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1. Shapiro WR, Carpenter SP, Roberts K, Shan JS: (131)I-chTNT-1/B mAb: tumour necrosis therapy for malignant astrocytic glioma. Expert Opin Biol Ther; 2006 May;6(5):539-45
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  • [Title] (131)I-chTNT-1/B mAb: tumour necrosis therapy for malignant astrocytic glioma.
  • Treatment of malignant glioma is therapeutically challenging.
  • Despite improvements in neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, few patients diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (WHO grades 3 and 4, respectively) will live beyond 2 years.
  • Most malignant gliomas cannot be completely resected or irradiated due to their ability to infiltrate diffusely into normal brain tissue.
  • Brain tissue is protected from the systemic circulation via the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which impedes entry of water-soluble chemotherapeutic agents into the tumour at therapeutic concentrations. (131)I-chTNT-1/B mAb (Cotara) employs an innovative strategy to treat the invasive portion of the tumour and the core lesion. (131)I-chTNT-1/B mAb is a genetically engineered, radiolabelled, chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for a universal intracellular antigen (i.e., DNA/histone H1 complex) exposed in the necrotic core of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16610983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7682
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on biological therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Biol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Histones; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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2. Kawamoto K, Li Q, Azuma K, Ryu T, Sakurai Y: [Brain glioblastoma and astrocytoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Sep;63 Suppl 9:105-9
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  • [Title] [Brain glioblastoma and astrocytoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclins. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intraoperative Period. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Laser Scanning Cytometry. Neoplasm Staging. Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • (PMID = 16201508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma-Like Protein p130; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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3. Bapuraj JR, Parmar HA, Blaivas M, Muraszko KM: Imaging features of clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord. Pediatr Radiol; 2007 Apr;37(4):384-7
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  • MRI demonstrated a large, intramedullary tumor at the level of the conus.
  • The imaging findings were unlike those of a classic ependymoma or astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 17279401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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4. Jing R, Pizzolato G, Robson RM, Gabbiani G, Skalli O: Intermediate filament protein synemin is present in human reactive and malignant astrocytes and associates with ruffled membranes in astrocytoma cells. Glia; 2005 Apr 15;50(2):107-20
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  • [Title] Intermediate filament protein synemin is present in human reactive and malignant astrocytes and associates with ruffled membranes in astrocytoma cells.
  • Western blotting shows that astrocytic tumors contain greater amounts of alpha-synemin than do normal brain tissues.
  • Taken together with synemin localization within ruffled membranes, this finding suggests that synemin plays a role in motility of glioblastoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Muscle Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actinin / metabolism. Antibodies, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Antibodies, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Blotting, Western. Brain Chemistry. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Movement. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunoprecipitation. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15657940.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1491
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-35317
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / desmuslin; 11003-00-2 / Actinin
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5. Durand KS, Guillaudeau A, Weinbreck N, DeArmas R, Robert S, Chaunavel A, Pommepuy I, Bourthoumieu S, Caire F, Sturtz FG, Labrousse FJ: 1p19q LOH patterns and expression of p53 and Olig2 in gliomas: relation with histological types and prognosis. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):619-28
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  • [Title] 1p19q LOH patterns and expression of p53 and Olig2 in gliomas: relation with histological types and prognosis.
  • However, 1p and 19q loss of heterozygosity may be telomeric, interstitial, centromeric or affect the whole arm of the chromosome and the associations between these different patterns and tumor type, other molecular markers and patient prognosis remain unclear.
  • We analyzed microsatellite markers in a region spanning the chromosome from the telomere to the centromere, to characterize the pattern of 1p and 19q loss of heterozygosity in 39 infiltrative gliomas, including astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • In combination with classical histological and immunohistochemical data, 1p19q status determination provides pertinent information useful for (1) discriminating between histological types of gliomas and (2) identifying a subgroup of tumors that are associated with a better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20081802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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6. Tabatabai G, Herrmann C, von Kürthy G, Mittelbronn M, Grau S, Frank B, Möhle R, Weller M, Wick W: VEGF-dependent induction of CD62E on endothelial cells mediates glioma tropism of adult haematopoietic progenitor cells. Brain; 2008 Oct;131(Pt 10):2579-95
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  • [Title] VEGF-dependent induction of CD62E on endothelial cells mediates glioma tropism of adult haematopoietic progenitor cells.
  • Haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) are attracted by experimental gliomas in vivo.
  • This attraction is further enhanced by irradiation or hypoxic preconditioning of the glioma cells.
  • Adhesive interactions might be critical to the preferential accumulation of HPC within the glioma tissue.
  • Exposure of human cerebral endothelial cells (SV-HCEC), human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) and brain tumour endothelial cells derived from human glioblastomas (BTEC) to supernatants of glioma cells and primary glioma cells (SN-G) induced the expression of E-selectin (CD62E).
  • CD62E expression was further enhanced when the glioma cells had been exposed to irradiation or hypoxia prior to the collection of supernatants, as well as by irradiation or exposure to hypoxia of the endothelial cells.
  • Neutralizing antibodies to CD62E strongly reduced the homing of lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+) cells to orthotopic SMA-560 gliomas in vivo.
  • Tissue microarray sampling normal brain tissue and astrocytomas of WHO grades II-IV revealed a selective expression of CD62E on endothelial cells of tumour vessels.
  • SN-G-induced CD62E expression on endothelial cells in vitro required transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signalling in glioma cells and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) signalling in endothelial cells.
  • Further, we observed a nuclear factor kappa B-dependent activation of the CD62E promoter peaking at 12 h after VEGF-R2 activation by glioma-derived VEGF.
  • Taken together, we identify glioma cell-induced CD62E expression on endothelial cells as one mediator of the glioma tropism of HPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adult Stem Cells / metabolism. E-Selectin / metabolism. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Autoantibodies / pharmacology. Cell Hypoxia. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Migration Inhibition. Cell Movement. Coculture Techniques. Gene Expression. Humans. Mice. Mice, Mutant Strains. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Transplantation. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18689869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / E-Selectin; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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7. Pathak S, Chatterjee PK, Das S, Majumder N, Ghosh RK: Solitary retinal astrocytoma. J Indian Med Assoc; 2008 Dec;106(12):809
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  • [Title] Solitary retinal astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19370956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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8. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma occurring 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jul;107(1):185-9
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma occurring 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma. Case report.
  • The authors present the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with an anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma that developed 6 years after subtotal resection of a central neurocytoma in his right lateral ventricle.
  • Histological examination revealed anaplastic oligodendroglioma in the parietal lobe and anaplastic astrocytoma in the insula.
  • One year later, the anaplastic astrocytoma was found to have transformed into a glioblastoma multiforme.
  • These findings suggest that central neurocytoma or progenitor cells have the potential for oligodendrocytic and astrocytic transformation with different genetic aberrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurocytoma / surgery. Oligodendroglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Time Factors


9. Poliani PL, Sperli D, Valentini S, Armentano A, Bercich L, Bonetti MF, Corriero G, Brisigotti M, Quattrone A, Lanza PL: Spinal glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and meningeal dissemination: histopathological and radiological study of a pediatric case. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):574-8
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  • [Title] Spinal glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and meningeal dissemination: histopathological and radiological study of a pediatric case.
  • In the present report we describe a case of a 15-month-old child with a spinal GTNI of the cervical region and meningeal dissemination.
  • Histologically the tumor was composed of round, small neurocytic-like cells arranged around eosinophilic neuropil cores and embedded in a diffuse fibrillar glial component forming prominent "rosetted" neuropil islands displaying strong immunoreactivity for neuronal markers.
  • Cerebral GTNI shows abundant glial components not rarely exhibiting anaplastic features that justify their inclusion within the group of diffuse astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 19077041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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10. Armand JP, Ribrag V, Harrousseau JL, Abrey L: Reappraisal of the use of procarbazine in the treatment of lymphomas and brain tumors. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2007 Jun;3(2):213-24
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  • Procarbazine alone, or more commonly combined in the PCV (procarbazine, lomustine [CCNU], and vincristine) regimen, is also effective in treating gliomas comprising astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • In conclusion, the use of procarbazine in combination with other drugs means that it remains a major anticancer drug in the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma and gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 18360630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1936303
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11. Lee EJ, Lee SK, Agid R, Bae JM, Keller A, Terbrugge K: Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1872-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient.
  • We assessed the diagnostic values of minimum ADC for preoperative grading of supratentorial astrocytomas that were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 118 patients with astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV), 16 who showed typical MR imaging findings of low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging were included.
  • The minimum ADC value of each tumor was determined from several regions of interest in the tumor on ADC maps.
  • To assess the relationship between the minimum ADC and tumor grade, we performed the Mann-Whitney U test.
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cutoff value of the minimum ADC that had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Eight of the 16 patients (50%) were confirmed as having high-grade astrocytomas (WHO grades III and IV), and the other 8 patients were confirmed as having low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II).
  • The median minimum ADC of the high-grade astrocytoma (1.035 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • sec(-1)) group was significantly lower than that of the low-grade astrocytoma group (1.19 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • CONCLUSION: Measuring minimum ADC can provide valuable diagnostic information for the preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18719036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Kim YH, Nobusawa S, Mittelbronn M, Paulus W, Brokinkel B, Keyvani K, Sure U, Wrede K, Nakazato Y, Tanaka Y, Vital A, Mariani L, Stawski R, Watanabe T, De Girolami U, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas. Am J Pathol; 2010 Dec;177(6):2708-14
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  • [Title] Molecular classification of low-grade diffuse gliomas.
  • The current World Health Organization classification recognizes three histological types of grade II low-grade diffuse glioma (diffuse astrocytoma, oligoastrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma).
  • The aim of our study was to establish genetic profiles for diffuse gliomas and to estimate their predictive impact.
  • In this study, we screened 360 World Health Organization grade II gliomas for mutations in the IDH1, IDH2, and TP53 genes and for 1p/19q loss and correlated these with clinical outcome.
  • The molecular classification on the basis of IDH1/2 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p/19q loss has power similar to histological classification and avoids the ambiguity inherent to the diagnosis of oligoastrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Glioma / classification. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques / methods. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 21075857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993282
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13. García-Escudero R, Martínez-Cruz AB, Santos M, Lorz C, Segrelles C, Garaulet G, Saiz-Ladera C, Costa C, Buitrago-Pérez A, Dueñas M, Paramio JM: Gene expression profiling of mouse p53-deficient epidermal carcinoma defines molecular determinants of human cancer malignancy. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:193
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  • We have obtained a 20-gene signature whose genes are overexpressed in mouse tumors and can identify human tumors with poor outcome from breast cancer, astrocytoma and multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


