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1. Porto L, Kieslich M, Franz K, Lehrbecher T, Vlaho S, Pilatus U, Hattingen E: Spectroscopy of untreated pilocytic astrocytomas: do children and adults share some metabolic features in addition to their morphologic similarities? Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jun;26(6):801-6
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  • [Title] Spectroscopy of untreated pilocytic astrocytomas: do children and adults share some metabolic features in addition to their morphologic similarities?
  • OBJECTIVE: Pilocytic astrocytomas may show heterogeneous histopathological and imaging features which are commonly attributed to malignant gliomas.
  • Using magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, we assessed if pilocytic astrocytomas show increased choline (tCho), classically related to proliferation and malignancy of gliomas.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients (five adults, age 20-55 years and 11 children, age 6 months-15 years) with histologically proven pilocytic astrocytomas were evaluated retrospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The well-known positive correlation between increase of tCho and the grade of gliomas seems to be violated by WHO grade I pilocytic astrocytomas showing a wide range of tCho values with an even marked increase in some cases.
  • No significant differences have been identified in the MR spectroscopy metabolite profiles between paediatric and adult pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20091040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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2. Azad S, Kudesia S, Chawla N, Azad R, Singhal M, Rai SM, Arora P: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):294-6
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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described brain tumor.
  • PMA shares similar features with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor in the pediatric population, yet displays subtle histologic differences.
  • The histological findings revealed a tumor composed of a monotonous population of loosely arranged cells with delicate piloid like processes, within a prominent myxoid background.
  • The tumor lacked biphasic appearance, Rosenthal fibers, eosinophilic granular bodies and calcification that are commonly observed in classical PA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20551536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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3. Sekula RF Jr, Marchan EM, Quigley MR, Frederickson AM, Pu C: A case of an elderly adult presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a rare hemorrhagic suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 Nov-Dec;27(6):396-9
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  • [Title] A case of an elderly adult presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a rare hemorrhagic suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Urgent surgery was performed and final pathology eventuated a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Although rare cases of suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma in children and adults have been reported, we report an interesting case of a hemorrhagic suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma in an elderly adult (without prior anticoagulant use) causing impending brain herniation secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Hydrocephalus / etiology


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4. Udayakumaran S, Ben Sira L, Constantini S: Chronic uncal herniation secondary to posterior fossa shunting: case report and literature review. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Feb;26(2):267-71
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  • CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old girl had a resection of a cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma at 5 years of age.
  • Two months later, she underwent a cystoperitoneal shunt for persistent headache and pseudomeningocele, secondary to an enlarging cyst at the tumor bed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Intracranial Pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Temporal Lobe / diagnostic imaging. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19915852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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5. Takei H, Yogeswaren ST, Wong KK, Mehta V, Chintagumpala M, Dauser RC, Lau CC, Adesina AM: Expression of oligodendroglial differentiation markers in pilocytic astrocytomas identifies two clinical subsets and shows a significant correlation with proliferation index and progression free survival. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jan;86(2):183-90
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  • [Title] Expression of oligodendroglial differentiation markers in pilocytic astrocytomas identifies two clinical subsets and shows a significant correlation with proliferation index and progression free survival.
  • The growth pattern of pilocytic astrocytoma (PAs) is unpredictable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Oligodendroglia / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17690840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA120534
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myelin Basic Protein; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG1 protein, human; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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6. Dunn IF, Agarwalla PK, Papanastassiou AM, Butler WE, Smith ER: Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Oct;23(10):1191-4
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  • [Title] Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I.
  • The most common of these are hypothalamic-optic gliomas, followed by brainstem and cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • While isolated pilocytic astrocytomas in NFI are well described, the appearance of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in an individual patient is less common.
  • The most frequent combination in NFI patients with more than one pilocytic astrocytoma is optic tract/hypothalamic and brainstem.
  • Other combinations are exceedingly rare; multiple pilocytic astrocytomas have only been reported once in the cerebral hemispheres in a patient with NFI.
  • This report presents the first documented case, to our knowledge, of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum of a patient with NF1.
  • CONCLUSION: The finding of multiple cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in a patient with NF1 is important because it expands the spectrum of presentations for patients with NF1 and also highlights specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced by the treating physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17457593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Tanaka KF, Ochi N, Hayashi T, Ikeda E, Ikenaka K: Fluoro-Jade: new fluorescent marker of Rosenthal fibers. Neurosci Lett; 2006 Oct 23;407(2):127-30
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  • Fluoro Jade-positive masses were seen in samples of Alexander disease brain, pilocytic astrocytoma, and in brain tissue from a mouse model of Alexander disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Fluoresceins. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Microscopy, Confocal. Organic Chemicals. Tissue Embedding. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 16949206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluoresceins; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / fluoro jade
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8. Jain D, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Deb P, Gupta D, Mahapatra AK: Correlation of diagnostic yield of stereotactic brain biopsy with number of biopsy bits and site of the lesion. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Oct;23(2):71-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Astrocytic lesions, the most common, include 10 pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), 29 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 11 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 7 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

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  • (PMID = 18095122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS); YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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9. Wu PS, Yao WJ: F-18 FDG PET in spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Aug;35(8):649-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET in spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 20631528.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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10. Sievert AJ, Fisher MJ: Pediatric low-grade gliomas. J Child Neurol; 2009 Nov;24(11):1397-408
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  • [Title] Pediatric low-grade gliomas.
  • Pediatric low-grade gliomas encompass a heterogeneous set of tumors of different histologies.
  • Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently followed by supratentorial diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 19841428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133173-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 146
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208342; NLM/ PMC2917804
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11. Zhang JG, Kruse CA, Driggers L, Hoa N, Wisoff J, Allen JC, Zagzag D, Newcomb EW, Jadus MR: Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;88(1):65-76
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  • [Title] Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the relative expression of 31 TAPP mRNAs.
  • Histological diagnoses consisted of 16 glioblastomas, 4 low grade astrocytomas, 10 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, and 7 ependymomas.
  • RESULTS: The adult gliomas expressed 94% (29 of 31) of the TAPP mRNAs evaluated compared with pediatric brain tumors that expressed 55-74% of the TAPP mRNAs, dependent on tumor histological subtype.
  • The pediatric brain tumors lacked expression of some genes associated with engendering tumor survival, such as hTert and Survivin.

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  • (PMID = 18259692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 046463; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS057829; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 054093; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS046463; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 057829
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS572988; NLM/ PMC4005736
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12. Rodriguez FJ, Giannini C, Asmann YW, Sharma MK, Perry A, Tibbetts KM, Jenkins RB, Scheithauer BW, Anant S, Jenkins S, Eberhart CG, Sarkaria JN, Gutmann DH: Gene expression profiling of NF-1-associated and sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma identifies aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) as an underexpressed candidate biomarker in aggressive subtypes. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Dec;67(12):1194-204
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of NF-1-associated and sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma identifies aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) as an underexpressed candidate biomarker in aggressive subtypes.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are World Health Organization Grade I gliomas; they most often affect children and young adults and occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  • Furthermore, in an additional independent set of tumors, weak to absent ALDH1L1 expression was found in 13 (72%) of 18 clinically aggressive PAs, in 8 (89%) of 9 PAs with pilomyxoid features, in 7 (70%) of 10 PAs with anaplastic transformation, and in 16 (76%) of 21 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas of various grades.

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  • (PMID = 19018242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108961; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS007494-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07494-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase; EC 1.5.1.6 / ALDH1L1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS87254; NLM/ PMC2730602
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13. Jalali R, Dutta D, Kamble R, Gupta T, Munshi A, Sarin R, Dinshaw K: Prospective assessment of activities of daily living using modified Barthel's Index in children and young adults with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 Dec;90(3):321-8
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  • [Title] Prospective assessment of activities of daily living using modified Barthel's Index in children and young adults with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To report prospective evaluations of activities of daily living (ADL) in young patients with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2001 and February 2008, 38 children and young adults (age 5-25 years, median 12.5 years) with low-grade gliomas with residual/progressive disease and treated with SCRT were accrued in a prospective protocol.
  • RESULT: The patient population consisted of 38 patients (male 29, female 9) with a diagnosis of residual or progressive low-grade glioma (pilocytic astrocytoma in 27, fibrillary astrocytoma in 5, ependymoma in 4, and oligodendroglioma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in 1 each).
  • The mean pre-radiotherapy baseline BI of three patients, who eventually developed local recurrence, was only 64 (SD 32.1) as compared with a baseline score of 97.18 seen in patients whose tumor remained controlled at follow-up (P <or= 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with low-grade gliomas after surgical intervention had a lower than normal BI before starting radiotherapy, suggesting a decrease in ADL possibly due to tumor- and surgery-related factors.
  • Patients who developed tumor recurrence at follow-up had a significantly lower BI at baseline than patients with controlled disease (P <or= 0.001).

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  • (PMID = 18704269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Rosenfeld A, Listernick R, Charrow J, Goldman S: Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 May;26(5):663-7
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  • [Title] Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system.
  • PURPOSE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder, predisposes patients to the development of both benign and malignant tumors.
  • Although the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor is a low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway, there have been sporadic reports of NF1 patients with more aggressive CNS lesions.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with NF1 and any CNS tumor being followed in the Children's Memorial Hospital NF1 Clinic.
  • Five patients (3%) were identified as having high-grade tumors, which consisted of anaplastic medulloblastoma (n = 1) and high-grade glioma (n = 4).
  • Three of the five patients had a history of an OPT prior to the development of their high-grade lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: High-grade CNS tumors may occur in children with NF1.
  • Although tumors in NF patients are generally benign, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of malignancy in patients whose tumors are in an unusual location or behave in an uncharacteristically aggressive manner.


