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1. Aragão Mde F, Otaduy MC, Melo RV, Azevedo Filho HR, Victor EG, Silva JL, Araújo N, Leite Cda C, Valença MM: [Multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time: choline/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio and the grading of cerebral astrocytomas]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2007 Jun;65(2A):286-94
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  • [Title] [Multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time: choline/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio and the grading of cerebral astrocytomas].
  • The choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio, obtained by the multivoxel spectroscopy with short echo time (TE), was evaluated, in the histological grading of the brain astrocytomas (grades I, II and III-IV) in comparison with the normal cerebral parenchyma.
  • A significant increase (p<0.05) in the average ratios of Cho/NAA was observed in the three astrocytoma groups studied in relation to normal tissue, having a tendency to increase with the increase in grading, without any statistic significance, which corresponded to: 0.53+/-0.24 in the control group, 1.19+/-0.49 in grade I, 1.58+/-0.65 in grade II and 5.13+/-8.12 in the high grade group (grades III-IV), with variation in the values encountered.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17607430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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2. Zakrzewski K, Biernat W, Liberski PP, Polis L, Nowoslawska E: Pilocytic astrocytoma as a predominant component of a recurrent complex type DNT. Folia Neuropathol; 2009;47(3):284-8
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma as a predominant component of a recurrent complex type DNT.
  • Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT) is a benign lesion of the cerebral hemispheres usually presenting minimal biological activity after surgical excision.
  • In the recurrent lesion we identified pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) as a predominant component of the tumour.

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  • (PMID = 19813149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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3. Hafez RF: Stereotaxic gamma knife surgery in treatment of critically located pilocytic astrocytoma: preliminary result. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:39
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  • [Title] Stereotaxic gamma knife surgery in treatment of critically located pilocytic astrocytoma: preliminary result.
  • BACKGROUND: Low-grade gliomas are uncommon primary brain tumors, located more often in the posterior fossa, optic pathway, and brain stem and less commonly in the cerebral hemispheres.
  • CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two patients with diagnosed recurrent cystic pilocytic astrocytoma critically located within the brain (thalamic and brain stem) were treated with gamma knife surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Gamma knife surgery represents an alternate tool in the treatment of recurrent and/or small postoperative residual pilocytic astrocytoma especially if they are critically located.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 17394660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852107
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070726
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4. Xiangsong Z, Changhong L, Weian C, Dong Z: PET Imaging of cerebral astrocytoma with 13N-ammonia. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jun;78(2):145-51
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  • [Title] PET Imaging of cerebral astrocytoma with 13N-ammonia.
  • We performed this study in order to assess the clinical potential of (13)N-ammonia PET in patients with cerebral astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: Dynamic 13N-ammonia PET was performed in 25 patients with suspected cerebral gliomas or recurrent cerebral astrocytomas (19 male and 6 female patients; age range 18-64 years) detected by MRI.
  • RESULTS: Six out of nine cases of low-grade gliomas were detected with 13N-ammonia PET, and three non-astrocytoma low-grade gliomas were not detected with 13N-ammonia PET.
  • All 11 high-grade astrocytomas exhibited markedly increased uptake of 13N-ammonia.
  • There were the significant differences between the T/W ratios and PI in low-grade astrocytomas and that in non-neoplastic lesions (T/W ratios: 2.00+/-0.42, n=6 vs. 0.97+/-0.11, n=5, P<0.01; PI: 1.89+/-0.37, n=6 vs. 0.99+/-0.03, n=5, P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a substantial uptake of 13N-ammonia in cerebral astrocytomas.
  • 13N-ammonia PET may enable differentiation between low- and high-grade astrocytomas, and has the potential to enable differentiation between low-grade astrocytomas and non-neoplastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ammonia. Astrocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Nitrogen Isotopes. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16739028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrogen Isotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 7664-41-7 / Ammonia
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5. Stokland T, Liu JF, Ironside JW, Ellison DW, Taylor R, Robinson KJ, Picton SV, Walker DA: A multivariate analysis of factors determining tumor progression in childhood low-grade glioma: a population-based cohort study (CCLG CNS9702). Neuro Oncol; 2010 Dec;12(12):1257-68
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  • From the cohort of 798 patients, 639 patients were eligible, with a median age 6.71 years (0.26-16.75 years); 49% were males; 15.9% had neurofibromatosis type 1, 63.7% pilocytic astrocytoma, 5.9% fibrillary astrocytoma, 4.2% mixed neuronal-glial tumors, and 3.6% others; 21.1% were diagnosed clinically.
  • Anatomically implicated were 31.6% cerebellum, 24.6% chiasma/hypothalamus, 16.0% cerebral hemispheres, 9.9% brain stem, 6.1% other supratentorial midline structures, 5.9% optic nerve only, 4.5% spinal cord, and 1.4% others.
  • Multivariate analysis identified young age, fibrillary astrocytoma, and extent of surgical resection as significant independent risk factors for progression.