14. Rueckriegel SM, Blankenburg F, Henze G, Baqué H, Driever PH: Loss of fine motor function correlates with ataxia and decline of cognition in cerebellar tumor survivors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Sep;53(3):424-31
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  • [Title] Loss of fine motor function correlates with ataxia and decline of cognition in cerebellar tumor survivors.
  • BACKGROUND: Motor and cognitive function losses resemble handicaps in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors.
  • PROCEDURE: Fine motor function, extent of ataxia and cognitive function were assessed in 25 medulloblastoma (MB) and 16 cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) patients at least 1 year after completion of therapy.
  • Degree of ataxia was quantified using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale and cognition was determined using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale.
  • CONCLUSION: The digitizing tablet detected extent of fine motor function loss at varying levels of complexity of pediatric cerebellar tumor survivors.
  • This tool promises to be a potentially effective method for measuring fine motor function in clinical trials and may be helpful in studying mechanisms of neurotoxicity in posterior fossa tumor patients as well as success of rehabilitation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / psychology. Ataxia / psychology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / psychology. Cognition. Medulloblastoma / psychology. Motor Activity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19484752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Pirotte BJ, Levivier M, Goldman S, Massager N, Wikler D, Dewitte O, Bruneau M, Rorive S, David P, Brotchi J: Positron emission tomography-guided volumetric resection of supratentorial high-grade gliomas: a survival analysis in 66 consecutive patients. Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3):471-81; discussion 481
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography-guided volumetric resection of supratentorial high-grade gliomas: a survival analysis in 66 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Integrating positron emission tomographic (PET) images into the image-guided resection of high-grade gliomas (HGG) has shown that metabolic information on tumor heterogeneity and distribution are useful for planning surgery, improve tumor delineation, and provide a final target contour different from that obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alone in about 80% of the procedures.
  • Moreover, PET guidance helps to increase the amount of tumor removed and to target image-guided resection to anaplastic tissue areas.
  • In all cases (35 anaplastic gliomas [20 astrocytomas, 10 oligoastrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas] and 31 glioblastomas [GBM]), level and distribution of PET tracer uptake were analyzed to define a PET contour projected on MRI scans to define a final target contour for VR.
  • Maximal tumor resection was accomplished in each case, with the intention to remove the entire abnormal metabolic area comprised in the surgical planning.
  • Early postoperative MRI and PET assessed tumor resection.
  • Survival analysis was performed separately in anaplastic gliomas and glioblastoma multiforme according to the presence or absence of residual tracer uptake on postoperative PET and according to the presence or absence of residual contrast enhancement on postoperative MRI.
  • A total PET tracer uptake resection was associated with a significantly longer survival in anaplastic gliomas (P = 0.0071) and in glioblastoma multiforme (P = 0.0001), respectively.
  • A total MRI contrast enhancement resection was not correlated with a significantly better survival, neither in anaplastic gliomas (P = 0.6089) nor in glioblastoma multiforme (P = 0.6806).
  • Because PET information represents a more specific marker than MRI enhancement for detecting anaplastic tumor tissue, PET-guidance increases the amount of anaplastic tissue removed in HGG.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / mortality. Glioma / surgery. Risk Assessment / methods. Supratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 19240609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Schramm J, Aliashkevich AF: Surgery for temporal mediobasal tumors: experience based on a series of 235 patients. Neurosurgery; 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1272-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, various approaches, and outcomes in a retrospective review of a large series of temporomediobasal (TMB) tumors.
  • METHODS: Charts from 235 patients with TMB tumors were identified from the glioma and epilepsy surgery database and from the electronic operations log.
  • The largest tumor groups were astrocytomas (38.0%), gangliogliomas (29.8%), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (11.1%), and glioblastomas (11.1%).
  • The most frequent tumor location was the mesial Type A tumor (45.1%), with this type also showing the highest proportion of benign (World Health Organization Grades I and II) histological features (91.3%).
  • Larger tumor size was associated with higher frequency of malignant histopathological findings.
  • CONCLUSION: Small tumor size, magnetic resonance imaging, and microsurgery have made resection of mostly benign TMB tumors possible in a large number of patients.

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  • [ReprintOf] Neurosurgery. 2007 Feb;60(2):285-94; discussion 294-5 [17290179.001]
  • (PMID = 18695547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Drummond SR, Kemp EG: Retinal astrocytoma managed by brachytherapy. Ophthalmology; 2009 Mar;116(3):597-597.e1
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  • [Title] Retinal astrocytoma managed by brachytherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ruthenium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19264224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ruthenium Radioisotopes
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18. Arjona D, Bello MJ, Alonso ME, Aminoso C, Isla A, De Campos JM, Sarasa JL, Gutierrez M, Villalobo A, Rey JA: Molecular analysis of the EGFR gene in astrocytic gliomas: mRNA expression, quantitative-PCR analysis of non-homogeneous gene amplification and DNA sequence alterations. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Aug;31(4):384-94
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  • [Title] Molecular analysis of the EGFR gene in astrocytic gliomas: mRNA expression, quantitative-PCR analysis of non-homogeneous gene amplification and DNA sequence alterations.
  • This report investigates the presence of mutations, amplification and/or over-expression of the EGFR gene in 86 glial tumours including 44 glioblastomas, 21 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 21 WHO grade II astrocytomas, using polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism, semiquantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern Blot techniques.
  • These findings corroborate that EGFR is non-randomly involved in malignant glioma development and that different mutant forms participate in aberrant activation of tyrosine kinase pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Gene Amplification


19. Paulino AC, Mai WY, Chintagumpala M, Taher A, Teh BS: Radiation-induced malignant gliomas: is there a role for reirradiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Aug 1;71(5):1381-7
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  • [Title] Radiation-induced malignant gliomas: is there a role for reirradiation?
  • PURPOSE: To review the literature regarding the role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with radiation-induced malignant gliomas (RIMGs).
  • RESULTS: Initial tumor types treated with RT included brain tumor in 37 patients (40%), acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 33 (36%), benign disease in 11 (12%), and other in 11 (12%).
  • Type of RIMG was glioblastoma in 69 (75%) and anaplastic astrocytoma in 23 (25%).
  • One-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 29.3%, 7.3%, and 0% for patients with glioblastoma and 59.7%, 30.3%, and 20.2% for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The RIMG appeared earlier in patients treated for leukemia and lymphoma and latest for those treated for a benign condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Retreatment. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Sep 1;72(1):304-5; author reply 305 [18722290.001]
  • (PMID = 18262733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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20. Arvanitis LD, Koukoulis GK, Kanavaros P: The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):521-4
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  • [Title] The expression of the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine containing epitope H in the gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • In normal human brains the epitope H is present mostly to a minority of fibrous astrocytes, whereas it is greatly up-regulated in reactive astrocytes and is increased in well differentiated fibrillary astrocytomas compared to anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • In this study the expression of the epitope H was investigated in thirty cases of gemistocytic (WHO grade II), pilocytic (WHO grade I), and subependymal giant cell (WHO grade I) astrocytomas using the mAbH with the indirect immunoperoxidase method.
  • The ten cases of gemistocytic astrocytomas revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • The ten cases of pilocytic astrocytomas revealed a biphasic pattern of epitope H expression.
  • The dense tumor areas composed of elongated pilocytic cells revealed high expression of the epitope H.
  • The loose cystic tumor areas composed of stellate cells revealed low expression of the epitope H.
  • The ten cases of subependynal giant cell astrocytomas occurring in tuberous sclerosis revealed an overall high expression pattern.
  • This study shows that there is high expression of the epitope H in gemistocytic, pilocytic and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • Collectively considering, the present and our previous data, it appears that there is a spectrum of the expression levels of the epitope H ranging from the high expression in the reactive astrocytes and low grade astrocytomas to the low/null expression in the normal astrocytes and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylglucosamine / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Epitopes

