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1. Figarella-Branger D, Bouvier C: [Histological classification of human gliomas: state of art and controversies]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Apr;92(4):301-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim is to define the histological type of glioma (astrocytic, oligodendrocytic or mixed) and the grade in order to classify the patients and give them an accurate treatment.
  • According to the WHO classification, infiltrative gliomas encompass astrocytic gliomas (diffuse astrocytomas grade II, anaplastic astrocytomas grade III and glioblastomas grade IV), oligodendroglial tumours (oligodendrogliomas grade II, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas grade III) and mixed gliomas (oligoastrocytomas grade II and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas grade III).
  • Circumscribed gliomas mainly corresponds to pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I).
  • According to the Sainte Anne classification, gliomas are divided into astrocytic gliomas (pilocytic astrocytomas, structure type I, glioblastomas structure type II) and oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas (grade A: lack of contrast enhancement and lack of endothelial hyperplasia, structure type III; and grade B: contrast enhancement or endothelial hyperplasia, structure type II and III).
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / classification. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reproducibility of Results. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 15888386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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2. Arslantas A, Artan S, Oner U, Müslümanoglu MH, Ozdemir M, Durmaz R, Arslantas D, Vural M, Cosan E, Atasoy MA: Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2007;13(1):39-46
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  • [Title] Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • To extend our understanding of potential stepwise genetic alterations that may underlie tumor progression from low-grade astrocytomas to glioblastomas, histopathologic and comparative genomic hybridization analyses were performed on tumor specimens from 68 primary lesions, including 40 glioblastomas, 10 anaplastic and 18 low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The number of aberrations per case increased towards the higher grade tumors (grade II: 1.66+/-1.49; grade III: 2.80+/-1.68; grade IV: 3.02+/-1.07; F=6.955, p=0.002).
  • A gain of 7/7q was common and the most frequently seen aberration in low-grade astrocytomas, whereas loss of 10q was the most frequently seen anomaly in anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • Chromosome 10/10q deletion and combination of 1p, 19q and 17p deletions were specific to high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • The genomic copy deletions of chromosomes 1p and 19q might provide an alternative mechanism in the genesis of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Glioblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17387387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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3. Rondinelli PI, Osório CA, Cohen MP, Novaes PE: Unusual dissemination patterns of low-grade astrocytomas in childhood. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2008 Mar;66(1):45-9
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  • [Title] Unusual dissemination patterns of low-grade astrocytomas in childhood.
  • CONTEXT: Low-grade astrocytomas are intracerebral lesions of relatively high frequency in the under-18 pediatric population.
  • We describe here four cases of children with low-grade astrocytoma with aggressive dissemination to the neuroaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18392413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Lapointe M, Lanthier J, Moumdjian R, Régina A, Desrosiers RR: Expression and activity of l-isoaspartyl methyltransferase decrease in stage progression of human astrocytic tumors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Apr 27;135(1-2):93-103
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  • More precisely, PIMT levels were significantly lower by 76% in pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I), 46% in astrocytomas (grade II), 69% in anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III), and a marked 80% in glioblastomas (grade IV) as compared to normal brains.

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  • (PMID = 15857672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.1.1.77 / Protein D-Aspartate-L-Isoaspartate Methyltransferase; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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5. Otero-Rodríguez A, Sarabia-Herrero R, García-Tejeiro M, Zamora-Martínez T: Spontaneous malignant transformation of a supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2010 Jun;21(3):245-52
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  • [Title] Spontaneous malignant transformation of a supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a circumscribed neoplasia considered as a grade I astrocytoma by the World Health Organization.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20571729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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6. Matusan-Ilijas K, Behrem S, Jonjic N, Zarkovic K, Lucin K: Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Sep;14(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of OPN in human astrocytomas and to correlate it with angiogenesis and patients' outcome.
  • Seventy-six human astrocytomas including eight pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I), 10 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II), 8 anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III) and 50 glioblastomas (grade IV) were immunohistochemically stained for OPN protein.
  • Astrocytomas were heterogeneous regarding the OPN expression.
  • Our results indicate the overexpression of OPN protein in astrocytoma cells and suggest the role of OPN in astrocytoma progression and angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18493866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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7. Kwon CH, Zhao D, Chen J, Alcantara S, Li Y, Burns DK, Mason RP, Lee EY, Wu H, Parada LF: Pten haploinsufficiency accelerates formation of high-grade astrocytomas. Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;68(9):3286-94
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  • [Title] Pten haploinsufficiency accelerates formation of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We previously reported that central nervous system (CNS) inactivation of Nf1 and p53 tumor suppressor genes in mice results in the development of low-grade to high-grade progressive astrocytomas.
  • When the tumors achieve high grade, they are frequently accompanied by Akt activation, reminiscent of the frequent association of PTEN mutations in human high-grade glioma.
  • In the present study, we introduced CNS heterozygosity of Pten into the Nf1/p53 astrocytoma model.
  • Resulting mice had accelerated morbidity, shortened survival, and full penetrance of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Haploinsufficiency of Pten accelerated formation of grade 3 astrocytomas, whereas loss of Pten heterozygosity and Akt activation coincided with progression into grade 4 tumors.
  • These data suggest that successive loss of each Pten allele may contribute to de novo formation of high-grade astrocytoma and progression into glioblastoma, respectively, thus providing insight into the etiology of primary glioblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 18451155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR002584; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS033199-10; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS052606-05; None / None / / U24 CA126608-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24CA126608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS033199-10; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052606-05; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41-RR02584; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37NS33199; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA126608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS033199; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS052606; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA126608-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149010; NLM/ PMC2760841
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8. Cao WD, Zhang X, Zhang JN, Yang ZJ, Zhen HN, Cheng G, Li B, Gao D: Immunocytochemical detection of 14-3-3 in primary nervous system tumors. J Neurooncol; 2006 Apr;77(2):125-30
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  • However, 14-3-3 immunoreactivity was seen in the majority of astrocytomas [grade I (9/11), II (16/21), III (13/17), IV (17/21)].
  • There was no difference between the positive expression rates of 14-3-3 in different grades of astrocytomas (P = 0.968).
  • But the intensity and degree of 14-3-3 immunoreactivity in diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytoma, and glioblastoma multiformes showed trends with tumor grade, with glioblastomas having the highest positivity (P = 0.048).

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  • (PMID = 16292484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / YWHAB protein, human
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9. Kidd EA, Mansur DB, Leonard JR, Michalski JM, Simpson JR, Perry A: The efficacy of radiation therapy in the management of grade I astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(1):55-8
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  • [Title] The efficacy of radiation therapy in the management of grade I astrocytomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of patients with grade I astrocytomas treated with radiation therapy, specifically looking at the prognostic significance of age, timing of radiation therapy (immediately after surgery or delayed until progression) and tumor location.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of patients with grade I astrocytomas treated at Washington University Medical Center between 1982 and 2002 were reviewed.
  • Twenty patients with grade I pilocytic astrocytoma (n=19) or subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (n=1) were treated with radiation therapy with curative intent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: While this study reports an excellent overall survival, approximately one third of patients with grade I astrocytomas had progressive disease following radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 16132503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Rorive S, Maris C, Debeir O, Sandras F, Vidaud M, Bièche I, Salmon I, Decaestecker C: Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):794-807
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  • [Title] Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles.
  • Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and grade II diffuse astrocytomas have been classified for decades as different clinicopathologic entities, few, if any, data are available on the biologic features explaining these differences.
  • Although more than 50 microarray-related studies have been carried out to characterize the molecular profiles of astrocytic tumors, we have identified only 11 that provide sound data on low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We have incorporated these data into a comparative analysis for the purpose of identifying the most relevant molecular markers characterizing grade I pilocytic and grade II diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Our analysis has identified various interesting genes that are differentially expressed in either grade I or grade II astrocytomas when compared with normal tissue and/or high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas.
  • Interestingly, a group of 6 genes (TIMP4, C1NH, CHAD, THBS4, IGFBP2, and TLE2) constitute an expression profile characteristic of grade I astrocytomas as compared with all other categories of tissue (normal brain, grade II, and high-grade astrocytomas).
  • The end products (proteins) of these genes act as antimigratory compounds, a fact that could explain why pilocytic astrocytomas behave as compact (well-circumscribed) tumors as opposed to all the other astrocytic tumor types that diffusely invade the brain parenchyma.
  • Having validated these molecular markers by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, an integrated model was proposed illustrating how and why pilocytic astrocytomas constitute a distinct biologic and pathologic entity when compared with diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16896313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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11. Bhattacharjee M, Bose I, Sarkar P, Banerjee C, Dutta S, Ghosh A, Mukherjee J, Acharya S, Goswami S, Mazumdar A, Chaudhuri S, Chaudhuri S: A sequential scanning of the immune efficiency in astrocytoma (Grade I to Grade Iii), meningioma and secondary glioma patients with and without therapeutic scheduling. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):502-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A sequential scanning of the immune efficiency in astrocytoma (Grade I to Grade Iii), meningioma and secondary glioma patients with and without therapeutic scheduling.
  • Thus, the study aims at evaluating the sequential immune status of glioma bearing patients (Astrocytoma Grade I to Grade III) receiving conventional therapeutic measures.
  • METHODS: Functional immune parameters of peripheral blood lymphocytes were assayed by CD2 receptors enumeration through E-rosetting and lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay and assessing the generation of reactive oxygen species by NBT assay of peripheral blood macrophages in patient groups bearing Astrocytoma (Grade I to Grade III), meningioma and secondary glioma.
  • RESULTS: Patients bearing Astrocytoma (all 3 grades) showed maximum immune suppression as compared to the normal subjects, diseased meningioma controls, and secondary glioma.
  • CONCLUSION: Astrocytoma and not meningioma is capable of causing immunesuppression.
  • As the tumor progresses from Grade I to Grade III, a linear reduction in the functional efficacy of immunocytes is seen to occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / immunology. Glioma / immunology. Immune Tolerance. Meningioma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16939959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Petridis AK, Wedderkopp H, Hugo HH, Maximilian Mehdorn H: Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):601-3; discussion 603-4
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  • [Title] Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Intra-operatively collected biopsies from 30 patients with different astrocytoma grades were immuno-histochemically examined to identify expression of PSA.
  • RESULTS: Astrocytoma grade I and II had 4% PSA expressing cells whereas in grade III and IV the number of PSA expressing cells was 45%.
  • CONCLUSION: In this short communication we show that highly malignant astrocytomas express significantly more PSA compared to less malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Sialic Acids / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19387537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / UCC1 protein, human; 0 / polysialic acid
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13. Arvanitis LD, Koukoulis GK, Kanavaros P: The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):521-4
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  • [Title] The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • In normal human brains the epitope H is present mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, whereas it is greatly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes and is increased in well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In this study the expression of the epitope H was investigated in thirty cases of gemistocytic (WHO grade II), pilocytic (WHO grade I), and subependymal giant cell (WHO grade I) astrocytomas using the mAbH with the indirect immunoperoxidase method.
  • The ten cases of gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • The ten cases of pilocytic astrocytomas revealed a biphasic pattern of epitope H expression.
  • The ten cases of subependynal giant cell astrocytomas occurring in tuberous sclerosis revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • This study shows that there is high expression of the epitope H in gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Collectively considering, the present and our previous data, it appears that there is a spectrum of the expression levels of the epitope H ranging from the high expression in the reactive astrocytes and low grade astrocytomas to the low/null expression in the normal astrocytes and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosamine / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Epitopes