15. Shah M, Park HJ, Gohari AR, Bhatti MT: Loss of myelinated retinal nerve fibers from chronic papilledema. J Neuroophthalmol; 2008 Sep;28(3):219-21
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  • An intracranial pilocytic astrocytoma was diagnosed in a 13-year-old boy after he presented with headaches and visual disturbances.
  • Serial ophthalmoscopic examinations demonstrated gradual fading of the MRNFs beginning 2 months after tumor resection and their complete disappearance by 2 years after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / complications. Nerve Fibers, Myelinated / pathology. Optic Atrophy / etiology. Papilledema / complications

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  • (PMID = 18769289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Lee JM, Kim SH, Lee JI, Ryou JY, Kim SY: Acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor. Korean J Ophthalmol; 2009 Sep;23(3):228-31
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  • [Title] Acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor.
  • We report a case of acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor.
  • The mass was completely excised and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Therefore, acute onset comitant esotropia in a child can be the first sign of a cerebellar tumor, even without any other neurological signs and symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Esotropia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19794955.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-9382
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2739968
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute onset / Cerebellar tumor / Comitant esotropia
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17. Waldau B, McLendon RE, Fuchs HE, George TM, Grant GA: Few isolated neurons in hypothalamic hamartomas may cause gelastic seizures. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2009;45(3):225-9
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  • Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are congenital, benign masses in the hypothalamus and tuber cinereum that may cause central precocious puberty and gelastic seizures.
  • This finding is clinically important since hypothalamic hamartomas with rare neurons can easily be misdiagnosed as pilocytic astrocytomas or subependymomas if their presence is overlooked.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Morales H, Kwock L, Castillo M: Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):682-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) have been described only recently.
  • They appear as low-grade tumors sharing imaging features similar to pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas have different histological features and behave more aggressively than PAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Myxoma / metabolism. Myxoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17895777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4L6452S749 / Inositol; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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19. Lee CS, Huh JS, Sim KB, Kim YW: Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with intratumor bleeding, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jan;25(1):125-8
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  • [Title] Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with intratumor bleeding, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Massive intracranial hemorrhage is a very rare initial presentation of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • There are no reports in the medical literature on a cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with intratumor bleeding (ITB), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and subdural hematoma (SDH).
  • On incising the dura, we found SDH, the tumor was visible at the cerebellar cortex, and near total removal followed.
  • Microscopic examination of tissue sections revealed a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Hematoma, Subdural / etiology. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18629510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Osztie E, Hanzély Z, Afra D: Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Jan;69(1):67-73
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  • Eight subependymal giant cell astrocytomas also displayed hypodense, rarely hyperdense or mixed imaging characteristics, and always showed significant degree of contrast enhancement.
  • Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones.
  • In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK.
  • Survival data were available in 65 cases, which have confirmed a favourable outcome in most of the patients with subependymoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, central neurocytomas or pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 18023315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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21. Daou MC, Smith TW, Litofsky NS, Hsieh CC, Ross AH: Doublecortin is preferentially expressed in invasive human brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Nov;110(5):472-80
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  • DCX was highly expressed in both high-grade invasive tumors (glioblastoma, n=11; anaplastic astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=7; and medulloblastoma/PNET, n=6) and low-grade invasive tumors (oligodendroglioma, n=3; and astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=5).
  • However, DCX was less intensely expressed in the circumscribed group of tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, n=6; ependymoma/subependymoma, n=7; dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, n=4; ganglioglioma, n=2; meningioma, n=9; and schwannoma, n=9).
  • By the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical test, the circumscribed group was significantly different from both the high-grade invasive group (P<0.0001) and the low-grade invasive group (P<0.0001).
  • In addition, DCX immunostaining was stronger at the margin of the tumor than at the center.

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  • (PMID = 16195916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021716; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA107372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-10737; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-21716
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / doublecortin protein
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22. Sugo N, Yokota K, Kondo K, Harada N, Aoki Y, Miyazaki C, Nemoto M, Kano T, Ohishi H, Seiki Y: Early dynamic 201Tl SPECT in the evaluation of brain tumours. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Feb;27(2):143-9
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  • RESULTS: In static SPECT, there was no significant difference between the STI of malignant tumours (glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma) and that of benign tumours (low-grade glioma, meningioma, pituitary adenoma, neurinoma and haemangioblastoma) (3.7+/-1.5, 5.0+/-3.5, respectively).
  • In contrast, the DTI of benign tumours increased slightly, steadily or decreased.
  • The slope of the linear functions calculated from the DTRs was much higher in the malignant tumour group than in the benign tumour group (P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the performance of 201Tl dynamic SPECT for 15 min is useful for distinguishing malignant brain tumours from benign brain tumours and reduces the examination stress of patients.

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  • (PMID = 16404227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7791-12-0 / thallium chloride; AD84R52XLF / Thallium
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23. Hsu TR, Wong TT, Chang FC, Ho DM, Tang RB, Thien PF, Chang KP: Responsiveness of progressive optic pathway tumors to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;24(12):1457-61
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  • BACKGROUND: Though the pathology of optic pathway tumor is mostly pilocytic astrocytoma, the benign tumor behaves like malignant tumor because total resection is not feasible.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy might be a reasonable strategy for management of these low grade tumors which keep growing.
  • We evaluate the responsiveness of optic pathway tumor to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • The pathology showed pilocytic astrocytomas in 11 patients, astrocytoma in one patient, and anaplastic astrocytomas in two patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18769928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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24. Sawamura Y, Kamada K, Kamoshima Y, Yamaguchi S, Tajima T, Tsubaki J, Fujimaki T: Role of surgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytomas in children. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Oct;10(5):725-33
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  • [Title] Role of surgery for optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytomas in children.
  • Optic pathway/hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytomas in children are usually treated with chemotherapy following a surgical biopsy.
  • The 11 open biopsies revealed pilocytic astrocytoma; however, noticeable complications occurred in five children after the biopsies.
  • Review of preoperative MRIs showed that all had typical findings indicating pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In five patients, mostly older children, cystic expansion of tumor was partially resected, resulting in additional remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18612049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2666249
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25. Gunal A, Onguru O, Safali M, Beyzadeoglu M: Fascin expression [corrected] in glial tumors and its prognostic significance in glioblastomas. Neuropathology; 2008 Aug;28(4):382-6
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  • In this study, we evaluated fascin expression in glial tumors and its relation with histologic grade.
  • Seventy-six glial tumors including 44 glioblastomas with known survival time, 18 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), six diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), and eight pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) were examined immunohistochemically for fascin expression.
  • Fascin expression was correlated with histologic grade in DAs.
  • In conclusion, fascin expression levels are correlated with histologic grade and fascin overexpression may play an important role in the biologic behavior of glial astrocytic tumors and in the prognosis of GBs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18298442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
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26. Kaderali Z, Lamberti-Pasculli M, Rutka JT: The changing epidemiology of paediatric brain tumours: a review from the Hospital for Sick Children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jul;25(7):787-93
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  • The main histological tumour types were low-grade (I/II) astrocytomas (26.4%), medulloblastoma (10.6%), anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma multiforme (7.1%) and ependymoma (7.0%).
  • Over three decades, an increasing proportion of certain tumour types, including pilocytic astrocytoma, atypical teratoma/rhabdoid tumours and neuronal/mixed neuronal-glial tumours was seen.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Canada / epidemiology. Child. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / epidemiology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Teratoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19082611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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27. Rumboldt Z, Camacho DL, Lake D, Welsh CT, Castillo M: Apparent diffusion coefficients for differentiation of cerebellar tumors in children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Jun-Jul;27(6):1362-9
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  • METHODS: Brain MR imaging studies that included ADC maps were retrospectively reviewed in 32 patients with histologically proved cerebellar neoplasm.
  • There were 17 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA), 8 medulloblastomas, 5 ependymomas, and 2 rhabdoid (atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor [AT/RT]) tumors.
  • Absolute ADC values of contrast-enhancing solid tumor regions and ADC ratios (ADC of solid tumor to ADC of normal-appearing white matter) were compared with the histologic diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: ADC values were significantly higher in pilocytic astrocytomas (1.65 +/- 0.27) (mean +/- SD) than in ependymomas (1.10 +/- 0.11) (P = .0003) and medulloblastomas (0.66 +/- 0.15) (P < .0001).
  • ADC ratios were also significantly different among these 3 tumor types.
  • CONCLUSION: Assessment of ADC values of enhancing solid tumor is a simple and reliable technique for preoperative differentiation of cerebellar tumors in pediatric patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007 Feb;3(2):78-9 [17279080.001]
  • (PMID = 16775298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Omura T, Nawashiro H, Osada H, Shima K, Tsuda H, Shinsuke A: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the fourth ventricle in an adult. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Nov;150(11):1203-6; discussion 1206
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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the fourth ventricle in an adult.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytomas have been identified as a variant of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • This tumour corresponds to a WHO grade II neoplasm whereas pilocytic astrocytoma corresponds to WHO grade I.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytomas are not limited to the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region in children.
  • Additional knowledge and recognition of this entity is necessary to improve treatment of pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Humans. Hyperacusis / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Tinnitus / etiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18958385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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29. Sharma MK, Zehnbauer BA, Watson MA, Gutmann DH: RAS pathway activation and an oncogenic RAS mutation in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology; 2005 Oct 25;65(8):1335-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] RAS pathway activation and an oncogenic RAS mutation in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16247081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA91842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neurofibromin 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPN11 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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30. Wong KK, Chang YM, Tsang YT, Perlaky L, Su J, Adesina A, Armstrong DL, Bhattacharjee M, Dauser R, Blaney SM, Chintagumpala M, Lau CC: Expression analysis of juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas by oligonucleotide microarray reveals two potential subgroups. Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;65(1):76-84
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  • [Title] Expression analysis of juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas by oligonucleotide microarray reveals two potential subgroups.
  • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is one of the most common brain tumors in children.
  • Immunostaining of myelin basic protein on paraffin sections derived from 18 incompletely resected JPAs suggests that JPA without myelin basic protein-positively stained tumor cells may have a higher tendency to progress.

