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1. Sievert AJ, Jackson EM, Gai X, Hakonarson H, Judkins AR, Resnick AC, Sutton LN, Storm PB, Shaikh TH, Biegel JA: Duplication of 7q34 in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas detected by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genotype arrays results in a novel BRAF fusion gene. Brain Pathol; 2009 Jul;19(3):449-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Duplication of 7q34 in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas detected by high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genotype arrays results in a novel BRAF fusion gene.
  • In the present study, DNA from 28 pediatric low-grade astrocytomas was analyzed using Illumina HumanHap550K single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays.
  • A novel duplication in chromosome band 7q34 was identified in 17 of 22 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and three of six fibrillary astrocytomas.
  • The 7q34 duplication spans 2.6 Mb of genomic sequence and contains approximately 20 genes, including two candidate tumor genes, HIPK2 and BRAF.
  • There were no abnormalities in HIPK2, and analysis of two mutation hot-spots in BRAF revealed a V600E mutation in only one tumor without the duplication.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the 7q34 copy number change and was suggestive of a tandem duplication.
  • Further studies are required to determine the role of this fusion gene in downstream MAPK signaling and its role in development of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.

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  • [ErratumIn] Brain Pathol. 2009 Jul;19(3):550
  • (PMID = 19016743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM081519; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133173; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133173-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM081519
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184143; NLM/ PMC2850204
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2. Gil-Salú JL: [Nitrogen monoxide in malignant astrocytomas]. Rev Neurol; 2005 Dec 16-31;41(12):767-8
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  • [Title] [Nitrogen monoxide in malignant astrocytomas].
  • [Transliterated title] El monóxido de nitrógeno en los astrocitomas malignos.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Nitric Oxide / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Rev Neurol. 2005 Apr 1-15;40(7):437-40 [15849679.001]
  • (PMID = 16355365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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3. Wong KK, Chang YM, Tsang YT, Perlaky L, Su J, Adesina A, Armstrong DL, Bhattacharjee M, Dauser R, Blaney SM, Chintagumpala M, Lau CC: Expression analysis of juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas by oligonucleotide microarray reveals two potential subgroups. Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;65(1):76-84
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  • [Title] Expression analysis of juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas by oligonucleotide microarray reveals two potential subgroups.
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is one of the most common brain tumors in children.
  • Immunostaining of myelin basic protein on paraffin sections derived from 18 incompletely resected JPAs suggests that JPA without myelin basic protein-positively stained tumor cells may have a higher tendency to progress.

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  • (PMID = 15665281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA120534
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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4. Nojiri T, Nariai T, Aoyagi M, Senda M, Ishii K, Ishiwata K, Ohno K: Contributions of biological tumor parameters to the incorporation rate of L: -[methyl-(11)C] methionine into astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jun;93(2):233-41
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  • [Title] Contributions of biological tumor parameters to the incorporation rate of L: -[methyl-(11)C] methionine into astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • We compared the tumor uptake of (11)C-methionine (MET) with positron emission tomography (PET) with the results of a pathological analysis to examine the proliferative potential and microvessel density measured with immunostaining for MIB-1 and factor VIII, respectively, from 33 patients with glioma.
  • The MET uptake in oligodendrogliomas was significantly greater than that in grade 2 astrocytomas and comparable to those in grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas.
  • The MIB-1 index of oligodendroglioma meanwhile was comparable to that of grade 2 astrocytoma.
  • The microvessel area in oligodendroglioma was significantly greater than that in grade 2 astrocytomas and comparable to those in grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas.
  • According to a multivariate statistical analysis, MET uptake ratio was closely correlated with the MIB-1 index among astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Methionine / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Capillaries / metabolism. Capillaries / pathology. Carbon Radioisotopes. Cell Division. Factor VIII / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Microcirculation. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 19099197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 9001-27-8 / Factor VIII; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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5. Bäcklund LM, Nilsson BR, Liu L, Ichimura K, Collins VP: Mutations in Rb1 pathway-related genes are associated with poor prognosis in anaplastic astrocytomas. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jul 11;93(1):124-30
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  • [Title] Mutations in Rb1 pathway-related genes are associated with poor prognosis in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA, WHO grade III) is, second to Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant type of adult CNS tumour.
  • The survival data on 37 carefully sampled AA was correlated with the results of a detailed analysis of the status of nine genes known to be involved in the development of astrocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, Retinoblastoma. Mutation


6. Fisher PG, Tihan T, Goldthwaite PT, Wharam MD, Carson BS, Weingart JD, Repka MX, Cohen KJ, Burger PC: Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Aug;51(2):245-50
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  • [Title] Outcome analysis of childhood low-grade astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the long-term natural history of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA) in children, with respect to pathology, and to evaluate influence of treatment on survival.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-eight children (160 males; mean age 9.1 years; tumor location: 77 cerebrum, 62 cerebellum, 51 hypothalamic, 30 thalamus, 9 ventricle, 40 brainstem, and 9 spine) were assessed.
  • Among 246 specimens reviewed, diagnoses were 135 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 27 diffuse astrocytoma (DA), 75 unclassifiable well-differentiated astrocytoma (NOS), and 9 subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • Reviewed diagnoses were highly associated with OS (P < 0.0001), with 5-year OS for PA 96%, DA 48%, and NOS 86%; these differences remained significant when stratified by location or extent of resection.
  • Among patients with residual tumor after surgery, 5-year PFS was 48% with observation alone (n = 114), no different (P = 0.32) from that achieved with immediate irradiation (n = 86).
  • While tumor location and resection extent affect outcome, pathologic diagnosis when carefully interpreted significantly influences long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18386785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Li J, Guan HY, Gong LY, Song LB, Zhang N, Wu J, Yuan J, Zheng YJ, Huang ZS, Li M: Clinical significance of sphingosine kinase-1 expression in human astrocytomas progression and overall patient survival. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Nov 1;14(21):6996-7003
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical significance of sphingosine kinase-1 expression in human astrocytomas progression and overall patient survival.
  • PURPOSE: To characterize the expression of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) in human astrocytomas and to investigate the association between SPHK1 expression and progression of astrocytomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of SPHK1 in normal human astrocytes, astrocytoma cell lines, and four pairs of matched astrocytoma tissues and their adjacent normal brain tissues were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot.
  • In addition, SPHK1 protein expression was examined in 243 cases of histologically characterized astrocytomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: SPHK1 in astrocytoma cell lines was elevated at both mRNA and protein levels, and the SPHK1 mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated by up to 6.8- and 40-fold, respectively, in primary astrocytomas compared with those in the adjacent noncancerous brain tissues.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 100 of 243 (41.2%) paraffin-embedded archival astrocytoma biopsies exhibited high expression of SPHK1.
  • Statistical analysis suggested that the up-regulation of SPHK1 was significantly correlated with the histologic grade of astrocytoma (P=0.000) and that patients with high SPHK1 level exhibited shorter survival time (P<0.001).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that SPHK1 up-regulation might be an independent prognostic indicator for the survival of patients with astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPHK1 might represent a novel and useful prognostic marker for astrocytoma and play a role during the development and progression of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18980995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor); EC 2.7.1.- / sphingosine kinase
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8. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Nikiforov Y, Pollack IF: Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 May;119(5):641-9
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  • [Title] Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Parameters included quantification of characteristic morphologic variables as well as genes and molecular loci previously shown to be of relevance in high-grade gliomas, including 1p, 9p, 10q, 17p, 19q, and BRAF.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20044755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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9. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Lovell C, Burnham J, Pollack IF: Impact of morphology, MIB-1, p53 and MGMT on outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):581-8
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  • [Title] Impact of morphology, MIB-1, p53 and MGMT on outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Parameters included quantification of characteristic morphologic variables as well as genes previously shown to be of relevance in high-grade gliomas, including MIB-1, p53 and MGMT.
  • Morphologic biomarkers thus do exist for PAs, but the utility of each biomarker varies according to location.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Modification Methylases / physiology. DNA Repair Enzymes / physiology. Ki-67 Antigen / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19832838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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10. Dunn IF, Agarwalla PK, Papanastassiou AM, Butler WE, Smith ER: Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Oct;23(10):1191-4
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  • [Title] Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I.
  • The most common of these are hypothalamic-optic gliomas, followed by brainstem and cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • While isolated pilocytic astrocytomas in NFI are well described, the appearance of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in an individual patient is less common.
  • The most frequent combination in NFI patients with more than one pilocytic astrocytoma is optic tract/hypothalamic and brainstem.
  • Other combinations are exceedingly rare; multiple pilocytic astrocytomas have only been reported once in the cerebral hemispheres in a patient with NFI.
  • This report presents the first documented case, to our knowledge, of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum of a patient with NF1.
  • CONCLUSION: The finding of multiple cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in a patient with NF1 is important because it expands the spectrum of presentations for patients with NF1 and also highlights specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced by the treating physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology

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  • [Cites] No Shinkei Geka. 1992 Jan;20(1):51-6 [1738426.001]
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  • (PMID = 17457593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Kojadinovic Z, Papic V, Cigic T, Vulekovic P, Popovic Lj, Jajic Dj: A new scoring system for malignant astrocytomas. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2008 May;69(2):65-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A new scoring system for malignant astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently there are a few scoring systems for malignant astrocytoma, but they are not widely accepted.
  • The aim of this study was to create a scoring system for supratentorial malignant astrocytoma, which could be used in both developed and developing societies.
  • METHODS: This study was performed in 128 patients who had supratentorial malignant astrocytoma (grade III or IV).
  • By using the most appropriate four parameters (age, KPS, initial seizure and histopathological grade) we created a scoring system - MAS (Malignant Astrocytoma Score).
  • For the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) score the AUC was 0.672, 0.700, and 0.854.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We are of the opinion that MAS represents a useful scoring system to determine the severity of the illness and make a prognosis for both individuals and groups of patients with malignant supratentorial astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. ROC Curve. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18444219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Cai R, Di X: Combined intra- and extra-endoscopic techniques for aggressive resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. World Neurosurg; 2010 Jun;73(6):713-8
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  • [Title] Combined intra- and extra-endoscopic techniques for aggressive resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • We report two cases of combined intra-/extra-axial endoscopic procedures--intraventricular solid tumor resection for subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: In 2007, two patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma with a long history of tuberous sclerosis underwent solely endoscopic, minimally invasive intraventricular tumor resection.
  • Pathologic diagnoses were subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • EMIN is a completive, safe procedure for intraventricular subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Lateral Ventricles / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20934162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kreth FW, Ruiter M, Schnell O, Bise K, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Tonn JC, Kretzschmar HA: Intratumoral homogeneity of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 1;121(11):2458-64
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  • [Title] Intratumoral homogeneity of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • It was aimed to analyze prospectively whether the MGMT status of malignant gliomas could be determined from small-sized stereotactic biopsies (maximum volume: 1 mm(3)).
  • Twenty-five adult patients were included (20 patients with primary World Health Organisation (WHO) Grade III or IV malignant gliomas, 5 patients with secondary malignant gliomas).
  • About 2-4 biopsy specimens per tumor were collected from different sites within the tumor.
  • The overall MGMT promoter methylation rate was 30% in the de novo group and 80% in the tumor progression group.
  • No differences in MGMT promoter methylation were detected between the different samples of each individual tumor in 24 of 25 patients.
  • Tissue samples taken from different sites of each individual tumor (13 tumors investigated) exhibited equal or highly similar MGMT protein expression.
  • The MGMT promoter methylation status of malignant gliomas can be reliably determined from small-sized stereotactic biopsies.
  • The methylation profile, as defined by MSP and sodium bisulfite sequencing, constitutes a homogeneous marker throughout malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biopsy / methods. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17691113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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14. Oba-Shinjo SM, Bengtson MH, Winnischofer SM, Colin C, Vedoy CG, de Mendonça Z, Marie SK, Sogayar MC: Identification of novel differentially expressed genes in human astrocytomas by cDNA representational difference analysis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Oct 31;140(1-2):25-33
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  • [Title] Identification of novel differentially expressed genes in human astrocytomas by cDNA representational difference analysis.
  • Diffuse infiltrating gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), naturally progressing from a lower-grade to a higher-grade malignancy.
  • Several genetic alterations have been correlated with astrocytic tumors; however, a number of as yet unknown genes may also be involved.
  • Therefore, we set out to search for genes that are differentially expressed in anaplastic astrocytoma and normal CNS tissue by applying a PCR-based subtractive hybridization approach, namely, representational difference analysis (RDA).
  • The results of DNA sequencing of a sample (96 cDNA clones) from the subtracted library allowed the identification of 18 different genes, some of which were represented by several cDNA clones, coding for the Np95, LMO1, FCGBP, DSCAM, and taxilin proteins.
  • Quantitative real-time PCR analysis for five of these genes was performed using samples of astrocytic tumors of different grades, confirming their higher expression when compared to non-tumoral CNS tissue.
  • Identification of differentially expressed genes present in gliomas but not in normal CNS tissue is important not only to better understand the molecular basis of these cancers, but also to generate diagnostic DNA chips, which may be useful in future therapeutic intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. DNA Primers. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. Molecular Probe Techniques. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16084624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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15. Pomeroy SL: Pathologic intracellular signaling in childhood pilocytic astrocytomas. Neurology; 2009 Nov 10;73(19):1522-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic intracellular signaling in childhood pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Intracellular Fluid / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • [CommentOn] Neurology. 2009 Nov 10;73(19):1526-31 [19794125.001]
  • (PMID = 19812379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Pinilla-Arias D, Mateo-Sierra O, Gutiérrez FA, Fernández-Carballal C, Carrillo R: [Immunotherapy in high grade astrocytomas: principles and current state]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2005 Aug;16(4):345-58

