspero F: Prognostic significance of histological grading, p53 status, YKL-40 expression, and IDH1 mutations in pediatric high-grade gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2010 Sep;99(2):209-15
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of histological grading, p53 status, YKL-40 expression, and IDH1 mutations in pediatric high-grade gliomas.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a series of 43 pediatric high-grade gliomas (21 anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III and 22 glioblastoma WHO grade IV), the prognostic value of histological grading and expression of p53 and YKL-40.
  • The prognostic stratification for histological grading showed no difference in overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) between glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • TP53 mutations were detected in five of 27 (18%) cases (four glioblastomas and one anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • Our results suggest that in pediatric high-grade gliomas: (i) histological grading does not have strong prognostic significance, (ii) YKL-40 overexpression is less frequent than adult high-grade gliomas and does not correlate with a more aggressive behavior, (iii) TP53 mutations but not p53 expression may correlate with a more aggressive behavior, and (iv) IDH1 mutations are absent.
  • These observations support the concept that, despite identical histological features, the biology of high-grade gliomas in children differs from that in adults, and therefore different prognostic factors are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Lectins / metabolism. Mutation / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20174854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Lectins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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64. Server A, Kulle B, Maehlen J, Josefsen R, Schellhorn T, Kumar T, Langberg CW, Nakstad PH: Quantitative apparent diffusion coefficients in the characterization of brain tumors and associated peritumoral edema. Acta Radiol; 2009 Jul;50(6):682-9
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  • PURPOSE: To prospectively assess if diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) could be used to differentiate between different types of brain tumors and to distinguish between peritumoral infiltration in high-grade gliomas, lymphomas, and pure vasogenic edema in metastases and meningiomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: MR imaging and DWI was performed on 93 patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors: 59 patients had histologically verified high-grade gliomas (37 glioblastomas multiforme, 22 anaplastic astrocytomas), 23 patients had metastatic brain tumors, five patients had primary cerebral lymphomas, and six patients had meningiomas.
  • ADC values and ratios of high-grade gliomas, primary cerebral lymphomas, metastases, and meningiomas were compared by using ANOVA and multiple comparisons.
  • Optimal thresholds of ADC values and ADC ratios for distinguishing high-grade gliomas from metastases were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
  • RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for minimum and mean of ADC tumor and ADC tumor ratio values between metastases and high-grade gliomas when including only one factor at a time.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that ADC values and ADC ratios (minimum and mean of ADC tumor and ADC tumor ratio) may be helpful in the differentiation of metastases from high-grade gliomas.
  • It cannot distinguish high-grade gliomas from lymphomas, and lymphomas from metastases.
  • ADC values and ADC ratios in peritumoral edema cannot be used to differentiate edema with infiltration of tumor cells from vasogenic edema when measurements for high-grade gliomas, lymphomas, metastases, and meningiomas were compared.

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  • (PMID = 19449234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. López-Aguilar E, Sepúlveda-Vildósola AC, Betanzos-Cabrera Y, Rocha-Moreno YG, Gascón-Lastiri G, Rivera-Márquez H, Wanzke-del-Angel V, Cerecedo-Díaz F, de la Cruz-Yañez H: Phase II study of metronomic chemotherapy with thalidomide, carboplatin-vincristine-fluvastatin in the treatment of brain stem tumors in children. Arch Med Res; 2008 Oct;39(7):655-62
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  • Five patients had low-grade astrocytomas, three patients had glioblastoma multiforme, and one patient presented high-grade astrocytoma.
  • Toxicity included carboplatin allergy in one patient, grades 1 and 3 neutropenia in two patients, and grade 4 thrombocytopenia in two patients.