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  • (PMID = 19639198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epitopes; V956696549 / Acetylglucosamine
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21. Blauwblomme T, Varlet P, Goodden JR, Cuny ML, Piana H, Roujeau T, Dirocco F, Grill J, Kieffer V, Boddaert N, Sainte-Rose C, Puget S: Forniceal glioma in children. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Sep;4(3):249-53
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  • [Title] Forniceal glioma in children. Clinical article.
  • METHODS: From a retrospective analysis of 250 cases of supratentorial pediatric glioma, the records of 8 children presenting with forniceal lesions were selected and reviewed.
  • On histological review, the tumors were confirmed as pilocytic astrocytoma (4 lesions), WHO Grade II astrocytoma (3), and ganglioglioma (1).
  • Additional treatment was required for 5 patients for tumor progression, with a median interval of 19 months from surgery.
  • At a median follow-up duration of 4.9 years, all patients had stable disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series, forniceal gliomas were found to be low-grade gliomas.
  • Due to the high rate of progression of residual disease, adjuvant therapy is recommended for infiltrative tumors, and it yielded excellent results.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Fornix, Brain. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19772409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Jacob K, Albrecht S, Sollier C, Faury D, Sader E, Montpetit A, Serre D, Hauser P, Garami M, Bognar L, Hanzely Z, Montes JL, Atkinson J, Farmer JP, Bouffet E, Hawkins C, Tabori U, Jabado N: Duplication of 7q34 is specific to juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and a hallmark of cerebellar and optic pathway tumours. Br J Cancer; 2009 Aug 18;101(4):722-33
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  • [Title] Duplication of 7q34 is specific to juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and a hallmark of cerebellar and optic pathway tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), a subgroup of low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), are common, heterogeneous and poorly understood subset of brain tumours in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19603027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2736806
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23. Patel SJ, Shapiro WR, Laske DW, Jensen RL, Asher AL, Wessels BW, Carpenter SP, Shan JS: Safety and feasibility of convection-enhanced delivery of Cotara for the treatment of malignant glioma: initial experience in 51 patients. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jun;56(6):1243-52; discussion 1252-3
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  • [Title] Safety and feasibility of convection-enhanced delivery of Cotara for the treatment of malignant glioma: initial experience in 51 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the safety and feasibility of using convection-enhanced delivery to administer Cotara (Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tustin, CA), a novel radioimmunotherapeutic agent, to patients with malignant glioma.
  • METHODS: Between April 1998 and November 2002, 51 patients with histologically confirmed malignant glioma received Cotara by convection-enhanced delivery.
  • Most patients (88%) were treated with Cotara targeting tumor volume-dependent, single or multiple administrations of activity ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mCi/cm3 of baseline clinical target volume.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-one patients, 37 with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, 8 with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme, and 6 with recurrent anaplastic astrocytomas, were treated.
  • Average tumor volume was 36 +/- 27.6 cm3 (range, 5-168 cm3).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15918940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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24. Ibeas E, Fuentes L, Martín R, Hernández M, Nieto ML: Inflammatory protein sPLA(2)-IIA abrogates TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in human astroglioma cells: Crucial role of ERK. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2009 Dec;1793(12):1837-47
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  • [Title] Inflammatory protein sPLA(2)-IIA abrogates TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in human astroglioma cells: Crucial role of ERK.
  • Brain injury induces the expression of well-known cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), and other, which functions are less understood, as secreted phospholipase A(2) group IIA (sPLA(2)-IIA).
  • Since in pathological processes, cytokines function coordinately in networks, to further explore the actions of sPLA(2)-IIA in tumorigenesis, we investigated the effect of sPLA(2)-IIA in the presence of TNFalpha in human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells.
  • These findings thus indicate that sPLA(2)-IIA and TNFalpha transduction pathways interact to modulate inflammatory responses and provide additional insights about the capacity of sPLA(2)-IIA to promote apoptosis resistance in astrocytoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Group II Phospholipases A2 / metabolism. Inflammation Mediators / metabolism. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Enzyme Induction / drug effects. Enzyme Induction / genetics. Humans. Inflammation / genetics. Inflammation / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Phosphorylation / genetics. Protein Structure, Tertiary / genetics. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / genetics. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19850087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.1.4 / Group II Phospholipases A2
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25. Mathieu D, Fortin D: The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant astrocytomas. Can J Neurol Sci; 2006 May;33(2):127-40
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  • [Title] The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant astrocytomas.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are aggressive neoplasms with a dismal prognosis despite optimal treatment.
  • A new class of agents, refered to as biological modifiers, are increasingly used in clinical trials in an effort to affect the intrinsic biologic aberrations harboured by tumor cells.
  • This article reviews the standard cytotoxic agents that have been used to treat malignant astrocytomas, and the different combination regimens offering promise.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Therapy / standards. Drug Therapy / trends

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  • (PMID = 16736721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 159
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26. Hwang SL, Lieu AS, Chang JH, Cheng TS, Cheng CY, Lee KS, Lin CL, Howng SL, Hong YR: Rac2 expression and mutation in human brain tumors. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 May;147(5):551-4; discussion 554
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  • FINDINGS: The decreased expression of Rac2 was found in 15 cases (57.7%) including 8 of 10 astrocytomas, 2 of 8 meningiomas, and 5 of 8 pituitary adenomas.
  • The role of high frequency of decreased Rac2 expression in brain tumors, particularly in malignant astrocytomas, needs further investigations to be elucidated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Down-Regulation / genetics. Humans. Meningioma / genetics. Meningioma / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. RNA / genetics. RNA / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15812594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 3.6.1.- / rac2 GTP-binding protein; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac GTP-Binding Proteins
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27. Sreekanthreddy P, Srinivasan H, Kumar DM, Nijaguna MB, Sridevi S, Vrinda M, Arivazhagan A, Balasubramaniam A, Hegde AS, Chandramouli BA, Santosh V, Rao MR, Kondaiah P, Somasundaram K: Identification of potential serum biomarkers of glioblastoma: serum osteopontin levels correlate with poor prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010 Jun;19(6):1409-22
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify serum biomarkers with classification and prognosis utility for astrocytoma, in particular glioblastoma (GBM).
  • METHODS: Our previous glioma microarray database was mined to identify genes that encode secreted or membrane-localized proteins.
  • Subsequent analysis was done using significant analysis of microarrays, followed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemical validation in tumor tissues, ELISA and Western blot validation in sera, and correlation with survival of GBM patients.
  • With respect to osteopontin (OPN), we show the GBM-specific upregulation by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissues.
  • IMPACT: Identified serum biomarkers may have potential utility in astrocytoma classification and GBM prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Glioblastoma / blood. Osteopontin / blood

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20530493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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28. Ma YH, Mentlein R, Knerlich F, Kruse ML, Mehdorn HM, Held-Feindt J: Expression of stem cell markers in human astrocytomas of different WHO grades. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jan;86(1):31-45
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  • [Title] Expression of stem cell markers in human astrocytomas of different WHO grades.
  • According to new hypotheses astrocytomas/gliomas either arise from or attract neural stem cells.
  • Because these studies have been performed with single experimental samples mostly from gliomas, we investigated the expression of the stem cell markers CD133/Prominin, Nestin, Sox-2, Musashi-1, CXCR4, Flt-4/VEGFR-3 and CD105/Endoglin in 72 astrocytomas of different WHO-grades and compared it to normal adult human brain.
  • However, their mean expression was significantly increased in astrocytomas, but this depended on the WHO grade only for CD133, Nestin, Sox-2 and Musashi-1.
  • Our results show that most astrocytomas contain considerable portions of cells expressing stem cell markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17611714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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29. Richard HT, Harrison JF, Abel TW, Maertens P, Martino AM, Sosnowski JS: Pediatric gliomatosis cerebri mimicking acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatrics; 2010 Aug;126(2):e479-82
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  • Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a diffuse infiltrating glial neoplasm of astrocytic origin.


30. Rafique MZ, Ahmad MN, Yaqoob N, Ahsan H: Diffuse bilateral thalamic astrocytoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 Mar;17(3):170-2
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  • [Title] Diffuse bilateral thalamic astrocytoma.
  • Diffuse astrocytoma with bilateral thalamic involvement is extremely rare.
  • MRI scans were performed twice and were reported as Leigh's disease and hemimegalencephaly respectively.
  • Biopsy showed grade III Astrocytoma with bilateral thalamic involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17374306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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31. Ashley DM, Riffkin CD, Muscat AM, Knight MJ, Kaye AH, Novak U, Hawkins CJ: Caspase 8 is absent or low in many ex vivo gliomas. Cancer; 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1487-96
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  • [Title] Caspase 8 is absent or low in many ex vivo gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Better treatments are required urgently for patients with malignant glioma, which currently is incurable.
  • Death ligands, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), may offer promise for the treatment high-grade glioma if such ligands induce apoptotic signaling in vivo in glioma cells.
  • Caspase 8 is required for death ligand signaling, and its levels may influence the sensitivity of glioma cells to death ligands.
  • It also may act as a tumor suppressor protein.
  • The authors analyzed caspase 8 expression levels in ex vivo glioma specimens and explored potential mechanisms of its regulation.
  • METHODS: Eleven glioblastomas, 5 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 3 low-grade astrocytomas were studied.
  • RESULTS: Some ex vivo glioma samples lacked detectable caspase 8, with many expressing barely detectable levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of caspase 8 protein in many resected glioma samples implied that many patients with glioma may not benefit from death ligand-based treatments, unless caspase 8 (or caspase 10) protein expression can be elevated.
  • Demethylating agents are unlikely to boost caspase 8 levels in glioma cells, but treatments that increase caspase 8 mRNA levels may up-regulate expression of the protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Caspases / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Blotting, Northern. Caspase 10. Caspase 8. DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Probability. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Tissue Culture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 16080161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CASP10 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP8 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 10; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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32. Comincini S, Paolillo M, Barbieri G, Palumbo S, Sbalchiero E, Azzalin A, Russo MA, Schinelli S: Gene expression analysis of an EGFR indirectly related pathway identified PTEN and MMP9 as reliable diagnostic markers for human glial tumor specimens. J Biomed Biotechnol; 2009;2009:924565
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  • [Title] Gene expression analysis of an EGFR indirectly related pathway identified PTEN and MMP9 as reliable diagnostic markers for human glial tumor specimens.
  • To verify if this correlation was conserved in gliomas, PTEN and MMP9 expression was further investigated in an additional panel of 16 anaplastic astrocytoma specimens and, in parallel, in different human normal and astrocytic tumor cell lines.
  • In anaplastic astrocytomas PTEN expression was significantly higher than in glioblastoma multiforme, but no significant correlation was found between PTEN and MMP9 expression.
  • PTEN and MMP9 mRNA levels were also employed to identify subgroups of specimens within the different glioma malignancy grades and to define a gene expression-based diagnostic classification scheme.
  • In conclusion, this gene expression survey highlighted that the combined measurement of PTEN and MMP9 transcripts might represent a novel reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of high-grade gliomas, and it also suggested a functional link involving these genes in glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19657395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-7251
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2718324
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33. Neves AM, Thompson G, Carvalheira J, Trindade JC, Rueff J, Caetano JM, Casey JW, Hermouet S: Detection and quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus in pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain Res; 2008 Jul 24;1221:108-14
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  • [Title] Detection and quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Thirty-five samples of pilocytic astrocytoma and 10 control samples of cerebellum from patients who died of unrelated diseases were examined.
  • HHV's DNA polymerase was found present in 20 samples (7 controls, 13 astrocytomas) and was absent in 25 samples (3 controls, 22 astrocytomas).
  • DNA polymerase of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) was present in 16 samples, 7/10 controls (70%) and 9/35 astrocytomas (26%).
  • A second approach was to search for novel HHVs, using consensus-degenerated hybrid oligonucleotide primers (CODEHOP) PCR: no sequence indicative of a new HHV was detected.
  • In summary, EBV was the most frequent HHV detected in pilocytic astrocytoma, but at very low levels.
  • According to the actually accepted threshold the results suggest that EBV cannot be considered responsible for tumorigenesis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / virology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / virology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Herpesviridae / genetics. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesviridae Infections / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18565499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA Polymerase III; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA polymerase A
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34. Horger M, Fenchel M, Nägele T, Moehle R, Claussen CD, Beschorner R, Ernemann U: Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Nov;193(5):1384-7
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  • [Title] Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum can be reliably differentiated with measurement of water diffusivity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR images of 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme, five patients with low-grade astrocytoma, five patients with gliomatosis cerebri, and nine patients with primary lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Regions of interest were drawn on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps inside the callosal tumor.
  • ADCs were normalized by calculation of the ratio between the ADC of the tumor and the ADC of an uninvolved region of corpus callosum.
  • RESULTS: The mean ADC of glioblastoma multiforme was 1.13 +/- 0.31 (SD) x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.51 +/- 0.46; of low-grade astrocytoma, 1.14 +/- 0.23 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.54 +/- 0.28; gliomatosis cerebri, 1.01 +/- 0.20 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.31 +/- 0.36; and lymphoma, 0.71 +/- 0.13 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 0.93 +/- 0.19.
  • The difference between the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio of lymphoma and that of all grades of astrocytoma (1.48 +/- 0.43) was statistically significant (p < 0.001).
  • The optimal ADC threshold for discriminating astrocytic tumor and lymphoma was 0.90 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 89%).
  • The optimal threshold for tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.22 (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 100%).
  • CONCLUSION: The water diffusivity and the ADC ratio of the tumor to normal-appearing corpus callosum of astrocytic tumor differ significantly from those of lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum, allowing reliable differentiation of the two types of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Glioblastoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Water / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19843757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water
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35. Brown MC, Staniszewska I, Lazarovici P, Tuszynski GP, Del Valle L, Marcinkiewicz C: Regulatory effect of nerve growth factor in alpha9beta1 integrin-dependent progression of glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Dec;10(6):968-80
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  • The level of expression of alpha9beta1 on astrocytomas is correlated with increased grade of this brain tumor and is highest on glioblastoma, whereas normal astrocytes do not express this integrin.
  • Two glioblastoma cell lines, LN229 and LN18, that are alpha9beta1 integrin positive and negative, respectively, were used for alpha9beta1 integrin-dependent NGF-induced tumor progression.
  • The level of NGF increases approximately threefold in the most malignant glioma tissue when compared with normal brain.
  • This increase is related to secretion of NGF by tumor cells.
  • This disintegrin significantly inhibited tumor growth induced by implantation of LN229 cells to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryonic model, and this inhibitory effect was significantly abolished by the presence of NGF. alpha9beta1 integrin appears to be an interesting target for blocking the progression of malignant gliomas, especially in light of the stimulatory effect of NGF on the development of these tumors and its ability to transfer proapoptotic signals in cancer cells.

