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1. Braeuninger S, Schneider-Stock R, Kirches E, Powers JM, Korones DN, Mawrin C: Evaluation of molecular genetic alterations associated with tumor progression in a case of gliomatosis cerebri. J Neurooncol; 2007 Mar;82(1):23-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of molecular genetic alterations associated with tumor progression in a case of gliomatosis cerebri.
  • Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare tumor characterized by widespread infiltration of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Although GC usually demonstrates histomorphological features of a low-grade tumor, the formation of secondary highly malignant tumor regions may occur.
  • In order to reveal molecular genetic changes associated with tumor progression in GC, we analyzed factors known to be associated with malignant progression in common astocytomas in an unusual GC case of an 18-year-old patient suffering from this disease for almost 7 years.
  • We detected allelic losses in the Rb gene and in exon 4 of the TP53 gene in a tumor region corresponding to a glioblastoma multiforme.
  • Moreover, compared to tumor-free brain tissue of this patient, tumor regions showed increased EGFR expression.
  • These data support the notion that GC can be regarded as a subtype of a common astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / genetics. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism


2. Distelmaier F, Janssen G, Mayatepek E, Schaper J, Göbel U, Rosenbaum T: Disseminated pilocytic astrocytoma involving brain stem and diencephalon: a history of atypical eating disorder and diagnostic delay. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(2):197-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Disseminated pilocytic astrocytoma involving brain stem and diencephalon: a history of atypical eating disorder and diagnostic delay.
  • In this report we present an unusual case of severe emaciation in a 4(9)/(12)-year-old girl with a juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma of the hypothalamic region and brain stem with neuroaxis dissemination.
  • This case illustrates the importance of considering intracranial mass-lesions in the differential diagnosis of weight loss, psychological disturbance and atypical eating disorder.
  • We discuss the importance of tumor multifocality and the role of patient age in the clinical presentation with reference to the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Emaciation / etiology. Feeding and Eating Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Stem / pathology. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Feeding and Eating Disorders of Childhood / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome


3. Kim B, Chung CK, Myung JK, Park SH: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma associated with long-standing Taylor-type IIB-focal cortical dysplasia in an adult. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):113-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Brain tumor in combination with cortical dysplasia is one of the causes of epilepsy, but coexistence of these two entities is a rare event.
  • Later, he was admitted as an emergency case because of severe headache, and the tumor was removed.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as PXA with anaplastic feature (mitotic count: 5/10HPF), and the brain around the tumor showed dysmorphic neurons and balloon cells.
  • Therefore, the tumor was assumed to be associated with the brain, with Taylor-type-IIB focal cortical dysplasia.
  • The patient's condition deteriorated, with tumor recurrence and widespread leptomeningeal seeding to the whole spinal cord.
  • He died 17 months after tumor removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / complications. Malformations of Cortical Development / complications

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  • (PMID = 18657915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Mawrin C, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Mawrin A, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Mawrin A, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Mawrin A, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Deimling A, Stoltenburg-Didinge G, Bornemann A, Romeike B, Sellhaus B, Dietzmann K: Alterations of cell cycle regulators in gliomatosis cerebri. J Neurooncol; 2005 Apr;72(2):115-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, because GC characteristically affects large parts of the brain and spinal cord, the distribution of genetic alterations may be highly variable between different tumor areas.
  • Additionally, tumor areas with varying degrees of differentiation may be present, raising the possibility to model the genetic events associated with astrocytoma progression.
  • Here we analyzed various tumor regions with features of low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas from 9 autopsy-proven GC cases for the immunoexpression of the cell cycle-controlling proteins mdm2, p21, p27/kip1, p16, and Rb.
  • We detected tumor regions with immunoexpression of p21 only rarely in our series, without association to the tumor grade.
  • The expression of p27(kip1) showed a clear reduction with increasing astrocytoma malignancy in 7 cases.
  • Allelic loss of the CDKN2A gene occurred in 5 patients but was not related to the tumor grading, nor to the intensity of p16 immunoexpression.
  • EGFR amplification was also absent in our series, but one case demonstrated EGFR expression only in the high-grade tumor area.
  • However, marked differences in the immunoexpression, as well as in the distribution of genetic aberrations were seen between different tumor samples within a given case.
  • The distribution of the alterations suggests that these molecular genetic changes represent secondary events, which may develop within tumor clones derived from a common founder tumor clone characterized by extraordinary spreading through the brain.
  • Moreover, the detected aberrations in gliomatosis cerebri can reflect the tumor progression associated with secondary malignant astrocytoma formation even within a single case.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / genetics. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology


5. Bapuraj JR, Parmar HA, Blaivas M, Muraszko KM: Imaging features of clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord. Pediatr Radiol; 2007 Apr;37(4):384-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging features of clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord.
  • MRI demonstrated a large, intramedullary tumor at the level of the conus.
  • The imaging findings were unlike those of a classic ependymoma or astrocytoma.
  • We found three cases of clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord reported in the literature.
  • Clear-cell ependymoma of the spinal cord can be resected completely and needs to be recognized for its imaging features, benign course and favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Contrast Media. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Canal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17279401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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6. Marrufo M, Politsky J, Mehta S, Morgan JC, Sethi KD: Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Segmental Myoclonus due to a spinal cord glioma. Mov Disord; 2007 Sep 15;22(12):1801-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Segmental Myoclonus due to a spinal cord glioma.
  • He was subsequently diagnosed with a cervical cord anaplastic astrocytoma on MRI.
  • We could not identify previous reports of paroxysmal myoclonus secondary to a spinal cord neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / complications. Myoclonus / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.