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  • (PMID = 20861086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018938
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6. Szeifert GT, Prasad D, Kamyrio T, Steiner M, Steiner LE: The role of the Gamma Knife in the management of cerebral astrocytomas. Prog Neurol Surg; 2007;20:150-63
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  • [Title] The role of the Gamma Knife in the management of cerebral astrocytomas.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the complex management of cerebral astrocytomas.
  • Out of a series with more than 1,000 brain tumor cases treated at the Lars Leksell Center for Gamma Knife Surgery, UVA, 74 astrocytomas were selected for the present review.
  • The tumor either disappeared or decreased in 60% of grade 1 astrocytomas (n = 15), and 71% tumor control was achieved in grade 2 astrocytomas (n = 17) following radiosurgery.
  • Results of the present analysis suggest that stereotactic radiosurgery represents an alternative or supplementary treatment modality to conventional surgery in small-volume low-grade astrocytomas especially in deep-seated critical locations.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17317983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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7. Pascual-Castroviejo I, Pascual-Pascual SI, Viaño J, Velázquez-Fragua R, Carceller-Benito F, Gutiérrez-Molina M, Morales-Bastos C: [Cerebral hemisphere tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1 during childhood]. Rev Neurol; 2010 Apr 16;50(8):453-7
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  • [Title] [Cerebral hemisphere tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1 during childhood].
  • AIM: To present seven tumors of the cerebral hemispheres in 6 children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients (three males and three females) of 600 cases of a series with NF1 showed features of cerebral hemispheres tumor (seizures, headache and hemiparesis).
  • The histological study was made to the other five patients and showed that the histological nature corresponded to pilocytic astrocytoma in one patient, neuroepitelial dysembryoplastic tumor in one, polymorphe xanthoastrocytoma in one, neuroectodermic hamartoma in one, and inflammatory chronic non-granulomatose lesion in one.
  • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the tumors in the cerebral hemispheres is very low (1%) in the patients with NF1.
  • The tumors commonly are histologically benign, and they can be found in peripheral or deep region of the cerebral hemispheres.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology


8. Hu CH, Fang XM, Hu XY, Cui L: Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas. Clin Imaging; 2009 Nov-Dec;33(6):417-23
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  • [Title] Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the mismatched manifestation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Both conventional and perfusion CT were performed on 29 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytomas (15 cases in Grades I-II, 14 cases in Grades III-IV).
  • Time-density curves were plotted, cerebral blood flow and volume maps were generated, and the values between rCBF and rCBV in the same region of interest (ROI) were compared.
  • RESULTS: Twelve low-grade astrocytomas showed low or medium values of both rCBF (46.95+/-22.92 ml 100 g(-1) mm(-1)) and rCBV (5.74+/-3.61 ml 100 g(-1)); 12 high-grade astrocytomas showed high values of both rCBF (95.44+/-42.58 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1)) and rCBV (9.24+/-5.32 ml 100g(-1)).
  • However, the remaining five astrocytomas were mismatched, showing reduced rCBF value and increased rCBV value in the same ROI.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV occasionally exists in some areas of astrocytomas.
  • Hence, attention should be paid to assessments in preoperative grading of astrocytomas and in monitoring therapeutic effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19857800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Shi Y, Morgenstern N: Granular cell astrocytoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Dec;132(12):1946-50
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  • [Title] Granular cell astrocytoma.
  • Granular cell astrocytoma (GCA) is a rare type of malignant brain tumor with distinct morphologic features and aggressive clinical behavior.
  • Almost all GCAs occur in the cerebral hemispheres.
  • The most important differential diagnoses include a number of reactive lesions such as cerebral infarction, multiple sclerosis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19061297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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10. Iun'pén V, Oliushin VE, Ulitin AIu, Maslova LN, Petrov AA: [Long-term results of treatment in patients with oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of the cerebral hemispheres]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Apr-Jun;(2):6-10; discussion 10-1
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of treatment in patients with oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas of the cerebral hemispheres].
  • BACKGROUND: the current approach to treating patients with cerebral oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas involves surgical treatment with the maximum tumor resection in reasonable ranges, by taking into account the anatomic and physiological availability, followed by chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Oligodendroglioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18720725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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11. Polin RS, Marko NF, Ammerman MD, Shaffrey ME, Huang W, Anderson FA Jr, Caputy AJ, Laws ER: Functional outcomes and survival in patients with high-grade gliomas in dominant and nondominant hemispheres. J Neurosurg; 2005 Feb;102(2):276-83
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  • [Title] Functional outcomes and survival in patients with high-grade gliomas in dominant and nondominant hemispheres.
  • OBJECT: The goal of this study was to investigate survival and functional outcomes in patients with high-grade intracranial astrocytomas as a function of the location of the lesion in the dominant or nondominant hemisphere (DH and NDH, respectively), and to suggest management strategies for such patients based on these data.
  • Two cohorts were defined based on the location of the tumor in the right or left cerebral hemisphere.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioblastoma / surgery. Karnofsky Performance Status. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Cohort Studies. Craniotomy. Databases as Topic. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prognosis. Reoperation. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15739555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Walmsley GL, Chandler K, Davies ES, Lamb CR, Smyth B, Summers BA: Multi-focal cerebral oligoastrocytoma in a puppy. J Small Anim Pract; 2009 Aug;50(8):435-9
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  • [Title] Multi-focal cerebral oligoastrocytoma in a puppy.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging identified multiple, large lesions involving both cerebral hemispheres.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / veterinary. Brain Neoplasms / veterinary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19689673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Xiangsong Z, Weian C: Differentiation of recurrent astrocytoma from radiation necrosis: a pilot study with 13N-NH3 PET. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;82(3):305-11
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  • [Title] Differentiation of recurrent astrocytoma from radiation necrosis: a pilot study with 13N-NH3 PET.
  • The present study assessed the role of (13)N-NH(3) PET in differentiating recurrent cerebral astrocytoma from radiation necrosis.
  • METHODS: Seven patients, who were previously treated with conventional external-beam radiation therapy after surgical resection for cerebral astrocytomas, and showed the enhancing brain lesions on T1-weighted gadiolinium-enhanced MR studies performed in 6 months or above after the radiotherapies, were examined prospectively with (13)N-NH(3) and FDG PET.
  • The other lesion with anaplastic astrocytoma showed moderately increased (13)N-NH(3) uptake (grade = 4), but slightly less FDG uptake than surrounding area (grade = 2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The recurrent astrocytomas showed increased (13)N-NH(3) uptake, and the radiation necrosis showed absent or less (13)N-NH(3) uptake, and (13)N-NH(3) seem superior to (18)F-FDG for this purpose, suggesting that (13)N-NH(3) is a promising tracer for separating radiation necrosis from astrocytoma recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Diseases / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Nitrogen Radioisotopes

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  • [Cites] Neuroradiology. 2000 Feb;42(2):149-52 [10663496.001]
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  • (PMID = 17120157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrogen Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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14. Julow J, Szeifert GT, Bálint K, Nyáry I, Nemes Z: Tissue response to iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy of cerebral gliomas. Prog Neurol Surg; 2007;20:312-23
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  • [Title] Tissue response to iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy of cerebral gliomas.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate histopathological changes and the role of the microglia/macrophage cell system in the therapeutic effect of iodine-125 (125I) interstitial brachytherapy on cerebral gliomas.
  • Out of a series of 60 cases harboring cerebral astrocytomas and other brain tumors treated with 125I interstitial brachytherapy, autopsy material was available in 10 cases between 0.75 and 60 months after irradiation.