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  • (PMID = 19074980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS036466; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100145; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100145; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS36466
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / integrin alpha 9 beta 1; 9061-61-4 / Nerve Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2719011
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36. Kato T, Shinoda J, Oka N, Miwa K, Nakayama N, Yano H, Maruyama T, Muragaki Y, Iwama T: Analysis of 11C-methionine uptake in low-grade gliomas and correlation with proliferative activity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1867-71
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  • [Title] Analysis of 11C-methionine uptake in low-grade gliomas and correlation with proliferative activity.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relationship of (11)C-methionine (MET) uptake and tumor activity in low-grade gliomas (those meeting the criteria for World Health Organization [WHO] grade II gliomas) remains uncertain.
  • The aim of this study was to compare MET uptake in low-grade gliomas and to analyze whether MET positron-emission tomography (PET) can estimate tumor viability and provide evidence of malignant transformation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied glioma metabolic activity in 49 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed grade II gliomas by using MET PET before surgical resection.
  • On MET PET, we measured tumor/normal brain uptake ratio (T/N ratio) in 21 diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), 12 oligodendrogliomas (ODs), and 16 oligoastrocytomas (OAs).
  • CONCLUSION: MET uptake in DAs may be closely associated with tumor viability, which depends on increased amino acid transport by an activated carrier-mediated system.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Methionine / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carbon Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18687745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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37. Harris LM, Davies N, Macpherson L, Foster K, Lateef S, Natarajan K, Sgouros S, Brundler MA, Arvanitis TN, Grundy RG, Peet AC: The use of short-echo-time 1H MRS for childhood cerebellar tumours prior to histopathological diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol; 2007 Nov;37(11):1101-9
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  • Peak heights for N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mIns) were determined and receiver operator characteristic curves used to select ratios that best discriminated between the tumour types.
  • NAA/Cr >4.0 distinguished all but one of the astrocytomas from the other tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Choline / analysis. Creatine / analysis. Inositol / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17823793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 4L6452S749 / Inositol; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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38. Nejat F, El Khashab M, Rutka JT: Initial management of childhood brain tumors: neurosurgical considerations. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1136-48
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  • The infratentorial compartment will be the primary site for 60% to 70% of these tumors, including astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas.
  • We review current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and outcome for children harboring the most common pediatric brain tumors: astrocytomas (low-grade and high-grade glioma), ependymoma, medulloblastoma, and craniopharyngioma.

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  • (PMID = 18952580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS487102; NLM/ PMC3714852
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39. Kolb EA, Gorlick R, Houghton PJ, Morton CL, Neale G, Keir ST, Carol H, Lock R, Phelps D, Kang MH, Reynolds CP, Maris JM, Billups C, Smith MA: Initial testing (stage 1) of AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Oct;55(4):668-77
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  • Subsequently, AZD6244 was evaluated against two juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) xenografts using once and twice daily dosing schedules.
  • Against the in vivo tumor panels, AZD6244 induced significant differences in EFS distribution in 10 of 37 (27%) solid tumor models and 0 of 6 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) models.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At the dose and schedule of administration used, AZD6244 as a single agent had limited in vitro and in vivo activity against the PPTP tumor panels despite inhibition of MEK1/2 activity.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20806365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM042216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01-CM-42216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM42216
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AZD 6244; 0 / Benzimidazoles; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218595; NLM/ PMC3004092
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40. Grommes C, Conway DS, Alshekhlee A, Barnholtz-Sloan JS: Inverse association of PPARγ agonists use and high grade glioma development. J Neurooncol; 2010 Nov;100(2):233-9
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  • [Title] Inverse association of PPARγ agonists use and high grade glioma development.
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists have antineoplastic effects on gliomas in cell lines and animal models.
  • In a retrospective chart review, we assessed the influence of PPARγ agonists on the odds of having a high grade glioma.
  • We reviewed patients with a diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) between 1999 and 2008.
  • Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of diabetic hip fracture patients using a PPARγ agonist at time of diagnosis as compared to diabetic glioma patients.
  • We identified 1602 hip fracture patients and 302 high grade glioma patients, 15 and 16% were diabetics, respectively.
  • PPARγ agonists were used by 20% of diabetic hip fracture patients and by 6% of high grade glioma patients (chi-square P-value = 0.02) with an odds ratio of 4.081 (95% CI: 1.119-14.881).
  • The prevalence of PPARγ agonist use was lower in the diabetic high grade glioma group when compared to diabetic hip fracture patients.
  • These findings suggest that diabetic high grade glioma patients are not given PPARγ agonists as often as diabetic hip fracture patients even though these drugs are considered standard of care and should be equally distributed throughout both groups.
  • This indicates a possible anti-neoplastic effect of PPARγ agonists in gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. PPAR gamma / agonists

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  • (PMID = 20443132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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41. Righi V, Andronesi OC, Mintzopoulos D, Black PM, Tzika AA: High-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects glycine as a biomarker in brain tumors. Int J Oncol; 2010 Feb;36(2):301-6
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  • Using 36 biopsies from patients with brain tumors [12 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); 10 low-grade (LG), including 7 schwannoma and 3 pylocytic astrocytoma; 7 meningioma (MN); 7 brain metastases (MT), including 3 adenocarcinoma and 4 breast cancer] and 9 control biopsies from patients undergoing surgery for epilepsy, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of glycine may distinguish among these brain tumor types.
  • Quantitative analysis revealed higher levels of Gly in tumor biopsies (all combined) relative to controls; Gly levels were significantly elevated in LG, MT and GBM biopsies (P<or=0.05).
  • We conclude from these findings that Gly can serve as a biomarker for brain tumors and that the Gly:Myo ratio may be a useful index for brain tumor classification.

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  • (PMID = 20043062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50 GM021700; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50GM021700
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4L6452S749 / Inositol; TE7660XO1C / Glycine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3715372
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42. Bosnjak R, Benedicic M: Direct epidural electrical stimulation of the optic nerve: a new method for intraoperative assessment of function. J Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;109(4):647-53
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  • In the fourth patient, who harbored a frontotemporal astrocytoma, stimulation was applied at the exit of the ON from the canal.
  • The electrically induced visual evoked potentials (eVEPs) were recorded from the scalp before, during, and after tumor removal.
  • The amplitude of the N40 wave varied up to 25% prior to tumor removal.
  • In the patient with a symptomatic tuberculum sellae meningioma, the decompressive effect of opening the optic canal and the impact of manipulation during piecemeal tumor removal were detected by the eVEPs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Electrodes. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Pilot Projects. Postoperative Complications. Reproducibility of Results. Sella Turcica

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  • (PMID = 18826351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Technical Report; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Fatyga M, Majcher P, Krupski W: Reasons for diagnostic difficulties in spinal defects and deformations in children and adolescents. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil; 2006 Oct 31;8(5):566-72
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  • Radiographic examinations done routinely mostly do not show any pathology in the initial period of disease growth.
  • The aim of our study was to present diagnostic problems in children and adolescents treated "routinely" with the diagnosis of a posture defect or scoliosis.
  • Results. In 12 cases the reason for deformity was osteoid osteoma of the spine, in 2 cases astrocytoma, in 2 others, meningioma, and in the others, hidden congenital defects of the vertebrae.
  • Early diagnosis and surgical removal of the cause of deformity in all cases led to inhibition of the tumor or reduction of spinal deformity.