  • (PMID = 17595044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3185
  • [Journal-full-title] Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mov. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Brotchi J, Bruneau M, Lefranc F, Balériaux D: Surgery of intraspinal cord tumors. Clin Neurosurg; 2006;53:209-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery of intraspinal cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17380754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0069-4827
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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8. Debono B, Derrey S, Rabehenoina C, Proust F, Freger P, Laquerrière A: Primary diffuse multinodular leptomeningeal gliomatosis: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2006 Mar;65(3):273-82; discussion 282
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a multinodular enhancement of spinal nerve roots.
  • Histological examination revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • RESULTS: Complete neuraxis postmortem examination revealed no intraparenchymatous glioma and was conclusive for the diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal gliomatosis (astrocytic, World Health Organization grade III), with a multinodular pattern in the spinal cord, the brainstem, and the brain base with diffuse extension into the cerebellar subarachnoid spaces.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / surgery. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Nerve Roots / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16488248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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9. Do-Dai DD, Brooks MK, Goldkamp A, Erbay S, Bhadelia RA: Magnetic resonance imaging of intramedullary spinal cord lesions: a pictorial review. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2010 Jul-Aug;39(4):160-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of intramedullary spinal cord lesions: a pictorial review.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is the current imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms in the search for spinal cord lesions.
  • It is important for the radiologist to recognize and differentiate nonneoplastic from the neoplastic process of the spinal cord as the differentiation of the 2 entities is extremely crucial to the neurosurgeon.
  • This article presents a broad spectrum of benign intramedullary spinal abnormalities including syrinx, contusion, abscess, infarction, myelitis, multiple sclerosis, sarcoid, cavernoma, and arteriovenous malformation.
  • Rare intramedullary neoplasms including dermoid tumor, astrocytoma, ependymoma, hemangioblastoma, lymphoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and metastases are also illustrated.
  • The potential pitfalls in the differentiation of tumors from nonneoplastic disease of the spinal cord are also elucidated.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spinal Cord Injuries / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20510754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6302
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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10. Crabtree KL, Arnold PM: Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult, initially diagnosed 18 years previously. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(1):66-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult, initially diagnosed 18 years previously.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a slow-growing, well-circumscribed grade I glioma generally considered benign, with a low recurrence rate and an excellent prognosis following complete surgical resection.
  • Fifteen months after spinal PA resection, the patient is doing well, has regained the ability to stand independently, and has no evidence of any new or enlarging lesions.
  • To our knowledge, this is the longest time reported from initial tumor resection of leptomeningeal dissemination to the distal spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20516744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Sqalli Houssaini A, Ouazzani A, El Abdi B, Benchaaboune H, El Hassani M, Chakir N, Belfquih H, Arkha Y, Derraz S, El Ouahabi A, El Khamlichi A, Jiddane M: Magnetic resonance imaging for spinal cord tumors. A report of twenty cases. Neuroradiol J; 2010 Sep;23(4):484-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging for spinal cord tumors. A report of twenty cases.
  • This paper discusses spinal cord tumors including imaging characteristics with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging and advances in treatment.
  • This is a retrospective study of 20 cases patients with neoplasms arising from the spinal cord.
  • Astrocytoma was noted in five cases.
  • In MRI most tumors are isointense or slightly hypointense compared to the normal cord signal with homogenous or irregular enhancement.
  • We describe the characteristic magnetic resonance findings and differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors.
  • Spinal cord lesions comprise approximately 2-4% of all central nervous system neoplasms.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal cord neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 24148644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Abel TJ, Chowdhary A, Jallo G, Wang PP, Burger P, Avellino AM: Thoracic spinal cord compression by intramedullary hamartomatous tissue in a young boy: case report. Neurosurgery; 2008 Jun;62(6):E1380-1; discussion E1381
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracic spinal cord compression by intramedullary hamartomatous tissue in a young boy: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord hamartomas are a rare occurrence characterized by well- differentiated mature elements located in an irregular position in the spinal cord.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The authors present the unique case of a 12-year-old boy who originally presented to our center for treatment of a right thalamic astrocytoma.
  • Spinal magnetic resonance imaging performed at this time revealed an intramedullary spinal cord lesion from T4 to T8, which was later found to be composed of hamartomatous tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Although typically described in the literature as spinal cord hamartomas because of their histological composition, these rare hamartomatous lesions may be the result of a neurulation defect rather than true hamartomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18824961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Zorlu F, Selek U, Akyuz C, Ozturk A, Soylemezoglu F, Akalan N: Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma following multiple subtotal resections. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Sep-Oct;41(5):248-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal seeding of a pilocytic astrocytoma following multiple subtotal resections.
  • We report the case of a 4-year-old girl presenting with spinal and leptomeningeal dissemination following several subtotal resections of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16195677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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14. Nakamura M, Ishii K, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Takaishi H, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y, Chiba K: Surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: prognosis and complications. Spinal Cord; 2008 Apr;46(4):282-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: prognosis and complications.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate our recent treatment strategy for intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 68 cases of intramedullary tumors (ependymoma, 33; astrocytoma, 23; hemangioblastoma, 12), treated surgically between 1994 and 2003.
  • The tumor malignancy grade according to the WHO classification was astrocytoma grade I, 3; grade II, 8 (low-grade: 11 cases); grade III, 10; grade IV, 2 (high-grade: 12 cases).
  • Cordotomy should be considered in patients with a thoracic high-grade astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of good surgical outcome for intramedullary spinal cord tumors were histological grades of the tumors, surgical margins, and neurological status of the patient before surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17909556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Lum DJ, Halliday W, Watson M, Smith A, Law A: Cortical ependymoma or monomorphous angiocentric glioma? Neuropathology; 2008 Feb;28(1):81-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ependymoma is the third most common childhood intracranial tumor after medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Most ependymomas occur in the posterior fossa and spinal cord but only five cases confined to the cerebral cortex have been reported.
  • The current case is a 5-year-old boy with a somewhat ill-defined cortical tumor diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma on biopsy, and treated with radiotherapy.
  • Nine years later, resection of the essentially unaltered tumor was performed for treatment of intractable seizures.