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Immunotherapy in high grade astrocytomas: principles and current state].
  • [Transliterated title] Immunoterapia en astrocitomas de alto grado: principios y estado actual
  • However, tumours may as well elicit a partial immunodeficiency to avoid the development of a complete and active immune response.
  • Since Bloom's first studies on immunotherapy to treat high grade gliomas in 1960, many attempts have been made from different medical specialties to use the immune system as a weapon against a great diversity of cancers.
  • Main objective of this study is to outline the basic features of the immune response inside the Central Nervous System, the strategies employed by astrocytic tumours to evade body defences, and to provide an extended literature review on research on immunotherapy, especially concerning its patho-physiology and the clinical results achieved till date.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Glioblastoma / therapy. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy / methods. Lymphotoxin-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16143808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interleukins; 0 / Lymphotoxin-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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17. Szeifert GT, Kondziolka D, Atteberry DS, Salmon I, Rorive S, Levivier M, Lunsford LD: Radiosurgical pathology of brain tumors: metastases, schwannomas, meningiomas, astrocytomas, hemangioblastomas. Prog Neurol Surg; 2007;20:91-105
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  • [Title] Radiosurgical pathology of brain tumors: metastases, schwannomas, meningiomas, astrocytomas, hemangioblastomas.
  • Systematic human pathological background to brain tumor radiosurgery explaining biological and pathophysiological effects of focused irradiation barely exists.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17317979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Jeuken JW, Wesseling P: MAPK pathway activation through BRAF gene fusion in pilocytic astrocytomas; a novel oncogenic fusion gene with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential. J Pathol; 2010 Dec;222(4):324-8
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  • [Title] MAPK pathway activation through BRAF gene fusion in pilocytic astrocytomas; a novel oncogenic fusion gene with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential.
  • Different fusion variants involving BRAF and KIAA1549 were demonstrated, present in 80% of pilocytic astrocytomas in children.
  • As the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene is detected at a much lower frequency in diffuse low-grade astrocytomas and survival was much longer than expected in the patients with a 'non-pilocytic' astrocytoma carrying the fusion gene, identification of this fusion gene can be of diagnostic and prognostic value.
  • In the near future, interference with the (fusion gene causing) activation of the MAPK signalling cascade may open new therapeutic avenues for children with pilocytic astrocytomas, as a first line of defence against tumour growth or in situations where the tumour has become refractory to other therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. MAP Kinase Signaling System / genetics. Oncogene Fusion / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / physiology. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • [CommentOn] J Pathol. 2009 Jun;218(2):172-81 [19373855.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Pathol. 2011 Feb;223(3):446
  • (PMID = 20976706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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19. Wykosky J, Gibo DM, Stanton C, Debinski W: Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2, EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 as molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas and specific targets for combinatorial therapy. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 1;14(1):199-208
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  • [Title] Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2, EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 as molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas and specific targets for combinatorial therapy.
  • PURPOSE: We investigated the expression of interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13R alpha 2), EphA2, and Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1) in astrocytomas and normal brain.
  • We sought to document whether the expression of the three factors changed with progression to higher grade malignancy and whether two or three targets in combination might be sufficient to target all patients with high-grade astrocytomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was done for IL-13R alpha 2, EphA2, and Fra-1 using human brain tumor tissue microarrays containing 30 specimens of WHO grades II and III astrocytomas, 46 glioblastoma multiformes (GBM), and 9 normal brain samples.
  • Western blotting was done for all three markers using GBM tumor specimens and xenograft cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Expression of all three proteins was significantly higher in GBM compared with normal brain, low-grade, and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IL-13R alpha 2, EphA2, and Fra-1 are attractive therapeutic targets representing molecular denominators of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • One hundred percent of GBM tumors overexpress at least one of these proteins, providing the basis for rational combinatorial targeted therapies/diagnostics suitable for all patients with this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / biosynthesis. Receptor, EphA2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18172271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1F31 NS055533-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA74145
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Virulence Factors; 0 / fos-related antigen 1; EC 2.4.2.- / ADP Ribose Transferases; EC 2.4.2.31 / toxA protein, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, EphA2
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20. Mehling M, Simon P, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Ferrone S, Weller M, Wiendl H: WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism? Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Aug;114(2):111-9
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  • [Title] WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism?
  • We investigated the expression of APM components in astrocytomas without detectable defects in HLA class I antigen expression and correlated it with grade of malignancy.
  • Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of astrocytomas revealed reduced expression of the cytosolic proteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2), the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) transporter associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1), and the ER chaperone beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in astrocytoma cells when compared to astrocytes from nonpathological brain.
  • Among human WHO grade II-IV astrocytomas, downregulation of LMP2, TAP1 and beta2m correlated with grade of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, astrocytoma cell lines (n = 12) expressed all APM components analyzed at levels comparable to dendritic cells (DC), which were used for comparative purposes.
  • However, upregulation of beta2m after stimulation with inflammatory cytokines was significantly lower in astrocytoma cell lines than in control cells.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that coordinated downregulation or impaired upregulation of certain HLA class I APM components may serve as a mechanism for astrocytoma cells to evade the host's immune response, even if HLA class I antigen surface expression is not altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen Presentation / immunology. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Tumor Escape / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / biosynthesis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cysteine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. World Health Organization. beta 2-Microglobulin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17541610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / TAP1 protein, human; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases
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21. Korkolopoulou P, Levidou G, Saetta AA, El-Habr E, Eftichiadis C, Demenagas P, Thymara I, Xiromeritis K, Boviatsis E, Thomas-Tsagli E, Panayotidis I, Patsouris E: Expression of nuclear factor-kappaB in human astrocytomas: relation to pI kappa Ba, vascular endothelial growth factor, Cox-2, microvascular characteristics, and survival. Hum Pathol; 2008 Aug;39(8):1143-52
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  • [Title] Expression of nuclear factor-kappaB in human astrocytomas: relation to pI kappa Ba, vascular endothelial growth factor, Cox-2, microvascular characteristics, and survival.
  • Although NF-kappaB has been reported to be constitutively activated in various neoplasms, little information is available about its clinical significance in astrocytomas.
  • In this study, we investigated the association of NF kappa B1/p50 and pI kappa Ba immunohistochemical expression with clinicopathologic features, vascular endothelial growth factor, Cox-2, and microvascular parameters in paraffin-embedded tissue from 82 patients with astrocytomas. pI kappa Ba expression was positively correlated with nuclear (P = .0010) and negatively with cytoplasmic (P = .0008) NF kappa B1/p50 expression.
  • Nuclear NF kappa B1/p50 and pI kappa Ba expression increased with tumor grade (P = .0001 and P < .0001).
  • Our results suggest that nuclear NF kappa B1/p50 expression is dictated by its interaction with I kappa Ba in astrocytomas and is associated with tumor grade and angiogenic factors, denoting the importance of nuclear NF kappa B/p50 expression in patients' prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Cyclooxygenase 2 / analysis. I-kappa B Proteins / analysis. NF-kappa B / analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18495209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / I-kappa B Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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22. Capper D, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Schittenhelm J: Pitfalls in the assessment of MGMT expression and in its correlation with survival in diffuse astrocytomas: proposal of a feasible immunohistochemical approach. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Feb;115(2):249-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pitfalls in the assessment of MGMT expression and in its correlation with survival in diffuse astrocytomas: proposal of a feasible immunohistochemical approach.
  • Implementation of this data in routine clinical diagnostics is limited due to often inappropriate study designs, e.g. pooling of tumor entities, WHO grades or primary and secondary glioblastomas, disregard concerning the infiltration zone or various epidemiological factors.
  • For this, 162 astrocytic tumors WHO II-IV (36 diffuse astrocytomas WHO II, 51 anaplastic astrocytomas, 75 primary glioblastomas) as well as 25 glioblastoma infiltration zones and 19 glioblastoma relapses were analyzed for immunohistochemical MGMT protein expression using tissue microarray technique.
  • We conclude that immunohistochemical MGMT assessment has potential as a powerful diagnostic tool but analysis should only be performed in a grade dependent manner, before radio-/chemotherapy and with special attention to the infiltration zone of diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. DNA Modification Methylases / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17965865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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23. Gulati S, Ytterhus B, Granli US, Gulati M, Lydersen S, Torp SH: Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:18
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  • [Title] Overexpression of c-erbB2 is a negative prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate EGFR gene amplification and expression of c-erbB1-4 receptor proteins in human anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • This study shows the convenience and feasibility of immunohistochemistry when determining the expression of receptor proteins in tissue sections of human astrocytomas.
  • The synchronous overexpression of c-erbB1-4 proteins in anaplastic astrocytomas supports their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Biopsy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-4. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20331873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2859381
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100609
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24. Lucio-Eterovic AK, Cortez MA, Valera ET, Motta FJ, Queiroz RG, Machado HR, Carlotti CG Jr, Neder L, Scrideli CA, Tone LG: Differential expression of 12 histone deacetylase (HDAC) genes in astrocytomas and normal brain tissue: class II and IV are hypoexpressed in glioblastomas. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:243
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  • [Title] Differential expression of 12 histone deacetylase (HDAC) genes in astrocytomas and normal brain tissue: class II and IV are hypoexpressed in glioblastomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary malignant brain tumor.
  • Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of this aggressive tumor, the clinical outcome for patients remains poor.
  • However, no study has demonstrated the status of global HDAC expression in gliomas and its possible correlation to the use of HDACis.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare mRNA and protein levels of class I, II and IV of HDACs in low grade and high grade astrocytomas and normal brain tissue and to correlate the findings with the malignancy in astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Forty-three microdissected patient tumor samples were evaluated.
  • The histopathologic diagnoses were 20 low-grade gliomas (13 grade I and 7 grade II) and 23 high-grade gliomas (5 grade III and 18 glioblastomas).
  • RESULTS: We found that mRNA levels of class II and IV HDACs were downregulated in glioblastomas compared to low-grade astrocytomas and normal brain tissue (7 in 8 genes, p < 0.05).
  • The protein levels of class II HDAC9 were also lower in high-grade astrocytomas than in low-grade astrocytomas and normal brain tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study establishes a negative correlation between HDAC gene expression and the glioma grade suggesting that class II and IV HDACs might play an important role in glioma malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Histone Deacetylases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18713462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2536671
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25. Johannessen AL, Torp SH: The clinical value of Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index in human astrocytomas. Pathol Oncol Res; 2006;12(3):143-7
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  • [Title] The clinical value of Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index in human astrocytomas.
  • The current WHO classification of human astrocytomas has limitations in predicting prognosis and diagnosis, and there is a need for additional factors.
  • Most of them demonstrate that MIB-1 LI differentiates well between diffuse astrocytomas WHO grade II (AII) and anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and between AII and glioblastomas (GM), but not between AA and GM.
  • The studies reviewed report MIB-1 LI as an important prognostic factor in human astrocytomas.
  • Due to the great spread of values between the various tumor grades, however, MIB-1 LI cannot be used as a diagnostic factor alone but should be used in combination with established criteria of histological malignancy.
  • It may be especially useful in cases where histology reveals a low-grade astrocytoma whereas other parameters indicate a more malignant neoplasm.
  • Thus, it is our opinion that MIB-1 LI should be a part of the routine investigation in patients with astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16998593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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26. Hartmann C, Hentschel B, Wick W, Capper D, Felsberg J, Simon M, Westphal M, Schackert G, Meyermann R, Pietsch T, Reifenberger G, Weller M, Loeffler M, von Deimling A: Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Dec;120(6):707-18
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  • [Title] Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas.
  • WHO grading of human brain tumors extends beyond a strictly histological grading system by providing a basis predictive for the clinical behavior of the respective neoplasm.
  • For example, patients with glioblastoma WHO grade IV usually show a less favorable clinical course and receive more aggressive first-line treatment than patients with anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • Here we provide evidence that the IDH1 status is more prognostic for overall survival than standard histological criteria that differentiate high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We sequenced the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) at codon 132 in 382 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma from the NOA-04 trial and from a prospective translational cohort study of the German Glioma Network.
  • Patients with anaplastic astrocytomas carried IDH1 mutations in 60%, and patients with glioblastomas in 7.2%.
  • The sequence from more favorable to poorer outcome was (1) anaplastic astrocytoma with IDH1 mutation, (2) glioblastoma with IDH1 mutation, (3) anaplastic astrocytoma without IDH1 mutation and (4) glioblastoma without IDH1 mutation (p < 0.0001).
  • In this combined set of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas both, IDH1 mutation and IDH1 expression status were of greater prognostic relevance than histological diagnosis according to the current WHO classification system.
  • We propose to complement the current WHO classification and grading of high-grade astrocytic gliomas by the IDH1 mutation status and to use this combined histological and molecular classification in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioma / classification. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Young Adult


