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1. Hashiba T, Izumoto S, Kagawa N, Suzuki T, Hashimoto N, Maruno M, Yoshimine T: Expression of WT1 protein and correlation with cellular proliferation in glial tumors. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Apr;47(4):165-70; discussion 170
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  • The expression of Wilms' tumor gene WT1 protein was investigated immunohistochemically in 73 glial tumors, including 60 astrocytic tumors, eight oligodendroglial tumors, and five ependymal tumors.
  • Almost all glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas expressed high levels of WT1 protein.
  • Histological examination found that WT1 protein was strongly expressed in the anaplastic portions and areas with perivascular proliferation and high cellularity, implying that WT1 gene might be important in glial tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study indicates that many malignant glial tumors are good candidates for cancer immunotherapy targeting WT1 protein and that WT1 protein expression could be used as a proliferation marker in glial tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17457020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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2. Ichimura K, Pearson DM, Kocialkowski S, Bäcklund LM, Chan R, Jones DT, Collins VP: IDH1 mutations are present in the majority of common adult gliomas but rare in primary glioblastomas. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Aug;11(4):341-7
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  • Codon 132 mutation was seen in 54% of astrocytomas and 65% of oligodendroglial tumors but in only 6% of glioblastomas (3% of primary and 50% of secondary glioblastomas).
  • There were no mutations in any other type of tumor studied.
  • While mutations in the tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and total 1p/19q deletions were mutually exclusive, IDH1 mutations were strongly correlated with these genetic abnormalities.
  • The data indicate that IDH1 mutation combined with either TP53 mutation or total 1p/19q loss is a frequent and early change in the majority of oligodendroglial tumors, diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and secondary glioblastomas but not in primary glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Exons / genetics. Genotype. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19435942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2743214; NLM/ UKMS28703
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3. Hirose Y, Yoshida K: Chromosomal abnormalities subdivide neuroepithelial tumors into clinically relevant groups. Keio J Med; 2006 Jun;55(2):52-8

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  • Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor, and are histopathologically classified according to their cell type and the degree of malignancy.
  • Previous studies using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated that copy number aberrations(CNAs) were frequently recognized in these tumors, and revealed that a gain on chromosomal arm 7q was the most common CNA in diffuse astrocytomas, whereas a small population of the tumor showed losses on 1p/19q which characterizes oligodendrogliomas with good responsiveness to chemotherapeutic regime using procarbazine, nitrosourea and vincristine.
  • High grade (malignant) gliomas(i.e. anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and glioblastomas) have been reported to have a gain on 7p and losses on 9p and 10q.
  • [MeSH-minor] Glioma / genetics. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 16823260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-9717
  • [Journal-full-title] The Keio journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Keio J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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4. Thal D, Xavier CP, Rosentreter A, Linder S, Friedrichs B, Waha A, Pietsch T, Stumpf M, Noegel A, Clemen C: Expression of coronin-3 (coronin-1C) in diffuse gliomas is related to malignancy. J Pathol; 2008 Mar;214(4):415-24
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  • Here, we present for the first time a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of coronin-3 in human brain tumours and demonstrate that coronin-3 expression correlates with malignant phenotype in diffuse gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas, such as anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas, show high numbers of tumour cells positive for coronin-3, while diffuse low-grade gliomas, such as diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas, exhibit low numbers of coronin-3-positive tumour cells.
  • In order to explore and verify a contribution of coronin-3 to the malignant phenotype of diffuse gliomas, we employed an efficient shRNA-mediated coronin-3 knockdown in U373 and A172 human glioblastoma cells.
  • Together, our findings demonstrate evidence for a contribution of coronin-3 expression in the malignant progression of diffuse gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / metabolism. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / deficiency. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18189330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 145420-64-0 / coronin proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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5. Haberler C, Laggner U, Slavc I, Czech T, Ambros IM, Ambros PF, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Immunohistochemical analysis of INI1 protein in malignant pediatric CNS tumors: Lack of INI1 in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and in a fraction of primitive neuroectodermal tumors without rhabdoid phenotype. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Nov;30(11):1462-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of INI1 protein in malignant pediatric CNS tumors: Lack of INI1 in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and in a fraction of primitive neuroectodermal tumors without rhabdoid phenotype.
  • Immunohistochemical lack of nuclear INI1 protein expression has been recently described as characteristic finding in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs), and has been suggested as useful marker to distinguish AT/RTs from other malignant pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • In this study, we examined a large series of malignant pediatric CNS tumors to determine the immunohistochemical expression of INI1 protein in different malignant pediatric tumor entities.
  • Archival paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of 289 malignant pediatric CNS tumors including medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, choroid plexus carcinomas, germ cell tumors, and AT/RTs were analyzed immunohistochemically for expression of nuclear INI1 protein.
  • In summary, immunohistochemical expression of INI1 protein is lacking in tumors displaying characteristic morphologic features of AT/RT.
  • We conclude that INI1 protein analysis should be routinely performed in all malignant pediatric embryonal CNS tumors to detect cases with lack of INI1 protein, because patients with these tumors are likely to benefit from intensified treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17063089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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6. Khalil AA: Biomarker discovery: a proteomic approach for brain cancer profiling. Cancer Sci; 2007 Feb;98(2):201-13
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  • Gliomas in the form of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are the most common brain tumors in humans.
  • Proteomics promises the discovery of biomarkers and tumor markers for early detection and diagnosis.
  • In the current study, a differential gel electrophoresis technology coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy was used to investigate tumor-specific changes in the proteome of human brain cancer.
  • Fifty human brain tissues comprising varying diagnostic groups (non-tumor, grade I, grade II, grade III and grade IV) were run in duplicate together with an internal pool sample on each gel.
  • Alb protein, peroxiredoxin 4 and SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 3 were upregulated in glioblastoma multiform versus non-tumor tissues.
  • However, aldolase C fructose-biphosphate, creatine kinase, B chain dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, enolase 2, fumarate hydratase, HSP60, lactoylglutathione lyase, lucine aminopeptidase, Mu-crystallin homolog, NADH-UO 24, neurofilament triplet L protein, septin 2, stathmin and vacuolar ATP synthase subunit E were downregulated in glioblastoma multiform compared with non-tumor tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism


7. Puputti M, Tynninen O, Sihto H, Blom T, Mäenpää H, Isola J, Paetau A, Joensuu H, Nupponen NN: Amplification of KIT, PDGFRA, VEGFR2, and EGFR in gliomas. Mol Cancer Res; 2006 Dec;4(12):927-34
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  • We investigated expression and amplification of KIT, PDGFRA, VEGFR2, and EGFR in 87 gliomas consisting of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, or oligoastrocytomas in tumor samples collected at the time of the diagnosis and in samples of the same tumors at tumor recurrence.
  • In samples collected at glioma diagnosis, KIT and PDGFRA amplifications were more frequent in anaplastic astrocytomas than in astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas [28% versus 5% (P = 0.012) and 33% versus 2% (P = 0.0008), respectively].
  • KIT amplification was associated with KIT protein expression and with presence of PDGFRA and EGFR amplifications both at the time of the first glioma diagnosis and at tumor recurrence, and with VEGFR2 amplification at tumor recurrence.
  • In conclusion, besides glioblastoma, amplified KIT, PDGFRA, and VEGFR may also occur in lower-grade gliomas and in their recurrent tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17189383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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8. Nakamura M, Ishida E, Shimada K, Kishi M, Nakase H, Sakaki T, Konishi N: Frequent LOH on 22q12.3 and TIMP-3 inactivation occur in the progression to secondary glioblastomas. Lab Invest; 2005 Feb;85(2):165-75
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  • Frequent allelic losses on the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q) in gliomas indicate the presence of tumor suppressor gene (TSG) at this location.
  • However, the target gene(s) residing in this chromosome are still unknown and their putative roles in the development of astrocytic tumors, especially in secondary glioblastoma, have not yet been defined.
  • To compile a precise physical map for the region of common deletions in astrocytic tumors, we performed a high-density loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis using 31 polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning 22q in a series of grade II diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, primary glioblastomas, and secondary glioblastomas that had evolved from lower grade astrocytomas.
  • LOH was found at one or more loci in 33% (12/36) of grade II diffuse astrocytomas, in 40% (4/10) of anaplastic astrocytomas, in 41% (26/64) of primary glioblastomas, and in 82% (23/28) of secondary glioblastomas.
  • This epigenetic change was significantly correlated to poor survival in eight patients with grade II diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Our results suggest that a 957 kb locus, located at 22q12.3, may contain the putative TSG, TIMP-3, that appears to be relevant to progression to secondary glioblastoma and subsequently to the prognosis of grade II diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alleles. DNA Methylation. Disease Progression. Epigenesis, Genetic. Gene Deletion. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Markers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite Repeats. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Chromosome Mapping. Polymorphism, Genetic. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15592495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3
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9. Park SH, Min HS, Kim B, Myung J, Paek SH: Galectin-3: a useful biomarker for differential diagnosis of brain tumors. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):497-506
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  • It showed consistent and diffuse positivity in 100% of the pilocytic astrocytomas, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA), Schwannomas, meningiomas, capillary hemangioblastomas, as well as in ependymomas, but it was completely negative in the diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, both low- and high-grades of the oligodendrogliomas, central neurocytomas, and medulloblastomas.
  • Definitely positive but heterogeneous expression was found in various tumors including subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA), classic glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS PNETs), and hemangiopericytomas.
  • Focal positivity for gal-3 was also found in dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) and gangliogliomas, in which the positive cells were the astrocytic component.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18384511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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10. Dong L, Pu PY, Wang H, Wang GX, Kang CS, Jiao DR: [Study on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and p53 in astrocytic gliomas: evidence for a distinct genetic pathway]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;35(4):232-6
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  • [Title] [Study on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and p53 in astrocytic gliomas: evidence for a distinct genetic pathway].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study further the most important and frequent genetic alterations of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in astrocytic gliomas. METHODS:.
  • (1) EGFR expression was examined in samples collected from 37 astrocytic gliomas and 6 normal brain tissue using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. (2) p53 gene mutation and accumulation were detected simultaneously in the same specimens using PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing and immunohistochemical staining.
  • RESULTS: The frequency of p53 mutation in diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, primary glioblastomas and secondary glioblastomas was 1/10, 4/19 (21.1%), 4/6 and 2/2, respectively and the frequency of EGFR overexpression was 5/10, 10/19 (52.6%), 5/6 and 2/2, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EGFR overexpression is not infrequently seen, however, p53 mutation is rarely seen in the low grade gliomas.
  • Consequently, EGFR overexpression and p53 gene mutation are not mutually exclusive in astrocytic gliomagenesis but synergistically to promote the glioma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16776982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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11. Cao WD, Zhang X, Zhang JN, Yang ZJ, Zhen HN, Cheng G, Li B, Gao D: Immunocytochemical detection of 14-3-3 in primary nervous system tumors. J Neurooncol; 2006 Apr;77(2):125-30
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  • However, 14-3-3 immunoreactivity was seen in the majority of astrocytomas [grade I (9/11), II (16/21), III (13/17), IV (17/21)].
  • There was no difference between the positive expression rates of 14-3-3 in different grades of astrocytomas (P = 0.968).
  • But the intensity and degree of 14-3-3 immunoreactivity in diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytoma, and glioblastoma multiformes showed trends with tumor grade, with glioblastomas having the highest positivity (P = 0.048).
  • The 14-3-3 immunoreactivity was also seen in the majority of other gliomas [oligodendroglioma (2/3), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (4/4), ependymoma (1/2), anaplastic ependymoma (2/2), choroid plexus papilloma (3/3), pineocytoma (2/2), medulloblastoma (5/8)].
  • The up-regulated expression of 14-3-3 may be a common mechanism for evading apoptosis in most primary human nervous system tumors, and targeting 14-3-3 may be a novel promising strategy for the treatment of these tumors, especially for malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] 14-3-3 Proteins / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16292484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / YWHAB protein, human
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12. Franceschi E, Tosoni A, Ermani M, Spagnolli F, La Torre L, Galzio RJ, Pozzati E, Talacchi A, Benevento F, Brandes AA: Impact of MGMT methylation status on 1p/19q intact anaplastic gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13003

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  • [Title] Impact of MGMT methylation status on 1p/19q intact anaplastic gliomas.
  • : e13003 Background: Chromosomes 1p/19q codeletion has been recognized as a prognostic and predictive factor in patients (pts) with grade 3 gliomas.
  • Non-codeleted (intact) anaplastic oligodendroglioma showed a survival comparable to that usually observed in pts with anaplastic astrocytomas; MGMT methylation status, moreover, has been found to be a prognostic factor in glioblastoma and anaplastic gliomas (AG).
  • Histology was anaplastic oligodendroglioma in 17 pts, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in 20 pts, and anaplastic astrocytoma in 30 pts; all these pts were 1p19q intact and received surgery, RT, and CT.