  • Histologically, the tumor had some areas with the typical appearance of ependymoma as well other areas which contained piloid cells.
  • These findings bore resemblance to a recently described entity monomorphous angiocentric glioma/angiocentric neuroepithelial tumor, which combines features of ependymoma with pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Both cortical ependymomas and angiocentric monomorphous glioma/angiocentric neuroepithelial tumor appear to be low-grade tumors although their rarity makes accurate prognosis problematic.


16. Raco A, Esposito V, Lenzi J, Piccirilli M, Delfini R, Cantore G: Long-term follow-up of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: a series of 202 cases. Neurosurgery; 2005 May;56(5):972-81; discussion 972-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: a series of 202 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review a series of patients who underwent surgical removal of intramedullary spinal cord tumors, focusing on the long-term functional outcome, recurrence rates for the various tumors, and technical problems continually debated in neurosurgical practice.
  • Lesions were located in the cervical spinal cord in 61 patients (30%), at a dorsal site in 60 (29%), at a cervicodorsal site in 51 (25%), and in the medullary cone in 30 (15%).
  • The most frequent histological tumor types were astrocytomas (86 patients, 42%) and ependymomas (68 patients, 34%).
  • CONCLUSION: Determinant predictors of a good outcome after surgery for intramedullary spinal cord tumors are histological type of lesion, complete removal of the lesion, and a satisfactory neurological status before surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15854245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Paganetti H, Jiang H, Parodi K, Slopsema R, Engelsman M: Clinical implementation of full Monte Carlo dose calculation in proton beam therapy. Phys Med Biol; 2008 Sep 7;53(17):4825-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Chordoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Magnetics. Models, Statistical. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Phantoms, Imaging. Radiometry / methods. Radiotherapy Dosage. Sphenoid Sinus. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18701772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-9155
  • [Journal-full-title] Physics in medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P01 CA21239-25
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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18. Suadicani SO, Brosnan CF, Scemes E: P2X7 receptors mediate ATP release and amplification of astrocytic intercellular Ca2+ signaling. J Neurosci; 2006 Feb 1;26(5):1378-85
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  • [Title] P2X7 receptors mediate ATP release and amplification of astrocytic intercellular Ca2+ signaling.
  • Through the use of genetically modified 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells and of spinal cord astrocytes derived from neonatal Cx43- and P2X7R-null mice, we provide strong evidence that P2X7Rs, but not Cx43 hemichannels, are sites of ATP release that promote the amplification of Ca2+ signal transmission within the astrocytic network after exposure to low divalent cation solution.

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  • (PMID = 16452661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS041023-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-41023; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS041023; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS041023-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS040137; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-40137
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexin 43; 0 / P2RX7 protein, human; 0 / P2rx7 protein, mouse; 0 / Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2X7; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS79209; NLM/ PMC2586295
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19. Glotsos D, Georgiadis P, Kostopoulos S, Daskalakis A, Kalatzis I, Ravazoula P, Cavouras D: A pilot study investigating the minimum requirements necessary for grading astrocytomas remotely. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2009 Oct;31(5):262-8
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  • Next, the grade of each tumor was assessed based on the set of 5 images and the World Health Organization (WHO) description of 8 histologic characteristics defined as crucial in grading astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 20701092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Yang S, Yang X, Hong G: Surgical treatment of one hundred seventy-four intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Nov 15;34(24):2705-10
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of one hundred seventy-four intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of microsurgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) was conducted.
  • The optimum treatment of those tumors is controversial, with the recent advance, the operation of IMSCTs has became safer and total resection of most those tumor is possible.
  • METHODS: Data from 174 IMSCTs operated on in the last 20 years are analyzed retrospectively by the tumors' anatomic locations, histologic types, symptoms and signs, tumor removal rate, and operative outcomes.
  • RESULTS: In this group ependymoma was the commonest tumor (48.9%), the second most often seen being astrocytoma (35.6%).
  • Total resection of the tumor was possible in 60.9% of patients, subtotal resection in 17.2%, and partial resection in 13.8%.
  • In low grade astrocytoma total resection was possible in 41.1%, subtotal in 35.1%, and partial resection in 23.2%.
  • On long-term follow-up there was improvement in 70.2%, no change in 19.5%, deterioration in 4%, tumor recurrence in 6.9%, with 6.3% of patients dying.
  • CONCLUSION: Most intramedullary spinal cord tumors need operative treatment as early as possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19910775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Salmaggi A, Fariselli L, Milanesi I, Lamperti E, Silvani A, Bizzi A, Maccagnano E, Trevisan E, Laguzzi E, Rudà R, Boiardi A, Soffietti R, Associazione Italiana di Neuro-oncologia: Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study. J Neurol; 2008 Feb;255(2):171-7
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  • In 21 of the patients histology was obtained and in 20 it was informative (2 pilocytic astrocytoma, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 8 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 glioblastoma).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Italy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18293027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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22. MacDonald TJ, Arenson EB, Ater J, Sposto R, Bevan HE, Bruner J, Deutsch M, Kurczynski E, Luerssen T, McGuire-Cullen P, O'Brien R, Shah N, Steinbok P, Strain J, Thomson J, Holmes E, Vezina G, Yates A, Phillips P, Packer R: Phase II study of high-dose chemotherapy before radiation in children with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytoma: final analysis of Children's Cancer Group Study 9933. Cancer; 2005 Dec 15;104(12):2862-71
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  • [Title] Phase II study of high-dose chemotherapy before radiation in children with newly diagnosed high-grade astrocytoma: final analysis of Children's Cancer Group Study 9933.
  • The authors conclude that these commonly used HDCT regimens provide no additional clinical benefit to conventional treatment in HGA, regardless of the amount of measurable residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16315242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Han IH, Kuh SU, Chin DK, Kim KS, Jin BH, Cho YE: Surgical treatment of primary spinal tumors in the conus medullaris. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2008 Aug;44(2):72-7
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of primary spinal tumors in the conus medullaris.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients who underwent surgery for conus medullaris tumor from August 1986 to July 2007.