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  • (PMID = 15665281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA120534
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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31. Berg AL, Olson TJ, Feldstein NA: Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with auditory presentation: case study. J Child Neurol; 2005 Nov;20(11):914-5
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  • [Title] Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with auditory presentation: case study.
  • A cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Hearing Loss / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16417863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0883-0738
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ahmed TS, Oliver M, Blackburn N: Insidious onset neck pain - a symptom not to be dismissed. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2007 Sep;89(6):W6-8
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  • The case of an 18-year-old man with chronic neck pain who was subsequently shown to have a pilocytic intramedullary astrocytoma is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Neck Pain / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18201463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2121232
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33. Shuangshoti S, Thorner PS, Ruangvejvorachai P, Saha B, Groshen S, Taylor CR, Malhotra S, Imam SA: J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):521-7
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  • [Title] J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas.
  • J1-31 is one of the astrocytic proteins, the expression of which has not been evaluated in astrocytomas.
  • In the present study, we studied the expression of J1-31 protein in astrocytes and astrocytomas in comparison with GFAP, p53 and Ki-67.
  • Materials consisted of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that included five cases of normal brain, 17 of gliosis, 15 of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I), 26 of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), four of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and eight of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The antibody showed reactivity with tumor cells in 12/15 (80%) cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, although intensity of staining was generally weaker and more focal than observed in reactive gliosis.
  • J1-31-positive tumor cells were detected in only 9/26 (35%) cases of the low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and none of the cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
  • Increasing Ki-67 indices paralleled advancing tumor grades. p53 protein was expressed more commonly in infiltrating astrocytomas compared to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In conclusion, down-regulation of J1-31 expression correlates with advancing grade of astrocytomas.
  • The anti-J1-31 antibody may help further our understanding of astrocytes in disease and may be useful as an aid in the pathologic diagnosis of astrocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / J1-31 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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34. Rorive S, Maris C, Debeir O, Sandras F, Vidaud M, Bièche I, Salmon I, Decaestecker C: Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):794-807
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  • [Title] Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles.
  • Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and grade II diffuse astrocytomas have been classified for decades as different clinicopathologic entities, few, if any, data are available on the biologic features explaining these differences.
  • Although more than 50 microarray-related studies have been carried out to characterize the molecular profiles of astrocytic tumors, we have identified only 11 that provide sound data on low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We have incorporated these data into a comparative analysis for the purpose of identifying the most relevant molecular markers characterizing grade I pilocytic and grade II diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Our analysis has identified various interesting genes that are differentially expressed in either grade I or grade II astrocytomas when compared with normal tissue and/or high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas.
  • Interestingly, a group of 6 genes (TIMP4, C1NH, CHAD, THBS4, IGFBP2, and TLE2) constitute an expression profile characteristic of grade I astrocytomas as compared with all other categories of tissue (normal brain, grade II, and high-grade astrocytomas).
  • The end products (proteins) of these genes act as antimigratory compounds, a fact that could explain why pilocytic astrocytomas behave as compact (well-circumscribed) tumors as opposed to all the other astrocytic tumor types that diffusely invade the brain parenchyma.
  • Having validated these molecular markers by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, an integrated model was proposed illustrating how and why pilocytic astrocytomas constitute a distinct biologic and pathologic entity when compared with diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Movement / genetics. Child. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Models, Neurological. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16896313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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35. Rush SZ, Abel TW, Valadez JG, Pearson M, Cooper MK: Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):790-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is commonly viewed as a benign lesion.
  • The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of higher WHO grade gliomas, and in this study, we have evaluated the activation and operational status of this regulatory pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Expression levels of the Hh pathway transcriptional target PTCH were elevated in 45% of tumor specimens analyzed (ages 1-22 years) and correlated inversely with patient age.
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Hh pathway activation is common in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may be associated with younger age at diagnosis and tumor growth.

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  • (PMID = 20223881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02NS053614
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / patched receptors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940682
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36. Saka E, Ozkaynak S, Tuncer R: Tongue tremor in brainstem pilocytic astrocytoma. J Clin Neurosci; 2006 May;13(4):503-6
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  • [Title] Tongue tremor in brainstem pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with brainstem pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue / physiopathology. Tremor / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16678738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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37. Lim BS, Park SQ, Chang UK, Kim MS: Spinal cord tanycytic ependymoma associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Jul;17(7):922-4
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  • Reports of this tumor in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) are rare.
  • This rare morphology of tanycytic ependymoma could be misinterpreted as pilocytic astrocytoma or other tumor types that exhibit elongated cells.

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  • (PMID = 20403699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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38. Ghosal N, Furtado SV, Hegde AS: Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor pineal gland and tectum: an intraoperative diagnosis on smear preparation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):590-3
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  • [Title] Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor pineal gland and tectum: an intraoperative diagnosis on smear preparation.
  • We present an extremely rare case of newly described entity called rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT), involving the pineal gland, tectum, and the adjacent thalamus in a 22-year-old male.
  • The tumor was diagnosed intraoperatively on smear preparation on cytomorphology.
  • One of the components is pilocytic astrocytoma and the other is composed of small cells with scant cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, arranged around neuropil-like material forming "neurocytic rosettes."