27. Mittelbronn M, Simon P, Löffler C, Capper D, Bunz B, Harter P, Schlaszus H, Schleich A, Tabatabai G, Goeppert B, Meyermann R, Weller M, Wischhusen J: Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells. J Neuroimmunol; 2007 Sep;189(1-2):50-8
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  • [Title] Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells.
  • To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry.
  • Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly higher in astrocytic tumors than in normal brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. HLA Antigens / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17675252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-E antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
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28. Amatya VJ, Akazawa R, Sumimoto Y, Takeshima Y, Inai K: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of three pilomyxoid astrocytomas: comparative study with 11 pilocytic astrocytomas. Pathol Int; 2009 Feb;59(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of three pilomyxoid astrocytomas: comparative study with 11 pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma, first described by Tihan et al., was recently included as an established variant of pilocytic astrocytoma in the World Health Organization classification of CNS tumors.
  • Histologically, it much resembles pilocytic astrocytoma, but monomorphic myxoid tumor of pilocytic cells with prominent angiocentric growth pattern without Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies is characteristic of pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is thought to be more aggressive with more frequent local recurrence as well as cerebrospinal spread.
  • The authors recently encountered a case of pilomyxoid astrocytoma, therefore the purpose of the present study was undertake a retrospective review of pilocytic astrocytomas previously diagnosed during the past 10 years.
  • Consequently, two of them were found to have histological features suggestive of pilomyxoid astrocytoma and both involved multiple recurrence, suggesting aggressive behavior in comparison to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19154260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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29. Glotsos D, Kalatzis I, Spyridonos P, Kostopoulos S, Daskalakis A, Athanasiadis E, Ravazoula P, Nikiforidis G, Cavouras D: Improving accuracy in astrocytomas grading by integrating a robust least squares mapping driven support vector machine classifier into a two level grade classification scheme. Comput Methods Programs Biomed; 2008 Jun;90(3):251-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improving accuracy in astrocytomas grading by integrating a robust least squares mapping driven support vector machine classifier into a two level grade classification scheme.
  • Grading of astrocytomas is an important task for treatment planning; however, it suffers from significantly great inter-observer variability.
  • The present study proposes a robust mathematical formulation by integrating state-of-art technologies (support vector machines and least squares mapping) in a cascade classification scheme for separating low from high and grade III from grade IV astrocytic tumours.
  • These high rates have been a result of applying the least squares mapping technique to features prior to classification.
  • In this way, digital image analysis systems for automated grading of astrocytomas are brought closer to clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Artificial Intelligence. Glioblastoma / classification. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Least-Squares Analysis. ROC Curve. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 18343526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-2607
  • [Journal-full-title] Computer methods and programs in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Comput Methods Programs Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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30. Wang LW, Shiau CY, Chung WY, Wu HM, Guo WY, Liu KD, Ho DM, Wong TT, Pan DH: Gamma Knife surgery for low-grade astrocytomas: evaluation of long-term outcome based on a 10-year experience. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105 Suppl:127-32
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife surgery for low-grade astrocytomas: evaluation of long-term outcome based on a 10-year experience.
  • OBJECT: The authors report the long-term treatment results of Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for patients with low-grade astrocytomas who underwent surgery at a single institution.
  • METHODS: A series of 21 patients (median age 20 years) with 25 intracranial low-grade astrocytomas (World Health Organization Grades I and II) were treated with GKS between 1993 and 2003.
  • Tumor volumes ranged from 0.2 to 13.3 ml (median 2.4 ml).
  • Complete tumor remission was seen in three patients.
  • Tumor progression was found in six patients of whom five received further salvage treatment.
  • All the tumor progression occurred within the GKS-treated volumes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma Knife surgery provides durable long-term local tumor control with acceptable toxicity for some patients with highly selected low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18503345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Samaras V, Piperi C, Levidou G, Zisakis A, Kavantzas N, Themistocleous MS, Boviatsis EI, Barbatis C, Lea RW, Kalofoutis A, Korkolopoulou P: Analysis of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human astrocytomas: associations with IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and microvessel morphometry. Hum Immunol; 2009 Jun;70(6):391-7
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  • [Title] Analysis of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human astrocytomas: associations with IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and microvessel morphometry.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are highly vascular neoplasms with potent angiogenic activity.
  • The present study aimed to investigate peripheral and local expression of interleukin (IL)-8 in astrocytomas with possible associations to IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel morphometry.
  • IL-6- and IL-8-secreting peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were evaluated in 17 glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), 5 anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and 6 diffuse astrocytoma patients (WHO grade II), in parallel with 23 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.
  • The IL-8 expression was assessed immunohistochemically in patients' tumor tissue sections and correlated with the expression of COX-2, VEGF, IL-6, and microvessel morphometry (assessed using CD34 antibody).
  • IL-6 and IL-8 were highly secreted in the PBMCs of glioma patients compared with controls (p = 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively), with a positive correlation between IL-8 expression and secretion levels (p = 0.001).
  • IL-8 immunoreactivity was detected in malignant cells or macrophages in perivascular areas and in pseudopalisading cells around necrosis and was positively correlated with histological grade (p = 0.0175) and tumor necrosis (p = 0.0793).
  • The coordinate expression and topographical relationship of IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and VEGF in the same tumor areas (e.g., perinecrotic areas) attest to their intimate liaison in terms of cancer-induced angiogenesis, which is probably secondary to the induction of multiple interdependent molecular pathways.
  • Moreover, our study seems to be the first attempt to link IL-8 expression by tumor cells with histological grade, implicating its potent role in gliomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / immunology. Microvessels / immunology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19332096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Human immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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32. Gimenez M, Souza VC, Izumi C, Barbieri MR, Chammas R, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Marie SK, Rosa JC: Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin. Proteomics; 2010 Aug;10(15):2812-21
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin.
  • Proteomic approaches have been useful for the identification of aberrantly expressed proteins in complex diseases such as cancer.
  • These proteins are not only potential disease biomarkers, but also targets for therapy.
  • The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in diffuse astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and glioblastoma multiforme grade IV in human tumor samples and in non-neoplastic brain tissue as control using 2-DE and MS.
  • Tumor and control brain tissue dissection was guided by histological hematoxylin/eosin tissue sections to provide more than 90% of tumor cells and astrocytes.
  • Six proteins were detected as up-regulated in higher grade astrocytomas and the most important finding was nucleophosmin (NPM) (p<0.05), whereas four proteins were down-regulated, among them raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) (p<0.05).
  • Our focus on these proteins was due to the fact that they are involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, known for their contribution to the development and progression of gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / genetics. Proteomics


33. Birca A, Mercier C, Major P: Rapamycin as an alternative to surgical treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):381-4
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  • [Title] Rapamycin as an alternative to surgical treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with the potential development of benign hamartomas, including subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs).
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / administration & dosage. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications


34. Levine NB, Collins J, Franz DN, Crone KR: Gradual formation of an operative corridor by balloon dilation for resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in children with tuberous sclerosis: specialized minimal access technique of balloon dilation. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Oct;49(5):317-20
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  • [Title] Gradual formation of an operative corridor by balloon dilation for resection of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas in children with tuberous sclerosis: specialized minimal access technique of balloon dilation.
  • BACKGROUND: Major sources of morbidity and mortality in patients with tuberous sclerosis who develop subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) relate to tumor growth and resultant hydrocephalus.
  • We describe a modification of a specialized minimal access resection technique in which an operative corridor is formed with balloon dilation over the course of a week prior to tumor resection.
  • A frontal craniotomy was performed and the optimal trajectory for tumor resection was confirmed by image guidance.
  • One week after the first operation, the balloon was deflated and removed, and the patient underwent tumor resection via the newly formed operative corridor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Catheterization / methods. Craniotomy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Tuberous Sclerosis / surgery


35. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Yoshino A, Fukaya C, Yamamoto T: Human interferon beta, nimustine hydrochloride, and radiation therapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Human interferon beta, nimustine hydrochloride, and radiation therapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas.
  • Previous investigators have reported encouraging results for malignant gliomas treated using a combination of human interferon beta (IFN-beta) with nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) and radiation therapy (termed IAR therapy).
  • This study was undertaken to examine further the efficacy of the IAR regimen followed by maintenance therapy with IFN-beta and ACNU in patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas.
  • Of 33 patients assessable for a response, 11 responded (33%), with 4 complete responses.
  • The estimated median overall survival (OS) was 16 months, with values of 58 and 13 months for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GB) patients, respectively.
  • In addition, they emphasize the importance of a preserved KPS after cytoreductive surgery, which could produce a potential benefit for adjuvant therapy and could ultimately lead to a prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15803376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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36. O'Callaghan FJ, Martyn CN, Renowden S, Noakes M, Presdee D, Osborne JP: Subependymal nodules, giant cell astrocytomas and the tuberous sclerosis complex: a population-based study. Arch Dis Child; 2008 Sep;93(9):751-4
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  • [Title] Subependymal nodules, giant cell astrocytomas and the tuberous sclerosis complex: a population-based study.
  • OBJECTIVES:. (1) In a population-based study of tuberous sclerosis (TSC), to identify the number of patients presenting with symptomatic giant cell astrocytomas (GCAs);.
  • A subset were invited to have a cranial MRI if they did not have a history of a symptomatic GCA and if they were likely to tolerate cranial imaging without a general anaesthetic.
  • Ten of these had a history of treatment for a symptomatic GCA.
  • This finding leads us to recommend that screening should not be undertaken.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Tuberous Sclerosis / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mental Disorders / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dis Child. 2009 Jan;94(1):75-6 [19103791.001]
  • (PMID = 18456692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2044
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of disease in childhood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dis. Child.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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37. Li J, Zhuang Z, Okamoto H, Vortmeyer AO, Park DM, Furuta M, Lee YS, Oldfield EH, Zeng W, Weil RJ: Proteomic profiling distinguishes astrocytomas and identifies differential tumor markers. Neurology; 2006 Mar 14;66(5):733-6
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  • [Title] Proteomic profiling distinguishes astrocytomas and identifies differential tumor markers.
  • Methods to permit more precise delineation of astrocytomas of different grades may have therapeutic utility.
  • The authors selectively microdissected pure populations of cells from normal brain and astrocytomas.
  • 2DGE identified proteomic patterns and proteins that differentiated normal brain from tumor and distinguished astrocytomas of increasing grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Protein Array Analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Glioma / diagnosis. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / isolation & purification. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16534112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR-018390
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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38. Seo HS, Kim JH, Lee DH, Lee YH, Suh SI, Kim SY, Na DG: Nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas and other MR imaging features: a retrospective study and systematic review. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Mar;31(3):498-503
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  • [Title] Nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas and other MR imaging features: a retrospective study and systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Most intramedullary astrocytomas have been known to exhibit at least some enhancement on MR imaging regardless of cell type or tumor grade.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas through a retrospective study within our institutions and a systematic review of the medical literature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 consecutive patients (male to female ratio, 11:8; mean age, 27.84 +/- 19.0 years) with primary intramedullary astrocytomas (3 WHO grade I, 13 WHO grade II, 3 WHO grade III) who underwent preoperative MR imaging with contrast enhancement were included in this retrospective study from 4 institutions.
  • The tumor-enhancement patterns were classified into the following categories:.
  • Seven articles including MR imaging enhancement studies of intramedullary astrocytomas were eligible for literature review.
  • RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 6 astrocytomas (32%), including 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, did not enhance at all.
  • Focal nodular enhancement was identified in 5 astrocytomas (26%); patchy enhancement, in 3 (16%); inhomogeneous diffuse enhancement, in 5 (26%); and homogeneous diffuse enhancement, in none.
  • In the literature review, the frequency of nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas was 14 of 76 (18%), including 2 anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nonenhancing intramedullary astrocytomas are not uncommon and comprise between 20% and 30% of intramedullary astrocytomas.
  • Therefore, astrocytoma must remain in the differential diagnosis of nonenhancing intramedullary lesions, particularly if the lesion demonstrates a prominent mass effect or cord expansion.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19875469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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39. Henze M, Ozdemir-Sahin N, Hipp P, Mier W, Eisenhut M, Debus J, Haberkorn U: [Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET, (123)I-IMT- and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT: evaluation of tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas]. Nuklearmedizin; 2006;45(1):49-56
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  • [Title] [Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET, (123)I-IMT- and (99m)Tc-MIBI SPECT: evaluation of tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas].
  • AIM: To evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the SPECT-tracers 3-(123)I-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) and (99m)Tc(I)- hexakis(2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) (MIBI) as well as the PET-tracer 2-(18)F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) for detecting tumour progression in irradiated low grade astrocytomas (LGA).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Methyltyrosines. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radioisotopes. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16493514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Methyltyrosines; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 14684-02-7 / 3-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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40. Tihan T, Vohra P, Berger MS, Keles GE: Definition and diagnostic implications of gemistocytic astrocytomas: a pathological perspective. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(2):175-83
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  • [Title] Definition and diagnostic implications of gemistocytic astrocytomas: a pathological perspective.
  • Gemistocytic astrocytoma still continues to be enigmatic; both in terms of definition and prognostic implications.
  • The currently accepted definition of gemistocytic astrocytoma requires 20% or more gemistocytes, and considers the neoplasm as a diffuse astrocytoma, which is a WHO grade II tumor.
  • Some suggest that gemistocytic morphology should be considered as evidence of a higher grade astrocytoma.
  • There is still a need for studies with sufficient numbers of well-matched gemistocytic and non-gemistocytic astrocytic neoplasms to decide whether upgrading a tumor with 'significant' number of gemistocytes is justifiable.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16132490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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41. Di Rocco C, Chieffo D, Pettorini BL, Massimi L, Caldarelli M, Tamburrini G: Preoperative and postoperative neurological, neuropsychological and behavioral impairment in children with posterior cranial fossa astrocytomas and medulloblastomas: the role of the tumor and the impact of the surgical treatment. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Sep;26(9):1173-88
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  • [Title] Preoperative and postoperative neurological, neuropsychological and behavioral impairment in children with posterior cranial fossa astrocytomas and medulloblastomas: the role of the tumor and the impact of the surgical treatment.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to prospectively investigate if a correlation might exist between preoperative and postoperative neurological conditions, neuroradiological/intraoperative findings and results of a complete neuropsychological evaluation in children with posterior fossa medulloblastomas and astrocytomas.
  • Neuropsychological assessment consisted of a battery of tests tailored on the patient's age, cognitive level, and level of cooperation.
  • For neuroradiological/intraoperative features, Intelligence Quotient (IQ) impairment was significantly correlated to the intraoperative evidence of tumor infiltration of the brainstem (p = 0.003), a severe hydrocephalus at diagnosis (p = 0.001) and the histological diagnosis of medulloblastoma (MB) (p = 0.002).
  • DISCUSSION: Our results support the hypothesis that when present, neuropsychological impairment is already present at diagnosis and that the most statistically significant factors, which might be related with cognitive deficits in the preoperative as well as in the postoperative period, are tumor infiltration of the brainstem, the severity of hydrocephalus, and a histological diagnosis of MB.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / psychology. Cognition Disorders / psychology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Medulloblastoma / psychology. Skull Base Neoplasms / psychology

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  • (PMID = 20552208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Scott IS, Morris LS, Rushbrook SM, Bird K, Vowler SL, Burnet NG, Coleman N: Immunohistochemical estimation of cell cycle entry and phase distribution in astrocytomas: applications in diagnostic neuropathology. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Oct;31(5):455-66
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical estimation of cell cycle entry and phase distribution in astrocytomas: applications in diagnostic neuropathology.
  • Paraffin-embedded sections of intracerebral gliomas (n = 48), consisting of diffuse astrocytoma (n = 9), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8) and glioblastoma (n = 31), were analysed by immunohistochemistry using markers of cell cycle entry, Mcm-2 and Ki67, and putative markers of cell cycle phase, cyclins D1 (G1-phase), cyclin A (S-phase), cyclin B1 (G2-phase) and phosphohistone H3 (Mitosis).
  • There was a significant increase in Mcm-2 (P < 0.0001), Ki67 (P < 0.0001), cyclin A (P < 0.0001) and cyclin B1 (P = 0.002) expression with increasing grade from diffuse astrocytoma through anaplastic astrocytoma to glioblastoma, suggesting that any of these four markers has potential as a marker of tumour grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Immunohistochemistry / methods

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  • (PMID = 16150117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Histones; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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43. Rushing EJ, Sandberg GD, Horkayne-Szakaly I: High-grade astrocytomas show increased Nestin and Wilms's tumor gene (WT1) protein expression. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;18(4):255-9
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  • [Title] High-grade astrocytomas show increased Nestin and Wilms's tumor gene (WT1) protein expression.
  • Wilms's tumor gene (WT1) is overexpressed in a variety of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
  • Recently, WT1 protein has been considered as a molecular target of cancer immunotherapy for several solid tumors and as a tool for monitoring minimal residual disease in leukemia patients.
  • There are only few investigations on WT1 expression in central nervous system neoplasms, which suggest that the WT1 gene may play an important role in tumorigenesis of primary astrocytic tumors and that high-grade tumors express high levels of WT1 proteins.
  • We examined 50 low-grade and high-grade gliomas using tissue microarray and immunohistochemical methods to identify WT1 protein, P53, Ki-67, GFAP, NFP, EGFR, nestin, and Neu-N expression.
  • WT1 and nestin shared overlapping expression in all gliomas and were increased in high-grade examples, highlighting their potential use as diagnostic and prognostic tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. WT1 Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult


44. Znidaric MT, Pucer A, Fatur T, Filipic M, Scancar J, Falnoga I: Metal binding of metallothioneins in human astrocytomas (U87 MG, IPDDC-2A). Biometals; 2007 Oct;20(5):781-92
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  • [Title] Metal binding of metallothioneins in human astrocytomas (U87 MG, IPDDC-2A).
  • Our aim was to establish the inducibility and metal binding of MTs in two human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 MG (astrocytoma-glioblastoma, grade IV) and IPDDC-2A (astrocytoma, grade II), on exposure to cadmium chloride (1 microM).
  • We showed that MTs are constitutively expressed in both human astrocytoma cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Metallothionein / metabolism. Metals / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadmium Chloride / metabolism. Cadmium Chloride / pharmacology. Cadmium Chloride / toxicity. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Protein Binding / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17115260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0844
  • [Journal-full-title] Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biometals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; J6K4F9V3BA / Cadmium Chloride
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45. Tran Thang NN, Derouazi M, Philippin G, Arcidiaco S, Di Berardino-Besson W, Masson F, Hoepner S, Riccadonna C, Burkhardt K, Guha A, Dietrich PY, Walker PR: Immune infiltration of spontaneous mouse astrocytomas is dominated by immunosuppressive cells from early stages of tumor development. Cancer Res; 2010 Jun 15;70(12):4829-39
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  • [Title] Immune infiltration of spontaneous mouse astrocytomas is dominated by immunosuppressive cells from early stages of tumor development.
  • Immune infiltration of advanced human gliomas has been shown, but it is doubtful whether these immune cells affect tumor progression.
  • It could be hypothesized that this infiltrate reflects recently recruited immune cells that are immediately overwhelmed by a high tumor burden.
  • Alternatively, if there is earlier immune detection and infiltration of the tumor, the question arises as to when antitumor competency is lost.
  • To address these issues, we analyzed a transgenic mouse model of spontaneous astrocytoma (GFAP-V(12)HA-ras mice), which allows the study of immune interactions with developing glioma, even at early asymptomatic stages.
  • The effector potential of CD8 T-cells is defective, with the absence of granzyme B expression and low expression of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin 2.
  • Overall, our results show an early defective endogenous immune response to gliomas, and local accumulation of immunosuppressive cells at the tumor site.
  • Thus, the antiglioma response is not simply overwhelmed at advanced stages of tumor growth, but is counterbalanced by an inhibitory microenvironment from the outset.
  • This potential to modulate the strong imbalance in local antiglioma immunity is encouraging for the development and optimization of future glioma immunotherapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20501837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Worldwide Cancer Research / / 05-0465
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EC 3.4.21.- / Granzymes; EC 3.4.21.- / Gzmb protein, mouse; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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46. Maruyama K, Morita A, Shibahara J, Nakazato Y, Kirino T: Multifocal pilocytic astrocytomas with ependymal differentiation in the bilateral medial temporal lobes: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Aug;45(8):411-4
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  • [Title] Multifocal pilocytic astrocytomas with ependymal differentiation in the bilateral medial temporal lobes: case report.
  • The histological diagnosis was pilocytic astrocytoma with ependymal differentiation and a MIB-1 staining index of up to 8.0%.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma usually presents as a solitary mass in the cerebellum or optic pathway with low proliferative activity, but should be included in the differential diagnosis of multifocal tumors arising in the bilateral temporal lobes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Temporal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Antinuclear. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Proliferation. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependyma / pathology. Hemianopsia / etiology. Hemianopsia / pathology. Hemianopsia / physiopathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paresis / etiology. Paresis / pathology. Paresis / physiopathology. Radiotherapy. Seizures / etiology. Seizures / pathology. Seizures / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16127260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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47. Roncadin C, Dennis M, Greenberg ML, Spiegler BJ: Adverse medical events associated with childhood cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas: natural history and relation to very long-term neurobehavioral outcome. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Sep;24(9):995-1002; discussion 1003
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  • [Title] Adverse medical events associated with childhood cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas: natural history and relation to very long-term neurobehavioral outcome.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to document the incidence of medical events in survivors of childhood posterior fossa astrocytoma or medulloblastoma in four time periods (diagnosis, perioperative, short-term survival, long-term survival), and to study whether medical events predict neurobehavioral outcome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine astrocytoma and 29 medulloblastoma survivors were studied at least 5 years post-diagnosis.
  • In the astrocytoma group, poorer long-term neurobehavioral outcome was associated with more adverse medical events in the perioperative and short-term survival periods.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term neurobehavioral outcome is related to time-dependent medical events in astrocytoma survivors.
  • The data confirm earlier reports of poorer outcome after medulloblastoma and add new information about clinical markers of poor neurobehavioral outcome in survivors of childhood astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Cognition Disorders / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / complications. Mental Disorders / epidemiology. Survivors / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18581121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Huang H, Hara A, Homma T, Yonekawa Y, Ohgaki H: Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Oct;64(10):891-901
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  • [Title] Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) is a circumscribed, slowly growing, benign astrocytoma that most frequently develops in the cerebellar hemispheres and in midline structures and occurs predominantly in childhood and adolescence.
  • In contrast to diffusely infiltrating gliomas in adults (e.g. grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas), survival of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma is excellent after surgical intervention.
  • To search for potential molecular mechanisms underlying its benign biologic behavior, we compared gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas (8 cases) with those of normal cerebellum (4 cases), low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II; 15 cases), and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II; 17 cases) by cDNA array analysis.
  • A number of immune system-related genes such as HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, IgG3, IgGK, FCER1G, A2M, FCRN, IFI-56K, and DAP12 were upregulated in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to normal cerebellum, grade II astrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Genes expressed at higher levels in pilocytic astrocytomas than in grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas include HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, A2M, TIMP1, TIMP2, CDKN1A, and SOCS3 and those expressed at lower levels include EGFR and PDGFRA.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis using the entire set of 1176 genes distinguished pilocytic astrocytomas from grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Clustering analysis using selected subgroups of genes based on their molecular functions revealed that immune system-related genes (75 genes) or cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis-related genes (69 genes) showed similar power to the entire gene set for separation of pilocytic astrocytomas from diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that HLA-DRalpha is expressed diffusely in neoplastic cells in pilocytic astrocytomas, whereas in oligodendrogliomas, expression was limited to scattered reactive astrocytes.
  • These results suggest that gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas differ significantly from those of diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas and that their benign biologic behavior may be related to upregulation of immune defense-associated genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Gene Expression. Immunity / genetics


49. Li C, Ai B, Li Y, Qi H, Wu L: Susceptibility-weighted imaging in grading brain astrocytomas. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Jul;75(1):e81-5
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  • [Title] Susceptibility-weighted imaging in grading brain astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of intratumoral vessels and micro-hemorrhage shown in susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) for grading brain astrocytomas and to analyze the difference between SWI and conventional imaging techniques.
  • METHODS: 22 patients with astrocytomas were diagnosed with surgical specimens, 9 of which were grades I-II, and 13 were grades III-IV.
  • RESULTS: The findings in SW images of brain astrocytomas were correlated strongly with pathology.
  • SWI was more sensitive compared to conventional imaging techniques for showing small vessels and micro-hemorrhage in brain astrocytomas.
  • Statistical comparison showed that the small vessels and micro-hemorrhage of two groups of brain astrocytomas in SW images differed significantly.
  • CONCLUSION: SWI is superior to conventional imaging techniques at showing the small vessels and micro-hemorrhage in brain astrocytomas, which plays an important role in the tumor grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19726149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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50. Ochsenbein AF, Schubert AD, Vassella E, Mariani L: Quantitative analysis of 0&lt;sup&gt;6&lt;/sup&gt;-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in patients with low-grade gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2069

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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of 0<sup>6</sup>-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation in patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • : 2069 Background: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on the chromosomes 1p and 19q is associated with sensitivity to alkylating agents like temozolomide (TMZ) in patients with low-grade gliomas; whether methylation of the MGMT-promoter, a predictive factor in glioblastoma patients, also correlates with tumor response to TMZ in low-grade gliomas is unclear.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with histologically verified low-grade gliomas (WHO Grade II) who were treated with TMZ for tumor progression at our hospital between November 1999 and November 2007.
  • Objective tumor response was assessed by MRI at 6-month intervals.
  • LOH of microsatellite markers on chromosomes 1p and 19q was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the matched pairs of blood and tumor DNA.
  • Seven patients had prior surgical resection of the tumor.
  • Histological classification revealed 10 oligodendrogliomas, 7 oligoastrocytomas, and 5 astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative methylation-specific PCR of the MGMT promoter correlates with radiological response to chemotherapy with temozolomide in WHO grade II gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 27964685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Herndon J 2nd, Vredenburgh J, Reardon D, Desjardins A, Peters K, Gururangan S, Norfleet J, Friedman A, Bigner D, Friedman HS: Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e13016

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  • [Title] Phase I trial of vendetanib and oral etoposide for recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • : e13016 Background: Recurrent malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 6-15 months, with grade 4 glioblastomas more aggressive than grade 3 anaplastic astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are critically important in glioma biology.
  • We report a phase I trial of vandetanib in combination with oral etoposide for recurrent malignant glioma.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically documented recurrent grade 3 or grade 4 malignant glioma were eligible.

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  • (PMID = 27962830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Zhang Z, Schittenhelm J, Guo K, Bühring HJ, Trautmann K, Meyermann R, Schluesener HJ: Upregulation of frizzled 9 in astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Dec;32(6):615-24
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  • [Title] Upregulation of frizzled 9 in astrocytomas.
  • However, its association with astrocytomas remains unknown therefore we studied FZD9 expression in astrocytomas of different malignancy.
  • In the present study, FZD9 expression in 25 astrocytomas was investigated using immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies.
  • In human astrocytomas, FZD9 immunoreactivity (IR) was observed in both microvessels and neoplastic cells.
  • The percentage of FZD9+ microvessels in relation to FZD9+ vessels was significantly higher in malignant astrocytomas than in low-grade astrocytomas and positively correlated with the astrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grading (r = 1, P = 0.04).
  • Furthermore, the FZD9 IR scores positively correlated with astrocytoma WHO grading (r = 1, P = 0.04) and proliferating activity (r = 0.77, P < 0.001).
  • FZD9 is upregulated in astrocytomas, suggesting that FZD9 could be important in the tumorigenesis of human astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Frizzled Receptors / biosynthesis. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17083476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FZD3 protein, human; 0 / Frizzled Receptors; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
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53. Hu CH, Fang XM, Hu XY, Cui L: Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas. Clin Imaging; 2009 Nov-Dec;33(6):417-23
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  • [Title] Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the mismatched manifestation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Both conventional and perfusion CT were performed on 29 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytomas (15 cases in Grades I-II, 14 cases in Grades III-IV).
  • RESULTS: Twelve low-grade astrocytomas showed low or medium values of both rCBF (46.95+/-22.92 ml 100 g(-1) mm(-1)) and rCBV (5.74+/-3.61 ml 100 g(-1)); 12 high-grade astrocytomas showed high values of both rCBF (95.44+/-42.58 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1)) and rCBV (9.24+/-5.32 ml 100g(-1)).
  • However, the remaining five astrocytomas were mismatched, showing reduced rCBF value and increased rCBV value in the same ROI.
  • The discrepancy may mislead to an inaccuracy of perfusion CT in grading gliomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV occasionally exists in some areas of astrocytomas.
  • Hence, attention should be paid to assessments in preoperative grading of astrocytomas and in monitoring therapeutic effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19857800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Kessler R, Bleichert F, Warnke JP, Eschrich K: 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB3) is up-regulated in high-grade astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Feb;86(3):257-64
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  • [Title] 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB3) is up-regulated in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We investigated the PFKFB3 expression in 40 human astrocytic gliomas and 20 non-neoplastic brain tissue specimens.
  • The PFKFB3 protein levels were markedly elevated in high-grade astrocytomas relative to low-grade astrocytomas and corresponding non-neoplastic brain tissue, whereas no significant increase of PFKFB3 mRNA was observed in high-grade astrocytomas when compared with control tissue.
  • The findings demonstrate that PFKFB3 up-regulation is a hallmark of high-grade astrocytomas offering an explanation for high glycolytic flux and lactate production in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Phosphofructokinase-2 / metabolism. Up-Regulation / physiology


55. Rorive S, Lopez XM, Maris C, Trepant AL, Sauvage S, Sadeghi N, Roland I, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas. Mod Pathol; 2010 Oct;23(10):1418-28
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  • [Title] TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas.
  • Based on the molecular profiling of astrocytomas, we previously identified a series of genes involved in astrocytoma invasion.
  • Of these, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) was found to be overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to diffuse astrocytomas of any histological grade.
  • Although some data suggest that TIMP-4 may be an anti-tumoral actor in astrocytomas, recent findings challenge this concept.
  • The present study aims to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of TIMP-4 and its putative partner CD63 in human astrocytomas.
  • Tissue microarray and image analysis were first carried out to quantitatively analyze the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 471 gliomas including 354 astrocytomas.
  • Pathological semi-quantitative scores of both markers' expression were then established and correlated to astrocytoma diagnosis and patient prognosis.
  • TIMP-4 and CD63 expressions were both overexpressed in astrocytomas compared with oligodendrogliomas (P<0.001) and in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with grade II diffuse astrocytomas (P<0.001).
  • In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a TIMP-4/CD63 association in astrocytoma tumor cells.
  • It identifies TIMP-4 and CD63 as markers of the astrocytic phenotype in patients with gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20693981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD63; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD63 protein, human; 0 / Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; 0 / tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4
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56. Tosoni A, Franceschi E, Ermani M, Bacci A, Volpin L, Lombardo L, Ravenna G, Pinna G, Poggi R, Brandes AA: MGMT methylation status as a prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2052

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  • [Title] MGMT methylation status as a prognostic factor in anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • However, further data on the epigenetic feature are needed before its role in rare diseases such as anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) can be established.