  • RESULTS: There were ependymoma (13), hemangioblastoma (3), lipoma (3), astrocytoma (3), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) (2), mature teratoma (1), and capillary hemangioma (1) on histopathologic type.
  • Gross total or complete tumor resection was obtained in 80.8% of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The surgical outcome of conus medullaris tumor mainly depends on preoperative neurological condition and pathological type.
  • The surgical treatment of conus medullaris tumor needs understanding the anatomical and functional characteristics of conus meudllaris tumor for better outcome.

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  • (PMID = 19096696.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2588334
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Conus medullaris / Primary tumor
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24. Matyja E, Grajkowska W, Taraszewska A, Marchel A, Bojarski P, Nauman P: Advanced reactive astrogliosis associated with hemangioblastoma versus astroglial-vascular neoplasm ("angioglioma"). Folia Neuropathol; 2007;45(3):120-5
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  • The small tissue samples composed of compact gliotic tissue are sometimes nonrepresentative for primary hemangioblastoma tumour and might be confused with both pilocytic and diffuse infiltrative astrocytoma.
  • In some cases the histopathological features of pilocytic gliosis with numerous Rosenthal fibres and eosinophilic granular bodies strongly suggest the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • One tumour was identified as an angioglioma exhibiting a combination of hemangioblastoma-like tissue and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • The recognition of such an entity is important in differential tumour diagnosis and prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 17849362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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25. Yanni DS, Ulkatan S, Deletis V, Barrenechea IJ, Sen C, Perin NI: Utility of neurophysiological monitoring using dorsal column mapping in intramedullary spinal cord surgery. J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Jun;12(6):623-8
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  • [Title] Utility of neurophysiological monitoring using dorsal column mapping in intramedullary spinal cord surgery.
  • OBJECT: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors can displace the surrounding neural tissue, causing enlargement and distortion of the normal cord anatomy.
  • Standard anatomical landmarks may be misleading in patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors due to cord rotation, edema, neovascularization, or local scar formation.
  • METHODS: A group of 10 patients with cervical and thoracic intramedullary spinal cord lesions underwent dorsal column mapping in which a strip electrode was used to define the midline.
  • After the laminectomy and durotomy, a custom-designed multielectrode grid was placed on the exposed dorsal surface of the spinal cord.
  • This strip electrode maps the amplitude gradient of conducted spinal somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by bilateral tibial nerve stimulation.
  • There were 4 ependymomas, 1 subependymoma, 1 gangliocytoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 cavernous malformation, and 2 symptomatic syringes requiring shunting.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Dorsal column mapping is a useful technique for guiding the surgeon in locating the midline for myelotomy in intramedullary spinal cord surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory / physiology. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20515347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Jang SY, Kong MH, Song KY, Frazee JG: Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Jun;45(6):381-5
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  • [Title] Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult.
  • The first case of intracranial metastases of a cervical intramedullary low-grade astrocytoma without malignant transformation in adult is presented in this report.
  • Seven years ago, a 45 year-old male patient underwent biopsy to confirm pathologic characteristics and received craniocervical radiation and chemotherapy for a grade II astrocytoma in the cervical spinal cord.
  • The tumor at the cervical and brain lesions was classified as an astrocytoma (WHO grade II).
  • When a patient with low-grade astrocytoma in the spinal cord has new cranial symptoms after surgery, radiaton, and chemotherapy, the possibility of its metastasis should be suspected because it can spread to the intracranial cavity even without malignant transformation as shown in this case.

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  • (PMID = 19609424.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2711238
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Astrocytoma / Cranial metastases / Intramedullary / Spinal cord tumor
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27. Lehman NL: Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Sep;67(9):900-10
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  • Most occur in the posterior fossa or spinal cord.
  • They also form other glioma secondary structures including perineuronal tumor cell satellitosis and subpial tumor cell mounds.
  • Because ependymal tumors generally have a significantly better prognosis than other infiltrating gliomas, recognition of their capacity to infiltrate adjacent cortex and white matter is important to prevent the misdiagnosis of oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, or infiltrating glioma, not otherwise specified.

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  • (PMID = 18716554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS45077
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131630; NLM/ PMC2805172
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28. Nakamura M, Chiba K, Ishii K, Ogawa Y, Takaishi H, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y: Surgical outcomes of spinal cord astrocytomas. Spinal Cord; 2006 Dec;44(12):740-5
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  • [Title] Surgical outcomes of spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze prognostic factors for patients with spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • Impacts of the tumor histological grade, the level of the tumor, the types of surgical interventions, and the use of adjuvant radiotherapies on the survival and functional outcomes of 30 patients (18 in low-grade and 12 high-grade malignancy tumors) were analyzed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor grade and the extent of tumor resection were significant prognostic factors for survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16670687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Harrop JS, Ganju A, Groff M, Bilsky M: Primary intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Oct 15;34(22 Suppl):S69-77
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  • [Title] Primary intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord.
  • OBJECTIVE: To define optimal clinical care for primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors using a systematic review with expert opinion.
  • METHODS: Focused questions on the treatment of primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors were refined by a panel of spine oncology surgeons, medical and radiation oncologist.
  • The subsequent search resulted in a return of: "spinal cord tumor" (5053), "ependymoma" (580), "astrocytoma" (420), and "glioma" (235) articles.
  • Seventeen articles referenced timing of surgical intervention and symptomatology for intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
  • One hundred fifty-eight chemotherapy and 183 radiation therapy articles for intramedullary spinal cord tumors were reviewed.