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  • (PMID = 17589407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1509-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ortop Traumatol Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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44. Kasprzak HA, Trojan J, Bierwagen M, Kopiński P, Jarocki P, Bartczak K, Czapiewska J: [Usefulness of the antisense and triplex anti-IGF-1 techniques for postoperative cellular gene therapy of malignant gliomas expressing IGF-1]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2006 Nov-Dec;40(6):509-15; discussion 516
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of the antisense and triplex anti-IGF-1 techniques for postoperative cellular gene therapy of malignant gliomas expressing IGF-1].
  • The histopathological examination showed 4 cases of glioblastoma and 6 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Initially, patients were operated on with dissection of 1 cm(3) of the most representative part of tumor.
  • The neoplasm cells were cultured, transfected with episomal pMT EP vector (expressing alternatively oligonucleotide sequence forming triple helix with IGF-I gene or antisense against IGF-1 mRNA), re-cultured, irradiated and resuspended in medium to prepare antineoplastic vaccine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The method of treatment used in this study prolongs the survival time of patients with high-grade gliomas of the central nervous system.
  • This gene therapy needs further investigations as a method of oncological monotherapy of brain malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Genetic Therapy. Glioma / genetics. Glioma / therapy. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17199177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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45. Bannwarth S, Lainé S, Daher A, Grandvaux N, Clerzius G, Leblanc AC, Hiscott J, Gatignol A: Cell-specific regulation of TRBP1 promoter by NF-Y transcription factor in lymphocytes and astrocytes. J Mol Biol; 2006 Feb 3;355(5):898-910
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  • The poor translation of HIV-1 mRNA and consequent limited virion production can be restored by overexpression of TRBP proteins in the astrocytoma U251MG cells.
  • We examined the transcriptional regulation of TRBP1 and TRBP2 by in vivo genomic footprinting in the lymphocytic Jurkat and in the astrocytic U251MG cells.
  • Furthermore, each NF-Y subunit was more highly expressed in the lymphocytic cells, compared to astrocytic cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma. Base Sequence. Binding Sites. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Reporter. HIV-1 / genetics. HIV-1 / metabolism. Humans. Jurkat Cells. Molecular Sequence Data. Nuclear Receptor Coactivators. Tissue Distribution. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16343534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2836
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Binding Factor; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / NCOA6 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivators; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Transcription Factors
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46. Lichy MP, Plathow C, Schulz-Ertner D, Kauczor HU, Schlemmer HP: Follow-up gliomas after radiotherapy: 1H MR spectroscopic imaging for increasing diagnostic accuracy. Neuroradiology; 2005 Nov;47(11):826-34
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  • [Title] Follow-up gliomas after radiotherapy: 1H MR spectroscopic imaging for increasing diagnostic accuracy.
  • We evaluated the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the additional benefit of proton MR spectroscopic imaging (1H SI) in patients with a new suspicious lesion after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) of a glioma.
  • Thirty-four patients with histologically proven astrocytoma WHO II-IV after treatment by FSRT and a new suspect lesion in the follow-up were included in this study.
  • Mean interval between last irradiation and detection of a suspicious lesion was 37 +/- 32 months.
  • Radiologists' experience had no significant influence on correct interpretation of a suspicious lesion.
  • We conclude that 1H SI is helpful in characterising new suspicious lesions in irradiated gliomas, particularly if pre-MRI is not available for evaluating follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 16142479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Gimenez M, Souza VC, Izumi C, Barbieri MR, Chammas R, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Marie SK, Rosa JC: Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin. Proteomics; 2010 Aug;10(15):2812-21
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin.
  • Proteomic approaches have been useful for the identification of aberrantly expressed proteins in complex diseases such as cancer.
  • These proteins are not only potential disease biomarkers, but also targets for therapy.
  • The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in diffuse astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and glioblastoma multiforme grade IV in human tumor samples and in non-neoplastic brain tissue as control using 2-DE and MS.
  • Tumor and control brain tissue dissection was guided by histological hematoxylin/eosin tissue sections to provide more than 90% of tumor cells and astrocytes.
  • Six proteins were detected as up-regulated in higher grade astrocytomas and the most important finding was nucleophosmin (NPM) (p<0.05), whereas four proteins were down-regulated, among them raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) (p<0.05).
  • Our focus on these proteins was due to the fact that they are involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, known for their contribution to the development and progression of gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / genetics. Proteomics


48. Sulman EP, Guerrero M, Aldape K: Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2009 Jul;19(3):142-9
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  • [Title] Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas (HGGs) represent a heterogenous group of tumors and account for most primary brain tumors.
  • These tumors include the anaplastic (World Health Organization [WHO] grade III) histologies of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas and the WHO grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • Prognostication for patients with these tumors has relied principally on tumor grade and clinical factors (age, performance status, and so on) and has been inexact at best in identifying those with long-term survival potential.
  • An even greater challenge has been to identify predictive biomarkers of therapy in the hope of tailoring a patient's therapy based on their tumor's molecular characteristics.
  • This review discusses the molecular pathology of high-grade gliomas, with particular emphasis on anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs because these represent the most common forms of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19464628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-9461
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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49. Eddaoudi A, Townsend-Nicholson A, Timms JF, Schorge S, Jayasinghe SN: Molecular characterisation of post-bio-electrosprayed human brain astrocytoma cells. Analyst; 2010 Oct;135(10):2600-12
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  • [Title] Molecular characterisation of post-bio-electrosprayed human brain astrocytoma cells.
  • These findings support the further development of bio-electrosprays as a viable technology for a wide diversity of tissue engineering, regenerative biology, advanced cellular therapeutics and medicinal applications, having significance in the clinic.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Calcium / metabolism. Cell Survival. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Humans. Indoles / pharmacology. Maleimides / pharmacology. Potassium Channels / metabolism. Receptor, Muscarinic M3 / genetics. Receptor, Muscarinic M3 / metabolism. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20694206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601440; United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indoles; 0 / Maleimides; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Receptor, Muscarinic M3; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / bisindolylmaleimide VIII; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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50. Azzalin A, Sbalchiero E, Barbieri G, Palumbo S, Muzzini C, Comincini S: The doppel (Dpl) protein influences in vitro migration capability in astrocytoma-derived cells. Cell Oncol; 2008;30(6):491-501
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  • [Title] The doppel (Dpl) protein influences in vitro migration capability in astrocytoma-derived cells.
  • Recently, the protein has been described to be ectopically expressed in astrocytomas and its potential association to the brain tumor malignancy progression has been advanced.
  • In this study, we aimed to investigate in vitro the potential involvement of Dpl in the tumor cell migration: to this purpose, Dpl expression was reduced in the IPDDC-A2 astrocytoma-derived cell line, by means of antisense and siRNA approaches; migration rates were then evaluated by means of a scratch wound healing assay.
  • These results, in conclusion, might suggest a potential and functional role for Dpl in tumor cells migratory and morphological behaviours and address to future gene-targeted therapeutic interventions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. GPI-Linked Proteins. HeLa Cells. Humans. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 18936526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1570-5870
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / PRND protein, human; 0 / Prions; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4618816
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51. Maglott A, Bartik P, Cosgun S, Klotz P, Rondé P, Fuhrmann G, Takeda K, Martin S, Dontenwill M: The small alpha5beta1 integrin antagonist, SJ749, reduces proliferation and clonogenicity of human astrocytoma cells. Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 15;66(12):6002-7
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  • [Title] The small alpha5beta1 integrin antagonist, SJ749, reduces proliferation and clonogenicity of human astrocytoma cells.
  • We investigated the effects of SJ749 in two human astrocytoma cell lines, A172 and U87, which express different levels of alpha5beta1.
  • Therefore, in nonadherent conditions, the effect of SJ749 on tumor cell growth characteristics depends on the level of alpha5beta1 expression.
  • Our study highlights the importance of alpha5beta1 as an anticancer target and shows for the first time that a small nonpeptidic alpha5beta1-specific antagonist affects proliferation of tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Integrin alpha5beta1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Propionates / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Spiro Compounds / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Spheroids, Cellular. Substrate Specificity. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 16778170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alpha5beta1; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / SJ749; 0 / Spiro Compounds
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52. Hwang S, Kim J, Yoon S, Cha Y, Kim M, Yong D, Chang JH, Jeong SH, Uh Y, Lee K: First report of brain abscess associated with Pseudozyma species in a patient with astrocytoma. Korean J Lab Med; 2010 Jun;30(3):284-8
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  • [Title] First report of brain abscess associated with Pseudozyma species in a patient with astrocytoma.
  • A yeast-like strain was isolated from the brain abscess of a patient diagnosed with astrocytoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of a Pseudozyma strain from brain abscess.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Abscess / microbiology. Brain Diseases / complications. Ustilaginales / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 20603589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Lab Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Fungal; 0 / RNA, Ribosomal; 0 / RNA, ribosomal, 26S
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53. Due-Tønnessen BJ, Helseth E: Management of hydrocephalus in children with posterior fossa tumors: role of tumor surgery. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):92-6
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  • [Title] Management of hydrocephalus in children with posterior fossa tumors: role of tumor surgery.
  • Here, we report the rate of cure of HC with tumor surgery alone.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 87 children with posterior fossa tumors in which 35 patients had medulloblastoma, 38 had astrocytoma and 14 had ependymoma.
  • All patients underwent tumor resection and were followed with close clinical and image surveillance to detect persistent HC.
  • We have focused on patients who needed permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion (ETV or shunt) within 30 days of tumor resection.
  • HC presenting after this time period is, in the majority of cases, due to tumor recurrence or progression.
  • In 41/69 (59%) patients presenting with HC, the HC was cured by tumor resection alone.
  • The HC cure rate for patients with astrocytoma was 83%, whereas it was 47% for patients with medulloblastoma and 54% for patients with ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An 87% cure rate of HC by tumor resection alone in children with posterior fossa astrocytoma warrants no change in treatment strategy.
  • However, the low cure rate of HC by tumor resection alone in patients with medulloblastoma and ependymoma raises the issue of whether these patients would benefit from preresection ETV.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / complications. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Ventriculostomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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54. Abate LE, Mukherjee P, Seyfried TN: Gene-linked shift in ganglioside distribution influences growth and vascularity in a mouse astrocytoma. J Neurochem; 2006 Sep;98(6):1973-84
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  • [Title] Gene-linked shift in ganglioside distribution influences growth and vascularity in a mouse astrocytoma.
  • Brain tumor growth and progression is dependent upon vascularity, and is associated with altered ganglioside composition and distribution.
  • In this study, we examined the influence of gangliosides on growth and vascularity in a malignant mouse astrocytoma, CT-2A.
  • Ganglioside distribution was altered in CT-2A tumor cells using an antisense construct to beta-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T), a key enzyme that uses the simple ganglioside GM3 as a substrate for the synthesis of the more complex gangliosides, GM2, GM1 and GD1a.
  • GalNAc-T gene expression was significantly lower in CT-2A cells stably transfected with the antisense GalNAc-T plasmid, pcDNA3.1/TNG (CT-2A/TNG) than in either non-transfected CT-2A or mock-transfected (CT-2A/V) control tumor cells.
  • GM3 was elevated from 16% to 58% of the total ganglioside distribution, whereas GM1 and GD1a were reduced from 17% and 49% to 10% and 17%, respectively, in CT-2A/TNG tumor cells.
  • In addition, the expression of VEGF, hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and neuropilin-1 (NP-1) was significantly lower in CT-2A/TNG tumor cells than in control CT-2A tumor cells.
  • These data suggest that gene-linked changes in ganglioside composition influence the growth and angiogenic properties of the CT-2A astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gangliosides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16911584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102135; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD39722
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gangliosides; 0 / Hif1a protein, mouse; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 144713-63-3 / Neuropilin-1; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.41 / polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
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55. Temel SG, Kahveci Z: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytes and microglia in human oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma. J Mol Histol; 2009 Oct;40(5-6):369-77
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytes and microglia in human oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma.
  • The function of microglia in glioma biology is unclear.
  • In this study we aimed to assess the phenotypes (astrocyte, microglia) of the cox-2-expressing glial cells in various types of human gliomas and to compare their expression patterns.
  • For this purpose we employed dual immunohistochemistry for cox-2 and GFAP (astrocyte) or LCA-MAC (microglia-macrophage) in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded human tissue diagnosed as oligodendroglioma and/or astrocytoma.
  • The results showed that cox-2 immunoreactivity is up-regulated in the neurons according to the tumor grade.
  • The detection of cox-2 in astrocytes surrounding the necrotic areas might be important to develop new strategies, such as the usage of cox-2 inhibitors combine with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of glioma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / enzymology. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Microglia / enzymology. Oligodendroglioma / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20052522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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56. Thomas SL, Alam R, Lemke N, Schultz LR, Gutiérrez JA, Rempel SA: PTEN augments SPARC suppression of proliferation and inhibits SPARC-induced migration by suppressing SHC-RAF-ERK and AKT signaling. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Sep;12(9):941-55
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  • SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is expressed in all grades of astrocytoma, including glioblastoma (GBM).
  • SPARC suppresses glioma growth but promotes migration and invasion by mediating integrin and growth factor receptor-regulated kinases and their downstream effectors.
  • This study determined whether PTEN reconstitution in PTEN-mutant, SPARC-expressing U87MG cells could further suppress proliferation and tumor growth but inhibit migration and invasion in SPARC-expressing cells in vitro and in vivo, and thereby prolong survival in animals with xenograft tumors.
  • These findings demonstrate that PTEN reconstitution or inhibition of signaling pathways that are activated by the loss of PTEN provide potential therapeutic strategies to inhibit SPARC-induced invasion while enhancing the negative effect of SPARC on tumor growth.