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  • (PMID = 18760193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0188-4409
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; 0 / Indoles; 4L066368AS / fluvastatin; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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67. Samaras V, Piperi C, Korkolopoulou P, Zisakis A, Levidou G, Themistocleous MS, Boviatsis EI, Sakas DE, Lea RW, Kalofoutis A, Patsouris E: Application of the ELISPOT method for comparative analysis of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 secretion in peripheral blood of patients with astroglial tumors. Mol Cell Biochem; 2007 Oct;304(1-2):343-51
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  • Glioblastoma, (grade IV astrocytoma), is characterized by rapid growth and resistance to treatment.
  • IL-6 and IL-10 secretion levels were determined using ELISPOT methodology in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 18 patients with astrocytic neoplasms (3 grade II and 15 grade IV), in parallel with 18 healthy controls.
  • It is suggested that IL-10 contributes to the progression of astrocytomas by suppressing the patient's immune response, whereas IL-6 provides an additional growth advantage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Interleukin-10 / blood. Interleukin-10 / secretion. Interleukin-6 / blood. Interleukin-6 / secretion

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  • (PMID = 17551671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IL10 protein, human; 0 / IL6 protein, human; 0 / Interleukin-6; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10
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68. Lehnhardt FG, Bock C, Röhn G, Ernestus RI, Hoehn M: Metabolic differences between primary and recurrent human brain tumors: a 1H NMR spectroscopic investigation. NMR Biomed; 2005 Oct;18(6):371-82
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  • High-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed on tissue specimens from 33 patients with astrocytic tumors (22 astrocytomas, 11 glioblastomas) and 13 patients with meningiomas.
  • Increased anaplasia, with respect to malignant transformation, resulting in a higher malignancy grade, was present in 11 recurrences of 22 astrocytoma patients.
  • Compared with the respective primary astrocytomas, characteristic features of glioblastomas were significantly increased concentrations of alanine (Ala) (p = 0.005), increased metabolite ratios of glycine (Gly)/total creatine (tCr) (p = 0.0001) and glutamate (Glu)/glutamine (Gln) (p = 0.004).
  • Meningiomas showed increased Ala (p = 0.02) and metabolite ratios [Gly, total choline (tCho), Ala] over tCr (p = 0.001) relative to astrocytomas, and N-acetylaspartate and myo-inositol were absent.
  • Metabolic changes of an evolving tumor were observed in recurrent astrocytomas: owing to their consecutive assessments, more indicators of malignant degeneration were detected in astrocytoma recurrences (e.g.
  • Gly, p = 0.029; tCho, p = 0.034; Glu, p = 0.015; tCho/tCr, p = 0.001) in contrast to the comparison of primary astrocytomas with primary glioblastomas.
  • Significantly elevated concentrations of Ala (p = 0.037) and Glu (p = 0.003) and metabolite ratio tCho/tCr (p = 0.005) were even found in recurrent low-grade astrocytomas with unchanged histopathological grading (n = 11).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Meningioma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  • (PMID = 15959923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3480
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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69. Oba-Shinjo SM, Bengtson MH, Winnischofer SM, Colin C, Vedoy CG, de Mendonça Z, Marie SK, Sogayar MC: Identification of novel differentially expressed genes in human astrocytomas by cDNA representational difference analysis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Oct 31;140(1-2):25-33
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  • [Title] Identification of novel differentially expressed genes in human astrocytomas by cDNA representational difference analysis.
  • Diffuse infiltrating gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), naturally progressing from a lower-grade to a higher-grade malignancy.
  • Therefore, we set out to search for genes that are differentially expressed in anaplastic astrocytoma and normal CNS tissue by applying a PCR-based subtractive hybridization approach, namely, representational difference analysis (RDA).