  • However, this must be taken in the context of the underlying tumor histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / radiotherapy. Glioma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19829279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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30. Fleischman A, Brue C, Poussaint TY, Kieran M, Pomeroy SL, Goumnerova L, Scott RM, Cohen LE: Diencephalic syndrome: a cause of failure to thrive and a model of partial growth hormone resistance. Pediatrics; 2005 Jun;115(6):e742-8
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  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Diencephalon / pathology. Emaciation / etiology. Failure to Thrive / etiology. Human Growth Hormone / physiology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Celiac Disease / diagnosis. Child, Preschool. Diagnostic Errors. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperkinesis / etiology. Infant. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Models, Biological. Nystagmus, Pathologic / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary. Syndrome. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15930202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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31. Shrivastava RK, Epstein FJ, Perin NI, Post KD, Jallo GI: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors in patients older than 50 years of age: management and outcome analysis. J Neurosurg Spine; 2005 Mar;2(3):249-55
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  • [Title] Intramedullary spinal cord tumors in patients older than 50 years of age: management and outcome analysis.
  • OBJECT: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) in the older-age adult population pose complex management issues regarding the extent of resection and functional outcome, especially in terms of quality of life.
  • Ependymoma was the most common tumor (83%), and 55% were located in the thoracic spine.
  • There were two deaths due tumor progression (both malignant tumors) and one recurrence (anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • The authors recommend motor evoked potential-guided aggressive microsurgical resection, because the long-term outcome of benign lesions is excellent (good functional recovery and no tumor recurrence).
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Astrocytoma / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15796348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Makridou A, Argyriou AA, Karanasios P, Makris N: Bilateral drop foot secondary to a primary tumor in the conus medullaris. Muscle Nerve; 2008 Jun;37(6):778-80
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  • [Title] Bilateral drop foot secondary to a primary tumor in the conus medullaris.
  • Intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord are rare neoplasms that can be associated with severe neurological and functional handicaps.
  • To our knowledge, we describe for the first time the case of a male patient who developed bilateral drop foot as an initial manifestation of a primary tumor in the conus medullaris of the spinal cord, probably an astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Foot. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Atrophy. Electrodiagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neural Conduction / physiology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18506709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-639X
  • [Journal-full-title] Muscle & nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Muscle Nerve
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Scheinemann K, Bartels U, Huang A, Hawkins C, Kulkarni AV, Bouffet E, Tabori U: Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Sep;4(3):254-61
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  • [Title] Survival and functional outcome of childhood spinal cord low-grade gliomas. Clinical article.
  • OBJECT: Intramedullary spinal cord low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are rare CNS neoplasms in pediatric patients, and there is little information on therapy for and outcome of these tumors in this population.
  • To clarify these issues, the authors performed a regional population-based study of spinal cord LGGs in pediatric patients.
  • RESULTS: Spinal cord LGGs in pediatric patients constituted 29 (4.6%) of 635 LGGs.
  • Epidemiological and clinical data in this cohort were different than in patients with other spinal tumors and strikingly similar to data from pediatric patients with intracranial LGGs.
  • Histological testing revealed a Grade I astrocytoma in 86% of tumors.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy showed similar efficacy, achieving sustained tumor control in most patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study provides basic data on the incidence, clinical course, and outcome of spinal cord LGGs in pediatric patients.
  • The similarities between spinal and intracranial LGGs in pediatric patients showing excellent survival but high morbidity suggest that a less aggressive approach may be the preferable treatment option for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / mortality. Glioma / therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19772410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Aloisio F, Levine JM, Edwards JF: Immunohistochemical features of a feline spinal cord gemistocytic astrocytoma. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2008 Nov;20(6):836-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical features of a feline spinal cord gemistocytic astrocytoma.
  • A gemistocytic astrocytoma is described in the spinal cord of a 3-year-old, spayed, female, Domestic Shorthair cat.
  • Only 1 p53-positive cell was found in the normal spinal cord.
  • The increased expression of p53 in the neoplasm was suggestive of an abnormal biological behavior of the p53 protein and its possible involvement in the neoplastic process of feline astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytes / pathology. Cats. Euthanasia. Female. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18987242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Loh JK, Lin CK, Hwang YF, Hwang SL, Kwan AL, Howng SL: Primary spinal tumors in children. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Apr;12(3):246-8
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  • [Title] Primary spinal tumors in children.
  • Nine patients, 16 years of age or younger with primary spinal cord tumors, diagnosed between 1991 and 2003 at The Kaohsiung University Hospital, were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Two tumors were located primarily in the cervical cord (1 meningioma, 1 neurofibroma), five were predominantly thoracic (1 lymphoma, 1 meningioma, 1 astrocytoma, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 osteoblastoma), one lumbar (ependymoma), and one sacral (Ewing's sarcoma).
  • Radical surgery should be considered in benign primary spinal cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15851074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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36. Saad A, Tuli S, Ali EN, Houtchens M, Delalle I, Kesari S: Pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord in an adult. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jun;88(2):189-91
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord in an adult.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Spinal Cord Neoplasms

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  • [Cites] Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2006 Jan;17(1):29-36 [16448905.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatr Radiol. 2006 Dec;36(12):1312-5 [17021719.001]
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  • (PMID = 18340405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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37. Nakajima T, Kumabe T, Shamoto H, Watanabe M, Suzuki H, Tominaga T: Malignant transformation of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Jan;148(1):67-71; discussion 71
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  • A 31-year-old woman presented with a pleomorphic xantho-astrocytoma (PXA) manifesting as epilepsy.
  • The tumour was partially resected.
  • Follow-up neuro-imaging showed the residual tumour had grown rapidly with dissemination in the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006 Jan;148(1):98 [16369863.001]
  • (PMID = 15912255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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38. Tseng HM, Kuo LT, Lien HC, Liu KL, Liu MT, Huang CY: Prolonged survival of a patient with cervical intramedullary glioblastoma multiforme treated with total resection, radiation therapy, and temozolomide. Anticancer Drugs; 2010 Nov;21(10):963-7
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  • MRI showed an intramedullary mass lesion in the C2-C6 level, which was considered to be an ependymoma or astrocytoma.