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  • (PMID = 19639198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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14. Parsa CF, Givrad S: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas do not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation: grounds for designation as hamartomas. Br J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan;92(1):40-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas do not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation: grounds for designation as hamartomas.
  • AIM: To determine whether juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I have the potential for spontaneous malignant transformation.
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed, cross-referencing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, astrocytoma grade I, optic glioma, glioma, low-grade gliomas, polar spongioblastoma, gliocytoma embryonale, and malignant transformation, anaplasia or anaplastic change.
  • Twenty-two of these tumours, however, did not initially match criteria for juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I and were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I do not undergo spontaneous anaplastic transformation.
  • Earlier clinical and histopathological opinions regarding juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas as hamartomatous lesions are reaffirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17962395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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15. Potthast L, Chowdhary S, Pan E, Yu D, Zhu W, Brem S: The infiltrative, diffuse pattern of recurrence in patients with malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2057

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histologies included glioblastoma (GB), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA), and low-grade astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 27964663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Witt H, Korshunov A, Remke M, Janzarik WG, Gnekow A, Scheurlen W, Kulozik AE, Lichter P, Pfister S: DNA methylation pattern of brain stem pilocytic astrocytomas in children. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10021

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DNA methylation pattern of brain stem pilocytic astrocytomas in children.
  • : 10021 Background: Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) comprises the most frequent brain tumor in childhood.
  • METHODS: To identify novel genes involved in astrocytoma pathogenesis, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 78 pilocytic astrocytoma samples from different tumor locations (diencephalic, cerebral, cerebellar, brain stem).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that brain stem pilocytic astrocytomas display biologic features different from most tumors of other locations and share a methylation signature with tumors prone to disease recurrence from other locations.
  • We provide first evidence for a role of differentially methylated homeobox family genes in the pathogenesis of pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 27962622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Franceschi E, Tosoni A, Ermani M, Spagnolli F, La Torre L, Galzio RJ, Pozzati E, Talacchi A, Benevento F, Brandes AA: Impact of MGMT methylation status on 1p/19q intact anaplastic gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13003

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e13003 Background: Chromosomes 1p/19q codeletion has been recognized as a prognostic and predictive factor in patients (pts) with grade 3 gliomas.
  • Non-codeleted (intact) anaplastic oligodendroglioma showed a survival comparable to that usually observed in pts with anaplastic astrocytomas; MGMT methylation status, moreover, has been found to be a prognostic factor in glioblastoma and anaplastic gliomas (AG).
  • Histology was anaplastic oligodendroglioma in 17 pts, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in 20 pts, and anaplastic astrocytoma in 30 pts; all these pts were 1p19q intact and received surgery, RT, and CT.

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  • (PMID = 27962754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Herndon J 2nd, Vredenburgh J, Reardon D, Desjardins A, Peters K, Gururangan S, Norfleet J, Friedman A, Bigner D, Friedman HS: Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13016

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • : e13016 Background: Recurrent malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 6-15 months, with grade 4 glioblastomas more aggressive than grade 3 anaplastic astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically documented recurrent grade 3 or grade 4 malignant glioma were eligible.
  • There was more hematologic toxicity than expected, with 3/6 of the patients enrolled at dose level 1 developing grade 4 neutropenia.

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  • (PMID = 27962830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Lin Y, Jiang T, Li G: MGMT expression in low-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13001

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  • [Title] MGMT expression in low-grade gliomas.
  • : e13001 Background: To evaluate the expression of MGMT in low-grade gliomas, and explore the relationship between its expression and the histological type of the tumour and the corresponding MRI characteristics.
  • METHODS: We assessed 389 low-grade gliomas (182 astrocytomas, 145 oligoastrocytomas, 61 oligodendrocytomas) with immunohistochemistry staining.
  • RESULTS: The expression of MGMT in astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas, and oligocytomas were 1.67 ± 0.78, 1.41 ± 0.86,1.44 ± 0.78, respectively.
  • Significant stronger expression of MGMT was observed in astrocytomas than oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrocytomas (t = 3.00, p = 0.03), but no significant difference was observed between the latter two (t = 0.28, p = 0.78).
  • This suggest that MGMT may contribute to the tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in low-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 27962757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Ochsenbein AF, Schubert AD, Vassella E, Mariani L: Quantitative analysis of 0<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in patients with low-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2069

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of 0<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • : 2069 Background: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on the chromosomes 1p and 19q is associated with sensitivity to alkylating agents like temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with low-grade gliomas; whether methylation of the MGMT-promoter, a predictive factor in glioblastoma patients, also correlates with tumor response to TMZ in low-grade gliomas is unclear.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with histologically verified low-grade gliomas (WHO Grade II) who were treated with TMZ for tumor progression at our hospital between November 1999 and November 2007.
  • Histological classification revealed 10 oligodendrogliomas, 7 oligoastrocytomas, and 5 astrocytomas.
  • Grade 3-4 hematological toxicity occurred in 32% of the patients (9% leucopenia, 23% thrombocytopenia).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative methylation-specific PCR of the MGMT promoter correlates with radiological response to chemotherapy with temozolomide in WHO grade II gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 27964685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Nafe R, Schlote W, Schneider B: Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Feb;31(1):34-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis.
  • Although tumour cell nuclei are important histological structures for grading of astrocytomas according to the WHO-classification of brain tumours, there is no reported morphometric study of astrocytomas which describes quantitatively the four main morphologic criteria of tumour cell nuclei: size, shape, texture (densitometric characteristics) and spatial relationships between the nuclei (topometric analysis).
  • Using a set of morphometric parameters describing these criteria as well as the Ki67-proliferation index, 74 astrocytomas from 74 patients were studied by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • The objective of the study was to test, if these morphometric parameters were sufficient for statistical discrimination between pilocytic astrocytomas WHO-grade I, astrocytomas grade II and anaplastic astrocytomas grade III.
  • Our results showed a correct reclassification of 97.3% (72/74) of the cases with respect to the tumour grade by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis.
  • In conclusion, the present morphometric procedure provided good discrimination between the tumour grades, supporting the view that histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei could be a valuable tool for grading of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / ultrastructure. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15634229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Zorlu F, Ozyigit G, Gurkaynak M, Soylemezoglu F, Akyol F, Lale Atahan I: Postoperative radiotherapy results in primary spinal cord astrocytomas. Radiother Oncol; 2005 Jan;74(1):45-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postoperative radiotherapy results in primary spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We retrospectively evaluated the therapeutic outcomes of patients with primary spinal cord astrocytomas treated with conventional radiotherapy at our institute.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 1975 and December 1997, 26 patients with histologically proven spinal cord astrocytomas were treated with conventional radiotherapy, and twenty-four eligible patients were evaluated.
  • Fourteen of astrocytomas were grade I, 6 of them grade II and 4 grade III.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15683668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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23. Fisher PG, Tihan T, Goldthwaite PT, Wharam MD, Carson BS, Weingart JD, Repka MX, Cohen KJ, Burger PC: Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Aug;51(2):245-50
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  • [Title] Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the long-term natural history of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA) in children, with respect to pathology, and to evaluate influence of treatment on survival.
  • Among 246 specimens reviewed, diagnoses were 135 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 27 diffuse astrocytoma (DA), 75 unclassifiable well-differentiated astrocytoma (NOS), and 9 subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18386785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Magrassi L, Conti L, Lanterna A, Zuccato C, Marchionni M, Cassini P, Arienta C, Cattaneo E: Shc3 affects human high-grade astrocytomas survival. Oncogene; 2005 Aug 4;24(33):5198-206
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  • [Title] Shc3 affects human high-grade astrocytomas survival.
  • We now show that in human astrocytomas and glioblastomas, the normal pattern of expression of Shc1/Shc3 is totally subverted, both proteins being present at the same time and in the same cells.
  • Finally, we found that the expression of truncated variants of Shc3 with dominant-negative effects in human high-grade glioma cells that maintain Shc3 expression in vitro leads to a decreased Akt posphorylation and increased apoptosis, thus resulting in impaired survival of the transfected cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neuropeptides / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15870690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / SHC1 protein, human; 0 / SHC3 protein, human; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins
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25. Belda-Iniesta C, de Castro Carpeño J, Casado Sáenz E, Cejas Guerrero P, Perona R, González Barón M: Molecular biology of malignant gliomas. Clin Transl Oncol; 2006 Sep;8(9):635-41

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  • For example, gliomas of astrocytic origin (astrocytomas) are classified into pilocytic astrocytoma (grade I), astrocytoma (grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) (grade IV).
  • Tumors derived from oligodendrocytes include grade II (oliogodendrogliomas) and grade III neoplasms (oligoastrocytoma).
  • Furthermore, the ability that allows several low-grade gliomas to progress into more aggressive tumors has allowed cancer researchers to elucidate several pathways implicated in molecular biology of these devastating tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17005465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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26. Kessler R, Bleichert F, Warnke JP, Eschrich K: 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB3) is up-regulated in high-grade astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Feb;86(3):257-64
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  • [Title] 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB3) is up-regulated in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The PFKFB3 protein levels were markedly elevated in high-grade astrocytomas relative to low-grade astrocytomas and corresponding non-neoplastic brain tissue, whereas no significant increase of PFKFB3 mRNA was observed in high-grade astrocytomas when compared with control tissue.
  • The findings demonstrate that PFKFB3 up-regulation is a hallmark of high-grade astrocytomas offering an explanation for high glycolytic flux and lactate production in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Phosphofructokinase-2 / metabolism. Up-Regulation / physiology