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Sharma MK, Mansur DB, Reifenberger G, Perry A, Leonard JR, Aldape KD, Albin MG, Emnett RJ, Loeser S, Watson MA, Nagarajan R, Gutmann DH: Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin. Cancer Res; 2007 Feb 1;67(3):890-900
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  • [Title] Distinct genetic signatures among pilocytic astrocytomas relate to their brain region origin.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common glioma in children.
  • Whereas many PAs are slow-growing or clinically indolent, others exhibit more aggressive features with tumor recurrence and death.
  • Lastly, we also identified a gene expression pattern common to PAs and normal mouse astrocytes and neural stem cells from these distinct brain regions as well as a gene expression pattern shared between PAs and another human glial tumor (ependymoma) arising supratentorially compared with those originating in the posterior fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Infratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17283119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5582/ GSE5675
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 91842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Colnat-Coulbois S, Klein O, Braun M, Thouvenot P, Marchal JC: Management of intramedullary cystic pilocytic astrocytoma with rhenium-186 intracavitary irradiation: case report. Neurosurgery; 2010 May;66(5):E1023-4; discussion E1024
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  • [Title] Management of intramedullary cystic pilocytic astrocytoma with rhenium-186 intracavitary irradiation: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of cystic spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma treated with surgical resection and 2 intracavitary injections of rhenium.
  • Spinal cord magnetic resonance showed a large, cystic, intramedullary tumor extending from T9 to T12.
  • Pathological examination allowed the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Interstitial intracavitary rhenium brachytherapy of recurrent spinal cord cystic astrocytomas achieved excellent stabilization of the cyst with minor side-effects and dramatic improvement of neurological deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Rhenium / therapeutic use. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cauda Equina / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cysts / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20404673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes; 7440-15-5 / Rhenium
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41. Park YS, Lee YH, Shim KW, Kim DS, Lee JS, Kim HD: Endoscopic disconnection of hypothalamic astrocytoma causing gelastic epilepsy. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Aug;4(2):151-5
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  • [Title] Endoscopic disconnection of hypothalamic astrocytoma causing gelastic epilepsy. Case report.
  • The authors report on a case of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) and concomitant hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) with gelastic epilepsy that was successfully treated with endoscopic disconnection.
  • An enhancing, low-grade hypothalamic tumor was identified on MR images obtained when she was 11 months old, but no surgical intervention was attempted at that time apart from bur hole drainage of a chronic subdural hemorrhage.
  • In the first surgery, performed when she was 6 years of age, the authors attempted disconnection and tumor sampling; the lesion was revealed to be a JPA.
  • The HH was found as latent tumor and the JPA was the mass causing gelastic epilepsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Electrocoagulation. Endoscopy. Epilepsies, Partial / etiology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19645550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Yamashita Y, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient is significantly correlated with cellularity in medulloblastomas. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):940-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ADC and tumor cellularity in medulloblastoma and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • METHODS: Pre-operative diffusion-weighted MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 26 patients with posterior fossa neoplasms: 11 medulloblastomas, one atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), four glioblastomas, four ependymomas, three pilocytic astrocytomas and three hemangioblastomas.
  • The minimum ADC (minADC) value of each tumor was determined on ADC maps derived from isotropic diffusion-weighted MR images.
  • Tumor cellularity measured in surgical specimens was compared with the minADC value by simple linear regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: The mean minADC value of the medulloblastoma was significantly lower than those of ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and hemangioblastoma without overlap in the range of minADC values.
  • Tumor cellularity was negatively correlated with the minADC value in medulloblastomas and other posterior fossa tumors.
  • DISCUSSION: The low minADC value of medulloblastomas reflects the high tumor cellularity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Body Water / physiology. Cell Count. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / physiopathology. Extracellular Space / metabolism. Female. Hemangioblastoma / metabolism. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19138469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Facoetti A, Ranza E, Nano R: Proliferation and programmed cell death: role of p53 protein in high and low grade astrocytoma. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1A):15-9
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  • [Title] Proliferation and programmed cell death: role of p53 protein in high and low grade astrocytoma.
  • p53 is a cell cycle regulator that has been well-recognized as the key molecule that triggers the induction and the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis in a wide variety of tumours, including astrocytoma.
  • Previous studies of the correlations between proliferation and apoptotic index with p53 expression in astrocytic tumours have remained inconclusive.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of p53 expression with the apoptotic index (AI) and the cell proliferation index (PI) in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • A correlation of p53 expression with AI and PI was found in pilocytic astrocytoma but not in glioblastoma, probably because of the mutated p53 phenotype in the latter.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18383819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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44. Sie M, de Bont ES, Scherpen FJ, Hoving EW, den Dunnen WF: Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma? Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2010 Dec;36(7):636-47
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  • [Title] Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?
  • AIMS: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children.
  • In this study 59 paediatric pilocytic astrocytomas were compared with 62 adult glioblastomas, as a prototype of tumour angiogenesis.
  • RESULTS: Pilocytic astrocytoma and glioblastoma showed similar fractions of vessels covered with basement membrane and pericytes.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma had fewer but wider vessels compared with glioblastoma.
  • Turnover of endothelial and tumour cells were relatively lower in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Within pilocytic astrocytoma, higher ANGPT-1/ANGPT-2 balance was correlated with fewer apoptotic endothelial cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that pilocytic astrocytoma showed a different vessel architecture compared with glioblastoma, a critical overlap in vessel immaturity/instability and the angiogenic profile was seen between both tumours.
  • These findings suggest encouraging possibilities for targeting angiogenesis (for instance with anti-VEGF) as a therapeutic strategy in pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2010 British Neuropathological Society.
  • (PMID = 20704656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Angiopoietin-1; 0 / Angiopoietin-2; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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45. Salgado JV, Costa-Silva M, Malloy-Diniz LF, Siqueira JM, Teixeira AL: Prefrontal cognitive dysfunction following brainstem lesion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2007 May;109(4):379-82
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  • A 29-year-old man developed several cognitive and behavioral symptoms after neurosurgery for resection of a pilocytic astrocytoma in the pontine-mesencephalic area.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Cognition Disorders / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Prefrontal Cortex / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17275997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Stimulants; 207ZZ9QZ49 / Methylphenidate
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46. Francesco F, Maurizio I, Stefano C, Marina S, Ugo S, Massimo S: Trigeminal nerve root entry zone pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult: a rare case of an extraparenchymal tumor. J Neurooncol; 2010 Apr;97(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Trigeminal nerve root entry zone pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult: a rare case of an extraparenchymal tumor.
  • We describe a pilocytic astrocytoma of the CPA that was found to arise from the proximal portion of trigeminal nerve without any anatomic continuity with the brain stem and the cerebellum.
  • The proposed origin of this extremely rare tumor is the root entry zone of the involved nerve.
  • The tumor was completely resected via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19820900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Hayashi M, Hachiya Y, Arai N: An autopsy case presenting repetitive hypoglycemia and unique cortical dysplasia. Brain Dev; 2010 Apr;32(4):289-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A well-demarcated pilocytic astrocytoma was present in the brainstem.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19303727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7131
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain & development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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48. Jeon YK, Cheon JE, Kim SK, Wang KC, Cho BK, Park SH: Clinicopathological features and global genomic copy number alterations of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the hypothalamus/optic pathway: comparative analysis with pilocytic astrocytoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Mod Pathol; 2008 Nov;21(11):1345-56
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features and global genomic copy number alterations of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the hypothalamus/optic pathway: comparative analysis with pilocytic astrocytoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a recently identified variant of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • We studied 11 circumscribed astrocytomas with focal (n=5) or diffuse (n=6) pilomyxoid features and compared them with 17 pilocytic astrocytomas from the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region in children.
  • In one patient, a tumor that recurred after initial surgery had changed from pure-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma to the mixed form.
  • Next, we compared the comprehensive genome copy number changes in the pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n=4) with those in pilocytic astrocytoma (n=6) cases by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • The number of lost clones was larger in pilomyxoid astrocytoma than in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Clones located in chromosome 8q24.3 were frequently gained in pilocytic astrocytoma (four of six) and in pilomyxoid astrocytoma (one of four).
  • Clones located in 9p24.3 and 15q26.3 were lost in all of the pilomyxoid astrocytomas and in five of the pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Those in 8p23.3 showed a copy number loss in three of the pilomyxoid astrocytomas and four of the pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • The frequency of copy number changes was significantly different between pilomyxoid astrocytoma and pilocytic astrocytoma in 47 (3.6%) clones, 20 of them having been located in 2p, 10 in 2q, and 11 in 3q.
  • An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis classified the cases into three clusters: one pilomyxoid astrocytoma patient into one cluster, two pilomyxoid astrocytoma patients into another cluster, and six pilocytic astrocytoma patients and one pilomyxoid astrocytoma patient into the third cluster.
  • In conclusion, the presence of mixed-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma, the acquisition of pilocytic astrocytoma features in a recurrent tumor in pure-form pilomyxoid astrocytoma, and the above results of the genome-wide gene copy number analysis suggest that pilomyxoid astrocytoma might be a pathologically and genetically related, aggressive variant of pilocytic astrocytoma with partially different genetic alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. Gene Dosage. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothalamus, Anterior / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18622384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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49. Martínez-Lage J, Ros de San Pedro J, Martínez-Pérez M, Poza M: Meningiomas after radiation-therapy for benign astrocytomas. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2005 Jun;16(3):266-70; discussion 270
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  • [Title] Meningiomas after radiation-therapy for benign astrocytomas.
  • A 4.5 year-old-girl was submitted to subtotal removal of a benign astrocytoma of the left temporal lobe with basal ganglia extension and given radiotherapy.
  • The authors report this case to illustrate the possibility of the appearance of radiation-induced meningiomas after an interval of 22 years and briefly discuss 16 previous reports on this occurrence in benign astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Basal Ganglia. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningioma / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Temporal Lobe
  • [MeSH-minor] Aphasia / etiology. Child, Preschool. Craniotomy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Paresis / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Seizures / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16007326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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50. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Burger PC, Jenkins S, Giannini C: Anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma predicts aggressive behavior. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):147-60
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  • [Title] Anaplasia in pilocytic astrocytoma predicts aggressive behavior.
  • The clinical significance of anaplastic features, a rare event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), is not fully established.
  • The tumors either had a PA precursor, coexistent (n = 14) (41%) or documented by previous biopsy (n = 10) (29%), or exhibited typical pilocytic features in an otherwise anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10) (29%).
  • Histologically, the anaplastic component was classified as pilocytic like (41%), small cell (32%), epithelioid (15%), or fibrillary (12%).
  • The biologic behavior of PAs with high-mitotic rates and those with necrosis paralleled that of St Anne-Mayo grades 2 and 3 diffuse astrocytomas, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anaplasia. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Minnesota / epidemiology. Mitosis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism. Young Adult


51. Johnson MW, Eberhart CG, Perry A, Tihan T, Cohen KJ, Rosenblum MK, Rais-Bahrami S, Goldthwaite P, Burger PC: Spectrum of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: intermediate pilomyxoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;34(12):1783-91
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  • [Title] Spectrum of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: intermediate pilomyxoid tumors.
  • To define the spectrum of pilomyxoid morphology and to characterize the association between pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) and pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 84 cases of pediatric astrocytomas with pilomyxoid features were reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21107083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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52. Murakami R, Hirai T, Kitajima M, Fukuoka H, Toya R, Nakamura H, Kuratsu J, Yamashita Y: Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas. Acta Radiol; 2008 May;49(4):462-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of pilocytic astrocytomas: usefulness of the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value for differentiation from high-grade gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: On contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images, pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are usually well-enhanced tumors that may mimic high-grade gliomas (HGGs).
  • A tumor with enhancing components should be PA instead of HGG when the minimum ADC value is higher than 1.5 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18415792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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53. Tsugu H, Oshiro S, Yanai F, Komatsu F, Abe H, Fukushima T, Nomura Y, Matsumoto S, Nabeshima K, Takano K, Utsunomiya H: Management of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: our experience. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):919-26
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  • [Title] Management of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: our experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) shows a higher rate of recurrence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination than does pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • After chemotherapy, four patients showed remarkable tumor regression.
  • Nevertheless, one patient died 22 months after initial diagnosis, due to tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19414328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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54. Ghostine B, Ali Y, Menassa L, Okais N, Nohra G, Rizk T, Maarawi J, Samaha E, Moussa R: [Brain tumors and epilepsy: postoperative evaluation of surgical procedures]. J Med Liban; 2010 Apr-Jun;58(2):71-5
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  • The extent of the tumor resection was based on the postoperative MRI results.
  • The histopathologic exam revealed 2 DNET, 3 pilocytic astrocytomas, 2 diffuse astrocytomas, 6 A oligodendrogliomas, 7 B oligodendrogliomas, 7 anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas and 13 meningiomas.
  • The prognostic factors of good outcome were: low-grade glial tumors (I +/- II), meningiomas, and complete tumor resection.
  • This control depended essentially on the extent of tumor resection and on tumor's nature.