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  • (PMID = 27962754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Karrasch M, Gillespie GY, Braz E, Liechty PG, Nabors LB, Lakeman AD, Palmer CA, Parker JN, Whitley RJ, Markert JM: Treatment of recurrent malignant glioma with G207, a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus-1, followed by irradiation: Phase I study results. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2042

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of recurrent malignant glioma with G207, a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus-1, followed by irradiation: Phase I study results.
  • Safety and efficacy of intracerebral inoculations of G207 to patients suffering from recurrent malignant gliomas have been demonstrated in previous clinical trials.
  • METHODS: In this phase I clinical trial, a total of 1 x 10<sup>9</sup> plaque forming units (pfu) G207 were administered by five stereotactic injections of 0.2 mL each into regions of recurrent malignant glioma defined by MRI, followed by focal radiation therapy 24 hours post injection.
  • Included patients suffered from inoperable pathologically proven recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) which was progressive despite radiotherapy or chemotherapy and failed external beam radiotherapy > 5 Gray prior to study enrolment.
  • The 2 patients with initial PR (1xGBM, 1xAA) were re-treated with G207/Irradiation at time point of tumor recurrence, showing PR one month after re-treatment again.
  • Within persistent areas of tumor, HSV staining was present by using a polyclonal antibody for HSV, indicating intratumoral G207 replication (proof of concept).

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  • (PMID = 27964649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Simonelli M, Banna G, Navarria P, Di Ieva A, Zucali P, De Vincenzo F, Gaetani P, Condorelli R, Rodriguez Y Baena R, Scorsetti M, Santoro A: Addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13037

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for treatment of newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas.
  • : e13037 Background: Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), oligodendroglioma (AOD), and oligoastrocytoma (AOA) are rare tumors showing variable outcome due to their histological heterogeneity and different chemo- and radio-sensitivity.
  • Currently, the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas is not sustained by available data.
  • We evaluated the addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to radiotherapy for newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas in terms of tolerability, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).
  • METHODS: Since September 2004, following initial surgery, patients (pts) with histologically confirmed anaplastic glioma, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) ≥40, adequate organ function, no prior chemotherapy, were treated with RT to limited fields once daily at 2 Gy per fraction, 5 days a week, for a total of 60 Gy with concomitant TMZ (75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> for 7 days a week) followed by 6 cycles of maintenance TMZ at 200 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on days 1-5 every 28 days.
  • Nine pts (32%) underwent tumor complete resection, 10 partial resection (36%), and 9 (32%) tumor biopsy.
  • Frequent mild toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting (17 pts-63%), and grade 1-2 asthenia (8 pts-30%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The addition of temozolomide to radiation therapy for newly diagnosed anaplastic gliomas is well tolerated and seems active; efficacy needs confirmation in a randomized clinical trial.

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  • (PMID = 27962859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Abacioglu MU, Caglar HB, Yumuk PF, Akgun Z, Atasoy BM, Sengoz M: Efficacy of protracted dose-dense temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with progressive high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13018

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of protracted dose-dense temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with progressive high-grade glioma.
  • : e13018 Background: The study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TMZ on a protracted dose-dense schedule after standard 5-day TMZ regimen in patients with progressive high-grade glioma.
  • METHODS: In this phase II prospective study, patients who had progression on standard 5-day TMZ for recurrence (group 1) or recurrence after concurrent radiotherapy+TMZ and ≥ 2 cycles of adjuvant TMZ (group 2) for high-grade glioma received TMZ 100 mg/m2× 21 q28 days until progression according to MacDonald's criteria.
  • The histopathology was glioblastoma in 18 and grade 3 glioma (anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma or anaplastic oligodendroglioma) in 7.
  • Out of 80 cycles received there was no anemia; 5 (6%) grade 1, 8 (10%) grade 2, 2 (3%) grade 3 leucopenia; 1 (1%) grade 1, 2 (3%) grade 2, 1 (1%) grade 3, 1 (1%) grade 4 thrombocytopenia; 9 (11%) grade 1, 7 (9%) grade 2, 32 (40%) grade 3, and 11 (14%) grade 4 lymphopenia.
  • Study was terminated in 2 patients (one with grade 4 thrombocytopenia and the other with grade 4 hepatic toxicity).

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  • (PMID = 27962826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Herndon J 2nd, Vredenburgh J, Reardon D, Desjardins A, Peters K, Gururangan S, Norfleet J, Friedman A, Bigner D, Friedman HS: Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13016

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • : e13016 Background: Recurrent malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 6-15 months, with grade 4 glioblastomas more aggressive than grade 3 anaplastic astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas.
  • We report a phase I trial of vandetanib in combination with oral etoposide for recurrent malignant glioma.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically documented recurrent grade 3 or grade 4 malignant glioma were eligible.
  • There was more hematologic toxicity than expected, with 3/6 of the patients enrolled at dose level 1 developing grade 4 neutropenia.

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  • (PMID = 27962830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Tosoni A, Franceschi E, Ermani M, Bacci A, Volpin L, Lombardo L, Ravenna G, Pinna G, Poggi R, Brandes AA: MGMT methylation status as a prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2052

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MGMT methylation status as a prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • However, further data on the epigenetic feature are needed before its role in rare diseases such as anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) can be established.

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  • (PMID = 27964674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Desjardins A, Reardon DA, Gururangan S, Peters K, Threatt S, Friedman A, Friedman H, Vredenburgh J: Phase I trial combining SCH 66336 to temozolomide (TMZ) for patients with grade 3 or 4 malignant gliomas (MG). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13004

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I trial combining SCH 66336 to temozolomide (TMZ) for patients with grade 3 or 4 malignant gliomas (MG).
  • METHODS: Eligibility included: adult patients with stable or recurrent MG (GBM, anaplastic astrocytoma [AA], anaplastic oligodendroglioma [AO]) previously treated with radiation therapy (RT) and with or without chemotherapy; interval of at least two weeks between prior RT, or four weeks between prior chemotherapy; Karnofsky ≥ 60%; and adequate hematologic, renal and liver function.
  • Dose-limiting toxicities were: deep venous thrombosis (1 grade 3); nausea and vomiting (1 grade 3); diarrhea (1 grade 3); elevated ALT (1 grade 3); elevated creatinine (1 grade 3); and fatigue (1 grade 3).

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  • (PMID = 27962751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Potthast L, Chowdhary S, Pan E, Yu D, Zhu W, Brem S: The infiltrative, diffuse pattern of recurrence in patients with malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2057

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The infiltrative, diffuse pattern of recurrence in patients with malignant gliomas treated with bevacizumab.
  • Histologies included glioblastoma (GB), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AO), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA), and low-grade astrocytomas.
  • It is unclear why the disparity among this subset of patients occurs, however, we hypothesize that this may once again highlight the distinct tumor biology among young glioma patients.

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  • (PMID = 27964663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Rudnick JD, Phuphanich S, Chu R, Mazer M, Wang H, Serrano N, Francisco M, Black KL, Wheeler C, Yu J: A phase I trial of surgical resection with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafer placement followed by vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate for patients with malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2033

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I trial of surgical resection with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafer placement followed by vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with tumor lysate for patients with malignant glioma.
  • : 2033 Background: Our prior immunotherapy trials demonstrated efficacy in generating a tumor specific immune response in malignant glioma and the potential for high tumor-specific toxicity and sustained tumoricidal activity.
  • METHODS: We exploited this synergistic effect to maintain a cytotoxic environment around the tumor milieu.
  • Patients with high-grade glioma were eligible after maximal resection with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafer placement.
  • Screening leukapheresis is used to isolate mononuclear cells which are differentiated into dendritic cells, pulsed with tumor lysate, and then 3 intradermal vaccines are administered at 2-week intervals.
  • The histology included 3 newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 8 recurrent GBM, 2 newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), and 2 recurrent AA.
  • Our preliminary data on 15 patients and 39 courses of Dendritic Cell vaccines demonstrate one grade 3 toxicity of fever/chest pain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This phase I study demonstrates the safety, feasibility of dendritic cell vaccination with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafers with one grade 3 AE.