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  • (PMID = 16084624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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70. Zhou Y, Bian X, Le Y, Gong W, Hu J, Zhang X, Wang L, Iribarren P, Salcedo R, Howard OM, Farrar W, Wang JM: Formylpeptide receptor FPR and the rapid growth of malignant human gliomas. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Jun 1;97(11):823-35
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  • RESULTS: FPR was selectively expressed by the highly malignant human glioblastoma cell line U-87 and most primary grade IV glioblastomas multiforme and grade III anaplastic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 15928303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Formyl Peptide; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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71. Huang L, Jiang T, Yuan F, Li GL, Cui Y, Liu EZ, Wang ZC: Correlation of chromosomes 1p and 19q status and expressions of O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p53 and Ki-67 in diffuse gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grades II and III: a clinicopathological study. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2009 Aug;35(4):367-79
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  • METHODS: A series of 146 diffuse gliomas, including 45 oligodendrogliomas, 42 oligoastrocytomas and 59 astrocytomas, were analysed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for 1p and 19q status and by immunohistochemistry for MGMT, p53 and Ki-67 expression patterns.
  • LOH on 1p and low MGMT expression were associated with grade II oligodendroglial tumours, whereas high expressions of p53 and Ki-67 were associated with grade III oligodendroglial tumours.
  • In addition, high Ki-67 expression was associated with grade III astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Child. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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72. Kitamura N, Hasebe T, Kasai R, Kasuya S, Nakatsuka T, Kudo H, Higuchi M, Nakano K, Hiruta N, Kameda N, Ogata K, Watanabe Y, Morita H, Terada H: Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults. Neuroradiol J; 2010 Dec;23(6):690-5
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are classified as WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in children and young adults.
  • We describe two cases of pilocytic astrocytoma in elderly adults, a 68-year-old man and a 71-year-old woman.
  • Pathological studies revealed findings consistent with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Although these tumors are rarely found in elderly adults, pilocytic astrocytomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis if the radiographic features of the tumors are characteristic of pilocytic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 24148722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Machado CM, Ikemori RY, Zorzeto TQ, Nogueira AC, Barbosa SD, Savino W, Schenka AA, Vassallo J, Heinrich JK, Boetcher-Luiz F, Verinaud L: Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:291
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  • Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice.
  • Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors.
  • Our results emphasize important queries about astrocytomas tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18840301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD29; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2572634
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74. Callado LF, Garibi JM, Meana JJ: [Imidazoline I(2) receptors as a possible marker for malignancy in human glial cell tumours]. Rev Neurol; 2006 Oct 16-31;43(8):476-80
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  • [Transliterated title] Los receptores para imidazolinas I(2) como posible marcador de malignidad en tumores gliales humanos.
  • AIM: To present the experimental data that support the hypothesis that the imidazoline I(2) receptors may be assessed as a biological marker to establish diagnosis and grade of human gliomas.
  • Thus, in glioblastomas multiformes the I(2) density is 1.4 times higher than in anaplastic astrocytomas and 2.2 higher than in low-grade astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 17033981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Imidazoline Receptors; 0 / Receptors, Drug; 0 / imidazoline receptor 2
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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75. Waha A, Güntner S, Huang TH, Yan PS, Arslan B, Pietsch T, Wiestler OD, Waha A: Epigenetic silencing of the protocadherin family member PCDH-gamma-A11 in astrocytomas. Neoplasia; 2005 Mar;7(3):193-9
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  • [Title] Epigenetic silencing of the protocadherin family member PCDH-gamma-A11 in astrocytomas.
  • In a microarray-based methylation analysis of astrocytomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grade II], we identified a CpG island within the first exon of the protocadherin-gamma subfamily A11 (PCDH-gamma-A11) gene that showed hypermethylation compared to normal brain tissue.
  • Bisulfite sequencing and combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) was performed to screen low- and high-grade astrocytomas for the methylation status of this CpG island.
  • Hypermethylation was detected in 30 of 34 (88%) astrocytomas (WHO grades II and III), 20 of 23 (87%) glioblastomas (WHO grade IV), and 8 of 8 (100%) glioma cell lines.
  • There was a highly significant correlation (P = .00028) between PCDH-gamma-A11 hypermethylation and decreased transcription as determined by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in WHO grades II and III astrocytomas.