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  • (PMID = 20472716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA086997; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA86997
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Osteonectin; 0 / Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940688
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57. Asano K, Miyamoto S, Kubo O, Kikkukawa T, Yagihashi A, Ohkuma H: A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Apr;23(1):55-63
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  • [Title] A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) has been considered an astrocytic tumor with a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • The present case was a 59-year-old woman who presented with tumor bleeding onset and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • After emergency surgery had removed the hematoma, postoperative contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a left temporal tumor.
  • A second surgery was therefore performed for initial tumor removal 2 months later.
  • Histopathological findings showed that the tumor was typical PXA with strong pleomorphism and xanthomatous changes and contained an ependymoma-like component in the center area.
  • This case report is the first case in which PXA presented with tumor bleeding onset.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Hematoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Mitosis / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18095120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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58. Aoyama T, Hida K, Ishii N, Seki T, Ikeda J, Iwasaki Y: Intramedullary spinal cord germinoma--2 case reports. Surg Neurol; 2007 Feb;67(2):177-83; discussion 183
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  • Astrocytic tumor was initially suspected, and partial removal was performed.
  • Because the lesion did not respond to steroid pulse therapy, spinal cord tumor was suspected and biopsy was performed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paraparesis / etiology. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. Urination Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17254883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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59. Schichor C, Kerkau S, Visted T, Martini R, Bjerkvig R, Tonn JC, Goldbrunner R: The brain slice chamber, a novel variation of the Boyden Chamber Assay, allows time-dependent quantification of glioma invasion into mammalian brain in vitro. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;73(1):9-18
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  • [Title] The brain slice chamber, a novel variation of the Boyden Chamber Assay, allows time-dependent quantification of glioma invasion into mammalian brain in vitro.
  • Glioma cell invasion occurs in a complex micromilieu consisting of neural and glial cells, myelinated fiber tracts, blood vessels and extracellular matrix proteins.
  • The present work describes the brain slice chamber (BSC) as a novel experimental model for assessing invasion of glioma cells into adult mammalian white and gray matter on the basis of the well known Boyden chamber system.
  • As a matrix for invasive tumor cells we used freshly prepared brain tissue from adult pigs.
  • Human U-373 and U87 astrocytoma cells stably transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were assessed for their invasiveness into the brain-slices during a 24 h period.
  • Two cytostatics (vincristin and paclitaxel) which both are known to affect the cytoskeleton, inhibited glioma cell invasion in a dose dependent manner, which makes the presented model system suitable for functional experiments.
  • In conclusion, the BSC represents a valid and rapid experimental model that may be used to describe the invasive behavior of glioma cells within the preserved three-dimensional structure of mammalian brain tissue in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Coculture Techniques / methods. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Organ Culture Techniques / methods. Parietal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Astrocytes / drug effects. Astrocytes / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Extracellular Matrix / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Swine. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15933811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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60. Tirosh B, Iwakoshi NN, Lilley BN, Lee AH, Glimcher LH, Ploegh HL: Human cytomegalovirus protein US11 provokes an unfolded protein response that may facilitate the degradation of class I major histocompatibility complex products. J Virol; 2005 Mar;79(5):2768-79
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  • In the human astrocytoma cell line U373, turning on expression of US11, but not US2, is sufficient to induce a UPR, as manifested by upregulation of the ER chaperone Bip and by splicing of XBP-1 mRNA.

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  • (PMID = 15708995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI32412; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA100707; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI033456; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA100707; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5R37-AI33456; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI032412
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Molecular Chaperones; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / US11 protein, herpesvirus; 0 / US2 protein, Varicellovirus; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / molecular chaperone GRP78; 0 / regulatory factor X transcription factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC548438
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61. Witte HT, Jeibmann A, Klämbt C, Paulus W: Modeling glioma growth and invasion in Drosophila melanogaster. Neoplasia; 2009 Sep;11(9):882-8
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  • [Title] Modeling glioma growth and invasion in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant intrinsic human brain tumor, characterized by extensive invasion and proliferation of glial (astrocytic) tumor cells, frequent activation of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways, relative resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and poor prognosis.
  • Using the Gal4-UAS system, we have produced glioma models in Drosophila by overexpressing homologs of human tyrosine kinase receptors under control of the glia-specific promoter reversed polarity (repo).
  • Glial overexpression of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) resulted in enhanced proliferation and migration of larval glial cells with increased numbers in the eye imaginal disc, diffuse tumor-like enlargement of the optic stalk, and marked ectopic invasion of glial cells along the optic nerve.
  • We suggest that Drosophila models will be useful for deciphering signaling cascades underlying abnormal behavior of glioma cells for genetic screens to reveal interacting genes involved in gliomagenesis and for experimental therapy approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eye / cytology. Eye / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19724682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2735809
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62. Chen CC, Cheng PW, Tseng HM, Young YH: Posterior cranial fossa tumors in young adults. Laryngoscope; 2006 Sep;116(9):1678-81
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  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 16 (0.8%) of 2,091 young adults (range, 16-29 years) with dizziness/vertigo, hearing loss, or tinnitus were diagnosed with posterior fossa tumor.
  • Diagnoses consisted of vestibular schwannoma and neurofibromatosis II in eight patients (50%), glial neoplasm (including astrocytoma, ependymoma, glioma) in four patients (25%), epidermoid cyst in three patients, and glomus jugulare tumor in one patient.
  • At study close, excluding one lost patient, three patients died as a result of recurrent or residual tumor at the primary site.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unlike predominant medulloblastoma in children, the most frequent posterior fossa tumor in young adults is vestibular schwannoma and neurofibroma.
  • However, the second most frequent one in young adults is glial neoplasm as opposed to meningioma in adults.