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  • (PMID = 27964627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Rathi KR, Radotra BD, Khosla VK: Proliferative index in astrocytic tumours. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):754-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proliferative index in astrocytic tumours.
  • The accurate grading of astrocytic tumours is of prime importance because it is critical to the patient management and survival/outcome.
  • Although internationally accepted WHO grading system of CNS tumours is based on histological features of H&E stained sections, yet there are cases where differentiation between grade II and grade III is difficult particularly when the biopsy is small.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 90 cases of astrocytic tumours, 30 each of low-grade astrocytoma (grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), and glioblastoma multiforme (grade IV), were immunostained by standard indirect immunoperoxidase technique using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody.
  • The mean MIB-1 LI values of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas were 1.75 +/- 1.5%, 8.74 +/- 6.2%, and 20.54 +/- 12.2% respectively and there was statistically significant difference between grade II and III (Unpaired "t" test, T value 5.907, p value < 0.001) and grade III and grade IV (T value 4.734, p value < 0.001).
  • The statistical analysis also revealed that the mean MIB-1 LI increased with histological grade of malignancy (One way ANOVA test, p value < 0.001).
  • This investigation further reinforces and corroborates the findings that MIB-1 LI is useful tool in assigning grading to the astrocytic tumours and hence in treatment modalities and should be used routinely.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Glioblastoma / classification. Glioblastoma / pathology. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 18306542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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22. Barbashina V, Salazar P, Holland EC, Rosenblum MK, Ladanyi M: Allelic losses at 1p36 and 19q13 in gliomas: correlation with histologic classification, definition of a 150-kb minimal deleted region on 1p36, and evaluation of CAMTA1 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;11(3):1119-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Allelic losses at 1p36 and 19q13 in gliomas: correlation with histologic classification, definition of a 150-kb minimal deleted region on 1p36, and evaluation of CAMTA1 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene.
  • PURPOSE: Allelic loss at 1p is seen in 70% to 85% of oligodendrogliomas (typically in association with 19q allelic loss) and 20-30% of astrocytomas.
  • Because most 1p deletions in gliomas involve almost the entire chromosome arm, narrowing the region of the putative tumor suppressor gene has been difficult.
  • The latter group included both low-grade tumors (oligodendroglioma, diffuse astrocytoma, and "oligoastrocytoma") and high-grade tumors (anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas).
  • RESULTS: Allelic losses on 1p and 19q, either separately or combined, were more common in classic oligodendrogliomas than in either astrocytomas or oligoastrocytomas (P < 0.0001).
  • There was no significant difference in 1p/19q LOH status between low-grade and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.
  • In contrast, no astrocytomas and only 6 of 30 (20%) oligoastrocytic tumors had combined 1p/19q loss.
  • Although rare, 1p deletions were more often segmental in astrocytomas (5 of 6, 83%) than in oligodendrogliomas (3 of 35, 9%; P = 0.006).
  • Eleven tumors (6 oligodendrogliomas or having oligodendroglial components, 5 purely astrocytic) with small segmental 1p losses underwent further detailed LOH mapping.
  • All informative tumors in the oligodendroglial group and 2 of 3 informative astrocytomas showed LOH at 1p36.23, with a 150-kb MDR located between D1S2694 and D1S2666, entirely within the CAMTA1 transcription factor gene.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Calcium-Binding Proteins / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosome Mapping. Expressed Sequence Tags. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Mutation. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15709179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CAMTA1 protein, human; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators
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23. Khalatbari M, Borghei-Razavi H, Shayanfar N, Behzadi AH, Sepehrnia A: Collision tumor of meningioma and malignant astrocytoma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(5):357-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Collision tumor of meningioma and malignant astrocytoma.
  • The pathology of tumors reported collision tumors composed of meningioma and malignant astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21389747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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24. Rao SA, Santosh V, Somasundaram K: Genome-wide expression profiling identifies deregulated miRNAs in malignant astrocytoma. Mod Pathol; 2010 Oct;23(10):1404-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genome-wide expression profiling identifies deregulated miRNAs in malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant astrocytoma includes anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and glioblastoma (grade IV).
  • Among them, glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor with dismal responses to all therapeutic modalities.
  • We performed a large-scale, genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) (n=756) expression profiling of 26 glioblastoma, 13 anaplastic astrocytoma and 7 normal brain samples with an aim to find deregulated miRNA in malignant astrocytoma.
  • More importantly, we identified a most discriminatory 23-miRNA expression signature, by using PAM, which precisely distinguished glioblastoma from anaplastic astrocytoma with an accuracy of 95%.
  • The differential expression pattern of nine miRNAs was further validated by real-time RT-PCR on an independent set of malignant astrocytomas (n=72) and normal samples (n=7).
  • Thus we have identified the miRNA expression signature for malignant astrocytoma, in particular glioblastoma, and showed the miRNA involvement and their importance in astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20711171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
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25. Momota H, Narita Y, Matsushita Y, Miyakita Y, Shibui S: p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):95-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are characterized by diffusely infiltrating nature, and the abnormality of p53 is a cytogenetic hallmark of astrocytic tumors.
  • To elucidate the relationship between p53 abnormality and invasiveness of the tumors, we studied mutation and protein expression of p53 in 48 consecutive patients with malignant astrocytoma (14 anaplastic astrocytomas and 34 glioblastoma multiformes).
  • The tumors were classified into three categories according to the features of magnetic resonance imaging, and 5, 7, and 36 tumors were classified into diffuse, multiple, and single type, respectively.
  • We then examined how these tumor types correlate with MIB-1 staining index, TP53 gene mutation, and p53 protein expression.
  • Furthermore, diffuse- and multiple-type tumors were significantly correlated with poor progression-free survival, whereas only multiple-type tumors were significantly correlated with poor overall survival.
  • As diffuse and multiple features on imaging modalities represent invasive characteristics of the tumors, p53 abnormalities may affect the invasive and aggressive nature of malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21046311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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26. Khwaja FW, Duke-Cohan JS, Brat DJ, Van Meir EG: Attractin is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with malignant astrocytoma and mediates glioma cell migration. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Nov 1;12(21):6331-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Attractin is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with malignant astrocytoma and mediates glioma cell migration.
  • The goal of our study was to find reliable markers that could be used for disease monitoring as well as to identify new targets for the therapeutic intervention for malignant astrocytoma (WHO grades 3 and 4).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We employed proteomic techniques to identify secreted proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid that were specific to patients with malignant astrocytoma.
  • RESULTS: Among 60 cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with various central nervous system diseases, attractin was consistently found to be elevated in the samples of patients with malignant astrocytoma.
  • To independently validate these results, we examined attractin expression in a new set of 108 normal and tumoral brain tissue specimens and found elevated expression in 97% of malignant astrocytomas, with the highest levels in grade 4 tumors.
  • Using immunohistochemistry, we further showed that attractin is produced and secreted by the tumor cells.
  • Finally, we showed that cerebrospinal fluid from brain tumor patients induces glioma cell migration and that attractin is largely responsible for this promigratory activity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results find attractin to be a reliable secreted marker for high-grade gliomas.
  • Additionally, our migration studies suggest that it may be an important mediator of tumor invasiveness, and thus, a potential target in future therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Cell Movement / physiology. Glioma / cerebrospinal fluid. Membrane Proteins / cerebrospinal fluid
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17085642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86335
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATRN protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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27. Ryu HH, Jung S, Sun HS, Jung TY, Jin SG, Jin YH, Kim IY, Jeong YI, Kang SS: Screening for motility-associated genes in malignant astrocytoma cell lines. J Neurooncol; 2007 Apr;82(2):125-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening for motility-associated genes in malignant astrocytoma cell lines.
  • The most characteristic feature of a malignant astrocytoma is its early and extensive infiltration into adjacent parenchymal structures.
  • We focused on detecting the possible expression changes as the determining factors for malignant astrocytoma's motile ability.
  • These findings suggest that the genes identified may be important for determining high motility in astrocytoma cell lines.
  • These findings may help us understand the molecular invasion mechanism in astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Movement. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17048098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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28. Marsh J, Mukherjee P, Seyfried TN: Drug/diet synergy for managing malignant astrocytoma in mice: 2-deoxy-D-glucose and the restricted ketogenic diet. Nutr Metab (Lond); 2008 Nov 25;5:33
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  • [Title] Drug/diet synergy for managing malignant astrocytoma in mice: 2-deoxy-D-glucose and the restricted ketogenic diet.
  • BACKGROUND: Astrocytomas are largely dependent on glycolysis to satisfy their bioenergetic requirements for growth and survival.
  • Therapies that target glycolysis can potentially manage astrocytoma growth and progression.
  • Dietary restriction of the high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD-R) reduces glycolysis and is effective in managing experimental mouse and human astrocytomas.
  • The goal here was to determine if low doses of 2-DG could act synergistically with the KD-R to better manage growth of the CT-2A malignant mouse astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: The therapeutic effect of a KD-R supplemented with a low dose of 2-DG (25 mg/kg) was examined in adult C57BL/6J mice bearing the syngeneic CT-2A malignant astrocytoma grown orthotopically.
  • Mice were fed the standard unrestricted diet for the first 3 days after tumor implantation prior to their separation into one of four diet groups fed either a standard rodent diet in unrestricted amounts (SD-UR) or a KD-R with or without 2-DG for 10 days.
  • 2-DG was initiated 6 days after tumor implantation and was continued for 7 days.
  • RESULTS: Energy intake, body weights, and CT-2A tumor weights were similar in the SD-UR and the SD-UR+2-2DG mouse groups over the dietary treatment period (days 3-13).
  • Tumor weights were about 48% and 80% lower in the KD-R and in the KD-R+2-DG groups, respectively, than in the SD-UR group.
  • CONCLUSION: Astrocytoma growth was reduced more in the KD-R mouse group supplemented with 2-DG than in the mouse groups receiving either dietary restriction or 2-DG alone, indicating a synergistic interaction between the drug and the diet.
  • The results suggest that management of malignant astrocytoma with restricted ketogenic diets could be enhanced when combined with drugs that inhibit glycolysis.

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  • (PMID = 19032781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-7075
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Metab (Lond)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102135; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055195; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R56 NS055195
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2607273
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29. Walker DG, Laherty R, Tomlinson FH, Chuah T, Schmidt C: Results of a phase I dendritic cell vaccine trial for malignant astrocytoma: potential interaction with adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Feb;15(2):114-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of a phase I dendritic cell vaccine trial for malignant astrocytoma: potential interaction with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Dendritic cell vaccination has been applied to the treatment of a variety of cancers, including malignant astrocytoma.
  • We have treated 13 patients with malignant astrocytoma using dendritic cell vaccination and have shown that this treatment is safe and is likely to be effective in combination with standard adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immunotherapy, Active / methods

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  • (PMID = 18083572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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30. Guan X, Lai S, Lackey J, Shi J, Techavipoo U, Moulding HD, Flanders AE, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1322-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging.
  • PURPOSE: To seek to distinguish and visualize the different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) growth patterns among malignant gliomas utilizing visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen consecutive patients undergoing image-guided resection of a newly diagnosed malignant glioma underwent add-on acquisition of DTI data based on an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved imaging protocol during preoperative MRI scans for routine intraoperative image guidance.
  • Tumor growth patterns were assigned to expansive or mixed/infiltrative classes as described in the companion article (24).
  • Infiltrating tumors were WHO Grade IV astrocytomas and all expansive tumors were either WHO Grade III astrocytomas or WHO Grade II astrocytomas.
  • DTI-based white matter tractography was conducted and the DTI data were fused with anatomical images using an in-house software package we developed to enhance the visualization of the tumor/fiber interface.
  • RESULTS: Out of the 19 tumor patients studied, 11 had infiltrative tumors and the other 8 had expansive tumors.
  • While less clear with 2D axial diffusion color maps, visually enhanced 3D reconstructions of the tumor/fiber interface successfully corroborated distinctive growth patterns.
  • This was particularly evident when viewed in 3D video loops of each tumor/fiber interface.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed software that visually enhances the anatomic details of the tumor/fiber interface in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • These data support the existence of a subgroup of patients within the WHO Grade III classification with expansive tumors and a significantly better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Parafiniuk D, Jezewski D, Nowacki P: [Malignant astrocytoma as a recurrance of astrocytoma II WHO after 13 years. Case report and literature review]. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2010;56(2):45-50
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  • [Title] [Malignant astrocytoma as a recurrance of astrocytoma II WHO after 13 years. Case report and literature review].
  • Astrocytomas--neroepithelial originated tumors that belong to the big, differential group of tumors, which derive from astrocytic glial.
  • They include slow growing tumors such as fibillary astrocytoma or very malignant glioblastoma multiforme.
  • The case which is being presented is of a forty nine year old woman operated in July 1997 because of a protoplasmic astrocytoma II WHO in the left frontal lobe.
  • Due to this adverse event MRI was ordered and suspicion of tumor recurrence was put forward.
  • Histopathology identified anaplastic astrocytoma III WHO.
  • According to literature, the factors regarding remission time, tumor malignancy and therapeutic aim were analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma. Female. Frontal Lobe. Humans. Reoperation. Seizures / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21473001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1427-440X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Acad Med Stetin
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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32. Nano R, Capelli E, Facoetti A, Benericetti E: Immunobiological and experimental aspects of malignant astrocytoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Jul;29(7):2461-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunobiological and experimental aspects of malignant astrocytoma.
  • Starting from 1992, the goal of our studies was to obtain new biological data on malignant astrocytomas to better understand the basic biology of the tumour and these are reviewed here.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19596914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-2
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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33. Matusan-Ilijas K, Behrem S, Jonjic N, Zarkovic K, Lucin K: Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Sep;14(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Osteopontin expression correlates with angiogenesis and survival in malignant astrocytoma.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of OPN in human astrocytomas and to correlate it with angiogenesis and patients' outcome.
  • Seventy-six human astrocytomas including eight pilocytic astrocytomas (grade I), 10 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II), 8 anaplastic astrocytomas (grade III) and 50 glioblastomas (grade IV) were immunohistochemically stained for OPN protein.
  • Astrocytomas were heterogeneous regarding the OPN expression.
  • Our results indicate the overexpression of OPN protein in astrocytoma cells and suggest the role of OPN in astrocytoma progression and angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Osteopontin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18493866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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34. Jang SY, Kong MH, Song KY, Frazee JG: Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Jun;45(6):381-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult.
  • The first case of intracranial metastases of a cervical intramedullary low-grade astrocytoma without malignant transformation in adult is presented in this report.
  • Seven years ago, a 45 year-old male patient underwent biopsy to confirm pathologic characteristics and received craniocervical radiation and chemotherapy for a grade II astrocytoma in the cervical spinal cord.
  • The tumor at the cervical and brain lesions was classified as an astrocytoma (WHO grade II).
  • When a patient with low-grade astrocytoma in the spinal cord has new cranial symptoms after surgery, radiaton, and chemotherapy, the possibility of its metastasis should be suspected because it can spread to the intracranial cavity even without malignant transformation as shown in this case.

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  • (PMID = 19609424.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2711238
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Astrocytoma / Cranial metastases / Intramedullary / Spinal cord tumor
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35. Maiti AK, Ghosh K, Chatterjee U, Chakrobarti S, Chatterjee S, Basu S: Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas. Neurol India; 2008 Oct-Dec;56(4):456-62
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: The involvement of various growth factors, growth factor receptors and proliferative markers in the molecular pathogenesis of astrocytic neoplasms are being studied extensively.
  • Since EGFR and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are involved in mitogenic signal transduction and cellular proliferation pathway, we have studied the correlation between the expression of EGFR and PCNA labeling index in astrocytic tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and PCNA using the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in 40 cases of astrocytic tumors of which 21 cases were glioblastoma, eight cases were Grade III or anaplastic astrocytomas and six cases were Grade II or diffuse astrocytomas and five cases were Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Both the EGFR expression and PCNA labeling index increase with increasing grades of astrocytomas with a significantly high percentage of cells showing positive staining for both EGFR and PCNA in GBM and Grade III astrocytomas compared to Grade II astrocytomas.
  • The expression levels of both EGFR and PCNA were low in Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation was found between EGFR overexpression and PCNA labeling index in Grade III and Grade II astrocytomas and glioblastoma.
  • These suggest that the tumor proliferation, at least in higher grades of astrocytomas is dependent in some measure on EGF and EGFR-related signaling pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19127042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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36. Sathornsumetee S, Cao Y, Marcello JE, Herndon JE 2nd, McLendon RE, Desjardins A, Friedman HS, Dewhirst MW, Vredenburgh JJ, Rich JN: Tumor angiogenic and hypoxic profiles predict radiographic response and survival in malignant astrocytoma patients treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan 10;26(2):271-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor angiogenic and hypoxic profiles predict radiographic response and survival in malignant astrocytoma patients treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan.
  • PURPOSE: The combination of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -neutralizing antibody, bevacizumab, and irinotecan is associated with high radiographic response rates and improved survival outcomes in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • The aim of these retrospective studies was to evaluate tumor vascularity and expression of components of the VEGF pathway and hypoxic responses as predictive markers for radiographic response and survival benefit from the bevacizumab and irinotecan therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a phase II trial, 60 patients with recurrent malignant astrocytomas were treated with bevacizumab and irinotecan.
  • Tumor specimens collected at the time of diagnosis were available for further pathologic studies in 45 patients (75%).
  • RESULTS: Of 45 patients, 27 patients had glioblastoma multiforme, and 18 patients had anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In this patient cohort, tumor expression levels of VEGF, the molecular target of bevacizumab, were associated with radiographic response, and the upstream promoter of angiogenesis, hypoxia, determined survival outcome, as measured from treatment initiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Hypoxia. Male. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiography. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18182667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS054276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116659; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116659; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02 NS047409; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS047409; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS054276
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS508913; NLM/ PMC3930173
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37. Reardon DA, Rich JN, Friedman HS, Bigner DD: Recent advances in the treatment of malignant astrocytoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Mar 10;24(8):1253-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent advances in the treatment of malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant gliomas, including the most common subtype, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are among the most devastating of neoplasms.
  • Limited delivery and tumor heterogeneity are two fundamental factors that have critically hindered therapeutic progress.
  • The simultaneous development of multiple advanced therapies based on specific tumor biology may finally offer glioma patients improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16525180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P20 CA096890; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11898; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1 RR 30; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20023
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 209
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38. Compostella A, Tosoni A, Blatt V, Franceschi E, Brandes AA: Prognostic factors for anaplastic astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Feb;81(3):295-303
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III) constitute about 10% of all gliomas.
  • Definitive data on predictive and prognostic factors are lacking for these neoplasms that are considered the most enigmatic entity among the whole spectrum of astrocytic tumors because of their unclear biologic behavior and variable clinical outcome.
  • Currently, only few factors have been identified as useful for prognosis of anaplastic astrocytoma: age and Karnofsky Performance Status.
  • Potential prognostic biomarkers concern tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 9q that are involved in the RB1 pathway; PTEN, the PI3k/Akt/p70s6k cascade, survivin gene, Formylpeptide receptor, minichromosome maintenance protein 3 and genes on chromosome 7.
  • The state of the art pictured here underlie the recent interest on gene expression profile to identify aberrations useful to understand the biologic behavior of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology


39. Arslantas A, Artan S, Oner U, Müslümanoglu MH, Ozdemir M, Durmaz R, Arslantas D, Vural M, Cosan E, Atasoy MA: Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2007;13(1):39-46
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  • [Title] Genomic alterations in low-grade, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • To extend our understanding of potential stepwise genetic alterations that may underlie tumor progression from low-grade astrocytomas to glioblastomas, histopathologic and comparative genomic hybridization analyses were performed on tumor specimens from 68 primary lesions, including 40 glioblastomas, 10 anaplastic and 18 low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The number of aberrations per case increased towards the higher grade tumors (grade II: 1.66+/-1.49; grade III: 2.80+/-1.68; grade IV: 3.02+/-1.07; F=6.955, p=0.002).
  • A gain of 7/7q was common and the most frequently seen aberration in low-grade astrocytomas, whereas loss of 10q was the most frequently seen anomaly in anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • Chromosome 10/10q deletion and combination of 1p, 19q and 17p deletions were specific to high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • The genomic copy deletions of chromosomes 1p and 19q might provide an alternative mechanism in the genesis of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Deletion. Glioblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17387387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Llaguno SA, Chen J, Kwon CH, Parada LF: Neural and cancer stem cells in tumor suppressor mouse models of malignant astrocytoma. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol; 2008;73:421-6
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  • [Title] Neural and cancer stem cells in tumor suppressor mouse models of malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are highly invasive brain tumors that portend poor prognosis and dismal survival.
  • We previously reported tumor suppressor mouse models based on conditional inactivation of human astrocytoma-relevant genes p53, Nf1, and Pten.
  • These mice develop, with full penetrance, varying grades of astrocytic malignancy that recapitulate the human condition histologically and molecularly.
  • Our studies indicate a central role for neural stem cells and stem-cell-like cancer cells in tumor initiation and progression.
  • These mouse models thus represent powerful tools for investigating various aspects of tumor development that otherwise cannot be explored in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Neurons / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Mice. Models, Neurological. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 19022744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50NS05260602
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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41. Nafe R, Schlote W, Schneider B: Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Feb;31(1):34-44
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  • [Title] Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis.
  • Although tumour cell nuclei are important histological structures for grading of astrocytomas according to the WHO-classification of brain tumours, there is no reported morphometric study of astrocytomas which describes quantitatively the four main morphologic criteria of tumour cell nuclei: size, shape, texture (densitometric characteristics) and spatial relationships between the nuclei (topometric analysis).
  • Using a set of morphometric parameters describing these criteria as well as the Ki67-proliferation index, 74 astrocytomas from 74 patients were studied by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • The objective of the study was to test, if these morphometric parameters were sufficient for statistical discrimination between pilocytic astrocytomas WHO-grade I, astrocytomas grade II and anaplastic astrocytomas grade III.
  • Our results showed a correct reclassification of 97.3% (72/74) of the cases with respect to the tumour grade by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis.
  • In conclusion, the present morphometric procedure provided good discrimination between the tumour grades, supporting the view that histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei could be a valuable tool for grading of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / ultrastructure. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15634229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Omar AI, Mason WP: Temozolomide: The evidence for its therapeutic efficacy in malignant astrocytomas. Core Evid; 2010 Jun 15;4:93-111

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Temozolomide: The evidence for its therapeutic efficacy in malignant astrocytomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant gliomas are a heterogeneous group of primary central nervous system neoplasms that represent less than 2% of all cancers yet carry a significant burden to society.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) is a new second generation DNA alkylating agent that has become part of malignant astrocytoma management paradigms because of its proven efficacy, ease of administration, and favorable toxicity profile.
  • AIMS: To review the role of TMZ in the management of malignant astrocytomas (World Health Organization grades III and IV) including newly diagnosed (n) and recurrent (r) anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and glioblastomas.
  • EVIDENCE REVIEW: A series of pivotal clinical trials have established a role for TMZ in the treatment of malignant astrocytomas.
  • A recent large prospective randomized phase III trial showed that the addition of TMZ during and after radiation therapy (RT) in newly diagnosed (nGBM) patients prolonged median overall survival by 2.5 months; perhaps more importantly, the 2-year survival rate for patients receiving TMZ and RT was 26% compared with 10% for those receiving RT alone.

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  • (PMID = 20694068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-175X
  • [Journal-full-title] Core evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Core Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899776
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; anaplastic astrocytoma / evidence / glioblastoma / glioma / malignant astrocytoma / temozolomide
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43. Chamberlain MC, Chowdhary SA, Glantz MJ: Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment. Expert Rev Neurother; 2008 Apr;8(4):575-86
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), WHO grade III gliomas, comprise 10-15% of all glial neoplasms.
  • The most important predictor of response to therapy and survival in AA tumors is the presence or absence of the 1p19q co-deletion, a translocation that defines a subset of oligodendroglial tumors, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas in particular.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18416660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Jayawardena S, Sooriabalan D, Indulkar S, Kim HH, Matin A, Maini A: Regression of grade III astrocytoma during the treatment of CML with imatinib mesylate. Am J Ther; 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):458-9
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  • [Title] Regression of grade III astrocytoma during the treatment of CML with imatinib mesylate.
  • Astrocytomas are central nervous system neoplasms, which are derived predominately from astrocytes.
  • On the basis of the histopathologic characteristics astrocytomas are graded from I to IV.
  • The cells that demonstrate the greatest degree of anaplasia are used to determine the histologic grade of the tumor.
  • The mean age of survival are approximately 10 years from the time of diagnosis for pilocystic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade I), more than 5 years for patients with low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (WHO grade II), 2 to 5 years for those with anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III), and less than 1 year for patients with glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The treatment is a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy depending of the grade of astrocytoma.
  • We present a case of 31-year-old man with grade III astrocytoma with subsequent chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with imatinib mesylate as part of his chronic myelogenous leukemia treatment failing to show recurrence of the astrocytoma 10 years after standard treatment for astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16988542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-2765
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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45. Chaichana KL, Kosztowski T, Niranjan A, Olivi A, Weingart JD, Laterra J, Brem H, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing anaplastic astrocytomas in adults. J Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;113(2):286-92
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing anaplastic astrocytomas in adults.
  • OBJECT: Patients harboring anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) typically have a poor prognosis, with median survival times of approximately 3 years following resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Craniotomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20302391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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46. Nafe R, Van de Nes J, Yan B, Schlote W: Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Jan-Feb;25(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Distribution of nuclear size and internuclear distance are important criteria for grading astrocytomas.
  • AIM: The differentiation between low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas is susceptible to considerable inter-observer variability.
  • In order to contribute to a better standardization of astrocytoma-grading based on quantitative data, the present study focuses on two important aspects not being considered in previous morphometric studies: elaboration of a decision flow chart for tumor grading based on morphometric parameters and appropriate cut-off-values, easily performed using low-cost equipment such as measuring oculars; investigation of the distribution (histograms) of parameters describing nuclear size and internuclear distance, which had been represented in previous studies by their mean and standard deviation only.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At least 300 tumor cell nuclei per case were investigated in paraffin sections from surgical specimen of 75 patients with astrocytomas WHO grade II (n = 23) and anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III (n = 52) by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • According to multivariate analysis, the best contribution to tumor grading was achieved by means of parameters concerning the distribution of values for nuclear diameters and internuclear distances.
  • A decision tree was constructed using a knowledge based algorithm, which provided astrocytoma grading based on the distribution of values for nuclear diameter, as well as the numerical nuclear density and proliferation index.
  • CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that a morphometric examination of tumor cell nuclei in paraffin sections supports the clinically important differential diagnosis between low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The method for classification and the data published in the present study constitute a good basis for a standardized and reproducible grading procedure for astrocytomas, which can be performed in any histologic laboratory even without a digital image analysis system.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16465775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Fujita A, Sato JR, Festa F, Gomes LR, Oba-Shinjo SM, Marie SK, Ferreira CE, Sogayar MC: Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas. Genet Mol Res; 2008;7(2):371-8
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  • [Title] Identification of COL6A1 as a differentially expressed gene in human astrocytomas.
  • Gliomas are classified by the WHO according to their histopathological and clinical characteristics into four classes: grade I (pilocytic astrocytoma), grade II (diffuse astrocytoma), grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma), and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Several genes have already been correlated with astrocytomas, but many others are yet to be uncovered.
  • By analyzing the public SAGE data from 21 patients, comprising low malignant grade astrocytomas and glioblastomas, we found COL6A1 to be differentially expressed, confirming this finding by real time RT-PCR in 66 surgical samples.
  • The expression of this gene has significantly different means when normal glia is compared with low-grade astrocytomas (grades I and II) and high-grade astrocytomas (grades III and IV), with a tendency to be greater in higher grade samples, thus rendering it a powerful tumor marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Collagen Type VI / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18551403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type VI; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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48. El-Habr EA, Tsiorva P, Theodorou M, Levidou G, Korkolopoulou P, Vretakos G, Petraki L, Michalopoulos NV, Patsouris E, Saetta AA: Analysis of PIK3CA and B-RAF gene mutations in human astrocytomas: association with activation of ERK and AKT. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Jul-Aug;29(4):239-45
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  • [Title] Analysis of PIK3CA and B-RAF gene mutations in human astrocytomas: association with activation of ERK and AKT.
  • OBJECTIVE: The analysis of the presence of PIK3CA and B-RAF gene mutations in relation to ERK and AKT activation in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas, in order to determine their potential role in tumor aggressiveness.
  • Neither low grade astrocytomas nor anaplastic astrocytomas revealed any mutations in these genes.
  • Moreover, pERK nuclear expression increased in parallel with tumor grade (II, III v/s IV, p = 0.0262).
  • pAKT cytoplasmic expression increased with increasing tumor grade (II,III v/s IV, p = 0.0930), although the latter relationship was of marginal significance. pAKT cytoplasmic expression was also positively correlated with pERK nuclear expression (p = 0.0156).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports the low frequency of PIK3CA and B-RAF mutations in astrocytomas, despite the presence of activated ERK and AKT proteins.
  • Moreover, the correlation of pERK nuclear and pAKT cytoplasmic expression with tumor grade suggests the possible crucial role of the activation of these proteins in human gliomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Mutation / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20569675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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49. Takaya S, Hashikawa K, Turkheimer FE, Mottram N, Deprez M, Ishizu K, Kawashima H, Akiyama H, Fukuyama H, Banati RB, Roncaroli F: The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Oct;85(1):95-103
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  • [Title] The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • We examined two anaplastic astrocytomas showing minimal contrast-enhancement and therefore little damage of the blood brain barrier to minimise the presence of blood borne macrophages within tumour tissue.
  • The expression profile of four anaplastic astrocytomas was also exploited and results were compared to the profile of eleven samples of normal temporal lobe and nine cases of PD.
  • Our results demonstrated PBR suppression in glioma-infiltrating microglia and suggested that PBR may have a relevant role in modulating the anti-tumour inflammatory response in astrocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Microglia / metabolism. Microglia / pathology. Receptors, GABA-A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17520179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120085814
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; YNF83VN1RL / PK 11195
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50. Arvanitis DL, Arvanitis LD, Panourias IG, Kitsoulis P, Kanavaros P: The expression of the epitope H recognized by the monoclonal antibody H is higher in astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Histol Histopathol; 2005 10;20(4):1057-63