27. Henderson MA, Fakiris AJ, Timmerman RD, Worth RM, Lo SS, Witt TC: Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2009;87(3):161-7
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  • [Title] Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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28. Nathoo N, Prayson RA, Bondar J, Vargo L, Arrigain S, Mascha EJ, Suh JH, Barnett GH, Golubic M: Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Feb;58(2):347-54; discussion 347-54
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  • [Title] Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this study, we investigated whether 5-LO is expressed in human astrocytomas and what effect its expression may have on patient outcome.
  • METHODS: Increased 5-LO messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and antibody-based approaches, respectively, in surgical astrocytoma specimens and established glioblastoma multiforme cell lines compared with primary cell culture from the human white matter.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominantly nuclear 5-LO staining in 44 of 49 glioblastoma multiforme samples (90%), 8 of 10 (80%) anaplastic astrocytomas samples, and 3 of 13 (23%) low-grade astrocytoma samples analyzed.
  • Staining of 5-LO was significantly more frequent in high-grade than in low-grade tumors (P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 5-LO is overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas and supports the idea that eicosanoids may play a role in tumorigenesis of these brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16462489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107277
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
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29. Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, Forshew T, Hindley GF, Ellison DW, Sheer D: MAPK pathway activation and the origins of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas. J Cell Physiol; 2010 Mar;222(3):509-14
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  • [Title] MAPK pathway activation and the origins of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs) are the most common type of brain tumor in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19937730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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30. Kitamura N, Hasebe T, Kasai R, Kasuya S, Nakatsuka T, Kudo H, Higuchi M, Nakano K, Hiruta N, Kameda N, Ogata K, Watanabe Y, Morita H, Terada H: Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults. Neuroradiol J; 2010 Dec;23(6):690-5

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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas in elderly adults.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are classified as WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in children and young adults.
  • We describe two cases of pilocytic astrocytoma in elderly adults, a 68-year-old man and a 71-year-old woman.
  • Pathological studies revealed findings consistent with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Although these tumors are rarely found in elderly adults, pilocytic astrocytomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis if the radiographic features of the tumors are characteristic of pilocytic astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 24148722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Agulnik M, Mason WP: The changing management of low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2006 Dec;20(6):1249-66
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  • [Title] The changing management of low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Low-grade gliomas are uncommon primary brain tumors that preferentially affect young to middle-aged adults.
  • Although they are indolent tumors, low-grade gliomas cause considerable and progressive morbidity and are ultimately fatal.
  • Chemotherapy is playing a larger role in the management of patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • Patients with oligodendrogliomas or other low-grade gliomas that harbor a distinct genetic derangement characterized by allelic loss of chromosomes 1p and 19q appear to have a superior prognosis that is due in part to a more predictable and durable response to treatment.
  • For this subset of patients with low-grade gliomas, treatment with initial chemotherapy and deferred radiotherapy is an increasingly attractive therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17113461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Scrideli CA, Carlotti CG Jr, Mata JF, Neder L, Machado HR, Oba-Sinjo SM, Rosemberg S, Marie SK, Tone LG: Prognostic significance of co-overexpression of the EGFR/IGFBP-2/HIF-2A genes in astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jul;83(3):233-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of co-overexpression of the EGFR/IGFBP-2/HIF-2A genes in astrocytomas.
  • Overexpression of the EGFR, IGFBP-2 and HIF-2A genes has been observed in high-grade astrocytomas and these genes seem to be functionally related to one another.
  • This study aimed to define the profile of their expressions, interactions and correlation with clinical features and prognostic significance in microdissected tumor samples from 84 patients with astrocytomas of different grades and from 6 white matter non-neoplasic brain tissue sample.
  • Grade I astrocytomas presented gene expression levels similar to those encountered in samples of microdissected white matter of non-neoplastic brain tissue Overexpression of the EGFR, IGFBP-2 and HIF-2A genes was significantly associated with lower 2-year survival (P: 0.009, P: 0.0002 and P: 0.008, respectively).
  • Co-overexpression of these genes was strongly associated with high-grade gliomas and lower survival in univariate (P < 0.0001) and multivariate (P: 0.009) analysis, suggesting that the co-expression of the EGFR/IGFBP-2/HIF-2A pathway genes may have a more important clinical and biological impact than the expression of each individual gene alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17285230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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33. Toy H, Yavas O, Eren O, Genc M, Yavas C: Correlation between osteopontin protein expression and histological grade of astrocytomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Jun;15(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between osteopontin protein expression and histological grade of astrocytomas.
  • The aim of the study is to demonstrate that expression of osteopontin in human astrocytomas correlates with histological tumor grade.
  • The expression of osteopontin in human astrocytomas was determined with immunohistochemistry.
  • Median osteopontin expression levels were 1%, 7.5%, 60%, and 50% in grade I, II, III, and IV tumors, respectively.
  • Osteopontin staining was significantly higher in high grade (grade III-IV) than low grade (grade I-II) tumors.
  • These findings indicate that osteopontin immunoreactivity in human astrocytomas may correlate with the grade of a tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19048398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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34. Gaiser T, Becker MR, Meyer J, Habel A, Siegelin MD: p53-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in diffuse low-grade astrocytomas. Neurochem Int; 2009 Jun;54(7):458-63
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  • [Title] p53-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in diffuse low-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this study we evaluated the associations of p53 status and vessel density (angiogenesis) in a set of diffuse low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on 23 diffuse low-grade astrocytomas for CD31 and p53.
  • We found that 9/23 (39%) of the astrocytomas stained positive for p53 in the immunohistochemistry.
  • We identified TP53 mutations in 11/23 (47%) of the astrocytomas.
  • However, the MVD was significantly increased in p53 mutated low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Furthermore, the absolute vessel number was significantly higher in p53 mutated than in p53 wild-type low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The higher microvessel density and the increased absolute vessel number in p53 mutated tumours supports the importance of p53 for tumour angiogenesis in diffuse low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that p53 regulates angiogenesis in low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19428789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9754
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurochemistry international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochem. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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35. Compostella A, Tosoni A, Blatt V, Franceschi E, Brandes AA: Prognostic factors for anaplastic astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Feb;81(3):295-303
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III) constitute about 10% of all gliomas.
  • Currently, only few factors have been identified as useful for prognosis of anaplastic astrocytoma: age and Karnofsky Performance Status.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17001519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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36. Odreman F, Vindigni M, Gonzales ML, Niccolini B, Candiano G, Zanotti B, Skrap M, Pizzolitto S, Stanta G, Vindigni A: Proteomic studies on low- and high-grade human brain astrocytomas. J Proteome Res; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):698-708
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  • [Title] Proteomic studies on low- and high-grade human brain astrocytomas.
  • Human brain astrocytomas range from the indolent low-grade to the highly infiltrating and aggressive high-grade form, also known as glioblastoma multiforme.
  • In this study, we compared the protein pattern of low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas to that of glioblastoma multiforme by 2D electrophoresis.
  • The level of most proteins remains unchanged between the different grade tumors and only few differences are reproducibly observable.
  • Among the proteins more highly expressed in glioblastoma multiforme, we found peroxiredoxin 1 and 6, the transcription factor BTF3, and alpha-B-crystallin, whereas protein disulfide isomerase A3, the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein are increased in low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Our findings contribute to deepening our knowledge of the factors that characterize this class of tumors and, at the same time, can be applied toward the development of novel molecular biomakers potentially useful for an accurate classification of the grade of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Proteomics

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  • (PMID = 15952716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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37. Raco A, Piccirilli M, Landi A, Lenzi J, Delfini R, Cantore G: High-grade intramedullary astrocytomas: 30 years' experience at the Neurosurgery Department of the University of Rome "Sapienza". J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Feb;12(2):144-53

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  • [Title] High-grade intramedullary astrocytomas: 30 years' experience at the Neurosurgery Department of the University of Rome "Sapienza".
  • OBJECT: The goal in this study was to review a series of patients who underwent surgical removal of intramedullary high-grade gliomas, focusing on the functional outcome, recurrence rates, and technical problems continually debated in neurosurgical practice.
  • METHODS: Between December 1976 and December 2006, 22 patients underwent removal of intramedullary high-grade gliomas.
  • RESULTS: Histological examinations showed 10 Grade III astrocytomas and 12 glioblastomas.
  • Only 2 of the 22 high-grade astrocytomas could be completely removed.
  • In this series, multimodality treatment of intramedullary high-grade astrocytomas has been shown to increase length of survival without improving the neurological status.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Feb;12(2):141-2; discussion 142-3 [20121347.001]
  • (PMID = 20121348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Frenay MP, Fontaine D, Vandenbos F, Lebrun C: First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas. Eur J Neurol; 2005 Sep;12(9):685-90
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  • [Title] First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT.
  • CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity.
  • These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16128869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-5101
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds
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39. Christensen K, Schrøder HD, Kristensen BW: CD133 identifies perivascular niches in grade II-IV astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Nov;90(2):157-70
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  • [Title] CD133 identifies perivascular niches in grade II-IV astrocytomas.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the localization and distribution of the putative brain tumour stem cell marker CD133 in formalin fixed paraffin embedded astrocytomas.
  • A retrospective analysis of 114 grade II, III and IV astrocytomas was undertaken.
  • There was no correlation between the mean volume fraction of CD133(+) niches and all CD133(+) tumour cells and tumour grade.
  • However, the volume fraction of CD133(+) blood vessels increased significantly from 0.4% in diffuse astrocytomas to 2.2% in glioblastomas.
  • In conclusion, a CD133(+) perivascular stem cell-like entity exists in astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18612800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 Antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / PROM1 protein, human; 0 / Peptides; 47165-04-8 / DAPI; EC 2.3.2.27 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 2.3.2.27 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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40. Gunny RS, Hayward RD, Phipps KP, Harding BN, Saunders DE: Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Nov;35(11):1086-91
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of residual low-grade cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in children.
  • BACKGROUND: Cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) of childhood are benign tumours and are usually curable by surgical resection alone or combined with adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • There were no differences in age, gender, symptomatology, histological grade or Ki-67 fractions between those with spontaneous tumour regression and those with progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 16047140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Combs SE, Gutwein S, Thilmann C, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Reirradiation of recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Dec;181(12):768-73
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  • [Title] Reirradiation of recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT).
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effect of reirradiation in recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1995 to July 2003, 40 patients with grade III gliomas were treated with fractionated stereotactic reirradiation at the time point of recurrence.
  • No toxicities > CTC grade 2 developed.
  • CONCLUSION: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with recurrent grade III astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16362786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Yang Y, Qiu Y, Ren W, Gong J, Chen F: An identification of stem cell-resembling gene expression profiles in high-grade astrocytomas. Mol Carcinog; 2008 Nov;47(11):893-903
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  • [Title] An identification of stem cell-resembling gene expression profiles in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • High-grade astrocytomas are among the most intractable types of cancers and are often fatal.
  • Previous studies have suggested that high-grade astrocytomas may adopt the self-renewal and migration properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) to proliferate and spread by expressing the stem cell-specific genes.
  • To have a better understanding of the stem cell characteristics of high-grade astrocytomas, we performed the study to identify the stem cell-resembling gene expression profile in high-grade astrocytomas. cDNA microarray analysis was used to detect the differentially expressed genes of isolated human high-grade astrocytomas versus their peritumoral tissue counterparts, and the identification of stem cell-resembling genes was approached by comparing the high-grade astrocytomas-specific gene expression profile with that of NSCs identified by our previous study and other groups.
  • We identified more than 200 high-grade astrocytomas-specific genes in this study, and near 10% genes or gene families of them exhibited similar up or down expression patterns as in NSCs.
  • This study revealed a list of stem cell-specific genes in high-grade astrocytomas, which was likely to have critical roles in determining the "stem" characteristics of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Neurons / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18395814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2744
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Carcinog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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43. Marie SK, Okamoto OK, Uno M, Hasegawa AP, Oba-Shinjo SM, Cohen T, Camargo AA, Kosoy A, Carlotti CG Jr, Toledo S, Moreira-Filho CA, Zago MA, Simpson AJ, Caballero OL: Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas. Int J Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;122(4):807-15
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  • [Title] Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas.
  • We have performed cDNA microarray analyses to identify gene expression differences between highly invasive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and typically benign pilocytic astrocytomas (PA).
  • In the examination of more than 100 tumors of the central nervous system, we found progressively higher expression of MELK with astrocytoma grade and a noteworthy uniformity of high level expression in GBM.
  • We found neither gene promoter hypomethylation nor amplification to be a factor in MELK expression, but were able to demonstrate that MELK knockdown in malignant astrocytoma cell lines caused a reduction in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in in vitro assays.
  • Among them, MELK correlated with malignancy grade in astrocytomas and represents a therapeutic target for the management of the most frequent brain tumors in adult and children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17960622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 2.7.1.- / MELK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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44. Wang H, Qi ST, Guo ZW, Wang KW, Liu XJ, Zhang GZ: [Histomorphology of angiogenesis patterns in different areas of human astrocytomas]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2009 Feb;29(2):326-9
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  • [Title] [Histomorphology of angiogenesis patterns in different areas of human astrocytomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study angiogenesis patterns in the edematous area and the center of human astrocytomas by histological observation, and to reveal histological basis of vasculogenic mimicry.
  • METHOD: Tissue samples were drawn from the tumor center and the edematous area in 51 patients with human astrocytomas during operation MR and were examined by CD34 endothelial marker periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) dual staining.
  • RESULTS: Vessels or capillaries stained by both PAS and CD34 were found in edematous areas of human astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vasculogenic mimicries in the center of some high-grade astrocytomas may be caused by blood capillary dysplasia, while angiogenesis patterns are vessels or capillaries in the edematus area and the center of most human astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19246314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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45. Bender AM, Collier LS, Rodriguez FJ, Tieu C, Larson JD, Halder C, Mahlum E, Kollmeyer TM, Akagi K, Sarkar G, Largaespada DA, Jenkins RB: Sleeping beauty-mediated somatic mutagenesis implicates CSF1 in the formation of high-grade astrocytomas. Cancer Res; 2010 May 1;70(9):3557-65
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  • [Title] Sleeping beauty-mediated somatic mutagenesis implicates CSF1 in the formation of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Upon analysis, 21 samples (18%) contained neoplastic tissue with features of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Genomic DNA from SB-induced astrocytoma tissue was extracted and transposon insertion sites were identified.
  • Using reverse transcription-PCR, we documented increased Csf1 RNAs in tumor versus adjacent normal tissue, with the identification of transposon-terminated Csf1 mRNAs in astrocytomas with SB insertions in intron 8.
  • Together, these results indicate that SB-insertional mutagenesis can identify high-grade astrocytoma-associated genes and they imply an important role for CSF1 in the development of these tumors.