  • The inactivation of this cell-cell contact molecule might be involved in the invasive growth of astrocytoma cells into normal brain parenchyma.

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  • (PMID = 15799819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8002
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA069065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R29 CA069065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69065; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-86701
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / PCDH11X protein, human; 0 / Sulfites; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1501138
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76. Schlierf B, Friedrich RP, Roerig P, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Wegner M: Expression of SoxE and SoxD genes in human gliomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Dec;33(6):621-30
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  • Low-grade astrocytomas, but not glioblastomas, also showed elevated SOX8 transcript levels.

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  • (PMID = 17961134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
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77. Song HR, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Suh GS, Commins DL, Sposto R, Gilles FH, Deneen B, Erdreich-Epstein A: Nuclear factor IA is expressed in astrocytomas and is associated with improved survival. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Feb;12(2):122-32
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  • [Title] Nuclear factor IA is expressed in astrocytomas and is associated with improved survival.
  • Here, we examined NFIA protein expression in gliomas and its association with clinical outcome in pediatric malignant astrocytomas.
  • Association between NFIA expression and progression-free survival (PFS) was examined in high-grade astrocytomas for which clinical data were available (n = 23, all children).
  • NFIA was highly expressed in astrocytomas of all grades, but only in a minority of cells in oligodendroglial tumors.
  • NFIA was expressed on a higher percentage of tumor cells in low-grade astrocytomas (91 +/- 5% and 77 +/- 14% in World Health Organization [WHO] I and II, respectively) compared with high-grade astrocytomas (48 +/- 18% and 37 +/- 16% in WHO III and IV, respectively; P < .001, low- vs high-grade astrocytomas).
  • There was a significant association between NFIA expression and PFS in children with astrocytoma WHO grade III or IV (Cox regression P = .019; logrank trend test for NFIA tertiles P = .0040 and NFIA quartiles P = .014).
  • The association was not consistently significant in this small series of patients after adjustment was made for WHO grade III or IV.
  • This is the first study to demonstrate expression of NFIA protein in astrocytomas and its association with grades of astrocytoma and PFS, suggesting that NFIA may play a role in astrocytoma biology.

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  • (PMID = 20150379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS064297; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12-HD052954
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NFI Transcription Factors; 0 / NFIA protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940580
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78. Stockhammer F, Plotkin M, Amthauer H, van Landeghem FK, Woiciechowsky C: Correlation of F-18-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosin uptake with vascular and cell density in non-contrast-enhancing gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jun;88(2):205-10
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  • RESULTS: 12 of the 22 non-contrast enhancing gliomas corresponded to anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III.
  • Thus, no correlation was found between FET uptake and tumor grade.
  • Although tumor grade cannot be predicted, clinical use of FET PET as an indicator for neovascularization should be addressed in future studies.

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  • (PMID = 18317691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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79. Odreman F, Vindigni M, Gonzales ML, Niccolini B, Candiano G, Zanotti B, Skrap M, Pizzolitto S, Stanta G, Vindigni A: Proteomic studies on low- and high-grade human brain astrocytomas. J Proteome Res; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):698-708
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  • [Title] Proteomic studies on low- and high-grade human brain astrocytomas.
  • Human brain astrocytomas range from the indolent low-grade to the highly infiltrating and aggressive high-grade form, also known as glioblastoma multiforme.
  • In this study, we compared the protein pattern of low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas to that of glioblastoma multiforme by 2D electrophoresis.
  • The level of most proteins remains unchanged between the different grade tumors and only few differences are reproducibly observable.