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  • [Title] The expression of the epitope H recognized by the monoclonal antibody H is higher in astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In the present study we used the mAbH to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of the epitope H in 41 cases of astrocytic tumors including 19 cases of astrocytomas, 8 cases of anaplastic astrocytomas and 14 cases of glioblastomas.
  • Seven out of 19 cases (37%) of astrocytomas showed weak staining, 10 cases (53%) moderate staining and 2 cases (10%) intense staining.
  • Two out of 8 cases (25%) of anaplastic astrocytomas appeared negative, 3 cases (37.5%) showed weak staining and 3 cases (37.5%) moderate staining.
  • There was a statistically significant elevation of the expression of the epitope H in astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas (p=0.047).
  • These results indicate that the expression of the epitope H decreases in parallel with the increase of the grade of astrocytic tumors from low to higher grade neoplasms.
  • This could be of interest for predicting the progression of an astrocytic tumor since it is documented that astrocytomas progress to tumors of higher grade of malignancy.
  • Further investigation of the antigens bearing the epitope H might help to gain further insight into the mechanisms which regulate the progression of astrocytic tumors and to examine the relevance of the mAbH staining with respect to the prognosis of these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Astrocytoma / immunology. Epitopes / biosynthesis. Glioblastoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16136487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Epitopes; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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51. Combs SE, Gutwein S, Thilmann C, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Reirradiation of recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Dec;181(12):768-73
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  • [Title] Reirradiation of recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT).
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effect of reirradiation in recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1995 to July 2003, 40 patients with grade III gliomas were treated with fractionated stereotactic reirradiation at the time point of recurrence.
  • No toxicities > CTC grade 2 developed.
  • CONCLUSION: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with recurrent grade III astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16362786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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52. Azad A, Deb S, Cher L: Primary anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1704-6
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • We report two adult patients with pilocytic astrocytomas with anaplastic features at initial diagnosis.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are low-grade astrocytomas that occur rarely in adults.
  • Initial presentation of a pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features is particularly uncommon and making a definitive diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features can be challenging.
  • It is critical to differentiate glioblastoma (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 4) and pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (WHO grade 3) from pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade 1) as there are significant therapeutic and prognostic implications.
  • Improved therapeutic strategies are required for pilocytic astrocytomas with anaplastic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Anaplasia / complications. Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19815416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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53. Fernandez A, Karavitaki N, Ansorge O, Fazal-Sanderson V, Wass JA: Acromegaly and anaplastic astrocytoma: coincidence or pathophysiological relation? Pituitary; 2008;11(3):325-30
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  • [Title] Acromegaly and anaplastic astrocytoma: coincidence or pathophysiological relation?
  • Insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) is an important promoter in the tumorigenesis of several extracranial and intracranial neoplasms.
  • In astrocytic-cell tumors, the role of autocrine and paracrine IGF-I expression in enhancing tumoral progression is well established.
  • However, the influence of systemic IGF-I levels on the clinical behavior of astrocytic neoplasms remains an open subject of research.
  • We report the case of a 28-year-old man who presented simultaneously with acromegaly and an anaplastic astrocytoma, which had rapidly progressed from a low-grade astrocytoma.
  • The coexistence of systemic IGF-I hypersecretion with a quick progression in the histopathological grade of the astrocytoma raises the compelling question of whether the clinical behavior of the astrocytic tumor was influenced by the acromegalic status.
  • The role of IGF-I signaling in the pathogenesis of astrocytic-cell tumors and the experience with therapeutic strategies addressing this pathway in astrocytomas are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18000757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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54. Moulding HD, Friedman DP, Curtis M, Kenyon L, Flanders AE, Paek SH, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas I: an expansive growth pattern is associated with a better prognosis. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1311-21
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  • [Title] Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas I: an expansive growth pattern is associated with a better prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To study whether anaplastic astrocytomas that are nonenhancing and/or well-circumscribed (expansive) are associated with a better prognosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified 59 patients with pathologically confirmed World Health Organizaiton (WHO) grade III anaplastic astrocytoma who underwent craniotomy at our institution from 1995 through 2006.
  • A multivariate (Cox proportional hazards) analysis showed that patient age and expansive tumor phenotype affected outcome, whereas RPA class, enhancement, and GTR did not.
  • CONCLUSION: Circumscribed growth in histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma, which has not been emphasized in past studies, has a considerable survival advantage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chi-Square Distribution. Contrast Media. Craniotomy. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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55. Bäcklund LM, Nilsson BR, Liu L, Ichimura K, Collins VP: Mutations in Rb1 pathway-related genes are associated with poor prognosis in anaplastic astrocytomas. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jul 11;93(1):124-30
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  • [Title] Mutations in Rb1 pathway-related genes are associated with poor prognosis in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, WHO grade III) is, second to Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant type of adult CNS tumour.
  • The survival data on 37 carefully sampled AA was correlated with the results of a detailed analysis of the status of nine genes known to be involved in the development of astrocytic tumours.
  • We found that loss of both wild-type copies of any of the three tumour suppressor genes CDKN2A, CDKN2B and RB1 or gene amplification of CDK4, disrupting the Rb1 pathway, were associated with shorter survival (P=0.009).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, Retinoblastoma. Mutation


56. Gimenez M, Souza VC, Izumi C, Barbieri MR, Chammas R, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Marie SK, Rosa JC: Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin. Proteomics; 2010 Aug;10(15):2812-21
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin.
  • The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in diffuse astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and glioblastoma multiforme grade IV in human tumor samples and in non-neoplastic brain tissue as control using 2-DE and MS.
  • Tumor and control brain tissue dissection was guided by histological hematoxylin/eosin tissue sections to provide more than 90% of tumor cells and astrocytes.
  • Six proteins were detected as up-regulated in higher grade astrocytomas and the most important finding was nucleophosmin (NPM) (p<0.05), whereas four proteins were down-regulated, among them raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) (p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / genetics. Proteomics


57. Hartmann C, Hentschel B, Wick W, Capper D, Felsberg J, Simon M, Westphal M, Schackert G, Meyermann R, Pietsch T, Reifenberger G, Weller M, Loeffler M, von Deimling A: Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Dec;120(6):707-18
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  • [Title] Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas.
  • WHO grading of human brain tumors extends beyond a strictly histological grading system by providing a basis predictive for the clinical behavior of the respective neoplasm.
  • For example, patients with glioblastoma WHO grade IV usually show a less favorable clinical course and receive more aggressive first-line treatment than patients with anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • Here we provide evidence that the IDH1 status is more prognostic for overall survival than standard histological criteria that differentiate high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We sequenced the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) at codon 132 in 382 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma from the NOA-04 trial and from a prospective translational cohort study of the German Glioma Network.
  • Patients with anaplastic astrocytomas carried IDH1 mutations in 60%, and patients with glioblastomas in 7.2%.
  • The sequence from more favorable to poorer outcome was (1) anaplastic astrocytoma with IDH1 mutation, (2) glioblastoma with IDH1 mutation, (3) anaplastic astrocytoma without IDH1 mutation and (4) glioblastoma without IDH1 mutation (p < 0.0001).
  • In this combined set of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas both, IDH1 mutation and IDH1 expression status were of greater prognostic relevance than histological diagnosis according to the current WHO classification system.
  • We propose to complement the current WHO classification and grading of high-grade astrocytic gliomas by the IDH1 mutation status and to use this combined histological and molecular classification in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Young Adult


58. MacDonald TJ, Pollack IF, Okada H, Bhattacharya S, Lyons-Weiler J: Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis. Methods Mol Biol; 2007;377:203-22
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  • [Title] Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis.
  • Astrocytoma is graded as pilocytic (WHO grade I), diffuse (WHO grade II), anaplastic (WHO grade III), and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV).
  • The progression from low- to high-grade astrocytoma is associated with distinct molecular changes that vary with patient age, yet the prognosis of high-grade tumors in children and adults is equally dismal.
  • Whether specific gene expression changes are consistently associated with all high-grade astrocytomas, independent of patient age, is not known.
  • To address this question, we reanalyzed the microarray datasets comprising astrocytomas from children and adults, respectively.
  • We identified nine genes consistently dysregulated in high-grade tumors, using four novel tests for identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • Four genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPS2, RPS8, RPS18, RPL37A) were upregulated, and five genes (APOD, SORL1, SPOCK2, PRSS11, ID3) were downregulated in high-grade by all tests.
  • Expression results were validated using a third astrocytoma dataset.
  • APOD, the most differentially expressed gene, has been shown to inhibit tumor cell and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.
  • This suggests that dysregulation of APOD may be critical for malignant astrocytoma formation, and thus a possible novel universal target for therapeutic intervention.
  • Further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of APOD, as well as the other genes identified, in malignant astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Chromosomes, Human. Cluster Analysis. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Models, Genetic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17634619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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59. Scott IS, Morris LS, Rushbrook SM, Bird K, Vowler SL, Burnet NG, Coleman N: Immunohistochemical estimation of cell cycle entry and phase distribution in astrocytomas: applications in diagnostic neuropathology. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Oct;31(5):455-66
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical estimation of cell cycle entry and phase distribution in astrocytomas: applications in diagnostic neuropathology.
  • Paraffin-embedded sections of intracerebral gliomas (n = 48), consisting of diffuse astrocytoma (n = 9), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8) and glioblastoma (n = 31), were analysed by immunohistochemistry using markers of cell cycle entry, Mcm-2 and Ki67, and putative markers of cell cycle phase, cyclins D1 (G1-phase), cyclin A (S-phase), cyclin B1 (G2-phase) and phosphohistone H3 (Mitosis).
  • There was a significant increase in Mcm-2 (P < 0.0001), Ki67 (P < 0.0001), cyclin A (P < 0.0001) and cyclin B1 (P = 0.002) expression with increasing grade from diffuse astrocytoma through anaplastic astrocytoma to glioblastoma, suggesting that any of these four markers has potential as a marker of tumour grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Immunohistochemistry / methods

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  • (PMID = 16150117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Histones; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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60. Gulati S, Ytterhus B, Granli US, Gulati M, Lydersen S, Torp SH: Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:18
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  • [Title] Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • This study shows the convenience and feasibility of immunohistochemistry when determining the expression of receptor proteins in tissue sections of human astrocytomas.
  • The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biopsy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-4. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20331873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2859381
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100609
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61. Nomiya T, Nemoto K, Kumabe T, Takai Y, Yamada S: Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:11
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  • [Title] Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite intensive multimodal treatment, outcome of patients with malignant glioma remains poor, and a standard dose of radiotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma has not been defined.
  • In the past RTOG study (83-02), the arm of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for malignant gliomas showed better outcome than the arms of higher doses (76.8 - 81.6 Gy) and the arms of lower doses (48 - 54.4 Gy).
  • METHODS: From July 1995, 44 consecutive eligible patients with histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma were enrolled in this study (HFRT group).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested that 72 Gy HFRT seemed to show favorable outcome for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nimustine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18199339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0S726V972K / Nimustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2254433
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62. Zhu Y, Guignard F, Zhao D, Liu L, Burns DK, Mason RP, Messing A, Parada LF: Early inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor gene cooperating with NF1 loss induces malignant astrocytoma. Cancer Cell; 2005 Aug;8(2):119-30
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  • [Title] Early inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor gene cooperating with NF1 loss induces malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant astrocytoma, the most prevalent primary brain tumor, is resistant to all known therapies and frequently harbors mutations that inactivate p53 and activate Ras signaling.
  • We have generated mouse strains that lack p53 and harbor a conditional allele of the NF1 tumor suppressor that negatively regulates Ras signaling.
  • The mice develop malignant astrocytomas with complete penetrance.
  • The majority of tumors display characteristics of glioblastoma multiforme with concomitant alteration of signaling pathways previously described in the human counterparts of this neoplasm.
  • We find that the sequence of tumor suppressor inactivation influences tumorigenicity and that earliest evidence of tumor formation localizes to regions of the brain that contain a multipotent stem cell population capable of in vivo differentiation into neurons and glia.