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  • [Copyright] (c)2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20388773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113636-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113636-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA113636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113636-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01CA122183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113636-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113636-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113636-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113636-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113636-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113636-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA122183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113636-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Transposable Elements; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 2.7.7.- / Transposases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS185042; NLM/ PMC2862088
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46. Stosić-Opinćal T, Gavrilov M, Stosić S, Lavrnić S, Perić V, Grujicić D: [FLAIR MR sequence in the diagnosis and follow-up of low-grade astrocytomas]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2005 Jul-Aug;62(7-8):525-8
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  • [Title] [FLAIR MR sequence in the diagnosis and follow-up of low-grade astrocytomas].
  • AIM: To evaluate the sensitivity of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence in the diagnosis and follow-up of the patients with low-grade astrocytomas compared with T2-weighted (T2W) sequence.
  • METHODS: Twenty-four patients with biopsy-confirmed low-grade astrocytoma (age range, 15-66 years) underwent T1-weighted (T1W), T2W and FLAIR imaging with a superconducting unit 1.0 T.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results were similar to the previous studies' results concerning the advantages of FLAIR sequence in the diagnosis of low grade astrocytomas over T2W sequence.
  • Our conclusion was that FLAIR could be routinely used in the evaluation and follow-up of low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16171014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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47. Burim RV, Teixeira SA, Colli BO, Peria FM, Tirapelli LF, Marie SK, Malheiros SM, Oba-Shinjo SM, Gabbai AA, Lotufo PA, Carlotti-Júnior CG: ICAM-1 (Lys469Glu) and PECAM-1 (Leu125Val) polymorphisms in diffuse astrocytomas. Clin Exp Med; 2009 Jun;9(2):157-63
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  • [Title] ICAM-1 (Lys469Glu) and PECAM-1 (Leu125Val) polymorphisms in diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism in codon 469 of ICAM-1 and codon 125 of PECAM-1 were examined in 158 patients with astrocytomas and 162 controls using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis.
  • The distribution of PECAM-1 polymorphic genotypes in astrocytomas did not show any significant difference.
  • However, a specific ICAM-1 genotype (G/G, corresponding to Lys469Glu) exhibited higher frequency in grade II astrocytomas compared to controls, grade III, and grade IV astrocytomas; suggesting that this polymorphism could be involved in the development of grade II astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD31 / genetics. Astrocytoma / genetics. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