55. Sharma MK, Watson MA, Lyman M, Perry A, Aldape KD, Deák F, Gutmann DH: Matrilin-2 expression distinguishes clinically relevant subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma. Neurology; 2006 Jan 10;66(1):127-30
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  • [Title] Matrilin-2 expression distinguishes clinically relevant subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Using whole genome expression microarray technology to discover clinically relevant biomarkers for pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), the authors identified matrilin-2 as a unique mRNA overexpressed in PA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Glycoproteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16401863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / MATN2 protein, human; 0 / Matrilin Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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56. Berhouma M, Jemel H, Kchir N: Calcified pilocytic astrocytoma of the medulla mimicking a brainstem "stone". Pathologica; 2008 Oct;100(5):408-10
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  • [Title] Calcified pilocytic astrocytoma of the medulla mimicking a brainstem "stone".
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas usually involve the midbrain and the medulla, and their surgical resection, when feasible, is generally curative.
  • Thin calcifications can be normally found within low grade gliomas, but densely calcified pilocytic astrocytomas of the brainstem have been only rarely reported.
  • The definitive pathological diagnosis was calcified pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcinosis / diagnosis. Medulla Oblongata / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19253601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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57. Le Bas JF, Grand S, Kremer S, Tropres I, Jiang Z, Krainik A, Remy C, Berger F, Benabid AL: [Perfusion MR imaging for initial diagnosis and follow-up of brain tumors]. Neurochirurgie; 2005 Sep;51(3-4 Pt 2):287-98
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  • RESULTS: The method provided interesting data for establishing the differential diagnosis between different kinds of lesions, in particular between lymphoma and pilocytic astrocytoma, and for grading gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Biopsy. Brain / pathology. Brain / radionuclide imaging. Brain / surgery. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioma / blood supply. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / blood supply. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / blood supply. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 16292173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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58. Scheithauer BW, Silva AI, Ketterling RP, Pula JH, Lininger JF, Krinock MJ: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor: report of a chiasmal-optic nerve example in neurofibromatosis type 1: special pathology report. Neurosurgery; 2009 Apr;64(4):E771-2; discussion E772
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  • [Title] Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor: report of a chiasmal-optic nerve example in neurofibromatosis type 1: special pathology report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor is a rare, rather recently described tumor featuring a highly distinctive, biphasic histological pattern, including a cytologically uniform neuronal component of Homer-Wright type pseudorosettes and an accompanying astrocytic element resembling pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: In this article, we describe the first rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor arising outside this site, a histologically classic example involving the anterior visual pathway and associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • INTERVENTION: Genetic (fluorescent in situ hybridization) studies demonstrated no large deletion in either normal or neoplastic tissue, indicating that the genetic abnormality underlying neurofibromatosis type 1 in this patient is likely a very small deletion or point mutation.
  • CONCLUSION: The relation of the tumor to the underlying neurofibromatosis type 1 cannot be assessed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Young Adult


59. Kumar AJ, Leeds NE, Kumar VA, Fuller GN, Lang FF, Milas Z, Weinberg JS, Ater JL, Sawaya R: Magnetic resonance imaging features of pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain mimicking high-grade gliomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Jul;34(4):601-11
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging features of pilocytic astrocytoma of the brain mimicking high-grade gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The typical magnetic resonance/computed tomographic imaging appearance of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is that of a cyst with an intensely enhancing mural nodule.
  • Tumor locations consisted of the following: optic chiasm (22), lateral ventricle (3), thalamus (12), basal ganglia (1), cerebral hemisphere (10), corpus callosum (2), brain stem (26), fourth ventricle (1), and cerebellum (23).
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the aggressive imaging appearance of PA (grade 1 astrocytoma) because it can be mistaken for high-grade gliomas and may thus lead to inappropriate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 20657231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Donson AM, Erwin NS, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Madden JR, Addo-Yobo SO, Foreman NK: Unique molecular characteristics of radiation-induced glioblastoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2007 Aug;66(8):740-9
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  • Despite the inability of histologic and molecular genetic studies to identify distinguishing features between RIGs and pediatric GBMs, gene microarrays suggested significant differences between these 2 tumor types, at least those occurring in pediatric patients.
  • Greater overlap was detected in gene expression patterns between RIGs and pilocytic astrocytomas than between RIGs and GBMs, medulloblastomas, ependymomas, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, or rhabdomyosarcomas, suggesting a common precursor cell for RIG and pilocytic astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 17882018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Adesina AM: Frozen Section Diagnosis of Pediatric Brain Tumors. Surg Pathol Clin; 2010 Sep;3(3):769-96
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  • [Title] Frozen Section Diagnosis of Pediatric Brain Tumors.
  • Brain tumors represent a significant group of tumors seen in the pediatric population.
  • Intraoperative consultation represents a critical and integral component of the management of these tumors.
  • Since the prevalence, frequency, and location of the different histologic types of brain tumors vary significantly between children and adults, it is reasonable to expect that diagnoses entertained during intraoperative consultation will also differ, influencing the aggressiveness of surgical resection and course of management.
  • It is, therefore, imperative for surgical pathologists responsible for pediatric patients to become familiar with these entities and the diagnostic challenges they pose during the course of surgery.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 26839230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9181
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical pathology clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Pathol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dysembryoplastic neuropeithelial tumor / Frozen section diagnosis / Infiltrating astrocytoma / Intraoperative consultation / Medulloblastoma / Pediatric brain tumors / Pilocytic astrocytoma / Primitive neuroectodermal tumors
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62. de Divitiis E, Cavallo LM, Cappabianca P, Esposito F: Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for the removal of suprasellar tumors: Part 2. Neurosurgery; 2007 Jan;60(1):46-58; discussion 58-9
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  • The series consisted of seven pituitary adenomas, seven craniopharyngiomas, three suprasellar Rathke's cleft cysts, two tuberculum sellae meningiomas, and one pilocytic astrocytoma of the chiasm.
  • RESULTS: Tumor removal, as assessed by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging, revealed complete removal of the lesion in four out of seven pituitary adenomas, five out of seven craniopharyngiomas, three out of three Rathke's cleft cysts, and two out of two tuberculum sellae meningiomas.

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  • (PMID = 17228252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Sajko T, Kudelić N, Lupret V, Lupret V Jr, Nola IA: Treatment of pineal region lesions: our experience in 39 patients. Coll Antropol; 2009 Dec;33(4):1259-63
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  • Pathohistological examination revealed 13 pineocytomas (33.33%), 10 germinomas (25.64%), 7 glial cysts (17.94%), 3 pineoblastomas (7.69%), two pilocytic astrocytomas (7.69%) and one case (2.56%) of papilloma plexus chorioideus, epidermal cyst, yolk sack tumor and ganglioglioma.
  • Benign pineal lesions could be cured with surgery alone.

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  • (PMID = 20102079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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64. Avery RA, Liu GT: Picture of the month--quiz case. Lisch nodules, ectropion uveae, and optic pathway glioma (juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma) due to neurofibromatosis type 1. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med; 2010 May;164(5):489-90
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  • [Title] Picture of the month--quiz case. Lisch nodules, ectropion uveae, and optic pathway glioma (juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma) due to neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / etiology. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Ectropion / diagnosis. Ectropion / etiology. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / etiology. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Iris Neoplasms / etiology. Male. Optic Nerve Glioma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Glioma / etiology


65. Sigauke E, Rakheja D, Maddox DL, Hladik CL, White CL, Timmons CF, Raisanen J: Absence of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 in malignant rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system, kidneys and soft tissue: an immunohistochemical study with implications for diagnosis. Mod Pathol; 2006 May;19(5):717-25
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  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors are high-grade neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS), kidneys and soft tissue that usually occur in children.
  • The histologic diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumor depends on identification of characteristic rhabdoid cells-large cells with eccentrically located nuclei and abundant, eosinophilic cytoplasm-and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to vimentin, keratin and epithelial membrane antigen.
  • In total, 12 brain, three renal and two soft tissue rhabdoid tumors were examined along with four glioblastomas, four pilocytic astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas, two ependymomas, two choroid plexus papillomas, five pituitary adenomas, four germinomas, four renal carcinomas with Xp11.2 translocations, two clear cell sarcomas, two Wilms' tumors, one renal medullary carcinoma, two desmoplastic small round cell tumors, two alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, two embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, one low-grade chondrosarcoma, two extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, one mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, four malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, five metastatic carcinomas and four epithelioid sarcomas, two primary and two metastatic.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16528370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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66. Miyamoto S, Mikuni N, Yamada K, Takahashi JA, Hashimoto N: Radical resection for intrinsic midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma: report of two cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Jan;147(1):93-7; discussion 97
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  • [Title] Radical resection for intrinsic midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma: report of two cases.
  • It is known that the prognosis of pilocytic astrocytoma is relatively good if radical resection can be achieved without severe complications.
  • In order to remove pilocytic astrocytoma within the midbrain radically, we used microsurgical techniques.
  • METHOD: Two patients with intrinsic pilocytic astrocytomas located at the midbrain were operated on.
  • Major vessels were preserved, followed by resection of the intrinsic tumor making the cleavage between tumour and midbrain.
  • FINDINGS: In both patients, intrinsic pilocytic astrocytoma was grossly totally removed with minimal permanent morbidity.
  • They have been able to maintain independent activities in their daily lives without tumor recurrance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical cure can be accomplished in some cases of midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma, even if the lesions are intrinsic to the midbrain.
  • To remove the tumor totally without further neurological deficits, it is necessary to select a safe access or entrance point to the tumor, and to demarcate the gliotic plane between tumour and midbrain.
  • A long-term follow up with a larger number of patients is needed to establish the significance of radical resection for intrinsic midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Microsurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15309583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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67. Larysz D, Blamek S, Larysz P, Pietras K, Mandera M: Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2010;106:271-4
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  • The aim of the study was the functional neurodevelopmental assessment of children with posterior fossa tumors, specifically examining whether tumor location in particular cerebellar structures determines particular neuropsychological deficits.
  • There were 21 total and 8 subtotal resections of tumor, and marsupialization was performed in cases of arachnoid cysts.
  • Histopathological diagnoses of tumors were as follows: 4 medulloblastomas, 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 6 fibrillary astrocytomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 1 choroid plexus papilloma, and 5 arachnoid cysts.