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  • (PMID = 27964674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Grill J, Kalifa C, Doireau V: Intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Jul;45(1):80; author reply 81

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  • [Title] Intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004 Nov;43(6):629-32 [15390309.001]
  • (PMID = 15806542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Maris C, Rorive S, Sandras F, D'Haene N, Sadeghi N, Bièche I, Vidaud M, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2008 Jun;34(3):316-29
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix brain glycoprotein for which conflicting in vitro and in vivo results are reported in the literature dealing with its involvement in astrocytoma aggressiveness, in particular astrocytoma invasion.
  • In view of these conflicting results and the lack of data available on low-grade astrocytomas, the present study focuses on pilocytic World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, and diffuse WHO grade II astrocytomas, that is, two histological entities associated with very different invasive abilities.
  • METHODS: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we analysed the TN-C expression in normal brain tissue as well as in a series of 54 pilocytic and 53 grade II astrocytomas.
  • Paralleling these observations, we showed that TN-C expression in low-grade astrocytomas similarly varies according to tumour site.
  • Cox regression analysis evidenced that TN-C provided an independent prognostic value which is enhanced in the case of grade II astrocytomas for which positive TN-C expression is associated with a higher risk of recurrence.
  • We also analysed TN-C expression specifically in vascular areas of low-grade astrocytomas without demonstrating any prognostic value for this additional feature.
  • RESULTS: Similarly to normal brain, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit variations in TN-C expression with site, and this expression is associated with an independent prognostic value in terms of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Tenascin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17983425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tenascin
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59. Parsa CF, Givrad S: Pilocytic astrocytomas as hamartomas: implications for treatment. Br J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan;92(1):3-6
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas as hamartomas: implications for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Diseases / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Hamartoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18156370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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60. Ivey JB, Brown RD: She passed out again. Astrocytomas. Pediatr Nurs; 2007 Sep-Oct;33(5):430-1
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  • [Title] She passed out again. Astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nurse Practitioners. Pediatric Nursing / methods. Primary Health Care / methods. Syncope / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18041332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0097-9805
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Zadeh G, Reti R, Koushan K, Baoping Q, Shannon P, Guha A: Regulation of the pathological vasculature of malignant astrocytomas by angiopoietin-1. Neoplasia; 2005 Dec;7(12):1081-90
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  • [Title] Regulation of the pathological vasculature of malignant astrocytomas by angiopoietin-1.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are the most common and highly vascularized of all primary adult brain tumors.
  • The histopathological hallmarks of malignant astrocytomas are microvascular proliferation and formation of vascular entities, which are referred to as "glomeruloid bodies."
  • The significance of glomeruloid bodies and the molecular mechanisms driving the abnormal vascular architecture in malignant astrocytomas are not understood.
  • We have observed that overexpression of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) in both subcutaneous and intracranial xenograft models of malignant astrocytomas reproduces many of the vascular features of these tumors, including glomeruloid bodies.
  • Collectively, these results support our hypothesis that Ang1 is a key molecular regulator of pathological vascularization characteristic of malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiopoietin-1 / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16354591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8002
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / Angiopoietin-1; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, TIE-2; F8VB5M810T / Tetracycline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1501179
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62. Fehlings MG, Craciunas SC: Editorial: High-grade intramedullary astrocytomas: what is the best surgical option? J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Feb;12(2):141-2; discussion 142-3

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  • [Title] Editorial: High-grade intramedullary astrocytomas: what is the best surgical option?
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Feb;12(2):144-53 [20121348.001]
  • (PMID = 20121347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Tung JN, Tsao TY, Tai CJ, Yeh KT, Cheng YW, Jiang MC: Distribution of lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2, and cathepsin D in eosinophilic granular bodies: possible relationship to cyst development in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Int Med Res; 2010 Jul-Aug;38(4):1354-64
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  • [Title] Distribution of lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2, and cathepsin D in eosinophilic granular bodies: possible relationship to cyst development in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are usually cystic; cyst formation within these tumours may result in increased intracranial pressure, due to the effect of their mass, and contribute to cerebral damage.
  • Eosinophilic granular bodies (EGBs) are produced abundantly in pilocytic astrocytomas but their role in disease progression remains unknown.
  • The results suggest that EGBs, together with other factors, may play a role in the development of cysts in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cathepsin D / metabolism. Cysts / complications. Cytoplasmic Granules / enzymology. Eosinophils / enzymology. Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20926008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LAMP1 protein, human; 0 / LAMP2 protein, human; 0 / Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 2; 0 / Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 3.4.23.5 / Cathepsin D
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64. Roonprapunt C, Houten JK: Spinal cord astrocytomas: presentation, management, and outcome. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2006 Jan;17(1):29-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord astrocytomas: presentation, management, and outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16448905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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65. Grujicic M, Vuckovic N, Vulekovic P, Novakovic B: The basic morphological characteristics of astrocytomas in Vojvodina in the period 2001-2006. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):625-8
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  • [Title] The basic morphological characteristics of astrocytomas in Vojvodina in the period 2001-2006.
  • PURPOSE: Astrocytomas are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms.
  • The aim of this investigation was to register the age, sex, tumor localization, frequency and histological types of patients with astrocytomas.
  • Tumor histological studies were carried out in the Laboratory of the Centre for Pathology and Histology of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina.
  • Out of 490 patients with diagnosed intracranial tumors, 139 (28.4%) had astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Astrocytomas were more frequent in males (63.3%) and were most common in the 50-59-year age group (39.5%).
  • In regard to other histological types of intracranial tumors, astrocytomas were more frequent in males (34.8%).
  • Grade III astrocytomas were most common (55.4%).
  • The frequency of hemorrhage and thrombosis showed a positive correlation with the histological grade of astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The typical patient with astrocytoma is a male of 50-59 years.
  • The tumor is grade III located in the right frontal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sex Factors. Yugoslavia

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  • (PMID = 20148453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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66. Zajdel A, Wilczok A, Slowinski J, Orchel J, Mazurek U: Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products in human brain astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Sep;84(2):167-73
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  • [Title] Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products in human brain astrocytomas.
  • We explored whether these aldehydes and histone H3 mRNA levels could serve as biomarkers of malignancy and predictive factor in human brain astrocytomas.
  • Aldehydic lipid peroxidation products were determined as their dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives in specimens obtained from 26 adult patients with brain astrocytomas.
  • H3 mRNA, 2-hydroxyhexanal, and 4-hydroxynonenal levels were higher in high-grade astrocytomas compared to low-grade astrocytomas and showed negative correlation with survival.
  • Higher levels of 2-hydroxyhexanal and 4-hydroxynonenal, and lower levels of n-hexanal were associated with poorer patient prognosis.
  • Our data suggest that tissue concentrations of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products can assist grading and predicting the clinical outcome in patients with astrocytic brain tumors.
  • Possibly, this parameter will enhance optimal selection of patients for individualized treatment protocols, tailored to unique biochemical and molecular profile of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehydes / analysis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Chemistry / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17487452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Histones; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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67. Liu X, Chen N, Wang X, He Y, Chen X, Huang Y, Yin W, Zhou Q: Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Sep;65(9):905-13
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  • [Title] Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules.
  • Limited studies of a few IAPs indicated their roles in astrocytomas.
  • However, the overall expression status and significance of apoptosis regulators in astrocytomas is not clear.
  • We examined the expression profile of the caspases (CASP3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14), APAF1, SMAC, BCL2, the IAPs (BIRC5/survivin, CIAP1, CIAP2, XIAP, and LIVIN), and the proliferation markers Ki67 and PHH3 in 78 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and 24 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry.
  • Our data showed BIRC5 nuclear labeling index (BIRC5-N) was the apoptosis marker most significantly different in World Health Organization grade II to IV astrocytomas and most strongly associated with proliferative activity.
  • Expression level of other apoptosis-related proteins was modest or low in astrocytomas and did not correlate significantly with tumor grade or proliferation.
  • This expression profile suggested involvement of apoptosis regulators in astrocytoma tumorigenesis, but tumor progression was more closely associated with proliferative advantages of which BIRC5 nuclear expression appeared to be a manifestation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16957584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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68. Henderson MA, Fakiris AJ, Timmerman RD, Worth RM, Lo SS, Witt TC: Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg; 2009;87(3):161-7
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  • [Title] Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA; 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 2 fibrillary astrocytomas) were selected for treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) based on having a demarcated appearance on CT or MRI and the possibility of dose sparing of adjacent eloquent structures.
  • A median dose of 13 Gy was prescribed to the 50% isodose line, which covered the gross tumor.
  • With a median follow-up of 48.2 months, 4-year tumor control and overall survival were 77 and 83%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19321969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0372
  • [Journal-full-title] Stereotactic and functional neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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69. Santosh V, Arivazhagan A, Sreekanthreddy P, Srinivasan H, Thota B, Srividya MR, Vrinda M, Sridevi S, Shailaja BC, Samuel C, Prasanna KV, Thennarasu K, Balasubramaniam A, Chandramouli BA, Hegde AS, Somasundaram K, Kondaiah P, Rao MR: Grade-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins-2, -3, and -5 in astrocytomas: IGFBP-3 emerges as a strong predictor of survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010 Jun;19(6):1399-408
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  • [Title] Grade-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins-2, -3, and -5 in astrocytomas: IGFBP-3 emerges as a strong predictor of survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP) isoforms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human neoplasms including glioma.
  • In view of this, we evaluated the expression of IGFBP isoforms (IGFBP-2, -3, and -5) during malignant progression of astrocytoma and their prognostic significance in glioblastoma.
  • METHODS: The expression of IGFBP isoforms was analyzed in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas by real-time quantitative PCR (n = 203) and immunohistochemistry (n = 256).
  • RESULTS: The mean transcript levels of IGFBP-2 and -3 were significantly higher in glioblastomas (GBM) relative to anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), diffuse astrocytoma (DA), and controls whereas IGFBP-5 mRNA was higher in GBM relative to AA and controls (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the associations of IGFBP-2, -3, and -5 expression with increasing grades of malignancy in astrocytomas.
  • IMPACT: IGFBP isoforms have emerged as biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic utility in astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / biosynthesis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5 / biosynthesis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20501753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGFBP3 protein, human; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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70. Nathoo N, Prayson RA, Bondar J, Vargo L, Arrigain S, Mascha EJ, Suh JH, Barnett GH, Golubic M: Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Feb;58(2):347-54; discussion 347-54
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  • [Title] Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this study, we investigated whether 5-LO is expressed in human astrocytomas and what effect its expression may have on patient outcome.
  • METHODS: Increased 5-LO messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and antibody-based approaches, respectively, in surgical astrocytoma specimens and established glioblastoma multiforme cell lines compared with primary cell culture from the human white matter.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominantly nuclear 5-LO staining in 44 of 49 glioblastoma multiforme samples (90%), 8 of 10 (80%) anaplastic astrocytomas samples, and 3 of 13 (23%) low-grade astrocytoma samples analyzed.
  • Double-staining experiments with anti-CD-68 (macrophage/microglial marker) and anti-5-LO antibodies suggest that both CD-68-positive and CD-68-negative tumor cells express 5-LO protein.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 5-LO is overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas and supports the idea that eicosanoids may play a role in tumorigenesis of these brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / cytology. Brain / enzymology. Cells, Cultured. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16462489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107277
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
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71. Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, Forshew T, Hindley GF, Ellison DW, Sheer D: MAPK pathway activation and the origins of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas. J Cell Physiol; 2010 Mar;222(3):509-14
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  • [Title] MAPK pathway activation and the origins of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs) are the most common type of brain tumor in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19937730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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72. Kamnasaran D: Stem cells and models of astrocytomas. Clin Invest Med; 2009;32(2):E166-79
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  • [Title] Stem cells and models of astrocytomas.
  • PURPOSE: To provide a critical assessment of current stem-cell based pre-clinical models of astrocytomas (gliomas).
  • Top articles were selected for critical analyses depending on the qualitative assessment of the citation index, novelty of the findings, reputation of the research group and relevance to stem-cell based pre-clinical models of astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: The emergence of stem-cell based pre-clinical models of gliomas offers advantages for cellular transformation studies over other current in-vitro cell cultured based models.
  • Cells utilized in these stem-cell based pre-clinical models are easier to transform, with the induced tumours demonstrating very high molecular and pathological recapitulations of astrocytomas that are derived from humans.
  • In the first, synthetic astrocytes can be differentiated from various stem cell sources such as the nervous system and embryos, and utilized in elegant forward genetic strategies to develop novel astrocytoma pre-clinical models.
  • In this model, glioma stem cells exhibit very high pathological recapitulations of the human tumours, and can be very informative to comprehend the basis of radio-chemoresistance among patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The quest to develop robust pre-clinical models of astrocytomas is on an ongoing basis.
  • The models are of clinical importance for the discovery of effective treatment modalities that can considerably improve the health of patients with this deadly disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Stem Cells