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  • (PMID = 19306055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1591-8890
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
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48. Hara A, Saegusa M, Ichinoe M, Okayasu I: Diagnostic and prognostic significance of cyclin A expression in low-grade astrocytomas: comparison with astrogliosis and high-grade tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):287-92
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic significance of cyclin A expression in low-grade astrocytomas: comparison with astrogliosis and high-grade tumours.
  • AIM: Definitive distinction between low-grade astrocytoma and astrogliosis is a long-standing difficulty due to their similar histopathological characteristics.
  • To clarify differences in biological significance, this study focused on various components of the cell cycle machinery and proliferation as key parameters, comparing expression in astrogliosis, as well as low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: The expression of p16, p21 and p27, and cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Rb and Ki-67 was immunohistochemically examined in 40 cases of astrogliosis and 48 cases of low-grade astrocytomas (grade II), as well as 50 high-grade tumours (grades III and IV).
  • The results were also compared with survival data for the astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Cell proliferation determined by Ki-67 immunoreactivity did not differ between astrogliosis and low-grade tumours.
  • Average labelling indices (LIs) for p16, p21, Rb, cyclin A and cyclin E showed a stepwise increase from astrogliosis, through low- to high-grade astrocytomas, indicating the possibility that over 9%, 6% and 4% of LIs for p16, p21 and cyclin A, respectively, may be useful predictors in the case of the latter, in contrast to significant decrease in p27 LIs.
  • Significantly higher mean LI values for cyclin D1 were also evident in astrogliosis (12.42) as compared with astrocytomas (low grade, 2.26; high grade, 4.60).
  • Positive correlations between LIs for Rb and Ki-67 were observed with astrogliosis and low- but not high-grade tumours.
  • In addition, high cyclin A LI values were independently associated with poor outcome in low-grade tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that expression of cell-cycle-related molecules may be a reliable parameter for differential diagnosis of low-grade astrocytomas and astrogliosis.
  • Moreover, detection of cyclin A appears to be useful for predicting behaviour of low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cyclin A / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 18156430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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49. Vlodavsky E, Soustiel JF: Immunohistochemical expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human astrocytomas and its correlation with grade of malignancy, proliferation, apoptosis and survival. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jan;81(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human astrocytomas and its correlation with grade of malignancy, proliferation, apoptosis and survival.
  • It has been established that the expression of PBR in astrocytomas is higher than in the normal brain.
  • The goal of this study was to explore the correlation of the immunohistochemical expression of PBR in astrocytomas with the grade of malignancy and rates of apoptosis, proliferation and survival.
  • In 130 cases of astrocytomas (25 grade I, 25 grade II, 20 grade III, 60 grade IV), paraffin sections were stained immunohistochemically for PBR and MIB-1(Ki-67).
  • It was found that the intensity and extent of staining for PBR had a strong direct correlation with the grade of malignancy of the tumor, along with proliferative and apoptotic indices.
  • The highest expression of PBR was in glioblastomas grade IV, especially around areas of necrosis.
  • The results of this study may be applied in the pathological diagnosis of astrocytomas as an additional clue in establishing tumor grade; they may be used in the imaging of astrocytomas, both for diagnosis and follow-up, by the application of positron emission tomography scanning with PBR specific ligands.
  • Targeting of PBR in high-grade gliomas may be a promising approach, achieving more specific anti-tumor effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Receptors, GABA / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16868661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, GABA; 0 / TSPO protein, human
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50. Henze M, Ozdemir-Sahin N, Hipp P, Mier W, Eisenhut M, Debus J, Haberkorn U: [Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET, (123)I-IMT- and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT: evaluation of tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas]. Nuklearmedizin; 2006;45(1):49-56
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  • [Title] [Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET, (123)I-IMT- and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT: evaluation of tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas].
  • AIM: To evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the SPECT-tracers 3-(123)I-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) and (99m)Tc(I)- hexakis(2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) (MIBI) as well as the PET-tracer 2-(18)F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) for detecting tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas (LGA).
  • PATIENTS, METHODS: We examined 91 patients (56 males; 35 females; 44.7 +/- 11.5 years), initially suffering from histologically proven LGAs (mean WHO grade II) and treated by stereotactic radiotherapy (59.0 +/- 4.6 Gy).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Methyltyrosines. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16493514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Methyltyrosines; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 14684-02-7 / 3-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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51. Yan B, Omar FM, Das K, Ng WH, Lim C, Shiuan K, Yap CT, Salto-Tellez M: Characterization of Numb expression in astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):479-84
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  • [Title] Characterization of Numb expression in astrocytomas.
  • Given its role in maintaining neural progenitor pools in animal models and its reported role as a tumor suppressor, Numb could potentially contribute to astrocytoma oncogenesis.
  • We characterized Numb expression in both human astrocytoma tissue samples and glioblastoma cell lines.
  • We found that Numb is expressed in all grades of astrocytomas, being predominantly cytoplasmic in higher-grade astrocytomas but nuclear in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Numb expression in astrocytomas recapitulates that of progenitor cells during neurodevelopment, and suggests a role for Numb in astrocytoma oncogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18384513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Numb protein, human
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52. Wang M, Tang J, Liu S, Yoshida D, Teramoto A: Expression of cathepsin B and microvascular density increases with higher grade of astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(1):3-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of cathepsin B and microvascular density increases with higher grade of astrocytomas.
  • Samples were taken from supratentorial gliomas border and normal brain autopsy which were divided into four groups, these including eight cases normal brain tissues, 30 cases of astrocytomas, 25 cases of anaplastic astrocytomas and 22 cases of glioblastomas.
  • Only 9 out of 30 cases of astrocytomas showed a low percentage of positive cells that were stained in a light, diffuse cytoplasmic pattern (score +).
  • Twenty-two out of 35 cases of anaplastic astrocytomas showed positive light, granular staining pattern, it including five samples (score +), and 17 samples (score + +).
  • Along with elevating glioma grade, CB expression and MVD value were both increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cathepsin B / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / blood supply. Supratentorial Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15719267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B
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53. Arifin MT, Hama S, Kajiwara Y, Sugiyama K, Saito T, Matsuura S, Yamasaki F, Arita K, Kurisu K: Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, p16 expression may signal poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;77(3):273-7
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, p16 expression may signal poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The negative consequences of the cytoplasmic localization of p16 in patients with high-grade astrocytomas, on their prognosis, was investigated.
  • METHODS: p16 Expression was examined in 20 anaplastic astrocytoma and 42 glioblastoma patients by immunohistochemical analysis, and the relationship between both cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 expression and prognosis analyzed.
  • CONCLUSION: The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of p16 appears to be an unfavorable prognostic indicator in high-grade astrocytoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16614947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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54. Parhar P, Ezer R, Shao Y, Allen JC, Miller DC, Newcomb EW: Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Jun 13;137(1-2):98-103
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  • [Title] Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this study, we scored 135 brain tumor samples (92 adult and 43 pediatric cases consisting of 64 high-grade astrocytomas and 71 non-astrocytomas) for the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms.
  • (ii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas compared with non-astrocytomas (P = 0.002); and (iii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas containing transdominant as well as recessive p53 mutations compared with controls (P = 0.002).
  • Our results suggest a possible association between P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms and susceptibility to brain tumors, particularly high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Codon / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15950766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U10 CA13539-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90290
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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55. Gonzalez J, Gilbert MR: Treatment of astrocytomas. Curr Opin Neurol; 2005 Dec;18(6):632-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of astrocytomas.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • Biological markers and alternative treatment regimens will likely improve survival in patients with high-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16280673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-7540
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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56. Mao Y, Zhou L, Zhu W, Wang X, Yang G, Xie L, Mao X, Jin K: Proliferative status of tumor stem cells may be correlated with malignancy grade of human astrocytomas. Front Biosci; 2007;12:2252-9
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  • [Title] Proliferative status of tumor stem cells may be correlated with malignancy grade of human astrocytomas.
  • To investigate further whether these properties of tumor stem cells are correlated with their biological behavior, immunohistochemistry was performed on brain sections from astrocytomas of different grades using antibodies against neural stem cell markers.
  • The number of cells expressing Ki67 antigen and neural stem cell markers was increased in relation to worsening histological grade of astrocytomas, indicating that the capacity for tumor stem cell proliferation may be clinically relevant.
  • Thus, tumor stem cells in astrocytomas may be involved in carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17127461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG21980
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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57. Yang Z, Wang Y, Fang J, Chen F, Liu J, Wu J, Wang Y, Song T, Zeng F, Rao Y: Downregulation of WIF-1 by hypermethylation in astrocytomas. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai); 2010 Jun 15;42(6):418-25
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  • [Title] Downregulation of WIF-1 by hypermethylation in astrocytomas.
  • By using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific PCR, we analyzed the expression and methylation of WIF-1 in 4 normal brain tissues, 35 freshly resected astrocytoma tissues and 4 glioblastoma-derived cell lines.
  • Significant downregulation of WIF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels was observed in astrocytoma tissues compared with normal brain tissues.
  • Significant association between WIF-1 downregulation and pathological grade of astrocytomas was found.
  • Our results suggested that the WIF-1 gene is frequently silenced in astrocytoma by aberrant promoter methylation.
  • This may be an important mechanism in astrocytoma carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Astrocytoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Repressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20539942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7270
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / WIF1 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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58. Dubbink HJ, Taal W, van Marion R, Kros JM, van Heuvel I, Bromberg JE, Zonnenberg BA, Zonnenberg CB, Postma TJ, Gijtenbeek JM, Boogerd W, Groenendijk FH, Smitt PA, Dinjens WN, van den Bent MJ: IDH1 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas predict survival but not response to temozolomide. Neurology; 2009 Nov 24;73(21):1792-5
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  • [Title] IDH1 mutations in low-grade astrocytomas predict survival but not response to temozolomide.
  • Patients with high-grade astrocytomas with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were reported to have a better survival, but it is unknown if this improved survival also holds for low-grade astrocytoma and whether these mutations predict outcome to specific treatment.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the correlation of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations with overall survival and response to temozolomide in a cohort of patients with dedifferentiated low-grade astrocytomas treated with temozolomide at the time of progression after radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: IDH1 mutations were present in 86% of the 49 progressive astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Mutation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19933982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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59. Zscharnack K, Kessler R, Bleichert F, Warnke JP, Eschrich K: The PFKFB3 splice variant UBI2K4 is downregulated in high-grade astrocytomas and impedes the growth of U87 glioblastoma cells. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2009 Dec;35(6):566-78
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  • [Title] The PFKFB3 splice variant UBI2K4 is downregulated in high-grade astrocytomas and impedes the growth of U87 glioblastoma cells.
  • RESULTS: UBI2K5 and UBI2K6 are the predominant splice variants in rapidly proliferating high-grade astrocytomas while the expression of UBI2K3 and UBI2K4 is mainly restricted to low-grade astrocytomas and nonneoplastic brain tissue.
  • The UBI2K4 mRNA level is downregulated in astrocytic gliomas with increasing malignancy grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Phosphofructokinase-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19490427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.1.105 / PFKFB3 protein, human; EC 2.7.1.105 / Phosphofructokinase-2
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60. Hirai T, Murakami R, Nakamura H, Kitajima M, Fukuoka H, Sasao A, Akter M, Hayashida Y, Toya R, Oya N, Awai K, Iyama K, Kuratsu JI, Yamashita Y: Prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging of high-grade astrocytomas: long-term follow-up study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Sep;29(8):1505-10
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging of high-grade astrocytomas: long-term follow-up study.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging in various gliomas has been investigated, that in high-grade astrocytomas alone has not been fully evaluated.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively whether the tumor maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on pretreatment perfusion MR imaging is of prognostic value in patients with high-grade astrocytoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1999 and December 2002, 49 patients (30 men, 19 women; age range, 23-76 years) with supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma underwent MR imaging before the inception of treatment.
  • RESULTS: The maximum rCBV was significantly higher in the 31 patients with glioblastoma multiforme than in the 18 with anaplastic astrocytoma (P < .03).
  • CONCLUSION: The maximum rCBV at pretreatment perfusion MR imaging is a useful clinical prognostic biomarker for survival in patients with high-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18556364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Kruer MC, Kaplan AM, Etzl MM Jr, Carpentieri DF, Dickman PS, Chen K, Mathieson K, Irving A: The value of positron emission tomography and proliferation index in predicting progression in low-grade astrocytomas of childhood. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):239-245
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  • [Title] The value of positron emission tomography and proliferation index in predicting progression in low-grade astrocytomas of childhood.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors of childhood and adolescence.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs), in general, have favorable prognosis, but recurrence or progressive disease with dissemination, malignant transformation, and death occur in some cases.
  • We reviewed 46 cases ages 5 months to 17 years with low-grade (WHO I-II) astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 19506815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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62. Cha S, Tihan T, Crawford F, Fischbein NJ, Chang S, Bollen A, Nelson SJ, Prados M, Berger MS, Dillon WP: Differentiation of low-grade oligodendrogliomas from low-grade astrocytomas by using quantitative blood-volume measurements derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2005 Feb;26(2):266-73
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  • [Title] Differentiation of low-grade oligodendrogliomas from low-grade astrocytomas by using quantitative blood-volume measurements derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging.
  • The purpose of our study was to investigate dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MR imaging characteristics of the two most common subtypes of low-grade infiltrating glioma: astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma.
  • METHODS: We studied 25 consecutive patients with treatment-naive, histopathologically confirmed World Health Organization grade II astrocytoma (n = 11) or oligodendroglioma (n = 14).
  • RESULTS: The maximum relative CBV (rCBV(max)) in tumor ranged from 0.48 to 1.34 (0.92 +/- 0.27, median +/- SD) in astrocytomas and from 1.29 to 9.24 (3.68 +/- 2.39) in oligodendrogliomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The tumor rCBV(max) measurements derived from DSC MR imaging were significantly higher in low-grade oligodendrogliomas than in astrocytomas.
  • Our findings suggest that tumor rCBV(max) derived from DSC MR imaging can be used to distinguish between the two low-grade gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 15709123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K23 NS 45013
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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63. Krueger DA, Care MM, Holland K, Agricola K, Tudor C, Mangeshkar P, Wilson KA, Byars A, Sahmoud T, Franz DN: Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis. N Engl J Med; 2010 Nov 4;363(19):1801-11
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  • [Title] Everolimus for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical resection is the standard treatment for subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • METHODS: Patients 3 years of age or older with serial growth of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas were eligible for this open-label study.
  • The primary efficacy end point was the change in volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas between baseline and 6 months.
  • Everolimus therapy was associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in volume of the primary subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma, as assessed on independent central review (P<0.001 for baseline vs. 6 months), with a reduction of at least 30% in 21 patients (75%) and at least 50% in 9 patients (32%).
  • There were no new lesions, worsening hydrocephalus, evidence of increased intracranial pressure, or necessity for surgical resection or other therapy for subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma.
  • Single cases of grade 3 treatment-related sinusitis, pneumonia, viral bronchitis, tooth infection, stomatitis, and leukopenia were reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus therapy was associated with marked reduction in the volume of subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas and seizure frequency and may be a potential alternative to neurosurgical resection in some cases, though long-term studies are needed. (Funded by Novartis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00411619.).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Seizures / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Tuberous Sclerosis / drug therapy


64. Voelzke WR, Petty WJ, Lesser GJ: Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Feb;9(1):23-31
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  • [Title] Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • OPINION STATEMENT: High-grade astrocytomas, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), are the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumors in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18247132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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65. Rush SZ, Abel TW, Valadez JG, Pearson M, Cooper MK: Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):790-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is commonly viewed as a benign lesion.
  • The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of higher WHO grade gliomas, and in this study, we have evaluated the activation and operational status of this regulatory pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Hh pathway activation is common in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may be associated with younger age at diagnosis and tumor growth.