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  • (PMID = 19812963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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68. Li HM, Hsu SS, Wang JS, Weng MJ, Fu JH, Chen CK, Lai PH: Cerebral pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in adults. J Chin Med Assoc; 2008 Nov;71(11):587-93
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  • [Title] Cerebral pilocytic astrocytoma with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in adults.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are found predominantly in the pediatric population; reports of these tumors are extremely rare in adults.
  • We report 2 cases of adult pilocytic astrocytoma with intracranial hemorrhage.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-enhanced and circumscribed cystic hemorrhagic tumor with mural nodule over the cerebral hemisphere region.
  • After surgical resection, microscopic examination of the lesions showed pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Since pilocytic astrocytoma and other cystic tumors with mural nodule (such as hemangioblastoma) have similar findings on conventional CT and MRI, PWI is helpful in the differential diagnosis.
  • The literature on hemorrhagic pilocytic astrocytoma is also reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19015059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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69. Bannykh SI, Stolt CC, Kim J, Perry A, Wegner M: Oligodendroglial-specific transcriptional factor SOX10 is ubiquitously expressed in human gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jan;76(2):115-27
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  • The two most common types of gliomas: astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma are distinguished based on their morphologic similarities to mature astrocytes and oligodendroglia.
  • We applied immunohistochemistry to analyze whether the expression of SOX10 can differentiate astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma.
  • The majority of oligodendrogliomas, but also a large fraction of astrocytomas, including the least differentiated glioblastomas, expressed SOX10, albeit at lower levels.
  • High levels of expression were also found in pilocytic astrocytoma, consistent with recent studies suggesting that pilocytic astrocytomas have greater overlap with oligodendroglial than astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. SOXE Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 16205963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG1 protein, human; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / SOX10 protein, human; 0 / SOXE Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors
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70. Jeuken JW, Wesseling P: MAPK pathway activation through BRAF gene fusion in pilocytic astrocytomas; a novel oncogenic fusion gene with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential. J Pathol; 2010 Dec;222(4):324-8
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  • [Title] MAPK pathway activation through BRAF gene fusion in pilocytic astrocytomas; a novel oncogenic fusion gene with diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential.
  • Different fusion variants involving BRAF and KIAA1549 were demonstrated, present in 80% of pilocytic astrocytomas in children.
  • As the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene is detected at a much lower frequency in diffuse low-grade astrocytomas and survival was much longer than expected in the patients with a 'non-pilocytic' astrocytoma carrying the fusion gene, identification of this fusion gene can be of diagnostic and prognostic value.
  • In the near future, interference with the (fusion gene causing) activation of the MAPK signalling cascade may open new therapeutic avenues for children with pilocytic astrocytomas, as a first line of defence against tumour growth or in situations where the tumour has become refractory to other therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. MAP Kinase Signaling System / genetics. Oncogene Fusion / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / physiology. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • [CommentOn] J Pathol. 2009 Jun;218(2):172-81 [19373855.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Pathol. 2011 Feb;223(3):446
  • (PMID = 20976706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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71. Benesch M, Eder HG, Sovinz P, Raith J, Lackner H, Moser A, Urban C: Residual or recurrent cerebellar low-grade glioma in children after tumor resection: is re-treatment needed? A single center experience from 1983 to 2003. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(3):159-64
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  • [Title] Residual or recurrent cerebellar low-grade glioma in children after tumor resection: is re-treatment needed? A single center experience from 1983 to 2003.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report on children with cerebellar low-grade glioma (LGG), who were found to have progressive or nonprogresssive residual tumors or tumor recurrence after tumor resection.
  • RESULTS: Of 289 patients with CNS tumors referred between 1983 and 2003, 28 (9.7%) (15 male, 13 female; median age at diagnosis: 71 months) had cerebellar LGG (pilocytic astrocytoma grade I: n = 21; fibrillary astrocytoma grade II: n = 5; mixed hamartoma/pilocytic astrocytoma: n = 1; radiographic diagnosis: n = 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A 'wait and see' strategy is justified in patients with nonprogressive recurrent or residual cerebellar LGG after primary tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16636617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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72. Aarsen FK, Paquier PF, Reddingius RE, Streng IC, Arts WF, Evera-Preesman M, Catsman-Berrevoets CE: Functional outcome after low-grade astrocytoma treatment in childhood. Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;106(2):396-402
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  • [Title] Functional outcome after low-grade astrocytoma treatment in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: The relatively high survival rate of patients with low-grade astrocytoma necessitates increasing attention to physical and psychosocial outcomes.
  • The objective of the current study was to investigate functional outcomes among children who were treated for low-grade or pilocytic astrocytoma in different areas of the brain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At long-term follow-up, children who had low-grade or pilocytic astrocytomas were found to have poor functional outcomes, depending on tumor site, age, and recurrence.
  • Therefore, the authors suggest a long-term follow-up of children who are treated for low-grade or pilocytic astrocytomas at a young age to detect and subsequently offer support focused on the medical and cognitive impairments as well as on the behavioral and social consequences of their disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disabled Children. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 16353203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Watanabe T, Nobusawa S, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Am J Pathol; 2009 Apr;174(4):1149-53
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  • [Title] IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • IDH1 mutations were frequent in low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (88%) and in secondary glioblastomas that developed through progression from low-grade diffuse or anaplastic astrocytoma (82%).
  • IDH1 mutations were co-present with TP53 mutations in 63% of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and with loss of heterozygosity 1p/19q in 64% of oligodendrogliomas; they were rare in pilocytic astrocytomas (10%) and primary glioblastomas (5%) and absent in ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19246647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671348
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74. Kano H, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas part 1: outcomes in adult patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):211-218
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas part 1: outcomes in adult patients.
  • To assess outcomes when stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is used during multimodality management of pilocytic astrocytomas in adult patients.
  • Fourteen patients (six male and eight females) with pilocytic astrocytomas underwent SRS between 1994 and 2006.
  • Localized solid tumor progression was seen in two patients.
  • The progression free survival after SRS (including tumor growth and cyst enlargement) for the entire series was 83.9%, 31.5% and 31.5% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively.
  • Despite their purported benign nature, pilocytic astrocytomas in adult patients often do not behave benignly.
  • Unresectable pilocytic astrocytomas that are located in critical or deep areas of the brain require additional management approaches.
  • Delayed cyst progression contributes to late loss of tumor control.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 19468691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Xu Y, Li WL, Fu L, Gu F, Ma YJ: Slit2/Robo1 signaling in glioma migration and invasion. Neurosci Bull; 2010 Dec;26(6):474-8
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  • The expression of Slit2 is at very low levels in pilocytic astrocytoma, fibrillary astrocytoma and glioblastoma, while Robo1 is highly expressed in different grades of gliomas at both mRNA and protein levels.
  • Although the specific mechanisms of tumor-suppressive effect of Slit2/Robo1 have not been elucidated, it has been proved that Slit2/Robo1 signaling inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion by inactivation of Cdc42-GTP.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21113198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1995-8218
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Slit homolog 2 protein; 0 / roundabout protein; EC 3.6.5.2 / cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein
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76. Figarella-Branger D, Colin C, Chinot O, Nanni I, Baeza N, Fina F, Tong S, Eudes N, Quilichini B, Romain S, Metellus P, Fuentes S, Barrié M, Boucard C, Fraslon C, Bonavita MJ, Martin PM, Ouafik L: [AP-HM tumour tissue bank: molecular signature of gliomas]. Med Sci (Paris); 2006 Jan;22 Spec No 1:54-9
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  • In particular because some benign gliomas such as pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) can be misclassified as malignant ones such as glioblastomas (grade IV) the first aim of our study was to find accurate diagnostic markers.