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  • (PMID = 16098465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS034296-07; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS034296-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA086354; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS034296-06; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS034296; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS034296-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA86354
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS263629; NLM/ PMC3024718
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63. Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kreth FW, Ruiter M, Schnell O, Bise K, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Tonn JC, Kretzschmar HA: Intratumoral homogeneity of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 1;121(11):2458-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intratumoral homogeneity of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • It was aimed to analyze prospectively whether the MGMT status of malignant gliomas could be determined from small-sized stereotactic biopsies (maximum volume: 1 mm(3)).
  • Twenty-five adult patients were included (20 patients with primary World Health Organisation (WHO) Grade III or IV malignant gliomas, 5 patients with secondary malignant gliomas).
  • About 2-4 biopsy specimens per tumor were collected from different sites within the tumor.
  • The overall MGMT promoter methylation rate was 30% in the de novo group and 80% in the tumor progression group.
  • No differences in MGMT promoter methylation were detected between the different samples of each individual tumor in 24 of 25 patients.
  • Tissue samples taken from different sites of each individual tumor (13 tumors investigated) exhibited equal or highly similar MGMT protein expression.
  • The MGMT promoter methylation status of malignant gliomas can be reliably determined from small-sized stereotactic biopsies.
  • The methylation profile, as defined by MSP and sodium bisulfite sequencing, constitutes a homogeneous marker throughout malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biopsy / methods. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17691113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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64. Nathoo N, Prayson RA, Bondar J, Vargo L, Arrigain S, Mascha EJ, Suh JH, Barnett GH, Golubic M: Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Feb;58(2):347-54; discussion 347-54
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  • [Title] Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this study, we investigated whether 5-LO is expressed in human astrocytomas and what effect its expression may have on patient outcome.
  • METHODS: Increased 5-LO messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and antibody-based approaches, respectively, in surgical astrocytoma specimens and established glioblastoma multiforme cell lines compared with primary cell culture from the human white matter.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominantly nuclear 5-LO staining in 44 of 49 glioblastoma multiforme samples (90%), 8 of 10 (80%) anaplastic astrocytomas samples, and 3 of 13 (23%) low-grade astrocytoma samples analyzed.
  • Double-staining experiments with anti-CD-68 (macrophage/microglial marker) and anti-5-LO antibodies suggest that both CD-68-positive and CD-68-negative tumor cells express 5-LO protein.
  • Staining of 5-LO was significantly more frequent in high-grade than in low-grade tumors (P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 5-LO is overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas and supports the idea that eicosanoids may play a role in tumorigenesis of these brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / cytology. Brain / enzymology. Cells, Cultured. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16462489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107277
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
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65. Malhan P, Husain N, Bhalla S, Gupta RK, Husain M: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 and micro vessel density: Grade II vs. Grade III astrocytoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):20-3
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  • [Title] Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53 and micro vessel density: Grade II vs. Grade III astrocytoma.
  • Histological classification and grading are prime procedures in the management of patients with astrocytoma, providing vital data for therapeutic decision making and prognostication.
  • However, it has limitations in assessing biological tumor behavior.
  • This study was carried out to compare proliferative indices using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), extent of p53 expression and micro vessel morphometric parameters in patients with low grade and anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Twenty-five patients, each of grade II and grade III astrocytoma were evaluated using monoclonal antibodies to PCNA, p53 protein and factor VIII related antigen.
  • Patients with grade III astrocytoma had higher PCNA and p53 labeling indices as compared with grade II astrocytoma (29.14 plus/minus 9.87% vs. 16.84 plus/minus 6.57%, p 0.001; 18.18 plus/minus 6.14% vs. 6.14 plus/minus 7.23%, p 0.001, respectively).
  • Micro vessel percentage area of patients with grade III astrocytoma was also (4.26 plus/minus 3.70 vs. 1.05 plus/minus 0.56, p 0.001), higher along with other micro vessel morphometric parameters.
  • Discordance between histology and one or more IHC parameters was seen in 5/25 (20%) of patients with grade III astrocytoma and 9/25 (36%) of patients with grade II disease.
  • Increased proliferative fraction, genetic alterations and neovascularization mark biological aggressiveness in astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20090216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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66. Nagai S, Kurimoto M, Washiyama K, Hirashima Y, Kumanishi T, Endo S: Inhibition of cellular proliferation and induction of apoptosis by curcumin in human malignant astrocytoma cell lines. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(2):105-11
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  • [Title] Inhibition of cellular proliferation and induction of apoptosis by curcumin in human malignant astrocytoma cell lines.
  • In malignant astrocytoma cells, it was reported that NF-kappaB was activated aberrantly and promoted their proliferation.
  • Thus, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity is considered to be a promising therapeutic strategy for malignant astrocytoma.
  • In this study, we investigated inhibitory effects of curcumin on NF-kappaB activity and cellular proliferation, and induction of apoptosis by curcumin in human malignant astrocytoma cell lines.
  • Alteration of NF-kappaB activity in NP-2 human malignant astrocytoma cell line after treatment with curcumin was examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay.
  • Alterations of DNA synthesis and cellular growth in five human malignant astrocytoma cell lines after treatment with curcumin were examined using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay and the trypan blue dye exclusion method, respectively.
  • Induction of apoptosis by curcumin in NP-2 and NP-3 human malignant astrocytoma cell lines was examined by DNA-fragmentation analysis and morphological observation.
  • The DNA synthesis and the cellular growth were inhibited by curcumin in dose-dependent manner in all the five malignant astrocytoma cell lines.
  • These results indicate that curcumin inhibits the cellular proliferation and induces apoptosis in human malignant astrocytoma cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Curcumin / therapeutic use. NF-kappa B / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Humans. Thymidine / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16193380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NF-kappa B; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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67. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma occurring 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jul;107(1):185-9
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma occurring 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma. Case report.
  • The authors present the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with an anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma that developed 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma in his right lateral ventricle.
  • Histological examination revealed anaplastic oligodendroglioma in the parietal lobe and anaplastic astrocytoma in the insula.
  • One year later, the anaplastic astrocytoma was found to have transformed into a glioblastoma multiforme.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemical examinations detected deletions of the lp36 and 19q13 loci, and nuclear accumulation of TP53 protein in the anaplastic oligodendroglioma but not in the glioblastoma multiforme.
  • These findings suggest that central neurocytoma or progenitor cells have the potential for oligodendrocytic and astrocytic transformation with different genetic aberrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurocytoma / surgery. Oligodendroglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Time Factors


68. Zarkovic K, Juric G, Waeg G, Kolenc D, Zarkovic N: Immunohistochemical appearance of HNE-protein conjugates in human astrocytomas. Biofactors; 2005;24(1-4):33-40

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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical appearance of HNE-protein conjugates in human astrocytomas.
  • Those of astrocytic origin are the most widespread of primary brain tumors and account for more then 60% of all CNS neoplasms.
  • The current state of knowledge on the associations between tumor etiology and oxidative stress suggests that environmental factors that cause oxidative stress could also induce and promote cancer, especially in case of hereditary predisposition.
  • The aim of present study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry the presence of HNE-modified proteins in different types of astrocytoma.
  • Our study comprised 45 astrocytic tumors.
  • These tumors were graded in accordance with the WHO classification as diffuse astrocytomas (DA), anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and glioblastomas (GB), while each group comprised 15 tumors.
  • Slides of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or were prepared for immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to HNE-histidine conjugate.
  • HNE positivity was proportional with malignancy of astrocytomas.
  • Lowest intensity of HNE immunopositivity was present in tumor cells of almost all DA, predominantly around blood vessels.
  • In malignant variants of astrocytoma, AA and GB, HNE positivity was moderate to strong, and diffusely distributed in all tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehydes / analysis. Aldehydes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry. Proteins / analysis. Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16403961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-6433
  • [Journal-full-title] BioFactors (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biofactors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Proteins; 29343-52-0 / 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
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69. Wu-Chen WY, Jacobs DA, Volpe NJ, Dalmau JO, Moster ML: Intracranial malignancies occurring more than 20 years after radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma. J Neuroophthalmol; 2009 Dec;29(4):289-95
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  • Imaging disclosed a left parasellar mass and a midbrain/pontine signal abnormality.
  • Biopsy of the parasellar mass revealed a malignant sarcoma.
  • The brainstem abnormality was presumptively diagnosed as a malignant glioma.
  • A 63-year-old man developed a malignant astrocytoma of the left optic nerve and chiasm 23 years after partial excision and radiation of a nonsecreting pituitary adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 19952902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Shuangshoti S, Thorner PS, Ruangvejvorachai P, Saha B, Groshen S, Taylor CR, Malhotra S, Imam SA: J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):521-7
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  • [Title] J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas.
  • J1-31 is one of the astrocytic proteins, the expression of which has not been evaluated in astrocytomas.
  • In the present study, we studied the expression of J1-31 protein in astrocytes and astrocytomas in comparison with GFAP, p53 and Ki-67.
  • Materials consisted of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that included five cases of normal brain, 17 of gliosis, 15 of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I), 26 of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), four of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and eight of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The antibody showed reactivity with tumor cells in 12/15 (80%) cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, although intensity of staining was generally weaker and more focal than observed in reactive gliosis.
  • J1-31-positive tumor cells were detected in only 9/26 (35%) cases of the low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and none of the cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
  • Increasing Ki-67 indices paralleled advancing tumor grades. p53 protein was expressed more commonly in infiltrating astrocytomas compared to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In conclusion, down-regulation of J1-31 expression correlates with advancing grade of astrocytomas.
  • The result suggests this protein plays some role in astrocytes that is progressively lost in malignant progression.
  • The anti-J1-31 antibody may help further our understanding of astrocytes in disease and may be useful as an aid in the pathologic diagnosis of astrocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / J1-31 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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71. Guan Y, Mizoguchi M, Yoshimoto K, Hata N, Shono T, Suzuki SO, Araki Y, Kuga D, Nakamizo A, Amano T, Ma X, Hayashi K, Sasaki T: MiRNA-196 is upregulated in glioblastoma but not in anaplastic astrocytoma and has prognostic significance. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Aug 15;16(16):4289-97
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  • [Title] MiRNA-196 is upregulated in glioblastoma but not in anaplastic astrocytoma and has prognostic significance.
  • They are implicated in tumorigenesis and function both as tumor suppressors and as oncogenes.
  • The clinical significance of miRNA expression profiles in malignant gliomas remains unclear.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this study, we examined the expression levels of 365 mature human miRNAs in 12 malignant gliomas, including 8 glioblastomas and 4 anaplastic astrocytomas, using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR arrays.
  • A validation study was done to corroborate a subset of the results, including expression levels of miR-196a, -196b, -21, and -15b, by analyzing 92 malignant gliomas by conventional real-time PCR.
  • RESULTS: Expression profiles in glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas suggested that 16 miRNAs were candidate markers associated with the malignant progression of gliomas.
  • Both miRNAs showed increased expression levels in glioblastomas relative to both anaplastic astrocytomas and normal brains in the validation study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that miR-196 may play a role in the malignant progression of gliomas and may be a prognostic predictor in glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20601442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MIRN196 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs
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72. Kojadinovic Z, Papic V, Cigic T, Vulekovic P, Popovic Lj, Jajic Dj: A new scoring system for malignant astrocytomas. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2008 May;69(2):65-70