  • Among the proteins more highly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme, we found peroxiredoxin 1 and 6, the transcription factor BTF3, and alpha-B-crystallin, whereas protein disulfide isomerase A3, the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein are increased in low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Our findings contribute to deepening our knowledge of the factors that characterize this class of tumors and, at the same time, can be applied toward the development of novel molecular biomakers potentially useful for an accurate classification of the grade of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Proteomics

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  • (PMID = 15952716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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80. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Yoshino A, Yachi K, Ohta T, Ogino A, Komine C, Fukushima T: Aberrant hypermethylation of p14ARF and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase genes in astrocytoma progression. Brain Pathol; 2007 Jan;17(1):5-10
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  • [Title] Aberrant hypermethylation of p14ARF and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase genes in astrocytoma progression.
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate genetic alterations that are critically involved in astrocytoma progression.
  • We characterized 27 World Health Organization grade II fibrillary astrocytomas which later underwent recurrence or progression, paying specific attention to the CpG island methylation status of critical growth regulatory genes. p14(ARF) and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) hypermethylation represented frequent events (26% and 63%, respectively), which were mutually exclusive except in one case, with alternate or simultaneous methylation of these two genes occurring in 85% of our tumor series.
  • Methylation of the p21(Waf1/Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p73 genes and homozygous deletion of the p16(INK4a), p15(INK4b) and p14(ARF) genes were not detected in any of the primary low-grade tumors.
  • On analysis of their respective recurrent tumors, five of six patients whose primary low-grade tumors carried p14(ARF) methylation exhibited homozygous co-deletions of the p14(ARF), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes, which were restricted to glioblastoma as the most malignant end point.
  • Our findings suggest that p14(ARF) hypermethylation and MGMT hypermethylation constitute distinct molecular pathways of astrocytoma progression, which could differ in biological behavior and clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CpG Islands / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17493032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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81. Komotar RJ, Zacharia BE, Sughrue ME, Mocco J, Carson BS, Tihan T, Otten ML, Burger PC, Garvin JH, Khandji AG, Anderson RC: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Neurol Res; 2008 Nov;30(9):945-51
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified pediatric low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior.
  • These tumors have been shown to have significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival probability than classical low-grade astrocytomas, as well as a high rate of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination.
  • CONCLUSION: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a well-circumscribed pediatric neoplasm that commonly originates from the midline of the neuroaxis and lacks peritumoral edema or central necrosis.
  • It is critical to recognize the predominantly solid and well-circumscribed nature of the neoplasm to avoid confusion with an infiltrating astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18662499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Chu SH, Yuan XH, Jiang PC, Li ZQ, Zhang J, Wen ZH, Zhao SY, Chen XJ, Cao CJ: [The expression of hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor in brain astrocytomas]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Mar 30;85(12):835-8
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  • [Title] [The expression of hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor in brain astrocytomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) mRNA and its receptor (c-Met) mRNA in brain astrocytomas and their relationships with tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, clinical pathology and prognosis.
  • METHODS: The expression of HGF mRNA, c-Met mRNA in the resected tumor tissues of 76 patients with brain astrocytomas, 43 males and 33 females, aged 20 - 71, were detected by in situ hybridization.
  • RESULTS: The positive rates of expression of HGF, c-Met and PCNA in low pathologic grades of brain astrocytoma were 34.5%, 44.8% and 15% +/- 9% respectively, and in high pathologic grades of brain astrocytoma were 34.5%, 44.8% and 48% +/- 12% respectively (P < 0.05).
  • MVD in low and high pathologic grades of brain astrocytoma were 17 +/- 7 and 31 +/- 13 respectively (P < 0.05).
  • The pathological grade, position of tumor, HGF, c-Met, PCNA, MVD had a significant influence on the survival time.
  • CONCLUSION: HGF/c-Met plays an important role in the formation and progression of the brain astrocytoma and can promote tumor proliferation and intratumoral microvascular formation, and is closely related to the prognosis of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Receptors, Growth Factor / biosynthesis


83. El-Rayes BF, Norton CS, Sakr W, Maciorowski Z, Smith D, Pietraszkiewicz H, Del Mar Alonso M, Ensley JF: Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):85-9
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  • [Title] Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinical parameters such as grade, size and/or location of the tumor are good predictors of outcome in patients with astrocytoma.