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  • (PMID = 16705945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0767-0974
  • [Journal-full-title] Médecine sciences : M/S
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Sci (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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77. Bodey B, Bodey V, Siegel SE: Expression in childhood primary brain tumors of NY-ESO-1, a cancer/testis antigen: an immunohistochemical study. In Vivo; 2008 Jan-Feb;22(1):83-7
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  • The expression of NY-ESO-1 in intracranial brain tumors including astrocytomas (ASTRs) and medulloblastomas (MEDs)/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) was examined since the expression of NY-ESO-1 has only previously been explored in depth in neuroblastomas.
  • In the astrocytic tumors of various subtypes examined, the level of NY-ESO-1 expression was not as strong as that in MEDs/PNETs.
  • However, there was a significant increase in expression level when comparing low-grade pilocytic ASTRs to high-grade anaplastic ASTRs and glioblastomas.
  • CONCLUSION: As evidenced by our results, NY-ESO-1 overexpression increases as the malignancy grade of the astrocytic tumors increases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism


78. Alimohamadi M, Bidabadi MS, Ayan Z, Ketabchi E, Amirjamshidi A: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma with involvement of the sella turcica in an adolescent. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 Dec;16(12):1648-9
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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma with involvement of the sella turcica in an adolescent.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described tumor typically occurring in the hypothalamic-chiasmatic region of very young children.
  • PMA is characterized by a more aggressive course than pilocytic astrocytoma and exhibits certain differing histological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19766001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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79. Barresi V, Tuccari G, Barresi G: NGAL immunohistochemical expression in brain primary and metastatic tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Sep-Oct;29(5):317-22
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  • In view of this, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NGAL expression differs according to brain tumor type or in primary vs. metastatic brain neolasias.
  • 42 surgically resected formalin fixed and paraffin embedded neoplasias, including 15 cases of brain metastasis and 27 cases of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors (11 meningiomas; 1 pilocytic astrocytoma, 2 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 oligoastrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 1 anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, 7 glioblastomas, 1 ependymoma) were submitted to the immunohistochemical procedure.
  • In conclusion, our findings suggest that NGAL expression is restricted to high grade gliomas among primary brain tumors, and that brain metastases do not express this protein.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20860895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acute-Phase Proteins; 0 / LCN2 protein, human; 0 / Lipocalins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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80. Hernáiz Driever P, von Hornstein S, Pietsch T, Kortmann R, Warmuth-Metz M, Emser A, Gnekow AK: Natural history and management of low-grade glioma in NF-1 children. J Neurooncol; 2010 Nov;100(2):199-207
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  • [Title] Natural history and management of low-grade glioma in NF-1 children.
  • Pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) patients are prone to developing low-grade glioma (LGG).
  • Eighty-three patients (76%) suffered from an optic pathway tumor.
  • Histology revealed pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I in 38 of 42 biopsied patients.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed surgical intervention and localization within the optic pathway as factors that increased the risk of tumor progression.

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  • (PMID = 20352473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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81. Baron PW, Majlessipour F, Bedros AA, Zuppan CW, Ben-Youssef R, Yanni G, Ojogho ON, Concepcion W: Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver successfully treated with chemotherapy and liver resection. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Jan;11(1):73-5
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  • Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma is the third most common malignant tumor of the liver in children, accounting for 13% of hepatic malignancies in this age group.
  • It has been considered an aggressive neoplasm with very poor prognosis until the late 1980s, when long-term survivors were reported after multiagent chemotherapy followed by resection.
  • The first patient also had a concurrent cerebellar tumor (pilocytic astrocytoma), for which he first underwent craniotomy and resection, delaying the liver tumor resection by 10 weeks.
  • They are alive and tumor free at 48 months (case no. 1) and 18 months (case no. 2) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and liver resection.

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  • (PMID = 17390190.001).
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Gomes AL, Reis-Filho JS, Lopes JM, Martinho O, Lambros MB, Martins A, Schmitt F, Pardal F, Reis RM: Molecular alterations of KIT oncogene in gliomas. Cell Oncol; 2007;29(5):399-408
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  • Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179) of cases, namely in 25% (1/4) of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20) of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5) of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77) of glioblastomas and one third (3/9) of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas.
  • In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0-22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17726262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1570-5870
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4618227
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83. Wemmert S, Romeike BF, Ketter R, Steudel WI, Zang KD, Urbschat S: Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity in pilocytic astrocytomas revealed by CGH-analysis of microdissected tumor cells and FISH on tumor tissue sections. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):353-60
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  • [Title] Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity in pilocytic astrocytomas revealed by CGH-analysis of microdissected tumor cells and FISH on tumor tissue sections.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent gliomas of childhood.
  • Although in diffuse gliomas TP53 gene mutations or deletions occur with significant frequency, the role in pilocytic astrocytomas remains unclear.
  • Histomorphologically different areas of 14 pilocytic astrocytomas were microdissected and analyzed for genetic aberrations and heterogeneity.
  • In conclusion, pilocytic astrocytomas show a genetic heterogeneity associated with variations of histologic structure as well as an intratumoral heterogeneity observed on single cell level by FISH.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53. Genetic Heterogeneity

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  • (PMID = 16391789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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84. Chung EM, Specht CS, Schroeder JW: From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric orbit tumors and tumorlike lesions: neuroepithelial lesions of the ocular globe and optic nerve. Radiographics; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4):1159-86
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  • Retinoblastoma is a tumor of infancy and the most common intraocular tumor in children.
  • Optic nerve glioma is the most common tumor of the optic nerve in children and is frequently associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • These gliomas are usually pilocytic astrocytomas and cause fusiform enlargement of the nerve.

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  • (PMID = 17620473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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85. Kotoula V, Cheva A, Barbanis S, Papadimitriou CS, Karkavelas G: hTERT immunopositivity patterns in the normal brain and in astrocytic tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 Jun;111(6):569-78
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  • [Title] hTERT immunopositivity patterns in the normal brain and in astrocytic tumors.
  • Accumulating data about the impact of hTERT in astrocytic tumor carcinogenesis and recent evidence about its association with disease outcome prompt the evaluation of this molecule with methods applicable in routine pathology practice.
  • In this study, we investigated hTERT protein expression with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the NCL-hTERT antibody in 49 astrocytic tumors.
  • Low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors were found positive for hTERT in 74 and 85% of cases, respectively.
  • The prevailing nuclear IPs differed significantly between pilocytic astrocytomas (pattern As) and the rest of histologic types up to glioblastoma (patterns Am and B) (P<0.0001).
  • Positive endothelial cells were found in astrocytic tumors of all grades, even when tumor cells showed no hTERT immunoreactivity.
  • The nuclear hTERT IPs described here may reflect the functional status of non-neoplastic brain and neoplastic astrocytic cells and support the model of a continuum in the development of glioblastomas from diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Chemistry / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomerase / genetics. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Female. Fixatives. Formaldehyde. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16614861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fixatives; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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86. Jones DT, Ichimura K, Liu L, Pearson DM, Plant K, Collins VP: Genomic analysis of pilocytic astrocytomas at 0.97 Mb resolution shows an increasing tendency toward chromosomal copy number change with age. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Nov;65(11):1049-58
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  • [Title] Genomic analysis of pilocytic astrocytomas at 0.97 Mb resolution shows an increasing tendency toward chromosomal copy number change with age.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), World Health Organization grade I, are one of the most frequently occurring childhood brain tumors, yet little is known about genetic changes characterizing this entity.
  • No copy number abnormality was seen in 64% of cases at this resolution.
  • This is the first genomewide study to show this nonrandom pattern of genetic alteration in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Dosage. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17086101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2761618; NLM/ UKMS2694
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87. Canesso A, Gardiman M, Salmaso R, Alaggio R, Ninfo V: An unusual case of malignant pilocytic astrocytoma occurring in the eye. Virchows Arch; 2006 Aug;449(2):248-52
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  • [Title] An unusual case of malignant pilocytic astrocytoma occurring in the eye.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is a central nervous system neoplasia that arises during pediatric age.
  • It is a low-grade lesion that can rarely undergo malignant changes presenting the histologic features of a high-grade glioma.
  • We report a case of a pilocytic astrocytoma arising in the eyeball of a 53-year-old man affected by glaucoma that underwent malignant evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
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88. Kolb EA, Gorlick R, Houghton PJ, Morton CL, Neale G, Keir ST, Carol H, Lock R, Phelps D, Kang MH, Reynolds CP, Maris JM, Billups C, Smith MA: Initial testing (stage 1) of AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Oct;55(4):668-77
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  • Subsequently, AZD6244 was evaluated against two juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) xenografts using once and twice daily dosing schedules.
  • Against the in vivo tumor panels, AZD6244 induced significant differences in EFS distribution in 10 of 37 (27%) solid tumor models and 0 of 6 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) models.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At the dose and schedule of administration used, AZD6244 as a single agent had limited in vitro and in vivo activity against the PPTP tumor panels despite inhibition of MEK1/2 activity.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20806365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM042216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01-CM-42216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM42216
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AZD 6244; 0 / Benzimidazoles; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218595; NLM/ PMC3004092
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89. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Nikiforov Y, Pollack IF: Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 May;119(5):641-9
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  • [Title] Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Parameters included quantification of characteristic morphologic variables as well as genes and molecular loci previously shown to be of relevance in high-grade gliomas, including 1p, 9p, 10q, 17p, 19q, and BRAF.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20044755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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90. Puget S, Crimmins DW, Garnett MR, Grill J, Oliveira R, Boddaert N, Wray A, Lelouch-Tubiana A, Roujeau T, Di Rocco F, Zerah M, Sainte-Rose C: Thalamic tumors in children: a reappraisal. J Neurosurg; 2007 May;106(5 Suppl):354-62
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  • METHODS: The records of 69 children who presented with a thalamic tumor between 1989 and 2003 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • In the patients in whom a unilateral thalamic tumor was diagnosed, 33 had an astrocytic tumor.
  • Of the 54 patients, 32 had a low-grade and 22 had a high-grade tumor.
  • The survival rate was significantly better for patients with the following characteristics: symptom duration longer than 2 months (p < 0.001), lesions with low-grade histological features (p = 0.003), and tumor excision greater than 90% at surgery (p = 0.04).
  • The thalamopeduncular tumors were mostly pilocytic astrocytomas, which had a good prognosis following surgery.
  • The bilateral thalamic tumors in this series were mainly low-grade astrocytic lesions, and more than half of the children attained long-term survival (mean follow-up duration 4.5 years).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of tumors arising in the thalamus are astrocytic, of which less than half are high-grade lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / therapy. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17566201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Linscott LL, Osborn AG, Blaser S, Castillo M, Hewlett RH, Wieselthaler N, Chin SS, Krakenes J, Hedlund GL, Sutton CL: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma: expanding the imaging spectrum. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1861-6
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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma: expanding the imaging spectrum.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described variant of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with unique clinical and histopathologic characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