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  • (PMID = 16955003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Hamke M, Herpfer I, Lieb K, Wandelt C, Fiebich BL: Substance P induces expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 by activation of the neurokinin-1 receptor. Brain Res; 2006 Aug 2;1102(1):135-44
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  • As a model system, we used the human astrocytoma cell line U373 MG as well as primary rat astroglial cells, which both are known to express functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK-1-R) and to secret various cytokines upon stimulation with SP.
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SP induces CRF1 receptor expression in cells of the CNS, which may be of potential interest for a better understanding of the interplay between SP and the stress hormone axis and, thus, diseases like affective or anxiety disorders.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Astrocytes / drug effects. Astrocytoma. Blotting, Western / methods. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Piperidines / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16806114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)imidazole; 0 / CRF receptor type 1; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Neurokinin-1; 148700-85-0 / 3-((3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)methyloxy)-2-phenylpiperidine; 33507-63-0 / Substance P
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64. Ramos TC, Figueredo J, Catala M, González S, Selva JC, Cruz TM, Toledo C, Silva S, Pestano Y, Ramos M, Leonard I, Torres O, Marinello P, Pérez R, Lage A: Treatment of high-grade glioma patients with the humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody h-R3: report from a phase I/II trial. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Apr;5(4):375-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of high-grade glioma patients with the humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody h-R3: report from a phase I/II trial.
  • The poor prognosis of patients with high-grade glioma has led to the search for new therapeutic strategies.
  • In order to evaluate safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of h-R3 in newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients, we conducted a Phase I/II trial.
  • Tumor types were: glioblastoma (GB) (16 patients), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) (12 patients) and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) (1 patient).
  • Objective response-rate was 37.9% (17.2% complete response, 20.7% partial response) while stable disease occurred in 41.4% of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Glioblastoma / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16575203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 99mTc-hR3 monoclonal antibody; 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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65. Debono B, Derrey S, Rabehenoina C, Proust F, Freger P, Laquerrière A: Primary diffuse multinodular leptomeningeal gliomatosis: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2006 Mar;65(3):273-82; discussion 282
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is an exceptional neoplasm, and only 30 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • METHODS: A 50-year-old man was admitted to the neurosurgery department for a previous 4-month history of headache, associated with nonspecific neurological signs.
  • Histological examination revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • RESULTS: Complete neuraxis postmortem examination revealed no intraparenchymatous glioma and was conclusive for the diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal gliomatosis (astrocytic, World Health Organization grade III), with a multinodular pattern in the spinal cord, the brainstem, and the brain base with diffuse extension into the cerebellar subarachnoid spaces.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / surgery. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Nerve Roots / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Male. Meninges / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neurologic Examination. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16488248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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66. Kalluri SR, Illes Z, Srivastava R, Cree B, Menge T, Bennett JL, Berthele A, Hemmer B: Quantification and functional characterization of antibodies to native aquaporin 4 in neuromyelitis optica. Arch Neurol; 2010 Oct;67(10):1201-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting membrane proteins play an important role in various autoimmune diseases of the nervous system.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a novel bioassay for quantification and characterization of human anti-AQP4 antibodies based on high-level expression of native AQP4 (nAQP4) protein on the surface of human astroglioma cells.
  • The test was validated in 2 independent cohorts of patients with NMO spectrum disease.
  • RESULTS: We detected anti-nAQP4-IgG with a sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 100% in patients with NMO spectrum diseases, suggesting that our bioassay is at least as sensitive and specific as the gold-standard NMO-IgG assay.
  • Our findings demonstrate the potential of bioassays to characterize biologically relevant antibodies in human autoimmune diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biological Assay / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Cohort Studies. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic / methods. Female. Flow Cytometry / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transfection / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20937947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP4 protein, human; 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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67. Kyprianou N, Murphy E, Lee P, Hargreaves I: Assessment of mitochondrial respiratory chain function in hyperphenylalaninaemia. J Inherit Metab Dis; 2009 Apr;32(2):289-96
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  • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in neurological and intellectual disability when untreated.
  • Human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells were exposed to hyperphenylalaninaemia by the addition of 300 or 900 micromol/L of Phe to the cell culture medium.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / metabolism. Electron Transport / physiology. Mitochondrial Diseases / metabolism. Phenylalanine / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Culture Media. Female. Humans. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Phenylketonurias / blood. Phenylketonurias / metabolism. Pyruvic Acid / metabolism. Tremor / blood. Tremor / etiology. Tyrosine / blood. Ubiquinone / analogs & derivatives. Ubiquinone / blood. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19277893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2665
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of inherited metabolic disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 1339-63-5 / Ubiquinone; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; 8558G7RUTR / Pyruvic Acid; EJ27X76M46 / coenzyme Q10
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68. Brozzi F, Arcuri C, Giambanco I, Donato R: S100B Protein Regulates Astrocyte Shape and Migration via Interaction with Src Kinase: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROCYTE DEVELOPMENT, ACTIVATION, AND TUMOR GROWTH. J Biol Chem; 2009 Mar 27;284(13):8797-811
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  • [Title] S100B Protein Regulates Astrocyte Shape and Migration via Interaction with Src Kinase: IMPLICATIONS FOR ASTROCYTE DEVELOPMENT, ACTIVATION, AND TUMOR GROWTH.
  • We show here that reducing S100B levels in the astrocytoma cell line GL15 and the Müller cell line MIO-M1 by small interference RNA technique results in a rapid disassembly of stress fibers, collapse of F-actin onto the plasma membrane and reduced migration, and acquisition of a stellate shape.
  • These results suggest that S100B might contribute to reduce the differentiation potential of cells of the astrocytic lineage and participate in the astrocyte activation process in the case of brain insult and in invasive properties of glioma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Cell Movement. Cell Shape. Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. src-Family Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bucladesine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism. Humans. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Rats. S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit. Stress Fibers / genetics. Stress Fibers / metabolism. Stroke / genetics. Stroke / metabolism. rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / genetics. rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism. rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / genetics. rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19147496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / RAC1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100B protein, human; 0 / S100b protein, rat; 124671-05-2 / RHOA protein, human; 63X7MBT2LQ / Bucladesine; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; EC 3.6.1.- / Rac1 protein, rat; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac1 GTP-Binding Protein; EC 3.6.5.2 / rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2659238
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69. Reznik TE, Sang Y, Ma Y, Abounader R, Rosen EM, Xia S, Laterra J: Transcription-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor activation by hepatocyte growth factor. Mol Cancer Res; 2008 Jan;6(1):139-50
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  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-Met are frequently coexpressed in cancers, including those associated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, such as malignant astrocytoma.
  • In a previous analysis of the HGF-induced transcriptome, we found that two EGFR agonists, transforming growth factor-alpha and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), are prominently up-regulated by HGF in human glioma cells.

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  • (PMID = 18234969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS032148; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS043987; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS043987-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 09169; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009169; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 43987; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 32148; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS032148-13; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS043987-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS032148-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / HBEGF protein, human; 0 / Heparin-binding EGF-like Growth Factor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ligands; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 21820-51-9 / Phosphotyrosine; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor; 92092-36-9 / CRM197 (non-toxic variant of diphtheria toxin); EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS135584; NLM/ PMC2839502
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71. Hsieh JC, Lesniak MS: Surgical management of high-grade gliomas. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S33-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of high-grade gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas, in particular anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme, represent two of the most devastating forms of brain cancer.
  • In spite of the poor prognosis, new treatments and emerging therapies are making an impact on this disease.
  • This review discusses the role of the surgical management of high-grade gliomas and provides an overview of the currently available therapies which depend on surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy / methods. Craniotomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Disease Progression. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Drug Therapy / methods. Expert Testimony. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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72. Butowski NA, Sneed PK, Chang SM: Diagnosis and treatment of recurrent high-grade astrocytoma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Mar 10;24(8):1273-80
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of recurrent high-grade astrocytoma.
  • High-grade gliomas represent a significant source of cancer-related death, and usually recur despite treatment.
  • In this analysis of current brain tumor medicine, we review diagnosis, standard treatment, and emerging therapies for recurrent astrocytomas.
  • Difficulties in interpreting radiographic evidence, especially with regard to differentiating between tumor and necrosis, present a formidable challenge.
  • The most accurate diagnoses come from tissue confirmation of recurrent tumor, but a combination of imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging, may also be relevant for diagnosis.
  • We describe the use of conventional radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radiosurgery, and photodynamic therapy for recurrent high-grade glioma.
  • The treatment of this devastating disease has so far been met with limited success, but emerging knowledge of neuroscience and the development of novel therapeutic agents will likely give patients new options and require the neuro-oncology community to redefine clinical trial design and strategy continually.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / therapy. Humans. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16525182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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73. Sadanari H, Tanaka J, Li Z, Yamada R, Matsubara K, Murayama T: Proteasome inhibitor differentially regulates expression of the major immediate early genes of human cytomegalovirus in human central nervous system-derived cell lines. Virus Res; 2009 Jun;142(1-2):68-77
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  • Treatment of HCMV-infected 118MGC glioma and U373-MG astrocytoma cells with three proteasome inhibitors, MG132, clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone, and epoxomicin, suppressed MIE protein expression.

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  • (PMID = 19201384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-1702
  • [Journal-full-title] Virus research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virus Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Activating Transcription Factor 2; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Lactones; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; 134381-21-8 / epoxomicin; 155975-72-7 / clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone
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74. Chosdol K, Misra A, Puri S, Srivastava T, Chattopadhyay P, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:5
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  • [Title] Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors.
  • METHODS: In this study we used RAPD-PCR to identify novel genomic alterations in the astrocytic tumors of WHO grade II (Low Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma) and WHO Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme).
  • RESULTS: Bands consistently altered in the RAPD profile of tumor DNA in a significant proportion of tumors were identified.
  • One such 500 bp band, that was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% (4/12) of the grade II astrocytic tumors, was selected for further study.
  • Its sequence corresponded with a region of FAT, a putative tumor suppressor gene initially identified in Drosophila.
  • Fifty percent of a set of 40 tumors, both grade II and IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers.
  • CONCLUSION: These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 19126244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / FAT1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631005
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75. McLendon RE, Turner K, Perkinson K, Rich J: Second messenger systems in human gliomas. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Oct;131(10):1585-90
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  • [Title] Second messenger systems in human gliomas.
  • CONTEXT: Patients with glioblastoma (astrocytoma, World Health Organization grade IV) exhibit 2-year survival rates of less than 20% despite significant advances in therapeutic options available to patients.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) hyperexpression is one of the most commonly encountered abnormalities in this tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: It is important to both gain some understanding of the functional significance of these pathways and to understand the role the pathologist might play in characterizing the activation status of certain downstream messenger proteins that are targeted in these brain tumor therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Second Messenger Systems / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17922598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / epidermal growth factor receptor VIII; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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76. Revert Ventura AJ, Sanz-Requena R, Martí-Bonmatí L, Jornet J, Piquer J, Cremades A, Carot JM: [Nosological analysis of MRI tissue perfusion parameters obtained using the unicompartmental and pharmacokinetic models in cerebral glioblastomas]. Radiologia; 2010 Sep-Oct;52(5):432-41
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  • [Transliterated title] Análisis nosológico con parámetros de perfusión tisular de RM obtenidos mediante los modelos monocompartimental y farmacocinético en los glioblastomas cerebrales.
  • OBJECTIVES: To classify the tumor areas in patients with grade IV astrocytoma by calculating and statistically analyzing quantitative MRI perfusion parameters.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We applied two models of MRI perfusion, the unicompartmental and the pharmacokinetic models, in 15 patients diagnosed with grade IV astrocytoma.
  • For each parameter, histograms were obtained for the total tumor area, for the peritumoral area, and for the healthy tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: When parameters are considered individually, CBV is the one that best enables differentiation between tumor, peritumoral, and healthy tissue.
  • The classificatory function generated from CBV and K(trans) results in improved classification by areas.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20655078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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77. Alexiou GA, Fotopoulos AD, Papadopoulos A, Kyritsis AP, Polyzoidis KS, Tsiouris S: Evaluation of brain tumor recurrence by (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT: a prospective pilot study. Ann Nucl Med; 2007 Jul;21(5):293-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of brain tumor recurrence by (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT: a prospective pilot study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The differentiation between brain tumor recurrence and post-irradiation injury remains an imaging challenge.
  • Although glioma cell line studies substantiated a plausible imaging superiority of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) over other radiopharmaceuticals, little has been reported on its in vivo imaging properties.
  • We assessed (99m)Tc-TF single-photon emission CT (SPECT) in cases where morphologic brain imaging was inconclusive between recurrence and radionecrosis.
  • The initial diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (4), anaplastic astrocytoma (1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (3), grade-II astrocytoma (2), and low-grade oligodendroglioma (1).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Organophosphorus Compounds / pharmacology. Organotechnetium Compounds / pharmacology. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacology. Recurrence. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / radionuclide imaging. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17634847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / technetium Tc 99m 1,2-bis(bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino)ethane
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78. Broniscer A, Chintagumpala M, Fouladi M, Krasin MJ, Kocak M, Bowers DC, Iacono LC, Merchant TE, Stewart CF, Houghton PJ, Kun LE, Ledet D, Gajjar A: Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):313-9
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  • [Title] Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children.
  • Chemotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of children with high-grade glioma, although its usefulness is uncertain.
  • We conducted a multi-institutional study to evaluate the efficacy of temozolomide given after radiotherapy in children with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma (gliomatosis cerebri or bithalamic involvement).
  • The 5-day schedule of temozolomide (200 mg/m2 per day) started 4 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy and continued for a total of 6 cycles.
  • The predominant histologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (n = 15, 48%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10, 32%).
  • Two patients had bithalamic grade II astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16200343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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79. Niculescu CE, Stănescu L, Popescu M, Niculescu D: Supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma in children. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2010;51(3):577-80
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  • [Title] Supratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma in children.
  • The authors describe the case of a child aged 2 years and 4 months with increased intracranial pressure, symptomatology accompanied by rapid deterioration of general condition.
  • Histopathological examination revealed the typical grade I pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20809042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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80. Palmieri C, Brock C, Newlands ES: Maintenance of fertility following treatment with temozolomide for a high grade astrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):185
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  • [Title] Maintenance of fertility following treatment with temozolomide for a high grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Fertility / drug effects. Infertility, Male / chemically induced. Infertility, Male / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 15981111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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81. Reynolds GM, Peet AC, Arvanitis TN: Generating prior probabilities for classifiers of brain tumours using belief networks. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak; 2007 Sep 18;7:27
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  • To verify the usefulness of the networks, an application of the method is presented in which prior probabilities were generated and combined with a classification of tumours based solely on MRS data.
  • Networks are presented for astrocytoma grades I and II, astrocytoma grades III and IV, ependymoma, pineoblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET), germinoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma and a group representing rare tumours, "other".
  • Using the network to generate prior probabilities for classification improves the accuracy when compared with generating prior probabilities based on class prevalence.
  • CONCLUSION: Bayesian belief networks are a simple way of using discrete clinical information to generate probabilities usable in classification.
  • Inclusion of a priori knowledge is an effective way of improving classification of brain tumours by non-invasive methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Bayes Theorem. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Decision Support Techniques. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Germinoma / classification. Neuroectodermal Tumors / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Databases, Factual. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neoplasm Staging. Probability