  • Total resection of the tumor was performed at the C2-C6 level by laminoplasty with miniplate, followed by chemoradiotherapy (focal irradiation dose of 5000, at 200 cGy per fraction for over a period of 5 weeks) with concomitant temozolomide (75 mg/m2).
  • Histologic examination of the resected tumor confirmed GBM.
  • The tumor consisted of a markedly pleomorphic neoplasm measuring 4.6 cm×2.6 cm×1.7 cm and characterized by necrosis, atypical mitotic figures, and endothelial proliferation.
  • Recurrence in the cervical spine without brain GBM metastasis was identified 25 months after operation, and temozolomide chemotherapy was reinitiated; however, the tumor progressed, and the patient died 33 months after operation.
  • We suggest that, in addition to potential factors of tumor biology, multimodal treatment consisting of total resection of intramedullary GBM coupled with radiation therapy and temozolomide may have prolonged the survival of this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioblastoma. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms


39. Chelcun JL, Pope RS: Spinal cord astrocytomas: rare but life-threatening tumors in children. JAAPA; 2009 Jun;22(6):37-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord astrocytomas: rare but life-threatening tumors in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19601448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-1896
  • [Journal-full-title] JAAPA : official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAAPA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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40. Marchan EM, Sekula RF Jr, Jannetta PJ, Quigley MR: Long-term survival enhanced by cordectomy in a patient with a spinal glioblastoma multiforme and paraplegia. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2007 Dec;7(6):656-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival enhanced by cordectomy in a patient with a spinal glioblastoma multiforme and paraplegia. Case report.
  • Spinal glioblastomas multiforme (GBMs) are rare lesions of the central nervous system with a prognosis as poor as that of their intracranial counterpart.
  • The authors present a case of a 50-year-old man with a GBM of the spinal cord treated with surgical removal of the mass and cordectomy after the onset of paraplegia.
  • Although intracranial dissemination of spinal GBMs has been reported, this case illustrates the longest reported interval between the occurrence of a spinal GBM and its intracranial dissemination.
  • Thus, cordectomy should be considered as a reasonable alternative in patients with complete loss of neurological function at and below the level where they harbor a malignant spinal cord astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioblastoma / complications. Glioblastoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paraplegia / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / drug therapy. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Polyethylene Glycols. Recombinant Proteins. Spinal Cord / surgery. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18074692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2b; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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41. Maria BL, Gupta N, Gilg AG, Abdel-Wahab M, Leonard AP, Slomiany M, Wheeler WG, Tolliver LB, Babcock MA, Lucas JT Jr, Toole BP: Targeting hyaluronan interactions in spinal cord astrocytomas and diffuse pontine gliomas. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1214-20
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  • [Title] Targeting hyaluronan interactions in spinal cord astrocytomas and diffuse pontine gliomas.
  • Although significant advances have been made in treating malignant pediatric central nervous system tumors such as medulloblastoma, no effective therapy exists for diffuse pontine glioma or intramedullary spinal astrocytoma.
  • Biology of these 2 tumors is poorly understood, in part because diffuse pontine gliomas are not treated surgically, and tumor specimens from intramedullary spinal astrocytomas are rare and minuscule.
  • We review the clinical course of pediatric intramedullary spinal astrocytoma and diffuse pontine glioma, and show expression of membrane proteins that interact with hyaluronan: CD44, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Stem Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Hyaluronic Acid / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18952588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA073839; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06RR015455; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082867; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073839; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR015455; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082867
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Hyaluronan Receptors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 136894-56-9 / Basigin; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS463105; NLM/ PMC3641563
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42. Sandalcioglu IE, Gasser T, Asgari S, Lazorisak A, Engelhorn T, Egelhof T, Stolke D, Wiedemayer H: Functional outcome after surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: experience with 78 patients. Spinal Cord; 2005 Jan;43(1):34-41
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  • [Title] Functional outcome after surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: experience with 78 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors with impact on the functional outcome for patients with surgically treated intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) and to point out characteristics of the different histological entities.
  • Functional outcome was analyzed depending on histological features, age, tumor localization and the extension of involved spinal segments.
  • Complete tumor removal was achieved in 65 cases (83.3%) and subtotal resection in nine cases.
  • Although there was no outcome difference with respect to the age and tumor extension, thoracically located IMSCTs proved to harbor an increased risk of postoperative surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Dermoid Cyst / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Germany. Humans. Infant. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15326473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Cathebras P, Koenig M: Spinal cord astrocytoma mistaken for conversion disorder. Psychosomatics; 2005 Mar-Apr;46(2):187-8
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  • [Title] Spinal cord astrocytoma mistaken for conversion disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Conversion Disorder / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15774957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychosomatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychosomatics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Gepp Rde A, Couto JM, Silva MD, Silva RT, Neri EA: Intramedullary tumors in children: analysis of 24 operated cases. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2010 Jun;68(3):396-9
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  • METHOD: Medical records of patients with intramedullary astrocytoma and ependymoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Most patients had astrocytoma (75%).
  • The most common type of tumor was graded as I or II, and in three cases these were malignant.
  • The total resection of the tumor was achieved in 20.8% of the cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20602043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4227
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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45. Curinga GM, Snow DM, Mashburn C, Kohler K, Thobaben R, Caggiano AO, Smith GM: Mammalian-produced chondroitinase AC mitigates axon inhibition by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. J Neurochem; 2007 Jul;102(1):275-88
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  • Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are up-regulated following spinal cord injury and are partly responsible for failed regeneration.
  • U373 human astrocytoma cells were transduced with adenovirus and subsequently induced with doxycycline to secrete enzymatically active chondroitinase as detected by western blot and kinetic analyses.