  • Median survival times correlated with grade (I/II=1154 vs. III/IV=483days, P=0.0317).
  • CONCLUSION: DNA content parameters may correlate with the natural history and treatment outcome of newly diagnosed untreated patients with astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15690121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40498-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA22453
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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84. Burzynski SR, Janicki TJ, Weaver RA, Burzynski B: Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma. Integr Cancer Ther; 2006 Mar;5(1):40-7
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  • [Title] Targeted therapy with antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1 of high-grade, recurrent, and progressive brainstem glioma.
  • Treatment is even more challenging when an inoperable tumor is of high-grade pathology (HBSG).
  • RESULTS: The overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 39% and 22%, respectively, and maximum survival was more than 17 years for a patient with anaplastic astrocytoma and more than 5 years for a patient with glioblastoma.
  • Antineoplastons were tolerated very well with 1 case of grade 4 toxicity (reversible anemia).
  • CONCLUSION: Antineoplastons contributed to more than a 5-year survival in recurrent diffuse intrinsic glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas of the brainstem in a small group of patients.

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  • (PMID = 16484713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzeneacetamides; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Phenylacetates; 0 / Piperidones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 104624-98-8 / antineoplaston AS 2-1; 91531-30-5 / antineoplaston A10
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85. Arifin MT, Hama S, Kajiwara Y, Sugiyama K, Saito T, Matsuura S, Yamasaki F, Arita K, Kurisu K: Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, p16 expression may signal poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;77(3):273-7
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, p16 expression may signal poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The negative consequences of the cytoplasmic localization of p16 in patients with high-grade astrocytomas, on their prognosis, was investigated.
  • METHODS: p16 Expression was examined in 20 anaplastic astrocytoma and 42 glioblastoma patients by immunohistochemical analysis, and the relationship between both cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 expression and prognosis analyzed.
  • CONCLUSION: The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of p16 appears to be an unfavorable prognostic indicator in high-grade astrocytoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
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86. Van Laere K, Ceyssens S, Van Calenbergh F, de Groot T, Menten J, Flamen P, Bormans G, Mortelmans L: Direct comparison of 18F-FDG and 11C-methionine PET in suspected recurrence of glioma: sensitivity, inter-observer variability and prognostic value. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 Jan;32(1):39-51
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  • METHODS: Cerebral uptake of FDG and MET was determined sequentially on the same day in 30 patients (21 males, nine females; age 40.4+/-15.6 years), on average 4.0 years (range 0.1-18) after therapy for a primary brain tumour (23 grade II-IV astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligo-astrocytomas).
  • The combination of FDG and MET information resulted in the highest prognostic accuracy (p=0.003), while MET alone was the best prognostic predictor in the subgroup of patients with primary astrocytoma (n=23).

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  • (PMID = 15309329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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87. Grau SJ, Trillsch F, Herms J, Thon N, Nelson PJ, Tonn JC, Goldbrunner R: Expression of VEGFR3 in glioma endothelium correlates with tumor grade. J Neurooncol; 2007 Apr;82(2):141-50
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  • [Title] Expression of VEGFR3 in glioma endothelium correlates with tumor grade.
  • The purpose of this study was to find explanations for these processes by searching for alternative pathways regulating glioma angiogenesis and reveal a correlation with tumor grade.
  • Thus, VEGFR3, which is not expressed in normal brain, and its ligands VEGF-C and -D, were assessed in high grade (WHO degrees IV, glioblastomas, GBM) and low grade gliomas [WHO degrees II astrocytomas (AII)].
  • In AII, only very moderate VEGFR3, VEGF-C and -D expression was found on protein and RNA level indicating a correlation of VEGFR3 expression with tumor grade.