92. Hunter SB, Varma V, Shehata B, Nolen JD, Cohen C, Olson JJ, Ou CY: Apolipoprotein D expression in primary brain tumors: analysis by quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):963-9
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  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) expression has been shown to correlate both with cell cycle arrest and with prognosis in several types of malignancy, including central nervous system astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Sixteen poorly infiltrating WHO grade I glial neoplasms (i.e., pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas) showed an average 20-fold higher apoD expression level compared with the 20 diffusely infiltrating glial neoplasms (i.e., glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendrogliomas; p=0.00004).
  • Analyzed as individual tumor groups, poorly infiltrating grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas differed significantly from each tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating higher-grade category (p<0.05 for each comparison) but not from each other (p>0.05).
  • Conversely, each individual tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating category differed significantly from both pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas (p<0.05) but did not vary from other infiltrating tumors (p>0.05).
  • Ependymomas, non-infiltrating grade II neoplasms, expressed levels of apoD similar to or lower than levels expressed by the diffusely infiltrating gliomas.
  • In addition, apoD expression was 5-fold higher in the slowly proliferating grade I glial neoplasms compared with non-proliferating normal brain tissue (p=0.01), suggesting that apoD expression is not simply an inverse measure of proliferation.
  • ApoD expression measured by quantitative RT-PCR may be useful in the differential diagnosis of primary brain tumors, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas.

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  • (PMID = 16055749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins; 0 / Apolipoproteins D; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; 8002-74-2 / Paraffin
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93. Komotar RJ, Zacharia BE, Sughrue ME, Mocco J, Carson BS, Tihan T, Otten ML, Burger PC, Garvin JH, Khandji AG, Anderson RC: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Neurol Res; 2008 Nov;30(9):945-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified pediatric low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior.
  • These tumors have been shown to have significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival probability than classical low-grade astrocytomas, as well as a high rate of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination.
  • Radiographic characteristics of the tumor were recorded in each case.
  • CONCLUSION: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a well-circumscribed pediatric neoplasm that commonly originates from the midline of the neuroaxis and lacks peritumoral edema or central necrosis.
  • It is critical to recognize the predominantly solid and well-circumscribed nature of the neoplasm to avoid confusion with an infiltrating astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18662499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Schittenhelm J, Mittelbronn M, Nguyen TD, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: WT1 expression distinguishes astrocytic tumor cells from normal and reactive astrocytes. Brain Pathol; 2008 Jul;18(3):344-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] WT1 expression distinguishes astrocytic tumor cells from normal and reactive astrocytes.
  • Particularly in small brain biopsies, it might be difficult to distinguish reactive astrogliosis from low-grade or infiltration zones of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Recently, the over-expression of Wilms' tumor gene product WT1 was reported in astrocytic tumor cells.
  • Therefore, we investigated WT1 expression in paraffin-embedded brain sections from 28 controls, 48 cases with astrogliosis of various etiology and 219 astrocytomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grades I-IV] by immunohistochemistry.
  • In astrocytomas, WT1-positive tumor cells were found in pilocytic astrocytomas (66.7% of cases), diffuse astrocytomas (52.7%) WHO grade II (52.7%), anaplastic astrocytomas (83.4%) and glioblastomas (98.1%).
  • Overall, the majority of all astrocytic neoplasms (84.5%) expressed WT1.
  • Establishing a cut-off value of 0% immunoreactive tumor cells served to recognize neoplastic astrocytes with 100% specificity and 68% sensitivity and was associated with positive and negative predictive values of 1 and 0.68, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18371184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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95. Parsa CF, Givrad S: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas do not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation: grounds for designation as hamartomas. Br J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jan;92(1):40-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas do not undergo spontaneous malignant transformation: grounds for designation as hamartomas.
  • AIM: To determine whether juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I have the potential for spontaneous malignant transformation.
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed, cross-referencing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, astrocytoma grade I, optic glioma, glioma, low-grade gliomas, polar spongioblastoma, gliocytoma embryonale, and malignant transformation, anaplasia or anaplastic change.
  • Twenty-two of these tumours, however, did not initially match criteria for juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I and were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas WHO grade I do not undergo spontaneous anaplastic transformation.
  • Earlier clinical and histopathological opinions regarding juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas as hamartomatous lesions are reaffirmed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology


96. Fryssira H, Leventopoulos G, Psoni S, Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Stavrianeas N, Kanavakis E: Tumor development in three patients with Noonan syndrome. Eur J Pediatr; 2008 Sep;167(9):1025-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor development in three patients with Noonan syndrome.
  • Tumor development is a rare manifestation of Noonan syndrome but can be explained by the molecular pathophysiology involved in the disorder.
  • The second patient, a 1-year-old boy, had a low grade pilocytic astrocytoma, the clinical expression of which was persistent headache.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Granular Cell Tumor / complications. Noonan Syndrome / complications. Seminoma / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications


97. Birlik B, Canda S, Ozer E: Tumour vascularity is of prognostic significance in adult, but not paediatric astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Oct;32(5):532-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumour vascularity is of prognostic significance in adult, but not paediatric astrocytomas.
  • Astrocytomas are the commonest type of brain tumours in adults and children.
  • Although the most reliable prognostic indicators have been shown consistently to be patient age and tumour histological grade, biological progression in these tumours is inevitable and the overall prognosis has remained poor.
  • Due to the evidence that vascular changes are important histological features of astrocytomas, the aim of this study was to investigate prognostic significance of tumour vascularity in paediatric and adult astrocytomas.
  • Study population consisted of 70 patients (45 adult and 25 children) with histologically proven diagnosis of astrocytoma with no history of previous therapy.
  • In contrast to the results in paediatric astrocytomas, tumour vascularity in adult tumours correlated significantly with postoperative survival by univariate analysis (P < 0.05).
  • Patient age and tumour histological grade were also correlated with survival.
  • We conclude that histological quantification of tumour vascularity is a significant prognosticator in adult astrocytomas, but not in children.
  • Our data do not support the validity of applications of antiangiogenic agents in paediatric astrocytic tumours, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / pathology. Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16972887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antigens, CD31
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98. Huber J, Sovinz P, Lackner H, Mokry M, Eder H, Urban C: Diencephalic syndrome: a frequently delayed diagnosis in failure to thrive. Klin Padiatr; 2007 Mar-Apr;219(2):91-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Imaging of the brain showed a suprasellar mass, identified histologically as low grade pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Both patients were treated with chemotherapy which induced tumor regression and stable disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diencephalic syndrome caused by a hypothalamic/chiasmatic astrocytoma is a rare cause of failure to thrive in children so that diagnosis is frequently delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Failure to Thrive / etiology. Hypothalamic Diseases / diagnosis. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Optic Chiasm. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Infant. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17405074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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99. Cheshier SH, Hanft SJ, Adler JR, Chang SD: CyberKnife radiosurgery for lesions of the foramen magnum. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Aug;6(4):329-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histologies were determined either by prior surgery or radiographic criteria and included 25 benign tumors (nine meningiomas, five schwannomas, four neurofibromas, three hemangioblastomas, two ependymomas, one chordomas, and one pilocytic astrocytoma) along with 10 malignant growths (nine metastases and one chondrosarcoma).

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  • (PMID = 17668941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Viaño J, Velázquez-Fragua R, Carceller-Benito F, Gutiérrez-Molina M, Morales-Bastos C: [Cerebral hemisphere tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1 during childhood]. Rev Neurol; 2010 Apr 16;50(8):453-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients (three males and three females) of 600 cases of a series with NF1 showed features of cerebral hemispheres tumor (seizures, headache and hemiparesis).
  • Six patients had seven tumors (it was because one of them had one tumor in every frontal lobe, both with the same image characteristics), but they did not were removed and they were not studied histologically.
  • The histological study was made to the other five patients and showed that the histological nature corresponded to pilocytic astrocytoma in one patient, neuroepitelial dysembryoplastic tumor in one, polymorphe xanthoastrocytoma in one, neuroectodermic hamartoma in one, and inflammatory chronic non-granulomatose lesion in one.
  • The tumors commonly are histologically benign, and they can be found in peripheral or deep region of the cerebral hemispheres.






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