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  • (PMID = 19331806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2353
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Invest Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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73. Kwon CH, Zhao D, Chen J, Alcantara S, Li Y, Burns DK, Mason RP, Lee EY, Wu H, Parada LF: Pten haploinsufficiency accelerates formation of high-grade astrocytomas. Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;68(9):3286-94
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  • [Title] Pten haploinsufficiency accelerates formation of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We previously reported that central nervous system (CNS) inactivation of Nf1 and p53 tumor suppressor genes in mice results in the development of low-grade to high-grade progressive astrocytomas.
  • When the tumors achieve high grade, they are frequently accompanied by Akt activation, reminiscent of the frequent association of PTEN mutations in human high-grade glioma.
  • In the present study, we introduced CNS heterozygosity of Pten into the Nf1/p53 astrocytoma model.
  • Resulting mice had accelerated morbidity, shortened survival, and full penetrance of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Haploinsufficiency of Pten accelerated formation of grade 3 astrocytomas, whereas loss of Pten heterozygosity and Akt activation coincided with progression into grade 4 tumors.
  • These data suggest that successive loss of each Pten allele may contribute to de novo formation of high-grade astrocytoma and progression into glioblastoma, respectively, thus providing insight into the etiology of primary glioblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 18451155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR002584; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS033199-10; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS052606-05; None / None / / U24 CA126608-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24CA126608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS033199-10; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052606-05; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41-RR02584; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37NS33199; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA126608; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R37 NS033199; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS052606; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA126608-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149010; NLM/ PMC2760841
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74. Nordfors K, Haapasalo J, Helén P, Paetau A, Paljärvi L, Kalimo H, Kinnula VL, Soini Y, Haapasalo H: Peroxiredoxins and antioxidant enzymes in pilocytic astrocytomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2007 Sep-Oct;26(5):210-8
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  • [Title] Peroxiredoxins and antioxidant enzymes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • In this study, their biology and clinical significance were examined in pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • RESULTS: Peroxiredoxins were strongly expressed in general suggesting that oxidative damage and consequent defense takes place during the progression of pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results of this study on pilocytic astrocytomas suggest that the levels of Prxs and other AOEs and their related thiol proteins are generally strongly expressed in these tumors.
  • At least Prx VI can contribute to tumor behavior which can make it a potential prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Peroxidases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17907597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 52500-60-4 / Thioredoxins; EC 1.11.1.- / Peroxidases; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxin VI; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxins; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.8.1.9 / Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase; EC 6.3.2.2 / Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase
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75. Maes L, Kalala JP, Cornelissen M, de Ridder L: Progression of astrocytomas and meningiomas: an evaluation in vitro. Cell Prolif; 2007 Feb;40(1):14-23
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  • [Title] Progression of astrocytomas and meningiomas: an evaluation in vitro.
  • By verifying the proliferation capacity, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression and in vitro invasion, in a group of highly malignant glioblastomas, benign meningiomas and astrocytomas, at the initial stage of progression, we have analysed putative progression in vitro for proliferation and telomerase expression.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative proliferation status (visualized with Ki-67 antibodies) and presence of hTERT protein was analysed in 27 intracranial tumours (6 astrocytomas, 8 glioblastomas and 13 meningiomas) by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded biopsy tissue, as well as on primary tumour-derived cell cultures.
  • RESULTS: The mean proliferation indices were 22.3 (SD = 18.1) for glioblastomas and 2.1 (SD = 1.9) for low-grade (LG) astrocytomas.
  • Mean percentages of staining for hTERT varied between 36.5 (SD = 28.4) for glioblastomas and 10.2 (SD = 8.6) for LG astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Telomerase / analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17227292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell proliferation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Prolif.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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76. Massimino M, Cohen KJ, Finlay JL: Is there a role for myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue in the management of childhood high-grade astrocytomas? Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):641-3
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  • [Title] Is there a role for myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue in the management of childhood high-grade astrocytomas?
  • High-grade or malignant glioma represent 10% of pediatric brain tumors and are, taken as a whole, the second more frequent malignant histotype after medulloblastoma.
  • Different trials have explored the role of high-dose chemotherapy that theoretically could give an advantage to these patients by overcoming blood-brain barrier, tumor cell chemo-resistance and inducing a wider number of responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20146219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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77. Righi V, Roda JM, Paz J, Mucci A, Tugnoli V, Rodriguez-Tarduchy G, Barrios L, Schenetti L, Cerdán S, García-Martín ML: 1H HR-MAS and genomic analysis of human tumor biopsies discriminate between high and low grade astrocytomas. NMR Biomed; 2009 Jul;22(6):629-37
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  • [Title] 1H HR-MAS and genomic analysis of human tumor biopsies discriminate between high and low grade astrocytomas.
  • We investigate the profile of choline metabolites and the expression of the genes of the Kennedy pathway in biopsies of human gliomas (n = 23) using (1)H High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS, 11.7 Tesla, 277 K, 4000 Hz) and individual genetic assays. (1)H HR-MAS spectra allowed the resolution and relative quantification by the LCModel of the resonances from choline (Cho), phosphocholine (PC) and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), the three main components of the combined tCho peak observed in gliomas by in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy.
  • All glioma biopsies depicted a prominent tCho peak.
  • However, the relative contributions of Cho, PC, and GPC to tCho were different for low and high grade gliomas.
  • Whereas GPC is the main component in low grade gliomas, the high grade gliomas show a dominant contribution of PC.
  • This circumstance allowed the discrimination of high and low grade gliomas by (1)H HR-MAS, a result that could not be obtained using the tCho/Cr ratio commonly used by in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy.
  • High grade gliomas depict an upregulation of the beta gene of choline kinase and phospholipase C, as well as a downregulation of the cytidyltransferase B gene, the balance of these being consistent with the accumulation of PC.
  • In the low grade gliomas, phospholipase A(1) and lysophospholipase are upregulated and phospholipase D is downregulated, supporting the accumulation of GPC.
  • The present findings offer a promising procedure that will potentially help to accurately grade glioma tumors using (1)H HR-MAS, providing in addition the genetic background for the alterations of choline metabolism observed in high and low grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biopsy. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19322812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1492
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 60M22SGW66 / Glycerylphosphorylcholine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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78. Nomiya T, Nemoto K, Kumabe T, Takai Y, Yamada S: Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:11
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  • [Title] Prospective single-arm study of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite intensive multimodal treatment, outcome of patients with malignant glioma remains poor, and a standard dose of radiotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma has not been defined.
  • In the past RTOG study (83-02), the arm of 72 Gy hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) for malignant gliomas showed better outcome than the arms of higher doses (76.8 - 81.6 Gy) and the arms of lower doses (48 - 54.4 Gy).
  • METHODS: From July 1995, 44 consecutive eligible patients with histologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma were enrolled in this study (HFRT group).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggested that 72 Gy HFRT seemed to show favorable outcome for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma with tolerable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nimustine / therapeutic use

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  • [Cites] Strahlenther Onkol. 2001 Aug;177(8):424-31 [11544905.001]
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  • (PMID = 18199339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0S726V972K / Nimustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2254433
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79. Salhia B, Hwang JH, Smith CA, Nakada M, Rutka F, Symons M, Rutka JT: Role of myosin II activity and the regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in astrocytomas. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton; 2008 Jan;65(1):12-24
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  • [Title] Role of myosin II activity and the regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in astrocytomas.
  • Accordingly, in this study we examined the effects of ROCK and Rac1 inhibition on MLC phosphorylation in astrocytoma cells.
  • We also observed that astrocytoma migration is stimulated by low concentrations of the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin.
  • Taken together, our data show that modulation of myosin II activity is important in determining optimal astrocytoma migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Myosin Light Chains / metabolism. Myosin Type II / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Humans. Phosphorylation. rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / physiology. rho-Associated Kinases / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17896341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-1544
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell motility and the cytoskeleton
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87567
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myosin Light Chains; 0 / RAC1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / rho-Associated Kinases; EC 3.6.1.- / Myosin Type II; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
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80. Ramina R, Coelho Neto M, Fernandes YB, Borges G, Honorato DC, Arruda WO: Intrinsic tectal low grade astrocytomas: is surgical removal an alternative treatment? Long-term outcome of eight cases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2005 Mar;63(1):40-5
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  • [Title] Intrinsic tectal low grade astrocytomas: is surgical removal an alternative treatment? Long-term outcome of eight cases.
  • Low-grade gliomas arising in dorsal midbrain in children and young patients usually present few neurological symptoms and findings, and patients management is controversial.
  • Microsurgical total removal of tumor may be curative.
  • We present a retrospective analysis of eight patients (mean age 16.6 +/- 11.5 years-old) with low-grade astrocytoma of the tectal region operated on using an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach between 1981 and 2002.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in two cases, one patient at the beginning of this series and in the case with infiltrative tumor.
  • This patient presented progressive tumor growth and died five years after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15830063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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81. Woerner BM, Warrington NM, Kung AL, Perry A, Rubin JB: Widespread CXCR4 activation in astrocytomas revealed by phospho-CXCR4-specific antibodies. Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 15;65(24):11392-9
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  • [Title] Widespread CXCR4 activation in astrocytomas revealed by phospho-CXCR4-specific antibodies.
  • The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is expressed in many cancers where it may regulate tumor cell growth and migration.
  • With this antibody, we investigated the mechanisms of CXCR4 phosphorylation and evaluated the phosphorylation status of CXCR4 in human astrocytomas.
  • In all grades of astrocytomas, CXCR4 was expressed in tumor cells and some endothelial cells, whereas CXCL12 was present in endothelial cells and infiltrating microglia.
  • We found that CXCR4 phosphorylated on serine 339 was present in tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells in all grades of astrocytoma.
  • These data indicate that CXCR4 is expressed and activated in astrocytomas and that phosphorylation of CXCR4 can occur through ligand activation or transactivation via the EGF receptor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16357147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD01393
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 452VLY9402 / Serine; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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82. Geranmayeh F, Scheithauer BW, Spitzer C, Meyer FB, Svensson-Engwall AC, Graeber MB: Microglia in gemistocytic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2007 Jan;60(1):159-66; discussion 166
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  • [Title] Microglia in gemistocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Although gemistocytic astrocytomas are graded as World Health Organization II astrocytomas, they behave more aggressively than other astrocytomas.
  • Microglial cells, a feature of this astrocytoma variant, are of increasing interest in the context of glioma growth.
  • METHODS: We selected 23 tumor biopsies from 201 samples obtained from patients with gemistocytic astrocytomas operated at Mayo Clinic between 1985 and 1998.
  • RESULTS: A high number of microglia was detected in gemistocytic astrocytomas.
  • More microglia were present if the fraction of gemistocytic tumor cells was high (correlation coefficient = 0.699; P < 0.0002).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that gemistocytic astrocytomas contain unusually high numbers of microglial cells.
  • We propose that the finding of aberrant MHC Class II expression by gemistocytic tumor cells correlates with a loss of immune-competent MHC Class II-expressing microglia.
  • This may be related to the especially poor prognosis of gemistocytic astrocytomas for which induction of T cell anergy could provide one explanation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Microglia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17228265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Morales H, Kwock L, Castillo M: Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):682-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) have been described only recently.
  • They appear as low-grade tumors sharing imaging features similar to pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas have different histological features and behave more aggressively than PAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Myxoma / metabolism. Myxoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17895777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4L6452S749 / Inositol; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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84. Martínez-Lage J, Ros de San Pedro J, Martínez-Pérez M, Poza M: Meningiomas after radiation-therapy for benign astrocytomas. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2005 Jun;16(3):266-70; discussion 270