  • The demonstration of a complete angiogenic signaling system that is dependent on tumor grade may influence the traditional paradigm of glioma angiogenesis and may provide a basis for more effective anti-angiogenic treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17115285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / VEGFC protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
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88. Paleologos NA: Chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S21-4
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas.
  • Low-grade gliomas pose a difficult problem for the neuro-oncologist.
  • In addition, the role and timing of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the management of low-grade tumors is highly controversial.
  • This review discusses some of the recent advances with respect to chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas, with a special emphasis on low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / therapy. Expert Testimony. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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89. Ducray F, El Hallani S, Idbaih A: Diagnostic and prognostic markers in gliomas. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Nov;21(6):537-42
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent studies on diagnostic and prognostic markers in gliomas such as the BRAF fusion gene in pilocytic astrocytomas and 1p/19q codeletion, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase status and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)/IDH2 mutations in diffuse gliomas.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In pilocytic astrocytomas, the BRAF fusion gene has been recently identified as a specific and frequent event leading to potentially targetable mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.
  • In grade II/III gliomas and in glioblastomas, chromosome 1p/19q codeletion and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase status remain the most important prognostic and predictive markers.
  • Recently identified mutations in IDH1/IDH2, however, are specific for diffuse gliomas, occur frequently in grade II/III gliomas and are of prognostic value in grade III gliomas, as well in glioblastomas in which they characterize secondary glioblastomas.

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  • (PMID = 19667985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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90. Opstad KS, Wright AJ, Bell BA, Griffiths JR, Howe FA: Correlations between in vivo (1)H MRS and ex vivo (1)H HRMAS metabolite measurements in adult human gliomas. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Feb;31(2):289-97
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  • PURPOSE: To assess how accurately ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) from small biopsy tissues relate to in vivo (1)H MRS (from larger tumor volumes) in human astrocytomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo (PRESS, TE = 30 msec) and ex vivo (presaturation) (1)H spectra of 17 human astrocytomas (4 grade II, 1 grade III and 12 glioblastomas) were quantified using LCModel.
  • CONCLUSION: Within defined limitations, ex vivo astrocytoma biopsy HRMAS (1)H spectra have similar metabolic profiles to that obtained in vivo and therefore detailed ex vivo characterization of glioma biopsies can directly relate to the original tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20099340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1459/A2592
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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91. Xu P, Pu PY, Kang CS, Jia ZF, Zhou X, Wang GX: [Differential expression of Notch1 and Notch2 in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;37(7):450-3
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  • [Title] [Differential expression of Notch1 and Notch2 in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the differential expression of Notch1 and Notch2 in human astrocytoma and medulloblastoma; and to study the role of Notch1 and Notch2 in the development of both tumors.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (SP method) and Western blot analysis were used to detect Notch1 and Notch2 expression in tissue arrays and freshly resected samples of normal brain tissue, astrocytoma and medulloblastoma.
  • Notch1 was highly expressed (total positive rate 80.0%, 48/60) while Notch2 was not detected in grade IV astrocytomas and sporadically observed in lower grade astrocytomas (total positive rate 10.0%, 6/60).
  • The percentage of positive tumor cells and expression level of Notch1 increased with higher histologic grade (r = 0.859, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Notch1 and Notch2 show differential expression in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Receptor, Notch1 / metabolism. Receptor, Notch2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19035115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptor, Notch2
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92. Li YZ, Huang ZL, Wei DN, Xie CM, He HQ, Wei YF, Chen L, Wu PH: [Diffusion tensor imaging of the white matter tracts in preoperative patients with cerebral neoplasm]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2006 Nov;26(11):1648-51
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  • METHODS: Four female and 8 male patients aged from 21 to 62 years with brain malignancies (2 malignant lymphomas, 2 low-grade astrocytomas, and 8 high-grade cerebral gliomas) underwent conventional contrast-enhanced MR and DTI examinations before operation.