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  • (PMID = 17318000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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15. Julow J, Szeifert GT, Bálint K, Nyáry I, Nemes Z: The role of microglia/macrophage system in the tissue response to I-125 interstitial brachytherapy of cerebral gliomas. Neurol Res; 2007 Apr;29(3):233-8
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  • [Title] The role of microglia/macrophage system in the tissue response to I-125 interstitial brachytherapy of cerebral gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study histopathologic changes and the role of the microglia/macrophage cell in the therapeutic effect of I-125 interstitial brachytherapy on the cerebral gliomas.
  • METHODS: Out of a series of 60 cases with cerebral astrocytomas and other brain tumors treated with I-125 interstitial brachytherapy, autopsy materials were available in ten cases 0.75 and 60 months after irradiation.

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  • (PMID = 17509220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; EC 5.4.2.2 / PGM1 protein, human; EC 5.4.2.2 / Phosphoglucomutase
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16. Rønning C, Sundet K, Due-Tønnessen B, Lundar T, Helseth E: Persistent cognitive dysfunction secondary to cerebellar injury in patients treated for posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Jan-Feb;41(1):15-21
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  • Traditionally, the cerebral hemispheres have been regarded as the region of the brain responsible for cognitive functions, while the cerebellum has been considered to be primarily involved in motor functions.
  • The astrocytoma group (n = 12) had been treated for a low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma with surgery alone (mean age at surgery was 8.6 years and mean age at neuropsychological testing was 23.5 years).
  • Nonetheless, the astrocytoma group also had impaired scores compared with standard norms on measures of motor speed, attention and executive function.
  • No significant correlation between age at time of treatment and grade of neuropsychological impairment was found in the astrocytoma group, though there was a tendency that young age at time of treatment correlated with better outcome on IQ measures.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Persistent cognitive dysfunction was detected in patients treated for posterior fossa medulloblastoma and cerebellar astrocytoma.
  • The astrocytoma group was treated with surgery alone, indicating that a cerebellar lesion can result in cognitive dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebellum / physiopathology. Cerebellum / surgery. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Medulloblastoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15886508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Docking KM, Ward EC, Murdoch BE: Language outcomes subsequent to treatment of brainstem tumour in childhood. NeuroRehabilitation; 2005;20(2):107-24
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  • While the occurrence and management of brainstem tumours in children would not traditionally indicate potential direct structural impact on classical language centres, recent theories have implicated some involvement of the brainstem in a functional language and cognitive neural loop between the cerebellum and the cerebral hemispheres.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / rehabilitation. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / complications. Ependymoma / rehabilitation. Female. Glioma / complications. Glioma / rehabilitation. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male


18. Dunn IF, Agarwalla PK, Papanastassiou AM, Butler WE, Smith ER: Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Oct;23(10):1191-4
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  • [Title] Multiple pilocytic astrocytomas of the cerebellum in a 17-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type I.
  • The most common of these are hypothalamic-optic gliomas, followed by brainstem and cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • While isolated pilocytic astrocytomas in NFI are well described, the appearance of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in an individual patient is less common.
  • The most frequent combination in NFI patients with more than one pilocytic astrocytoma is optic tract/hypothalamic and brainstem.
  • Other combinations are exceedingly rare; multiple pilocytic astrocytomas have only been reported once in the cerebral hemispheres in a patient with NFI.
  • This report presents the first documented case, to our knowledge, of multiple pilocytic astrocytomas in the cerebellum of a patient with NF1.
  • CONCLUSION: The finding of multiple cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas in a patient with NF1 is important because it expands the spectrum of presentations for patients with NF1 and also highlights specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced by the treating physicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebral Angiography. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] No Shinkei Geka. 1992 Jan;20(1):51-6 [1738426.001]
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  • (PMID = 17457593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Jung CS, Foerch C, Schänzer A, Heck A, Plate KH, Seifert V, Steinmetz H, Raabe A, Sitzer M: Serum GFAP is a diagnostic marker for glioblastoma multiforme. Brain; 2007 Dec;130(Pt 12):3336-41
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  • A serum marker for malignant cerebral astrocytomas could improve both differential diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumour patients.
  • To evaluate whether the serum concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) may indicate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in patients with single supratentorial space-occupying lesions, we prospectively examined 50 consecutive patients with histologically proven GBM, World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV, 14 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), 4 patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 13 patients with diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), 17 patients with a single cerebral metastasis and 50 healthy controls.