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  • [Title] A new scoring system for malignant astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently there are a few scoring systems for malignant astrocytoma, but they are not widely accepted.
  • The aim of this study was to create a scoring system for supratentorial malignant astrocytoma, which could be used in both developed and developing societies.
  • METHODS: This study was performed in 128 patients who had supratentorial malignant astrocytoma (grade III or IV).
  • By using the most appropriate four parameters (age, KPS, initial seizure and histopathological grade) we created a scoring system - MAS (Malignant Astrocytoma Score).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We are of the opinion that MAS represents a useful scoring system to determine the severity of the illness and make a prognosis for both individuals and groups of patients with malignant supratentorial astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. ROC Curve. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18444219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Miura FK, Alves MJ, Rocha MC, da Silva R, Oba-Shinjo SM, Marie SK: Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Mar;65(3):305-9
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  • [Title] Xenograft transplantation of human malignant astrocytoma cells into immunodeficient rats: an experimental model of glioblastoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Astrocytic gliomas are the most common intracranial central nervous system neoplasias, accounting for about 60% of all primary central nervous system tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop an experimental malignant astrocytoma model with the characteristics of the human tumor.
  • METHOD: Primary cells from subcutaneous xenograft tumors produced with malignant astrocytoma U87MG cells were inoculated intracerebrally by stereotaxis into immunosuppressed (athymic) Rowett rats.
  • CONCLUSION: A malignant astrocytoma intracerebral xenograft model with poorly invasive behavior was achieved in athymic Rowett rats.
  • Tumor invasiveness in an experimental animal model may depend on a combination of several factors, including the cell line used to induce tumor formation, the rat strains and the status of the animal's immune system.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Immunocompromised Host
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats. Rats, Nude. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 20360922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2845772
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Athymic Rowett rats / Brain tumor / Experimental model / U87MG cells
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74. Kikuchi T: [Novel immunotherapeutic approach]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Apr;32(4):453-7
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  • Malignant astrocytoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults.
  • The median survival time of patients with high-grade malignant astrocytoma is about 1 year, despite aggressive treatment with surgical resection, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • The author reviews immunotherapeutic approaches for malignant gliomas and the relevance of recent clinical trials and their outcomes.
  • DCs have been investigated in several clinical trials in patients with malignant tumors including malignant gliomas.
  • So far, seven papers concerning immunotherapy with DCs against malignant gliomas have been published.
  • These reports demonstrate that immunotherapy with DCs induces immune responses and clinically antitumor effects in some patients with malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Immunotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15853209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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75. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Ogino A, Ohta T, Yoshino A, Fukushima T: Preliminary individualized chemotherapy for malignant astrocytomas based on O6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation analysis. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Aug;46(8):387-93; discussion 393-4
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  • [Title] Preliminary individualized chemotherapy for malignant astrocytomas based on O6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation analysis.
  • This study was a preliminary trial of individualized chemotherapy based on MGMT methylation status in a total of 20 patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas (9 anaplastic astrocytomas and 11 glioblastomas multiforme).
  • Objective response to the PAV therapy was noted in all three patients with measurable residual tumor (2 complete responses and 1 partial response).
  • Objective response to the CE therapy was seen in only one of seven patients with measurable residual tumor (1 partial response).
  • The PAV regimen is effective against MGMT-methylated malignant astrocytomas, but the CE regimen is not useful at the given dose and schedule in MGMT-unmethylated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16936459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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76. Brehar FM, Ciurea AV, Zarnescu O, Bleotu C, Gorgan RM, Dragu D, Matei L: Infiltrating growing pattern xenografts induced by glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma derived tumor stem cells. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2010 Sep-Oct;105(5):685-94
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  • [Title] Infiltrating growing pattern xenografts induced by glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma derived tumor stem cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: The number of evidences regarding the role of tumor stem cells (TSC) in the initiation and progression of high-grade astrocytomas became more and more numerous in the last years.
  • This issue has been intensively tested in glioblastoma, but little attention has been paid for anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The main objective of this paper was to study the morphological characteristics of the xenografts developed from glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma derived cancer stem cells.
  • METHODS: The authors of this study successfully isolated and partial characterized primary cultures of glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma derived TSC.
  • RESULTS: The tumor xenografts which have been established in nude mice using TSC had different characteristics when compared with U87 xenografts previously developed by our group, and depend of the origin type of the tumors (glioblastoma versus anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • The diffuse growing pattern and cells infiltration have been more pronounced in both anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma derived TSC xenografts compared with U87 line xenografts.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis regarding the role of TSC in the infiltration process of glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 21141095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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77. Kawarabuki K, Ohta T, Hashimoto N, Wada K, Maruno M, Yamaki T, Ueda S: Cerebellar glioblastoma genetically defined as a secondary one. Clin Neuropathol; 2005 Mar-Apr;24(2):64-8
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  • In the present case, tumor lesions were observed in each cerebellar hemisphere.
  • The left-side lesion was diagnosed as glioblastoma, and the right-side lesion as malignant astrocytoma by histopathology.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor cells of the left-side lesion was positive for p53, whereas epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) were negative in tumor cells from both sides.
  • Genetic alterations were investigated using a genome DNA microarray (GenoSensor Array 300), which has led us to define this tumor as a secondary glioblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 15803805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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78. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Komine C, Yoshino A, Ogino A, Ohta T, Fukushima T: O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation and TP53 mutation in malignant astrocytomas and their relationships with clinical course. Int J Cancer; 2005 Feb 10;113(4):581-7
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  • [Title] O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation and TP53 mutation in malignant astrocytomas and their relationships with clinical course.
  • The aim of our study was to assess the correlation of promoter methylation of the MGMT gene with TP53 mutations and the clinical characteristics of malignant astrocytomas.
  • We analyzed the MGMT promoter methylation and TP53 mutations in 45 malignant astrocytomas (16 anaplastic astrocytomas and 29 glioblastomas multiforme) treated prospectively with 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-2(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea, interferon-beta and radiation therapy, and evaluated their clinical usefulness.
  • MGMT promoter methylation was found in 17 (38%) of the 45 newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Mutation / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15455376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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79. Mott RT, Turner KC, Bigner DD, McLendon RE: Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):330-5
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  • [Title] Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation.
  • OBJECT: Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • As a group, they demonstrate an inherent tendency toward malignant progression.
  • Given the important roles for EGFR and PTEN in the malignant progression of astrocytomas, the authors hypothesized that the fraction of tumor cells with aberrations in these genetic loci would correlate with the histological grade.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated 217 consecutive diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas that were graded using the WHO guidelines, including 16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO Grade II), 72 anaplastic astrocytomas ([AAs] WHO Grade III), and 129 glioblastomas multiforme ([GBMs] WHO Grade IV).
  • RESULTS: The population of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus correlated significantly with histological grade.
  • In particular, high-grade astrocytomas (that is, AAs and GBMs) had elevated fractions of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus.
  • Using these findings, the authors generated a mathematical model capable of subcategorizing high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The successful model incorporated only the percentage of tumor cells with polysomy of EGFR and monosomy of PTEN, as well as patient age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in this study emphasize the utility of combining histological interpretation and molecular testing in the evaluation of infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Genes, erbB-1 / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18240930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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80. Roselli F, Pisciotta NM, Aniello MS, Niccoli-Asabella A, Defazio G, Livrea P, Rubini G: Brain F-18 Fluorocholine PET/CT for the assessment of optic pathway glioma in neurofibromatosis-1. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Oct;35(10):838-9
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and F-18 fluorocholine revealed a splenial mass with imaging features compatible with malignant astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 20838306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / fluorocholine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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81. Watanabe T, Nobusawa S, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Am J Pathol; 2009 Apr;174(4):1149-53
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  • [Title] IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • IDH1 mutations were frequent in low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (88%) and in secondary glioblastomas that developed through progression from low-grade diffuse or anaplastic astrocytoma (82%).
  • IDH1 mutations were co-present with TP53 mutations in 63% of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and with loss of heterozygosity 1p/19q in 64% of oligodendrogliomas; they were rare in pilocytic astrocytomas (10%) and primary glioblastomas (5%) and absent in ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19246647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671348
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82. Assimakopoulou M, Kondyli M, Gatzounis G, Maraziotis T, Varakis J: Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:202
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  • [Title] Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75NTR, and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue.
  • METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV) were immunostained following microwave pretreatment.
  • The labeling index (LI), defined as the percentage of positive (labeled) cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined.
  • RESULTS: Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (approximately 1%) in some tumors.
  • The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor.
  • Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were significantly co-expressed in a tumor grade-dependent manner (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: In the context of astrocytomas, Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) expression may promote tumor growth independently of grade.
  • Considering the fact that regional tumor heterogeneity may be a limiting factor for immunohistochemical studies, the significance of the reverse relationship between Trk receptors and pc-Jun/pJNK LIs with respect to biological behavior of human astrocytomas requires further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MAP Kinase Kinase 4 / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Phosphorylation. Receptor, trkA / metabolism. Receptor, trkB / metabolism. Receptor, trkC / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17971243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NGFR protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkB; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2180182
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83. Bozinov O, Köhler S, Samans B, Benes L, Miller D, Ritter M, Sure U, Bertalanffy H: Candidate genes for the progression of malignant gliomas identified by microarray analysis. Neurosurg Rev; 2008 Jan;31(1):83-9; discussion 89-90
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  • [Title] Candidate genes for the progression of malignant gliomas identified by microarray analysis.
  • Malignant astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III or IV have a reduced median survival time, and possible pathways have been described for the progression of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas, but the molecular basis of malignant astrocytoma progression is still poorly understood.
  • We compared the transcriptional profile of 4,608 genes in tumours of 15 patients including 6 anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III) and 9 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) using microarray analysis.
  • We identified 166 gene alterations with a fold change of 2 and higher whose mRNA levels differed (absolute value of the t statistic of 1.96) between the two malignant glioma groups.
  • Further analyses confirmed same transcription directions for Olig2 and IL-13Ralpha2 in anaplastic astrocytomas as compared to glioblastomas.
  • IL-13Ralpha2 and Olig2 have been identified and confirmed to be interesting candidate genes whose differential expression likely plays a role in malignant progression of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Glioblastoma / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Neurosurg Rev. 2008 Apr;31(2):247-8
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  • (PMID = 17917751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human
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84. Yue WY, Chen ZP: Does vasculogenic mimicry exist in astrocytoma? J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):997-1002
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  • [Title] Does vasculogenic mimicry exist in astrocytoma?
  • Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) has been observed in melanoma and in some nonmelanoma tumor types.
  • It is unknown whether a similar VM phenomenon exists in astrocytoma.
  • The present study was to examine 45 astrocytomas (including World Health Organization grade II 15 cases, grade III 15 cases, and grade IV 15 cases) by CD34 endothelial marker periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) dual staining to see if VM existing in these tumors.
  • The results demonstrated that endothelium-lined vessels dominated the tumor microvasculature and stained positively for PAS, laminin, and endothelial marker.
  • PAS-positive pattern of VM was found in two grade IV astrocytomas.
  • Channels stained positively for PAS, laminin, and negatively for CD34 of the VM entrapped in the tumor tissue.
  • Furthermore, in astrocytoma, especially glioblastoma, focus of anaplastic tumor cells appeared with CD34 expression, whereas some tumor cells lost glial fibrillary acid protein expression.
  • It is assumed that genetically deregulated tumor cells in astrocytoma could lose the astrocyte-specific protein and express inappropriate markers not expected in cells of astrocyte lineage.
  • The present results suggest that VM phenomenon exists in some malignant astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers / metabolism. Coloring Agents. Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism. Humans. Microcirculation. Neoplasm Staging. Periodic Acid. Schiff Bases

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  • (PMID = 15923371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Schiff Bases; 10450-60-9 / Periodic Acid
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85. Wacker A, Will BE, Schöning M, Neunhoeffer F: [Intracerebral bleeding as the first symptom of a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol; 2008 Oct;212(5):194-6
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  • [Title] [Intracerebral bleeding as the first symptom of a congenital anaplastic astrocytoma].
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic astrocytomas in neonates are extremely rare.
  • No tumour was found, but an anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III) was diagnosed histologically.
  • CONCLUSION: Congenital anaplastic astrocytomas have a variable outcome, with different survival rates as compared to adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / congenital. Brain Neoplasms / congenital. Cerebral Hemorrhage / congenital

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  • (PMID = 18956278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Wang M, Tang J, Liu S, Yoshida D, Teramoto A: Expression of cathepsin B and microvascular density increases with higher grade of astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(1):3-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of cathepsin B and microvascular density increases with higher grade of astrocytomas.
  • Samples were taken from supratentorial gliomas border and normal brain autopsy which were divided into four groups, these including eight cases normal brain tissues, 30 cases of astrocytomas, 25 cases of anaplastic astrocytomas and 22 cases of glioblastomas.
  • Only 9 out of 30 cases of astrocytomas showed a low percentage of positive cells that were stained in a light, diffuse cytoplasmic pattern (score +).
  • Twenty-two out of 35 cases of anaplastic astrocytomas showed positive light, granular staining pattern, it including five samples (score +), and 17 samples (score + +).
  • Positive staining tumor cells were found in extracellular matrix (ECM), basement membrane (BM), and the endothelial cells of blood vessels were also positive stained.
  • Along with elevating glioma grade, CB expression and MVD value were both increased.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cathepsin B / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / blood supply. Supratentorial Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / blood supply. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15719267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.22.1 / Cathepsin B
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87. Li B, Qi XQ, Chen X, Huang X, Liu GY, Chen HR, Huang CG, Luo C, Lu YC: Expression of targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 is associated with progression of human malignant astrocytoma. Brain Res; 2010 Sep 17;1352:200-7
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  • [Title] Expression of targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 is associated with progression of human malignant astrocytoma.
  • However, the contribution of TPX2 expression to astrocytoma progression is unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate TPX2 expression in human astrocytoma samples and cell lines.
  • TPX2 protein expression was detected in the nucleus of astrocytoma tissues by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining.
  • Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of TPX2 were higher in high-grade astrocytoma tissues and cell lines than that in low-grade astrocytoma tissues and normal cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from 52 patients with astrocytoma showed that TPX2 over-expression was significantly associated with decreased patient survival.
  • These data suggest that TPX2 expression is associated with the progression of malignant astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Aurora Kinases. Brain / metabolism. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B1 / genetics. Cyclin D1 / genetics. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20599806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6240
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / TPX2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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88. Comincini S, Ferrara V, Arias A, Malovini A, Azzalin A, Ferretti L, Benericetti E, Cardarelli M, Gerosa M, Passarin MG, Turazzi S, Bellazzi R: Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy. Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):989-96
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of PRND gene expression profiles in astrocytomas: relationship to tumor grades of malignancy.
  • Recently, ectopic expression of doppel was found in two different tumor types, specifically in glial and haematological cancers.
  • In order to address clinical important issues, PRND mRNA expression was investigated in a panel of 111 astrocytoma tissue samples, histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (6 grade I pilocytic astrocytomas, 15 grade II low-grade astrocytomas, 26 grade III anaplastic astrocytomas and 64 grade IV glioblastoma multiforme).
  • Real-time PRND gene expression profiling, after normalisation with GAPDH, revealed large differences between low (WHO I and II) and high grade (III and IV) of malignancy (P<0.001).
  • Extensive differences in PRND gene expression were also found within each grade of malignancy, suggesting that PRND mRNA quantitation might be useful to distinguish astrocytoma subtypes, and important in disease stratification and in the assessment of specific treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Prions / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17390034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / PRND protein, human; 0 / Prions
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89. Ishihara R, Katayama Y, Watanabe T, Yoshino A, Fukushima T, Sakatani K: Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Feb;47(2):53-7; discussion 57
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  • [Title] Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • To increase the sensitivity of photodetection, the emission spectra of 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence was quantitatively measured in tissues taken from six cases of en bloc resected diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (2 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 2 glioblastomas), and the correlation assessed between the fluorescence intensity and histological features.
  • The ratio of the peak emission intensity to reflected excitation intensity or fluorescence intensity ratio was less than 0.001 for all 36 non-tumor tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Protoporphyrins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aminolevulinic Acid. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Photosensitizing Agents. Spectrometry, Fluorescence