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  • (PMID = 17121724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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93. Tripp SR, Willmore-Payne C, Layfield LJ: Relationship between EGFR overexpression and gene amplification status in central nervous system gliomas. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Apr;27(2):71-8
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  • STUDY DESIGN: Forty-seven central nervous system gliomas, including 34 cases of glioblastoma multiforme, 3 oligodendrogliomas, 4 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and 5 low grade astrocytomas, were obtained from the files of the University of Utah Pathology Department.
  • None of the low grade, pilocytic or anaplastic astrocytomas demonstrated either EGFR protein overexpression or gene amplification.
  • All central nervous system neoplasms demonstrating gene amplification and/or overexpression were high grade neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 15913199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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94. Warth A, Simon P, Capper D, Goeppert B, Tabatabai G, Herzog H, Dietz K, Stubenvoll F, Ajaaj R, Becker R, Weller M, Meyermann R, Wolburg H, Mittelbronn M: Expression pattern of the water channel aquaporin-4 in human gliomas is associated with blood-brain barrier disturbance but not with patient survival. J Neurosci Res; 2007 May 1;85(6):1336-46
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  • To elucidate the AQP4 role in brain tumors, we investigated 189 WHO grade I-IV gliomas by immunohistochemistry and the prognostic significance for patients' survival.
  • In gliomas, a remarkable de novo AQP4 redistribution was observed in comparison with normal CNS tissue.
  • Surprisingly, the highest membraneous staining levels were seen in pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I and grade IV glioblastomas, both significantly higher than in WHO grade II astrocytomas.
  • AQP4 up-regulation was associated with brain edema formation; however, no association between survival and WHO grade-dependent AQP4 expression was seen.
  • Hence, AQP4 redistribution may go along with other tumor properties, such as vascular proliferation and resulting blood-brain barrier disturbance, features usually prominent in pilocytic astrocytomas WHO I and glioblastomas WHO grade IV.
  • In addition, our results provide unexpectedly high AQP4 levels in pilocytic astrocytomas and present AQP4 as tumor progression marker in WHO grade II-IV astrocytomas.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17335082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-4012
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP4 protein, human; 0 / Aquaporin 4
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95. Righi V, Roda JM, Paz J, Mucci A, Tugnoli V, Rodriguez-Tarduchy G, Barrios L, Schenetti L, Cerdán S, García-Martín ML: 1H HR-MAS and genomic analysis of human tumor biopsies discriminate between high and low grade astrocytomas. NMR Biomed; 2009 Jul;22(6):629-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 1H HR-MAS and genomic analysis of human tumor biopsies discriminate between high and low grade astrocytomas.
  • However, the relative contributions of Cho, PC, and GPC to tCho were different for low and high grade gliomas.
  • Whereas GPC is the main component in low grade gliomas, the high grade gliomas show a dominant contribution of PC.
  • This circumstance allowed the discrimination of high and low grade gliomas by (1)H HR-MAS, a result that could not be obtained using the tCho/Cr ratio commonly used by in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy.
  • High grade gliomas depict an upregulation of the beta gene of choline kinase and phospholipase C, as well as a downregulation of the cytidyltransferase B gene, the balance of these being consistent with the accumulation of PC.
  • In the low grade gliomas, phospholipase A(1) and lysophospholipase are upregulated and phospholipase D is downregulated, supporting the accumulation of GPC.
  • The present findings offer a promising procedure that will potentially help to accurately grade glioma tumors using (1)H HR-MAS, providing in addition the genetic background for the alterations of choline metabolism observed in high and low grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biopsy. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLINE CHLORIDE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19322812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1492
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 60M22SGW66 / Glycerylphosphorylcholine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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96. Eoli M, Bissola L, Bruzzone MG, Pollo B, Maccagnano C, De Simone T, Valletta L, Silvani A, Bianchessi D, Broggi G, Boiardi A, Finocchiaro G: Reclassification of oligoastrocytomas by loss of heterozygosity studies. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jul 1;119(1):84-90
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