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  • (PMID = 17394547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053470; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS38126
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteoglycans; 9007-28-7 / Chondroitin Sulfates; EC 4.2.2.- / Chondroitin Lyases; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
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46. Mueller-Mang C: [Imaging of demyelinating and neoplastic diseases of the spinal cord]. Radiologe; 2010 Dec;50(12):1073-83
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  • [Title] [Imaging of demyelinating and neoplastic diseases of the spinal cord].
  • Demyelinating as well as neoplastic spinal cord diseases can cause paresthesia, progressive sensomotoric deficits and bowel and bladder dysfunction.
  • Although intramedullary neoplasms are far less common than demyelinating spinal cord diseases, radiologists should be familiar with the three most common entities, astrocytoma, ependymoma and hemangioblastoma, which represent over 70% of all spinal cord neoplasms.
  • An early diagnosis and therapy is essential with neoplastic and demyelinating spinal cord diseases to hold residual neurological deficits as low as possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Demyelinating Diseases / diagnosis. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord Diseases / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis. Myelitis, Transverse / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20967416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2102
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Porter A, Lyons MK, Wingerchuk DM, Bosch EP: Spinal cord astrocytoma presenting as "idiopathic" intracranial hypertension. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;108(8):787-9
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  • [Title] Spinal cord astrocytoma presenting as "idiopathic" intracranial hypertension.
  • Increased intracranial pressure is rarely seen in association with spinal tumors.
  • The spinal MRI showed a low cervical-upper thoracic intramedullary tumor.
  • Open biopsy confirmed a grade 3 fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • The suspected mechanisms of spinal tumors causing increased intracranial pressure are reviewed as well as three other cases of spinal astrocytomas previously reported in the literature that presented with papilledema and increased intracranial pressure without hydrocephalus.
  • This case illustrates that increased intracranial pressure may in exceptional cases of spinal tumors precede the more typical myelopathic presentation by months and mimic idiopathic intracranial hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Pseudotumor Cerebri / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurologic Examination. Papilledema / etiology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16298472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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48. Milano MT, Johnson MD, Sul J, Mohile NA, Korones DN, Okunieff P, Walter KA: Primary spinal cord glioma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database study. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;98(1):83-92
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  • [Title] Primary spinal cord glioma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database study.
  • To characterize the overall survival (OS) and cause specific survival (CSS), and variables affecting outcome, in patients with primary spinal cord astrocytoma (SCA) and ependymoma (SCE).
  • Smaller tumor size also improved survival.
  • Smaller tumor size did not confer a survival benefit.
  • Patients with resected grade 2 spinal cord glioma who did not receive radiotherapy fared well with respect to OS and CSS.
  • For patients with spinal cord glioma, the variables of histology, grade, age and undergoing resection are significant predictors of outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / classification. Glioma / epidemiology. SEER Program. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / classification. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19898743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. O'Brien M, Curtis C, D'Hemecourt P, Proctor M: Case report: a case of persistent back pain and constipation in a 5-year-old boy. Phys Sportsmed; 2009 Apr;37(1):133-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are rare and account for 3% to 6% of all central nervous system tumors.
  • We report a case of an intramedullary spinal cord astrocytoma in a 5-year-old boy with nonspecific mid-back pain for 3 months.
  • An urgent magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary tumor in the mid-thoracic cord, confirmed by surgical excision.
  • Associated findings, including nocturnal pain and neurological symptoms may indicate a more serious underlying pathology such as a tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Back Pain / etiology. Constipation / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20048499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-3847
  • [Journal-full-title] The Physician and sportsmedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Sportsmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Weinstein BJ, Arora T, Thompson LD: Intradural, extramedullary spinal cord granular cell tumor: a case report and clinicopathologic review of the literature. Neuropathology; 2010 Dec;30(6):621-6
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  • [Title] Intradural, extramedullary spinal cord granular cell tumor: a case report and clinicopathologic review of the literature.
  • Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the spine is uncommon, with intradural extramedullary location being exceptionally rare.
  • The non-specific clinical presentation and variable histologic patterns can make recognition of this tumor challenging.
  • Radiographically, all tumors enhanced homogenously on T1 post-gadolinium imaging with a mean tumor size of approximately 1.6 cm.
  • The tumor cells were periodic acid Schiff positive, diastase resistant, and were positive with S-100 protein, CD68, inhibin, and neuron-specific enolase immunohistochemistry.
  • The clinical and histologic differential diagnosis includes schwannoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, astrocytoma, melanocytoma, and metastatic tumors.
  • Histologic recognition of this rare tumor is important because the subsequent clinical course of the disease differs from other similar lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.
  • (PMID = 20113407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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51. Ducreux D, Lepeintre JF, Fillard P, Loureiro C, Tadié M, Lasjaunias P: MR diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking in 5 spinal cord astrocytomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Jan;27(1):214-6
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  • [Title] MR diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking in 5 spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • Spinal cord astrocytomas are rare neoplasms that can result in alteration of the spinal cord structural integrity, which can be assessed by using diffusion tensor imaging methods.
  • Our objective was to visualize the deformation of the posterior spinal cord lemniscal and corticospinal tracts in 5 patients with low-grade astrocytomas compared with 10 healthy volunteers by using 3D fiber-tracking reconstructions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16418387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Raco A, Piccirilli M, Landi A, Lenzi J, Delfini R, Cantore G: High-grade intramedullary astrocytomas: 30 years' experience at the Neurosurgery Department of the University of Rome "Sapienza". J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Feb;12(2):144-53
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  • Lesions were located in the cervical spinal cord in 12 patients, and in the thoracic cord in 10.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality. Rome. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Feb;12(2):141-2; discussion 142-3 [20121347.001]
  • (PMID = 20121348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Kilinçer C, Oztürk L, Hamamcioglu MK, Altunrende E, Cobanoglu S: An upper thoracic spinal cord tumor presenting as hemifacial hyperhidrosis. Surg Neurol; 2007 Oct;68(4):461-3; discussion 463
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  • [Title] An upper thoracic spinal cord tumor presenting as hemifacial hyperhidrosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis as the sole presenting symptom of an upper thoracic intramedullary tumor has never been reported in the English literature.