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  • (PMID = 17877822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6947
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC medical informatics and decision making
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2040142
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82. Lamoral-Theys D, Le Mercier M, Le Calvé B, Rynkowski MA, Bruyère C, Decaestecker C, Haibe-Kains B, Bontempi G, Dubois J, Lefranc F, Kiss R: Long-term temozolomide treatment induces marked amino metabolism modifications and an increase in TMZ sensitivity in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cells. Neoplasia; 2010 Jan;12(1):69-79
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  • Gliomas account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors.
  • The worst prognosis is associated with gliomas of astrocytic origin, whereas gliomas with an oligodendroglial origin offer higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, especially when oligodendroglioma cells display 1p19q deletions.
  • Temozolomide (TMZ) provides therapeutic benefits and is commonly used with radiotherapy in highly malignant astrocytic tumors, including glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Genomics / methods. HT29 Cells. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Proteomics / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20072655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2805885
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83. Adamek D, Radwańska E, Gajda M: Expression of RCAS1 protein in microglia/macrophages accompanying brain tumours. An immunofluorescence study. Folia Neuropathol; 2009;47(3):240-6
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  • The expression of protein RCAS1 (receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells), possibly involved in the mechanisms of evasion of immune surveillance by tumours, has been studied in brain astrocytomas grade III and IV and in metastatic carcinomas to the brain by means of double immunofluorescence with antibodies against RCAS1 and respectively anti-GFAP (astroglia) or CD68 or CD74 (macrophages/microglia).
  • Nakabayashi and coworkers recently reported expression of RCAS1 in gliomas.
  • We found expression of RCAS1 co-localizing with GFAP+ cells of gliomas and with CD68 and CD74 in large macrophages infiltrating metastatic and primary tumours and sometimes in cells which had morphological characteristics of microglia.

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  • (PMID = 19813143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / EBAG9 protein, human
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84. Manzano G, Green BA, Vanni S, Levi AD: Contemporary management of adult intramedullary spinal tumors-pathology and neurological outcomes related to surgical resection. Spinal Cord; 2008 Aug;46(8):540-6
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  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of a series of adult patients with intramedullary spinal tumors treated with microsurgical excision at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center between January 1997 and September 2005.
  • RESULTS: Histologic analysis revealed a predominance of ependymomas (50%) with astrocytomas only comprising 12.5% of the tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18542096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Murakami R, Hirai T, Kitajima M, Fukuoka H, Toya R, Nakamura H, Kuratsu J, Yamashita Y: Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas. Acta Radiol; 2008 May;49(4):462-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are usually well-enhanced tumors that may mimic high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
  • A tumor with enhancing components should be PA instead of HGG when the minimum ADC value is higher than 1.5 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18415792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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86. Boda-Heggemann J, Régnier-Vigouroux A, Franke WW: Beyond vessels: occurrence and regional clustering of vascular endothelial (VE-)cadherin-containing junctions in non-endothelial cells. Cell Tissue Res; 2009 Jan;335(1):49-65
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  • Such cells include mammalian astrocytes and glioma, probably mostly astrocytoma cells growing in culture, and a specific subtype of astrocytoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Calcium / metabolism. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 19002500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0878
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CDH2 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / cadherin 5; 156621-71-5 / osteoblast cadherin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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87. Jiang L, Saetre P, Jazin E, Carlström EL: Haloperidol changes mRNA expression of a QKI splice variant in human astrocytoma cells. BMC Pharmacol; 2009;9:6
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  • [Title] Haloperidol changes mRNA expression of a QKI splice variant in human astrocytoma cells.
  • Disturbed QKI mRNA expression is observed in the prefrontal cortex of patients, and some of these changes correlate to treatment with antipsychotic drugs.To test if low doses of antipsychotic drugs can modify QKI mRNA expression, human astrocytoma (U343) and oligodendroglioma (HOG) cell lines were treated with five different antipsychotic drugs including Haloperidol, Aripiprazole, Clozapine, Olanzapine and Risperidone.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alternative Splicing. Antipsychotic Agents / pharmacology. Aripiprazole. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Benzodiazepines / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Clozapine / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Piperazines / pharmacology. Quinolones / pharmacology. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risperidone / pharmacology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19335891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2210
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / QKI protein, human; 0 / Quinolones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 12794-10-4 / Benzodiazepines; 132539-06-1 / olanzapine; 82VFR53I78 / Aripiprazole; J60AR2IKIC / Clozapine; J6292F8L3D / Haloperidol; L6UH7ZF8HC / Risperidone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676266
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88. Roach JD Jr, Aguinaldo GT, Jonnalagadda K, Hughes FM Jr, Spangelo BL: Gamma-aminobutyric acid inhibits synergistic interleukin-6 release but not transcriptional activation in astrocytoma cells. Neuroimmunomodulation; 2008;15(2):117-24
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  • [Title] Gamma-aminobutyric acid inhibits synergistic interleukin-6 release but not transcriptional activation in astrocytoma cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: A decline in the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may enhance cytokine release in Alzheimer's disease (AD) resulting in neuroinflammation.
  • We investigated the GABA-mediated suppression of the synergistic release of interleukin (IL)-6 due to interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).
  • METHODS: Rat C6 astrocytoma cells were treated with IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in the absence and presence of GABA.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • (PMID = 18679050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroimmunomodulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimmunomodulation
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS051198-01A1; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R15 NS051198; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1R15NS051198-01A; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R15 NS051198-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / I-kappa B Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 139874-52-5 / NF-kappaB inhibitor alpha; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS194281; NLM/ PMC2859952
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89. Jiang Z, Hu J, Li X, Jiang Y, Zhou W, Lu D: Expression analyses of 27 DNA repair genes in astrocytoma by TaqMan low-density array. Neurosci Lett; 2006 Dec 1;409(2):112-7
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  • [Title] Expression analyses of 27 DNA repair genes in astrocytoma by TaqMan low-density array.
  • The mRNA expressions of 27 genes of the DNA repair system as well as their correlation with the clinical characteristics were studied in human astrocytoma.
  • We applied TaqMan low-density array to investigate the mRNA expressions of 27 DNA repair genes in 40 astrocytoma tissues (10 of grade II, 10 of grade III, and 20 of grade IV, according to the WHO Grading System).
  • And the normal brain tissues from 10 non-astrocytoma patients were collected as the control.
  • We found that the expression of the 13 genes were significantly (P<0.01) down-regulated in grade II, III, IV of astrocytoma compared to normal brain tissues, including ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, MGMT, MLH1, MLH3, NTHL1, OGG1, RAD50, SMUG1, XRCC4 and XRCC5.
  • Meanwhile, we found that the expression of MSH2, MSH6, NUDT1 and XRCC3 were only significantly lower in grade II and III of astrocytoma, and the expression of MRE11A and MUS81 were only significantly lower in grade III and IV.
  • But the expression of MPG, MSH3, MUTHY and RAD51 were not changed in any grade of astrocytoma.
  • We suggest that TaqMan low-density array is an effective multivariate technique to examine the expression of DNA repair genes in astrocytomas, which can be applied to identify tumor-specific genes.
  • We also suggest that the down-regulation of some DNA repair genes may be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Repair / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics


90. Zhang D, Hu X, Qian L, Wilson B, Lee C, Flood P, Langenbach R, Hong JS: Prostaglandin E2 released from activated microglia enhances astrocyte proliferation in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2009 Jul 1;238(1):64-70
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  • Microglial activation has been implicated in many astrogliosis-related pathological conditions including astroglioma; however, the detailed mechanism is not clear.
  • These findings were further supported by the finding that addition of PGE(2) to the media significantly induced astrocyte proliferation.
  • These findings are important in elucidating the role of activated microglia and PGE(2) in astrocyte proliferation and in suggesting a potential avenue in the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the therapy of astroglioma.

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