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  • (PMID = 20223881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02NS053614
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / patched receptors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940682
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66. Frazier JL, Johnson MW, Burger PC, Weingart JD, Quinones-Hinojosa A: Rapid malignant transformation of low-grade astrocytomas: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. World Neurosurg; 2010 Jan;73(1):53-62; discussion e5
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  • [Title] Rapid malignant transformation of low-grade astrocytomas: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Low-grade gliomas have been documented to undergo transformation into high-grade astrocytomas, and the time interval of this transformation has been reported to generally occur within 5 years in about 50% of patients harboring these low-grade lesions.
  • Several studies have investigated the evolution of low-grade gliomas into malignant gliomas by CT and MRI characteristics, but many have not documented the timing of these transformation processes.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors discuss the cases of 2 patients with histopathologically confirmed grade II astrocytomas after craniotomies that underwent rapid evolution into malignant gliomas within 13 weeks.
  • Interestingly, both low-grade astrocytomas were positive with immunostaining for the epidermal growth factor receptor, in which its amplification has been implicated as a molecular marker of malignant gliomas.
  • In addition, the grade II astrocytomas were negative for p53 in both patients but were found to be positive upon transformation into malignant gliomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of rapid malignant transformation of low-grade gliomas, which were proven by histology, within 13 weeks.
  • There may be patients with a subtype of low-grade astrocytomas that may warrant molecular characterization to determine if aggressive adjuvant therapy would be of benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20452869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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67. Lee EJ, Lee SK, Agid R, Bae JM, Keller A, Terbrugge K: Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1872-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histopathologic grade of glial tumors is inversely correlated with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • We assessed the diagnostic values of minimum ADC for preoperative grading of supratentorial astrocytomas that were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 118 patients with astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV), 16 who showed typical MR imaging findings of low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging were included.
  • To assess the relationship between the minimum ADC and tumor grade, we performed the Mann-Whitney U test.
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cutoff value of the minimum ADC that had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Eight of the 16 patients (50%) were confirmed as having high-grade astrocytomas (WHO grades III and IV), and the other 8 patients were confirmed as having low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II).
  • The median minimum ADC of the high-grade astrocytoma (1.035 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • sec(-1)) group was significantly lower than that of the low-grade astrocytoma group (1.19 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • CONCLUSION: Measuring minimum ADC can provide valuable diagnostic information for the preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18719036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Glotsos D, Spyridonos P, Cavouras D, Ravazoula P, Dadioti PA, Nikiforidis G: An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine. Med Inform Internet Med; 2005 Sep;30(3):179-93
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  • [Title] An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.
  • An image-analysis system based on the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVM) was developed to assist in grade diagnosis of brain tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.
  • One hundred and forty biopsies of astrocytomas were characterized according to the WHO system as grade II, III and IV.
  • Low-grade tumours were distinguished from high-grade tumours with an accuracy of 90.2% and grade III from grade IV with an accuracy of 88.3% The system was tested in a new clinical data set, and the classification rates were 87.5 and 83.8%, respectively.
  • The proposed methodology might be used in parallel with conventional grading to support the regular diagnostic procedure and reduce subjectivity in astrocytomas grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 16403707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-9238
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical informatics and the Internet in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Inform Internet Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Grujicic M, Vuckovic N, Vulekovic P, Novakovic B: The basic morphological characteristics of astrocytomas in Vojvodina in the period 2001-2006. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):625-8
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  • [Title] The basic morphological characteristics of astrocytomas in Vojvodina in the period 2001-2006.
  • PURPOSE: Astrocytomas are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms.
  • The aim of this investigation was to register the age, sex, tumor localization, frequency and histological types of patients with astrocytomas.
  • Out of 490 patients with diagnosed intracranial tumors, 139 (28.4%) had astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Astrocytomas were more frequent in males (63.3%) and were most common in the 50-59-year age group (39.5%).
  • In regard to other histological types of intracranial tumors, astrocytomas were more frequent in males (34.8%).
  • Grade III astrocytomas were most common (55.4%).
  • The frequency of hemorrhage and thrombosis showed a positive correlation with the histological grade of astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The typical patient with astrocytoma is a male of 50-59 years.
  • The tumor is grade III located in the right frontal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20148453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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70. Li J, Zhuang Z, Okamoto H, Vortmeyer AO, Park DM, Furuta M, Lee YS, Oldfield EH, Zeng W, Weil RJ: Proteomic profiling distinguishes astrocytomas and identifies differential tumor markers. Neurology; 2006 Mar 14;66(5):733-6
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  • [Title] Proteomic profiling distinguishes astrocytomas and identifies differential tumor markers.
  • Methods to permit more precise delineation of astrocytomas of different grades may have therapeutic utility.
  • The authors selectively microdissected pure populations of cells from normal brain and astrocytomas.
  • 2DGE identified proteomic patterns and proteins that differentiated normal brain from tumor and distinguished astrocytomas of increasing grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Protein Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16534112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR-018390
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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71. Maris C, Rorive S, Sandras F, D'Haene N, Sadeghi N, Bièche I, Vidaud M, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2008 Jun;34(3):316-29
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix brain glycoprotein for which conflicting in vitro and in vivo results are reported in the literature dealing with its involvement in astrocytoma aggressiveness, in particular astrocytoma invasion.
  • In view of these conflicting results and the lack of data available on low-grade astrocytomas, the present study focuses on pilocytic World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, and diffuse WHO grade II astrocytomas, that is, two histological entities associated with very different invasive abilities.
  • METHODS: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we analysed the TN-C expression in normal brain tissue as well as in a series of 54 pilocytic and 53 grade II astrocytomas.
  • Paralleling these observations, we showed that TN-C expression in low-grade astrocytomas similarly varies according to tumour site.
  • Cox regression analysis evidenced that TN-C provided an independent prognostic value which is enhanced in the case of grade II astrocytomas for which positive TN-C expression is associated with a higher risk of recurrence.
  • We also analysed TN-C expression specifically in vascular areas of low-grade astrocytomas without demonstrating any prognostic value for this additional feature.
  • RESULTS: Similarly to normal brain, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit variations in TN-C expression with site, and this expression is associated with an independent prognostic value in terms of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Tenascin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17983425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tenascin
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72. Hu CH, Fang XM, Hu XY, Cui L: Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas. Clin Imaging; 2009 Nov-Dec;33(6):417-23
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  • [Title] Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the mismatched manifestation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Both conventional and perfusion CT were performed on 29 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytomas (15 cases in Grades I-II, 14 cases in Grades III-IV).
  • RESULTS: Twelve low-grade astrocytomas showed low or medium values of both rCBF (46.95+/-22.92 ml 100 g(-1) mm(-1)) and rCBV (5.74+/-3.61 ml 100 g(-1)); 12 high-grade astrocytomas showed high values of both rCBF (95.44+/-42.58 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1)) and rCBV (9.24+/-5.32 ml 100g(-1)).
  • However, the remaining five astrocytomas were mismatched, showing reduced rCBF value and increased rCBV value in the same ROI.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV occasionally exists in some areas of astrocytomas.
  • Hence, attention should be paid to assessments in preoperative grading of astrocytomas and in monitoring therapeutic effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19857800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Zajdel A, Wilczok A, Slowinski J, Orchel J, Mazurek U: Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products in human brain astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(2):167-73
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  • [Title] Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products in human brain astrocytomas.
  • We explored whether these aldehydes and histone H3 mRNA levels could serve as biomarkers of malignancy and predictive factor in human brain astrocytomas.
  • Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products were determined as their dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives in specimens obtained from 26 adult patients with brain astrocytomas.
  • H3 mRNA, 2-hydroxyhexanal, and 4-hydroxynonenal levels were higher in high-grade astrocytomas compared to low-grade astrocytomas and showed negative correlation with survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehydes / analysis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Chemistry / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17487452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Histones; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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74. Colman H, Giannini C, Huang L, Gonzalez J, Hess K, Bruner J, Fuller G, Langford L, Pelloski C, Aaron J, Burger P, Aldape K: Assessment and prognostic significance of mitotic index using the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 in low and intermediate-grade infiltrating astrocytomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 May;30(5):657-64
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  • [Title] Assessment and prognostic significance of mitotic index using the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 in low and intermediate-grade infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • Distinguishing between grade II and grade III diffuse astrocytomas is important both for prognosis and for treatment decision-making.
  • We tested the relationship between pHH3 staining and tumor grade and prognosis in a retrospective series of grade II and III infiltrating astrocytomas from a single institution.
  • The pHH3 index (per 1000 cells), MIB-1 index (per 1000 cells), and number of mitoses per 10 high-power fields were determined for each of 103 cases of grade II and III diffuse astrocytomas from patients with clinical follow-up. pHH3 staining was found to be a simple and reliable method for identifying mitotic figures, allowing a true mitotic index to be determined.
  • Thus, pHH3 staining provides a simple and reliable method for quantifying proliferative potential and for the stratification of patients with diffuse astrocytomas into typical grade II and III groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Histones / metabolism. Mitotic Index

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  • (PMID = 16699322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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75. Rorive S, Lopez XM, Maris C, Trepant AL, Sauvage S, Sadeghi N, Roland I, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas. Mod Pathol; 2010 Oct;23(10):1418-28
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  • [Title] TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas.
  • Based on the molecular profiling of astrocytomas, we previously identified a series of genes involved in astrocytoma invasion.
  • Of these, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) was found to be overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to diffuse astrocytomas of any histological grade.
  • Although some data suggest that TIMP-4 may be an anti-tumoral actor in astrocytomas, recent findings challenge this concept.
  • The present study aims to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of TIMP-4 and its putative partner CD63 in human astrocytomas.
  • Tissue microarray and image analysis were first carried out to quantitatively analyze the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 471 gliomas including 354 astrocytomas.
  • Pathological semi-quantitative scores of both markers' expression were then established and correlated to astrocytoma diagnosis and patient prognosis.
  • TIMP-4 and CD63 expressions were both overexpressed in astrocytomas compared with oligodendrogliomas (P<0.001) and in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with grade II diffuse astrocytomas (P<0.001).
  • In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a TIMP-4/CD63 association in astrocytoma tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20693981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD63; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD63 protein, human; 0 / Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4
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76. Huang H, Hara A, Homma T, Yonekawa Y, Ohgaki H: Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Oct;64(10):891-901
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  • [Title] Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) is a circumscribed, slowly growing, benign astrocytoma that most frequently develops in the cerebellar hemispheres and in midline structures and occurs predominantly in childhood and adolescence.
  • In contrast to diffusely infiltrating gliomas in adults (e.g. grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas), survival of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma is excellent after surgical intervention.
  • To search for potential molecular mechanisms underlying its benign biologic behavior, we compared gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas (8 cases) with those of normal cerebellum (4 cases), low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II; 15 cases), and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II; 17 cases) by cDNA array analysis.
  • A number of immune system-related genes such as HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, IgG3, IgGK, FCER1G, A2M, FCRN, IFI-56K, and DAP12 were upregulated in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to normal cerebellum, grade II astrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Genes expressed at higher levels in pilocytic astrocytomas than in grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas include HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, A2M, TIMP1, TIMP2, CDKN1A, and SOCS3 and those expressed at lower levels include EGFR and PDGFRA.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis using the entire set of 1176 genes distinguished pilocytic astrocytomas from grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Clustering analysis using selected subgroups of genes based on their molecular functions revealed that immune system-related genes (75 genes) or cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis-related genes (69 genes) showed similar power to the entire gene set for separation of pilocytic astrocytomas from diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that HLA-DRalpha is expressed diffusely in neoplastic cells in pilocytic astrocytomas, whereas in oligodendrogliomas, expression was limited to scattered reactive astrocytes.
  • These results suggest that gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas differ significantly from those of diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas and that their benign biologic behavior may be related to upregulation of immune defense-associated genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Gene Expression. Immunity / genetics