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  • [Title] Meningiomas after radiation-therapy for benign astrocytomas.
  • A 4.5 year-old-girl was submitted to subtotal removal of a benign astrocytoma of the left temporal lobe with basal ganglia extension and given radiotherapy.
  • The authors report this case to illustrate the possibility of the appearance of radiation-induced meningiomas after an interval of 22 years and briefly discuss 16 previous reports on this occurrence in benign astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Basal Ganglia. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningioma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Temporal Lobe
  • [MeSH-minor] Aphasia / etiology. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Paresis / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Seizures / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16007326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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85. Naidoo V, Naidoo S, Mahabeer R, Raidoo DM: Localization of the endothelin system in human diffuse astrocytomas. Cancer; 2005 Sep 1;104(5):1049-57

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Localization of the endothelin system in human diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Because only immunoreactive ET-1 has been observed within human astrocytic tumor cells, the authors investigated the localization of the entire ET-1 system (ET-1 mRNA, ET-1, ECE-1, ETA and ETB receptors) in surgical samples of human diffuse astrocytomas WHO Grade II (n = 6).
  • RESULTS: All ET components were detected in the six tumor samples.
  • Intense (3+) cytoplasmic ET-1 mRNA labeling was observed in more than 75% of cells in all 6 astrocytomas.
  • Up to 75% of tumor cells displayed intense ET-1 and ECE-1 immunolabeling distributed throughout their cytoplasm.
  • Immunoreactive ETA and ETB receptors, observed in 25% to 75% of astrocytic tumor cells, were of moderate intensity.
  • In addition, all components of the ET system were seen within endothelial cells of tumor blood vessels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of ET-1 mRNA, ECE-1, and ET-1 within tumor astrocytes suggests local ET synthesis and processing.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Endothelin-1 / analysis. Metalloendopeptidases / analysis. Receptor, Endothelin A / analysis. Receptor, Endothelin B / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16007684.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.71 / endothelin-converting enzyme
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86. Tsugu H, Oshiro S, Yanai F, Komatsu F, Abe H, Fukushima T, Nomura Y, Matsumoto S, Nabeshima K, Takano K, Utsunomiya H: Management of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: our experience. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):919-26
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  • [Title] Management of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: our experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) shows a higher rate of recurrence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination than does pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • After chemotherapy, four patients showed remarkable tumor regression.
  • Nevertheless, one patient died 22 months after initial diagnosis, due to tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19414328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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87. Slatter T, Gifford-Garner J, Wiles A, Tan X, Chen YJ, MacFarlane M, Sullivan M, Royds J, Hung N: Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres. Am J Pathol; 2010 Dec;177(6):2694-700
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytomas have telomere-associated promyelocytic leukemia bodies without alternatively lengthened telomeres.
  • We measured APBs, telomere length, and telomerase activity in 64 astrocytomas inclusive of grade 1-4 tumors.
  • This is the first report of a TPB-positive but ALT-negative tumor, and suggests that low-grade tumors have the foundation for recombinational telomere repair, as in ALT.

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  • (PMID = 21037079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993310
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88. Dai C, Lyustikman Y, Shih A, Hu X, Fuller GN, Rosenblum M, Holland EC: The characteristics of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas are caused by two distinct and interchangeable signaling formats. Neoplasia; 2005 Apr;7(4):397-406
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  • [Title] The characteristics of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas are caused by two distinct and interchangeable signaling formats.
  • Chronic platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling in glial progenitors leads to the formation of oligodendrogliomas in mice, whereas chronic combined Ras and Akt signaling leads to astrocytomas.
  • Different histologies of these tumors imply that the pathways activated by these two oncogenic stimulations are different, and that the apparent lineage of the tumor cells may result from specific signaling activity.
  • Therefore, we have investigated the signaling effects of PDGF in culture and in gliomas in vivo.
  • Furthermore, forced Akt activity in the context of chronic PDGF stimulation results in cells with an astrocytic differentiation pattern both in culture and in vivo.
  • These data imply that these two interconvertible signaling motifs are distinct in mice and lead to gliomas resembling the two major glioma histologies found in humans.
  • The ability of signaling activity to convert tumor cells from one lineage to another presents a mechanism for the development of tumors apparently comprised of cells from multiple lineages.

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  • (PMID = 15967117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8002
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA894314-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras); EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1501153
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89. Chaichana KL, Kosztowski T, Niranjan A, Olivi A, Weingart JD, Laterra J, Brem H, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing anaplastic astrocytomas in adults. J Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;113(2):286-92
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing anaplastic astrocytomas in adults.
  • OBJECT: Patients harboring anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) typically have a poor prognosis, with median survival times of approximately 3 years following resection.
  • However, a significant variability in individual outcomes remains, with some patients surviving for a few months and others for several years.
  • The prognostic implications of a preoperative contrast-enhancing AA remain poorly understood.
  • METHODS: The medical records of all patients who underwent a craniotomy for a hemispheric AA from 1996 to 2006 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Craniotomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20302391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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90. Paixão Becker A, de Oliveira RS, Saggioro FP, Neder L, Chimelli LM, Machado HR: In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jan;26(1):19-28
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  • [Title] In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study described a 23-year experience in the treatment of children with pilocytic astrocytomas (piloA) with the aim of identifying putative clinical, histopathological, and/or immunohistochemical features that could be related to the outcome of these patients.
  • The most common site of tumor formation was the cerebellum (17), followed by brainstem (4), optic chiasmatic hypothalamic region (4), cerebral hemisphere (3), cervical spinal cord (2), and optic nerve (1).
  • In all cases, Gal-3 expression in tumor cells was observed with variable staining pattern.
  • Tumor recurrence or progression of the residual lesion should be strictly observed.
  • In some aspects, childhood piloA remains an enigmatic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19823847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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91. Chamberlain MC, Chowdhary SA, Glantz MJ: Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment. Expert Rev Neurother; 2008 Apr;8(4):575-86
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytomas: biology and treatment.
  • Anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), WHO grade III gliomas, comprise 10-15% of all glial neoplasms.
  • A further likely prognostic biomarker is the methylation status of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltranferase gene (the predominant DNA repair enzyme following alkylator-based chemotherapy-induced injury).
  • Evidence-based management of patients with AA supports maximum safe resection followed by involved-field radiotherapy for newly diagnosed patients, and temozolomide for recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18416660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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92. El-Rayes BF, Norton CS, Sakr W, Maciorowski Z, Smith D, Pietraszkiewicz H, Del Mar Alonso M, Ensley JF: Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):85-9
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  • [Title] Cellular DNA content parameters as prognostic indicators in human astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Clinical parameters such as grade, size and/or location of the tumor are good predictors of outcome in patients with astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: Following optimization and validation of methodology for evaluating cellular DNA content parameters (CDCP), tumor DNA ploidy and percent S phase fraction (SPF) were determined from 64 patients using formalin fixed, paraffin embedded specimens (mean coefficient of variation=4.94) obtained over a 10-year period.
  • CONCLUSION: DNA content parameters may correlate with the natural history and treatment outcome of newly diagnosed untreated patients with astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15690121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40498-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA22453
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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93. Fathallah-Shaykh HM: Malignant astrocytomas: a system disease. Arch Neurol; 2010 Mar;67(3):353-5
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  • [Title] Malignant astrocytomas: a system disease.

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  • [CommentOn] JAMA. 2009 Jul 15;302(3):276-89 [19602687.001]
  • [CommentOn] JAMA. 2009 Jul 15;302(3):261-75 [19602686.001]
  • (PMID = 20212234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Newton HB: Do pilocytic astrocytomas have a benign course in adult patients? Nat Clin Pract Neurol; 2008 Jun;4(6):296-7
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  • [Title] Do pilocytic astrocytomas have a benign course in adult patients?

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  • [CommentOn] Cancer. 2007 Dec 15;110(12):2799-808 [17973253.001]
  • (PMID = 18414467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8358
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Chelcun JL, Pope RS: Spinal cord astrocytomas: rare but life-threatening tumors in children. JAAPA; 2009 Jun;22(6):37-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord astrocytomas: rare but life-threatening tumors in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19601448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-1896
  • [Journal-full-title] JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAAPA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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96. Franz DN, de Vries PJ, Crino PB: Giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex. Arch Dis Child; 2009 Jan;94(1):75-6
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  • [Title] Giant cell astrocytomas in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications


97. Kumar VA, Knopp EA, Zagzag D: Magnetic resonance dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of posterior fossa hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas: initial results. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Nov-Dec;34(6):825-9
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of posterior fossa hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytomas: initial results.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion and MR imaging findings between hemangioblastomas and pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 21084895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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98. López-Aguilar E, Sepúlveda Vildósola AC, Rioscovián-Soto AP, Gascón-Lastiri G, Rojas-Puentes F, Siordia-Reyes G, Diegopérez-Ramírez J, De la Cruz-Yáñez H, Barrientos-Salcedo C: [Survival of patients with malignant astrocytomas according to the expression of Ki67 antigen in a pediatric hospital]. Gac Med Mex; 2010 Mar-Apr;146(2):118-23
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  • [Title] [Survival of patients with malignant astrocytomas according to the expression of Ki67 antigen in a pediatric hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] Sobrevida de los pacientes con astrocitoma de alto grado que expresan el antígeno Ki67, atendidos en un hospital de pediatría.
  • BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with malignant gliomas and same histological diagnosis respond distinctly to treatment.
  • The aim of this study was to determine if the expression of this antigen influences survival of patients treated for malignant gliomas in the CMN SXXI Pediatrics Hospital.
  • METHODS: We included patients with anaplasic astrocitoma or glioblastoma multiforme seen at our hospital between 1995 and 2005.
  • We determined the expression of Ki67 by immunohistochemistry and correlated the findings with tumor histology and patient survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Being young (under 11 years) is a marker of poor prognosis among pediatric patients with anaplasic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20626127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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99. Komotar RJ, Carson BS, Rao C, Chaffee S, Goldthwaite PT, Tihan T: Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma of the Spinal Cord: Report of Three Cases. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jan 01;56(1):E206-E210

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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma of the Spinal Cord: Report of Three Cases.

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  • (PMID = 28184642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Takei H, Yogeswaren ST, Wong KK, Mehta V, Chintagumpala M, Dauser RC, Lau CC, Adesina AM: Expression of oligodendroglial differentiation markers in pilocytic astrocytomas identifies two clinical subsets and shows a significant correlation with proliferation index and progression free survival. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jan;86(2):183-90
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  • [Title] Expression of oligodendroglial differentiation markers in pilocytic astrocytomas identifies two clinical subsets and shows a significant correlation with proliferation index and progression free survival.
  • The growth pattern of pilocytic astrocytoma (PAs) is unpredictable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Oligodendroglia / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17690840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA120534
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myelin Basic Protein; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG1 protein, human; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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