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  • (PMID = 17317941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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90. Chaichana KL, Parker SL, Olivi A, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Long-term seizure outcomes in adult patients undergoing primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg; 2009 Aug;111(2):282-92
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  • [Title] Long-term seizure outcomes in adult patients undergoing primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas. Clinical article.
  • OBJECT: Seizures are a common presenting symptom and cause of morbidity for patients with malignant astrocytomas.
  • The authors set out to determine preoperative seizure characteristics, effects of surgery on seizure control, and factors associated with prolonged seizure control in patients with malignant astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Cases involving adult patients who underwent primary resection of a hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions between 1996 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The factors more commonly associated with preoperative seizures were AA pathology (p = 0.03), temporal lobe involvement (p = 0.04), and cortical location (p = 0.04), while the factors less commonly associated with preoperative seizures were greater age (p = 0.03) and larger tumor size (p <or= 0.001).
  • Among those patients with a history of seizures, outcome 12 months after surgery was Engel Class I (seizure free) in 77%, Class II (rare seizures) in 12%, Class III (meaningful improvement) in 6%, and Class IV (no improvement) in 5%.
  • Seizure recurrence in patients with postoperative seizure control was independently associated with tumor recurrence (p = 0.006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The identification and consideration of factors associated with prolonged seizure control may help guide treatment strategies aimed at improving the quality of life for patients with malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Seizures / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19344222.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. McGirt MJ, Chaichana KL, Gathinji M, Attenello F, Than K, Ruiz AJ, Olivi A, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Persistent outpatient hyperglycemia is independently associated with decreased survival after primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2008 Aug;63(2):286-91; discussion 291
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  • [Title] Persistent outpatient hyperglycemia is independently associated with decreased survival after primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with malignant brain astrocytomas are at high risk for developing hyperglycemia secondary to frequent corticosteroid administration.
  • Furthermore, hyperglycemia augments in vitro astrocytoma growth, whereas hypoglycemia attenuates in vitro astrocytoma cell growth.
  • We hypothesized that persistent hyperglycemic states in the outpatient setting may serve as a prognostic marker of decreased survival in patients with malignant brain astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 367 cases of craniotomy for malignant brain astrocytomas (World Health Organization Grade III or IV).
  • RESULTS: A total of 367 craniotomies (209 primary, 158 secondary) were performed for malignant brain astrocytomas (glioblastoma multiforme, 297; anaplastic astrocytomas, 70); 68 (19%) and 28 (8%) of the patients experienced isolated or persistent outpatient hyperglycemia, respectively.
  • Adjusting for intergroup differences and variables associated with survival in this model, age (P = 0.001), Karnofsky Performance Scale score (P = 0.001), tumor grade (P = 0.001), primary versus secondary resection (P = 0.008), temozolomide (P = 0.007), subsequent resection (P = 0.07), and continued outpatient dexamethasone therapy, persistent outpatient hyperglycemia (relative risk, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.05, P = 0.03) remained independently associated with decreased survival.
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience, persistent outpatient hyperglycemia was associated with decreased survival in patients undergoing surgical resection for malignant astro- cytomas and was independent of the degree of disability, tumor grade, diabetes, prolonged dexamethasone use, or subsequent treatment modalities.
  • Increased glucose control is warranted in this patient population and may contribute to improved outcomes in the treatment of malignant brain astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Ambulatory Care / trends. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hyperglycemia / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18797358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Arifin MT, Hama S, Kajiwara Y, Sugiyama K, Saito T, Matsuura S, Yamasaki F, Arita K, Kurisu K: Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, p16 expression may signal poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;77(3):273-7
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, p16 expression may signal poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The negative consequences of the cytoplasmic localization of p16 in patients with high-grade astrocytomas, on their prognosis, was investigated.
  • METHODS: p16 Expression was examined in 20 anaplastic astrocytoma and 42 glioblastoma patients by immunohistochemical analysis, and the relationship between both cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 expression and prognosis analyzed.
  • CONCLUSION: The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of p16 appears to be an unfavorable prognostic indicator in high-grade astrocytoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16614947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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93. Ehling R, Sterlacci W, Maier H, Berger T: A 45-year old male with left-sided hemihypesthesia. Brain Pathol; 2010 Mar;20(2):515-8
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  • Extensive immunological and radiological investigations were not able to differentiate between an intrinsic brain tumor and a demyelinating disease.
  • Stereotactic biopsies of the brainstem were performed; the findings of abundant Rosenthal fibers, interjacent spindle-shaped and gemistocytic cells partially with dark and irregularly formed nuclei favored primarily the diagnosis of a malignant astrocytoma, although a demyelinating disease could not be definitely excluded.

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  • (PMID = 20438473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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94. Chang CL: Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles of Taiwanese patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme. J Biomol Screen; 2008 Oct;13(9):912-21
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  • [Title] Genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray analysis of gene-expression profiles of Taiwanese patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme.
  • The gene-expression profiles of approximately 20,000 genes from 4 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 7 glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs), and 1 nontumor brain (NB) were analyzed by in situ-synthesized 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray.
  • The signal intensity of each feature was measured by laser scanner, and gene expression was quantified as the tumor/NB intensity ratio.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genome, Human. Glioblastoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18812569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-0571
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomolecular screening
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomol Screen
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Oligonucleotides
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95. Hirai T, Murakami R, Nakamura H, Kitajima M, Fukuoka H, Sasao A, Akter M, Hayashida Y, Toya R, Oya N, Awai K, Iyama K, Kuratsu JI, Yamashita Y: Prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging of high-grade astrocytomas: long-term follow-up study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Sep;29(8):1505-10
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging of high-grade astrocytomas: long-term follow-up study.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging in various gliomas has been investigated, that in high-grade astrocytomas alone has not been fully evaluated.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively whether the tumor maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on pretreatment perfusion MR imaging is of prognostic value in patients with high-grade astrocytoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1999 and December 2002, 49 patients (30 men, 19 women; age range, 23-76 years) with supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma underwent MR imaging before the inception of treatment.
  • The patient age, sex, symptom duration, neurologic function, mental status, Karnofsky Performance Scale, extent of surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, tumor component enhancement, and maximum rCBV were assessed to identify factors affecting survival.
  • RESULTS: The maximum rCBV was significantly higher in the 31 patients with glioblastoma multiforme than in the 18 with anaplastic astrocytoma (P < .03).
  • CONCLUSION: The maximum rCBV at pretreatment perfusion MR imaging is a useful clinical prognostic biomarker for survival in patients with high-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18556364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Arvanitis LD, Koukoulis GK, Kanavaros P: The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):521-4
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  • [Title] The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • In normal human brains the epitope H is present mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, whereas it is greatly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes and is increased in well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In this study the expression of the epitope H was investigated in thirty cases of gemistocytic (WHO grade II), pilocytic (WHO grade I), and subependymal giant cell (WHO grade I) astrocytomas using the mAbH with the indirect immunoperoxidase method.
  • The ten cases of gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • The ten cases of pilocytic astrocytomas revealed a biphasic pattern of epitope H expression.
  • The dense tumor areas composed of elongated pilocytic cells revealed high expression of the epitope H.
  • The loose cystic tumor areas composed of stellate cells revealed low expression of the epitope H.
  • The ten cases of subependynal giant cell astrocytomas occurring in tuberous sclerosis revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • This study shows that there is high expression of the epitope H in gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Collectively considering, the present and our previous data, it appears that there is a spectrum of the expression levels of the epitope H ranging from the high expression in the reactive astrocytes and low grade astrocytomas to the low/null expression in the normal astrocytes and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosamine / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Epitopes

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  • (PMID = 19639198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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97. Voelzke WR, Petty WJ, Lesser GJ: Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2008 Feb;9(1):23-31
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  • [Title] Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • OPINION STATEMENT: High-grade astrocytomas, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), are the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumors in adults.
  • Unfortunately, monotherapy with anti-EGFR agents in malignant gliomas has not provided the dramatic results sometimes seen with other targeted therapies, such as imatinib in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
  • Anti-EGFR agents currently being studied in malignant gliomas include the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), monoclonal antibodies (MAb), and anti-EGFR vaccines.
  • Retrospective analyses have highlighted co-expression of EGFRvIII and wild-type PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10) as a significant predictor of EGFR TKI response in patients with GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18247132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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98. Henson JW, Hobbs W, Chakravarti A, Louis DN: Alterations in p53, p21, and MIB-1 labeling index in primary human astrocytomas following radiation therapy. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(2):151-4
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  • [Title] Alterations in p53, p21, and MIB-1 labeling index in primary human astrocytomas following radiation therapy.
  • Little is known about the cellular and genetic changes that occur in human astrocytomas following radiation therapy (RT).
  • Experimental studies would suggest that early effects include induction of p53 and p21 expression, cell cycle arrest, and selection of tumor cells with molecular changes that correlate with radiation resistance.
  • Unfortunately, tissue sampling of primary human astrocytomas closely following radiation therapy is uncommon, hindering comparative assessment of primary human tumors.
  • Through local databases, we were able to collect eight cases in which tissue was resected within 8 weeks of RT because of bulky residual disease: two patients with grade II diffuse astrocytomas (LGA) and 6 patients with high-grade astrocytomas (HGA; 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 5 glioblastomas).
  • Only one tumor (52d post-RT) showed prominent radiation-induced histopathologic changes. p53 expression was detected in two tumors pre-RT and in six tumors post-RT.
  • The results of this unique series document that some primary human astrocytomas increase expression of p53 and p21 and decrease proliferation in response to RT.
  • However, the small size of the series argues for further studies of radiation induced molecular changes in primary human astrocytoma tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16193385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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99. Ward SJ, Karakoula K, Phipps KP, Harkness W, Hayward R, Thompson D, Jacques TS, Harding B, Darling JL, Thomas DG, Warr TJ: Cytogenetic analysis of paediatric astrocytoma using comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jul;98(3):305-18
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  • [Title] Cytogenetic analysis of paediatric astrocytoma using comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation.
  • Little is known about the cytogenetic and molecular genetic events that lead to the formation of paediatric astrocytoma.
  • We have analysed 57 paediatric astrocytoma (WHO grades I-IV) using comparative genomic hybridisation in order to identify common regions of abnormality.
  • The presence of copy number alterations was significantly associated with increasing grade of malignancy, and gain of 12q and the presence of high-copy number amplification were associated with a poor outcome in patients with malignant astrocytoma (P = 0.0039 and 0.0085, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods


100. Ido K, Nakagawa T, Sakuma T, Takeuchi H, Sato K, Kubota T: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and mRNA stability factor HuR in human astrocytic tumors. Neuropathology; 2008 Dec;28(6):604-11
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and mRNA stability factor HuR in human astrocytic tumors.
  • High-grade astrocytic tumors, such as glioblastoma, possess rich vascular components, which are necessary for their growth.
  • VEGF-A is considered to be the major mediator of angiogenesis in malignant neoplasms including high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • The upregulation of VEGF-A expression in tumor cells is induced by two mechanisms: the transcriptional activation and the post-transcriptional stabilization of VEGF-A mRNA.
  • While the former mechanism mediated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) has been revealed, the latter mediated by mRNA stability factor HuR remains unclear in astrocytic tumors.
  • In the present study, we investigated the expression of VEGF-A and mRNA stability factor HuR in supratentorial astrocytic tumors of 27 adults using RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry.
  • Furthermore, we studied the involvement of HuR in the upregulation of VEGF-A expression using malignant astrocytoma cell lines.
  • In higher-grade astrocytic tumors, the level of VEGF-A and microvascular density were elevated, cytoplasmic expression of HuR, which potentially means the protection of VEGF-A mRNA from degradation by ribonucleases, appeared, and they were correlated positively.
  • In in vitro experiments, the inhibition of the cytoplasmic translocation of HuR protein by leptomycin B (LMB) reduced the upregulation of VEGF-A expression in malignant astrocytic tumor cells under hypoxic conditions.
  • These findings suggest that the expression of VEGF-A and cytoplasmic translocation of HuR relates to the histological grade, and that HuR is involved in the upregulation of VEGF-A expression, in human astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Surface / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiogenesis Inducing Agents. Cytoplasm / metabolism. ELAV Proteins. ELAV-Like Protein 1. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / pharmacology. Female. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Up-Regulation. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18498284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / ELAV Proteins; 0 / ELAV-Like Protein 1; 0 / ELAVL1 protein, human; 0 / Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 87081-35-4 / leptomycin B
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