77. Chamoun RB, Alaraj AM, Al Kutoubi AO, Abboud MR, Haddad GF: Role of temozolomide in spinal cord low grade astrocytomas: results in two paediatric patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Feb;148(2):175-9; discussion 180
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  • [Title] Role of temozolomide in spinal cord low grade astrocytomas: results in two paediatric patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment of low grade intramedullary spinal cord tumours remains controversial.
  • PROCEDURE: Two paediatric patients with low grade spinal cord astrocytomas were diagnosed to have progression of the tumour in spite of surgery and radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our findings in two paediatric patients, temozolomide may be a useful agent in the management of progressive recurrent low grade spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Astrocytoma / therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16374565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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78. Zhang Z, Schittenhelm J, Guo K, Bühring HJ, Trautmann K, Meyermann R, Schluesener HJ: Upregulation of frizzled 9 in astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Dec;32(6):615-24
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  • [Title] Upregulation of frizzled 9 in astrocytomas.
  • However, its association with astrocytomas remains unknown therefore we studied FZD9 expression in astrocytomas of different malignancy.
  • In the present study, FZD9 expression in 25 astrocytomas was investigated using immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies.
  • In human astrocytomas, FZD9 immunoreactivity (IR) was observed in both microvessels and neoplastic cells.
  • The percentage of FZD9+ microvessels in relation to FZD9+ vessels was significantly higher in malignant astrocytomas than in low-grade astrocytomas and positively correlated with the astrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grading (r = 1, P = 0.04).
  • Furthermore, the FZD9 IR scores positively correlated with astrocytoma WHO grading (r = 1, P = 0.04) and proliferating activity (r = 0.77, P < 0.001).
  • FZD9 is upregulated in astrocytomas, suggesting that FZD9 could be important in the tumorigenesis of human astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Frizzled Receptors / biosynthesis. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17083476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FZD3 protein, human; 0 / Frizzled Receptors; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
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79. Caltabiano R, Torrisi A, Condorelli D, Albanese V, Lanzafame S: High levels of connexin 43 mRNA in high grade astrocytomas. Study of 32 cases with in situ hybridization. Acta Histochem; 2010 Nov;112(6):529-35
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  • [Title] High levels of connexin 43 mRNA in high grade astrocytomas. Study of 32 cases with in situ hybridization.
  • The aims of the research reported here were (1) to evaluate the Cx43 protein and mRNA of both low histological grade and high histological grade astrocyte tumors;.
  • (2) to evaluate if the immunohistochemistry of the Cx43 protein in astrocytomas could be correlated to histological grade, to proliferative activity (Ki67/Mib1-index) and to immunolabelling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR);.
  • This study showed that the immunohistochemical labelling of Cx43 is reduced in grade III and grade IV.
  • This study demonstrated also the persistence in high grade astrocytomas of elevated levels of Cx43 mRNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Connexin 43 / analysis. Connexin 43 / genetics. In Situ Hybridization. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19604543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexin 43; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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80. Weber MA, Vogt-Schaden M, Bossert O, Giesel FL, Kauczor HU, Essig M: [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas]. Radiologe; 2007 Sep;47(9):812-8
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  • [Title] [MR perfusion and spectroscopic imaging in WHO grade II astrocytomas].
  • [Transliterated title] MR-Perfusions- und spektroskopische Bildgebung bei WHO-Grad-II-Astrozytomen.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluates whether MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas, whether these areas are co-localized, and whether the prognosis can be better predicted.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (nine female, six male, aged 42+/-14 years) with WHO grade II astrocytomas but without preceding radio- or chemotherapy were examined every 3 months with MR perfusion imaging and MRSI (mean follow-up 18 months).
  • The progressing tumors had already had higher perfusion (rrCBF 2.1+/-1.4; rrCBV 1.9+/-1.1) parameters than the stable astrocytomas (rrCBF 1.2+/-0.6, p=0.01; rrCBV 1.4+/-0.8, p=0.05) at first examination.
  • However, the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios only tended to be higher than in stable astrocytomas (Cho/NAA 2.4+/-1.0 vs. 2.0+/-1.5, p=0.23; Cho/Cr 1.7+/-0.6 vs. 1.4+/-0.5, p=0.06).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MR perfusion imaging can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas earlier than conventional MRI and thus enables a better prediction of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 16924439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Maes L, Kalala JP, Cornelissen M, de Ridder L: Progression of astrocytomas and meningiomas: an evaluation in vitro. Cell Prolif; 2007 Feb;40(1):14-23
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  • [Title] Progression of astrocytomas and meningiomas: an evaluation in vitro.
  • By verifying the proliferation capacity, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and in vitro invasion, in a group of highly malignant glioblastomas, benign meningiomas and astrocytomas, at the initial stage of progression, we have analysed putative progression in vitro for proliferation and telomerase expression.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative proliferation status (visualized with Ki-67 antibodies) and presence of hTERT protein was analysed in 27 intracranial tumours (6 astrocytomas, 8 glioblastomas and 13 meningiomas) by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded biopsy tissue, as well as on primary tumour-derived cell cultures.
  • RESULTS: The mean proliferation indices were 22.3 (SD = 18.1) for glioblastomas and 2.1 (SD = 1.9) for low-grade (LG) astrocytomas.
  • Mean percentages of staining for hTERT varied between 36.5 (SD = 28.4) for glioblastomas and 10.2 (SD = 8.6) for LG astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17227292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell proliferation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Prolif.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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82. Naidoo V, Naidoo S, Mahabeer R, Raidoo DM: Localization of the endothelin system in human diffuse astrocytomas. Cancer; 2005 Sep 1;104(5):1049-57

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Localization of the endothelin system in human diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Because only immunoreactive ET-1 has been observed within human astrocytic tumor cells, the authors investigated the localization of the entire ET-1 system (ET-1 mRNA, ET-1, ECE-1, ETA and ETB receptors) in surgical samples of human diffuse astrocytomas WHO Grade II (n = 6).
  • Intense (3+) cytoplasmic ET-1 mRNA labeling was observed in more than 75% of cells in all 6 astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Endothelin-1 / analysis. Metalloendopeptidases / analysis. Receptor, Endothelin A / analysis. Receptor, Endothelin B / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16007684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.71 / endothelin-converting enzyme
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83. Liu X, Chen N, Wang X, He Y, Chen X, Huang Y, Yin W, Zhou Q: Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Sep;65(9):905-13
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  • [Title] Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules.
  • Limited studies of a few IAPs indicated their roles in astrocytomas.
  • However, the overall expression status and significance of apoptosis regulators in astrocytomas is not clear.
  • We examined the expression profile of the caspases (CASP3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14), APAF1, SMAC, BCL2, the IAPs (BIRC5/survivin, CIAP1, CIAP2, XIAP, and LIVIN), and the proliferation markers Ki67 and PHH3 in 78 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and 24 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry.
  • Our data showed BIRC5 nuclear labeling index (BIRC5-N) was the apoptosis marker most significantly different in World Health Organization grade II to IV astrocytomas and most strongly associated with proliferative activity.
  • Expression level of other apoptosis-related proteins was modest or low in astrocytomas and did not correlate significantly with tumor grade or proliferation.
  • This expression profile suggested involvement of apoptosis regulators in astrocytoma tumorigenesis, but tumor progression was more closely associated with proliferative advantages of which BIRC5 nuclear expression appeared to be a manifestation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16957584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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84. Saito T, Arifin MT, Hama S, Kajiwara Y, Sugiyama K, Yamasaki F, Hidaka T, Arita K, Kurisu K: Survivin subcellular localization in high-grade astrocytomas: simultaneous expression in both nucleus and cytoplasm is negative prognostic marker. J Neurooncol; 2007 Apr;82(2):193-8
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  • [Title] Survivin subcellular localization in high-grade astrocytomas: simultaneous expression in both nucleus and cytoplasm is negative prognostic marker.
  • However, there have been no reports about the significance of subcellularly localized survivin in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between prognosis and subcellular localization of survivin in high-grade astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically examined the pattern of subcellular localization of survivin expression (nuclear, cytoplasmic, or both) in 51 patients with high-grade astrocytoma (19 anaplastic astrocytomas; 32 glioblastomas).
  • We statistically examined the relationship between survivin localization and prognosis, using multivariate analysis including other clinicopathological factors (age, sex, WHO grade, extent of resection, MIB-1 labeling index, and expression of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found that simultaneous expression of survivin in both the nucleus and cytoplasm is an important prognostic factor for high-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17151933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / epidermal growth factor receptor-neu receptor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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85. Pinilla-Arias D, Mateo-Sierra O, Gutiérrez FA, Fernández-Carballal C, Carrillo R: [Immunotherapy in high grade astrocytomas: principles and current state]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2005 Aug;16(4):345-58

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Immunotherapy in high grade astrocytomas: principles and current state].
  • [Transliterated title] Immunoterapia en astrocitomas de alto grado: principios y estado actual
  • Since Bloom's first studies on immunotherapy to treat high grade gliomas in 1960, many attempts have been made from different medical specialties to use the immune system as a weapon against a great diversity of cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Glioblastoma / therapy. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy / methods. Lymphotoxin-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16143808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Lymphotoxin-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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86. Chamberlain MC, Chowdhary SA, Glantz MJ: Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment. Expert Rev Neurother; 2008 Apr;8(4):575-86
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), WHO grade III gliomas, comprise 10-15% of all glial neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18416660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Pfister S, Janzarik WG, Remke M, Ernst A, Werft W, Becker N, Toedt G, Wittmann A, Kratz C, Olbrich H, Ahmadi R, Thieme B, Joos S, Radlwimmer B, Kulozik A, Pietsch T, Herold-Mende C, Gnekow A, Reifenberger G, Korshunov A, Scheurlen W, Omran H, Lichter P: BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas. J Clin Invest; 2008 May;118(5):1739-49
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  • [Title] BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytomas is still poorly understood.
  • To further understand the genetic abnormalities associated with these tumors, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number aberrations in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas by using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Similarly, a marked proportion of low-grade astrocytomas from adult patients also had BRAF duplication.
  • Both the stable silencing of BRAF through shRNA lentiviral transduction and pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2, the immediate downstream phosphorylation target of BRAF, blocked the proliferation and arrested the growth of cultured tumor cells derived from low-grade gliomas.
  • Our findings implicate aberrant activation of the MAPK pathway due to gene duplication or mutation of BRAF as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in low-grade astrocytomas and suggest inhibition of the MAPK pathway as a potential treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Duplication. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism


88. Beebe DW, Ris MD, Armstrong FD, Fontanesi J, Mulhern R, Holmes E, Wisoff JH: Cognitive and adaptive outcome in low-grade pediatric cerebellar astrocytomas: evidence of diminished cognitive and adaptive functioning in National Collaborative Research Studies (CCG 9891/POG 9130). J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug 1;23(22):5198-204
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  • [Title] Cognitive and adaptive outcome in low-grade pediatric cerebellar astrocytomas: evidence of diminished cognitive and adaptive functioning in National Collaborative Research Studies (CCG 9891/POG 9130).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sample was composed of 103 children aged 3 to 18 years with low-grade cerebellar astrocytomas, who underwent only surgical treatment as part of Children's Cancer Group protocol 9891 or Pediatric Oncology Group protocol 9130.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / psychology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / psychology. Cognition Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16051961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Morales H, Kwock L, Castillo M: Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):682-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) have been described only recently.
  • They appear as low-grade tumors sharing imaging features similar to pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas have different histological features and behave more aggressively than PAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Myxoma / metabolism. Myxoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17895777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4L6452S749 / Inositol; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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90. Mittelbronn M, Harter P, Warth A, Lupescu A, Schilbach K, Vollmann H, Capper D, Goeppert B, Frei K, Bertalanffy H, Weller M, Meyermann R, Lang F, Simon P: EGR-1 is regulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor stimulation and associated with patient survival in human high grade astrocytomas. Brain Pathol; 2009 Apr;19(2):195-204
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  • [Title] EGR-1 is regulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor stimulation and associated with patient survival in human high grade astrocytomas.
  • Early growth response-1 (EGR-1) is considered a central regulator in tumor cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis and a promising candidate for gene therapy in human astrocytomas.
  • Our study explored EGR-1 expression and regulation in astrocytomas and its association with patient survival.
  • After NMDA stimulation of SV-FHAS and neoplastic astrocytes, real-time polymerase chain reaction showed an increase of the CPE, containing EGR-1 splice variant only in astrocytoma cells.
  • Further, EGR-1 expression was significantly (P < 0.007) associated with enhanced patient survival and was an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis in high grade astrocytomas.
  • The NMDA-R-mediated EGR-1 expression, therefore, seems to be a promising target for novel clinical approaches to astrocytoma treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Early Growth Response Protein 1 / metabolism. Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18489490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EGR1 protein, human; 0 / Early Growth Response Protein 1; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate; 6384-92-5 / N-Methylaspartate; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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91. Jentoft M, Giannini C, Cen L, Scheithauer BW, Hoesley B, Sarkaria JN, Abell-Aleff PC, Rodriguez EF, Li Y, Rodriguez FJ: Phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas: possible role for increased mTOR activation in a subset. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010 Dec 12;4(1):43-57
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  • [Title] Phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas: possible role for increased mTOR activation in a subset.
  • Low grade astrocytomas are the most common CNS tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1(NF1) patients.
  • While most are classic pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), some are difficult to classify, and have been termed "low grade astrocytoma subtype indeterminate" (LGSI).
  • In the current study we performed electron microscopy, followed by gene expression, immunohistochemicai and western blot analyses in an effort to identify biological differences underlying phenotypic variation in NF1-associated low grade astrocytoma.
  • Phospho-ERK immunoreactivity was uniformly present in PA and LGSI groups, while BRAF duplication was absent by FISH in 8 NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas.
  • In summary, differential expression of neuronal-related genes and increased mTOR activation may underlie phenotypic variations in NF1-associated low grade astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 21228927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108961; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024150; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA108961
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016103
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Neurofibromatosis / astrocytoma / glioma / glioneuronal / mTOR / pilocytic astrocytoma
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92. Woerner BM, Warrington NM, Kung AL, Perry A, Rubin JB: Widespread CXCR4 activation in astrocytomas revealed by phospho-CXCR4-specific antibodies. Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 15;65(24):11392-9
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  • [Title] Widespread CXCR4 activation in astrocytomas revealed by phospho-CXCR4-specific antibodies.
  • With this antibody, we investigated the mechanisms of CXCR4 phosphorylation and evaluated the phosphorylation status of CXCR4 in human astrocytomas.
  • In all grades of astrocytomas, CXCR4 was expressed in tumor cells and some endothelial cells, whereas CXCL12 was present in endothelial cells and infiltrating microglia.
  • We found that CXCR4 phosphorylated on serine 339 was present in tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells in all grades of astrocytoma.
  • These data indicate that CXCR4 is expressed and activated in astrocytomas and that phosphorylation of CXCR4 can occur through ligand activation or transactivation via the EGF receptor.
  • These studies extend the potential roles of CXCR4 in cancer to include functions associated with benign (grade 1) tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16357147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD01393
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 452VLY9402 / Serine; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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93. Angileri FF, Aguennouz M, Conti A, La Torre D, Cardali S, Crupi R, Tomasello C, Germanò A, Vita G, Tomasello F: Nuclear factor-kappaB activation and differential expression of survivin and Bcl-2 in human grade 2-4 astrocytomas. Cancer; 2008 May 15;112(10):2258-66
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  • [Title] Nuclear factor-kappaB activation and differential expression of survivin and Bcl-2 in human grade 2-4 astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Eight low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), 10 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 10 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) samples were used; 4 samples of normal brain tissue were used as controls.
  • Interestingly, BCL-2 was hyperexpressed in LGAs, whereas a very high level of Survivin featured high-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18327814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TANK protein, human; 0 / TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1; 0 / TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2; EC 2.4.2.30 / Tankyrases; EC 2.4.4.30 / TNKS protein, human
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94. Mehling M, Simon P, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Ferrone S, Weller M, Wiendl H: WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism? Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Aug;114(2):111-9
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  • [Title] WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism?
  • We investigated the expression of APM components in astrocytomas without detectable defects in HLA class I antigen expression and correlated it with grade of malignancy.
  • Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of astrocytomas revealed reduced expression of the cytosolic proteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2), the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) transporter associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1), and the ER chaperone beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in astrocytoma cells when compared to astrocytes from nonpathological brain.
  • Among human WHO grade II-IV astrocytomas, downregulation of LMP2, TAP1 and beta2m correlated with grade of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, astrocytoma cell lines (n = 12) expressed all APM components analyzed at levels comparable to dendritic cells (DC), which were used for comparative purposes.
  • However, upregulation of beta2m after stimulation with inflammatory cytokines was significantly lower in astrocytoma cell lines than in control cells.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that coordinated downregulation or impaired upregulation of certain HLA class I APM components may serve as a mechanism for astrocytoma cells to evade the host's immune response, even if HLA class I antigen surface expression is not altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen Presentation / immunology. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Tumor Escape / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17541610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / TAP1 protein, human; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases
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95. Murakami R, Hirai T, Kitajima M, Fukuoka H, Toya R, Nakamura H, Kuratsu J, Yamashita Y: Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas. Acta Radiol; 2008 May;49(4):462-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are usually well-enhanced tumors that may mimic high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18415792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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96. Mittelbronn M, Simon P, Löffler C, Capper D, Bunz B, Harter P, Schlaszus H, Schleich A, Tabatabai G, Goeppert B, Meyermann R, Weller M, Wischhusen J: Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells. J Neuroimmunol; 2007 Sep;189(1-2):50-8
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  • [Title] Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells.
  • To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry.
  • Further, HLA-E expression levels and immune cell infiltration were significantly correlated in WHO grade IV glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. HLA Antigens / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17675252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-E antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
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97. El-Rayes BF, Norton CS, Sakr W, Maciorowski Z, Smith D, Pietraszkiewicz H, Del Mar Alonso M, Ensley JF: Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):85-9
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  • [Title] Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinical parameters such as grade, size and/or location of the tumor are good predictors of outcome in patients with astrocytoma.
  • Median survival times correlated with grade (I/II=1154 vs. III/IV=483days, P=0.0317).
  • CONCLUSION: DNA content parameters may correlate with the natural history and treatment outcome of newly diagnosed untreated patients with astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15690121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40498-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA22453
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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98. Torp SH, Bringedal K, Dalen A: Immunohistochemical detection of epidermal growth factor receptor in human high-grade astrocytomas--a comparison between frozen- and paraffin sections. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Mar;24(1):89-92
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of epidermal growth factor receptor in human high-grade astrocytomas--a comparison between frozen- and paraffin sections.
  • The aim of this study was to assess EGFR expression in human high-grade astrocytomas by means of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections and to compare these findings with the results of our previous study on frozen sections from these tumours, in which we found about 60% EGFR positivity (10).
  • Four anaplastic astrocytomas and 19 glioblastomas were included in this study.
  • With E30, 3 out of 4 anaplastic astrocytomas (75%) and 12 out of 19 glioblastomas (63%) were found to express EGFR whereas Ab-4 demonstrated positive EGFR immunoreactivity in most of the tumours (18/19 glioblastomas and all the 4 anaplastic astrocytomas).
  • In conclusion, immunohistochemistry represents a reliable and convenient technique for the detection of EGFR in tissue sections of human high-grade astrocytomas, and that EGFR immunoreactivity is comparable in frozen- and paraffin sections from these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Frozen Sections. Paraffin Embedding. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15943037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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99. Slatter T, Gifford-Garner J, Wiles A, Tan X, Chen YJ, MacFarlane M, Sullivan M, Royds J, Hung N: Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres. Am J Pathol; 2010 Dec;177(6):2694-700
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres.
  • In this study, we investigated the possibility that APBs could occur before the long 'alternatively' lengthened telomeres arise, particularly in low-grade tumors.
  • We measured APBs, telomere length, and telomerase activity in 64 astrocytomas inclusive of grade 1-4 tumors.
  • Almost all grade 1-3 tumors (93%) were APB-positive using published criteria.
  • Grade 2-3 APB-positive tumors also had long telomeres and were confirmed as ALT positive.
  • However, grade 1 tumors lacked long telomeres and were therefore classified as ALT negative, but positive for telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies (TPB).
  • This is the first report of a TPB-positive but ALT-negative tumor, and suggests that low-grade tumors have the foundation for recombinational telomere repair, as in ALT.

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  • (PMID = 21037079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993310
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100. Scheinemann K, Bartels U, Huang A, Hawkins C, Kulkarni AV, Bouffet E, Tabori U: Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Sep;4(3):254-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article.
  • OBJECT: Intramedullary spinal cord low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are rare CNS neoplasms in pediatric patients, and there is little information on therapy for and outcome of these tumors in this population.
  • Furthermore, most patient series combine adult and pediatric patients or high- and low-grade tumors, resulting in controversial data regarding optimal treatment of these children.
  • Histological testing revealed a Grade I astrocytoma in 86% of tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19772410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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