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  • (PMID = 17998256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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20. Fu YJ, Miyahara H, Uzuka T, Natsumeda M, Okamoto K, Hirose T, Fujii Y, Takahashi H: Intraventricular pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features. Neuropathology; 2010 Aug;30(4):443-8
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  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic tumor that usually occurs in the superficial cerebral hemispheres of children and young adults and has a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20051018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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21. McNatt SA, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Nelson MD, McComb JG: Synchronous multicentric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: case report. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jul;57(1):E191; discussion E191
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare, low-grade astrocytoma of adolescence.
  • The magnetic resonance imaging study revealed numerous nodular, homogeneously enhancing lesions, approximately 1 cm in size, scattered throughout both cerebral hemispheres.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 15987556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Richter S, Schoch B, Kaiser O, Groetschel H, Hein-Kropp C, Maschke M, Dimitrova A, Gizewski E, Ziegler W, Karnath HO, Timmann D: Children and adolescents with chronic cerebellar lesions show no clinically relevant signs of aphasia or neglect. J Neurophysiol; 2005 Dec;94(6):4108-20
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  • We studied language and visuospatial functions of 12 children and adolescents who had undergone surgery for cerebellar astrocytoma without subsequent radiation or chemotherapy and compared them with 27 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects.
  • To study possible lateralization of the functions of the left and right cerebellar hemispheres, subjects performed several language tasks including a verb-generation task as well as standard neglect and extinction tests.
  • Three-dimensional-MR images confirmed that lesions affected cerebellar hemispheres in all children but one who had a pure vermal lesion.
  • The right cerebellar hemisphere was affected in six, the left hemisphere in four children, and both hemispheres in one child.
  • [MeSH-major] Aphasia / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Attention / physiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / physiopathology. Language. Perceptual Disorders / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Brain Mapping. Case-Control Studies. Child. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Female. Humans. Language Tests / statistics & numerical data. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Reaction Time / physiology. Space Perception / physiology. Verbal Behavior / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16033937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurophysiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Preusser M, Haberler C, Hainfellner JA: Malignant glioma: neuropathology and neurobiology. Wien Med Wochenschr; 2006 Jun;156(11-12):332-7
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  • Within this spectrum, glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma share as basic features preferential location in cerebral hemispheres, diffuse infiltration of brain tissue, fast tumor growth with fatal outcome within months or years.


24. Kim MJ, Kim HS, Kim JH, Cho KG, Kim SY: Diagnostic accuracy and interobserver variability of pulsed arterial spin labeling for glioma grading. Acta Radiol; 2008 May;49(4):450-7
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  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with 61 cerebral astrocytomas underwent conventional MR imaging and PASL.
  • There was a statistically significant difference in the rTPS between low- and high-grade astrocytomas (1.14 vs. 1.47, P<0.05).

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  • (PMID = 18415790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Spin Labels
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25. Begnami MD, Rushing EJ, Evangelista R, Santi M, Quezado M: Evaluation of RB gene and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors P21 and P27 in pleomorphic xantoastrocytoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;14(2):113-8
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  • Pleomorphic xantoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare, circumscribed astrocytic tumor that usually occurs in the superficial cerebral hemispheres in children and young adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16703171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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26. Gallagher RM, Pizer B, Ellison JA, Riordan FA: Glycopeptide insensitive Staphylococcus aureus subdural empyema treated with linezolid and rifampicin. J Infect; 2008 Nov;57(5):410-3
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  • A 4-year-old boy had surgical debulking of a cerebral astrocytoma followed by chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 18703232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2742
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetamides; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Oxazolidinones; 61036-62-2 / Teicoplanin; ISQ9I6J12J / Linezolid; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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27. Ris MD, Beebe DW, Armstrong FD, Fontanesi J, Holmes E, Sanford RA, Wisoff JH, Children's Oncology Group: Cognitive and adaptive outcome in extracerebellar low-grade brain tumors in children: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 10;26(29):4765-70
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  • PURPOSE: To determine whether pediatric patients treated with surgery only for low-grade tumors in the cerebral hemispheres, supratentorial midline, and exophytic brainstem evidence neurocognitive, academic, adaptive, or emotional/behavioral sequelae.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-three patients from a natural history study of low-grade astrocytomas were tested an average of 111 days after surgery.
  • Patients with hemispheric, midline, and brainstem tumors did not differ significantly.
  • Moreover, these results suggest greater risk for patients with lesions situated in the left cerebral hemisphere.

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  • (PMID = 18779602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653141
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28. Broniscer A, Chintagumpala M, Fouladi M, Krasin MJ, Kocak M, Bowers DC, Iacono LC, Merchant TE, Stewart CF, Houghton PJ, Kun LE, Ledet D, Gajjar A: Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):313-9
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  • Tumors most commonly involved cerebral hemispheres (n = 13, 42%) and thalamus (n = 14, 45%).
  • The predominant histologic diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (n = 15, 48%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 10, 32%).
  • Two patients had bithalamic grade II astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 16200343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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29. Paixão Becker A, de Oliveira RS, Saggioro FP, Neder L, Chimelli LM, Machado HR: In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jan;26(1):19-28
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  • [Title] In pursuit of prognostic factors in children with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study described a 23-year experience in the treatment of children with pilocytic astrocytomas (piloA) with the aim of identifying putative clinical, histopathological, and/or immunohistochemical features that could be related to the outcome of these patients.
  • The most common site of tumor formation was the cerebellum (17), followed by brainstem (4), optic chiasmatic hypothalamic region (4), cerebral hemisphere (3), cervical spinal cord (2), and optic nerve (1).
  • Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 23 (74.1%), mainly in those with tumors located in the cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres (P = 0.02).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19823847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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30. Grahovac G, Tomac D, Lambasa S, Zoric A, Habek M: Cerebellar glioblastomas: pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):653-7
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  • Glioblastoma multiforme usually affects the cerebral hemispheres with the peak age of onset in the sixth or seventh decade, while cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme is a rare tumour especially in younger patients.
  • Most result from de-differentiation from low grade astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma) or can develop de novo (primary glioblastoma).

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  • (PMID = 19319469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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31. de Ribaupierre S, Ryser C, Villemure JG, Clarke S: Cerebellar lesions: is there a lateralisation effect on memory deficits? Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Jun;150(6):545-50; discussion 550

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In children, transient cerebellar mutism after resection has lead to a diminished use of midline approaches and vermis transection, as well as reduced retraction of the cerebellar hemispheres.
  • [MeSH-major] Amnesia / physiopathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / physiopathology. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Amnesia, Anterograde / diagnosis. Amnesia, Anterograde / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellum / physiopathology. Cerebellum / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / physiopathology. Glioblastoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / physiopathology. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / physiopathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / physiopathology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Memory, Short-Term / physiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / physiopathology. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neuropsychological Tests. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Verbal Learning / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18512000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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32. Hamlat A, Le Strat A, Guegan Y, Ben-Hassel M, Saikali S: Cerebellar pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: case report and literature review. Surg Neurol; 2007 Jul;68(1):89-94; discussion 94-5
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  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinicopathologic features of cerebellar PXA show some differences from PXA located in the cerebral hemispheres.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17537486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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