  • The MRI revealed a large spinal cord tumor at the T1-T2 levels.
  • The patient underwent total excision of the intramedullary tumor via a posterior myelotomy.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was low-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Hyperhidrosis / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17905075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Gill M, Pathak HC, Madan R, Bhattacharya S, Choudhary GS: Primary spinal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. Neurol India; 2010 Sep-Oct;58(5):771-3
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  • [Title] Primary spinal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.
  • Pleomorphic xanthochromic astrocytoma primarily of the spinal cord is a rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21045509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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55. Dutta D, Vanere P, Gupta T, Munshi A, Jalali R: Factors influencing activities of daily living using FIM-FAM scoring system before starting adjuvant treatment in patients with brain tumors: results from a prospective study. J Neurooncol; 2009 Aug;94(1):103-10
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  • BACKGROUND: Patients with brain tumors have varied degree of functional and psychological impairments because of factors relating to the tumor or to the treatment they receive.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: From August 2007 to April 2008, 150 consecutive adult (>18 years) primary brain tumor patients (median age 40 years; male 88, female 62) registered in a general out-patient neuro-oncology clinic were accrued and detailed data were recorded.
  • Seventy percent had malignant tumor (66% high-grade and 34% low-grade; 70% intra-axial).
  • Glioblastoma (GBM) (23.3%), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) (18.7%), and diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma (18.7%) were the commonest histologic subtypes.
  • Univariate analysis showed total FIM-FAM scores not significantly different with age (< or =35 years vs. >35 years; P = 0.994), sex (male versus female; P = 0.133), and grade of the tumor (high-grade versus low-grade; P = 0.142) but were significantly higher in patients with a Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of > or =70 as compared with <70 (P = 0.001), neurological performance scale (NPS) of 0 or 1 vs. 2 or 3; P = 0.001), disease type (benign versus malignant; P = 0.001), and site of disease (cerebral versus cerebellar; P = 0.024).
  • A trend for correlation between tumor sites with the corresponding function as assesses on the FIM-FAM score was observed.
  • There is strong correlation with age, type of tumor, and site of disease with different functional and cognitive domain impairment.

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  • (PMID = 19255726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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56. Kothbauer KF: Neurosurgical management of intramedullary spinal cord tumors in children. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(3):222-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurosurgical management of intramedullary spinal cord tumors in children.
  • The majority of intramedullary spinal cord tumors in children are low-grade glial tumors.
  • They become symptomatic with pain, neurologic deficits or spinal deformity.
  • In case of a low-grade tumor or a vascular lesion such as hemangioblastoma or cavernoma, a total or near-total resection is attempted.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / mortality. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / mortality. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17409792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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57. Hamir AN, Picton R, Blythe LL, Heidel JR: Diagnostic exercise: astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol; 2008 Nov;45(6):949-51
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  • [Title] Diagnostic exercise: astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor).
  • Described are clinical signs and pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in an adult female raccoon (Procyon lotor) with an astrocytoma that involved medulla, cervical spinal cord, and roots of the cervical spinal nerves.
  • This appears to be the only reported case of astrocytoma that involved multiple anatomic sites in the central nervous system of this raccoon.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / veterinary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / veterinary. Medulla Oblongata / pathology. Raccoons. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Nerves / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18984803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. O'Shaughnessy J, Bussières A: Subtle clinical signs of a spinal cord ependymoma at the cervicothoracic level in an adult: a case report. J Can Chiropr Assoc; 2006 Dec;50(4):244-8
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  • [Title] Subtle clinical signs of a spinal cord ependymoma at the cervicothoracic level in an adult: a case report.
  • Cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal radiographs were deemed unremarkable.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was performed and revealed an expansive intramedullary lesion between C6 and T1 suggesting a differential diagnosis of spinal cord ependymoma or astrocytoma.
  • The patient underwent surgical excision of the tumour.
  • In the presence of subtle clinical signs, clinicians should keep a high index of suspicion for spinal cord tumours.

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59. Passone E, Pizzolitto S, D'Agostini S, Skrap M, Gardiman MP, Nocerino A, Scarzello G, Perilongo G: Non-anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with neuroradiological evidences of leptomeningeal dissemination. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Jun;22(6):614-8
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  • Only the tumour involvement of the chiasma and the infundibulus was a relatively unusual finding.
  • In a 5-year period, the tumour underwent malignant transformation, bringing the child to death because of the primary tumour progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Disease Progression. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16369851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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60. Kumandaş S, Per H, Gümüş H, Tucer B, Yikilmaz A, Kontaş O, Coşkun A, Kurtsoy A: Torticollis secondary to posterior fossa and cervical spinal cord tumors: report of five cases and literature review. Neurosurg Rev; 2006 Oct;29(4):333-8; discussion 338
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  • [Title] Torticollis secondary to posterior fossa and cervical spinal cord tumors: report of five cases and literature review.
  • Acquired torticollis is not a diagnosis but rather a sign of an underlying disorder.
  • The causes of acquired torticollis include ligamentous, muscular, osseous, ocular, psychiatric, and neurologic disorders and may be a symptom of significant abnormalities of the spinal cord and brain, such as spinal syrinx or central nervous system neoplasia.
  • Torticollis is rarely considered to be an initial clinical presentation of posterior fossa and cervical spinal cord tumors.
  • We report five cases of pediatric tumors with torticollis at the onset: an astrocytoma originating from the medulla oblongata, another presumptive astrocytoma of the spinal cord located between C1 and C6 cervical vertebrae (not operated), an ependymoma located throughout the whole cervical spinal cord extending into the bulbomedullary junction, an astrocytoma originating from the bulbus and extending into the posterior fossa, and another case of a eosinophilic granuloma located extradurally through the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral bodies from C3 to C7 producing the collapse of the sixth cervical vertebra.
  • All these cases reflect the misinterpretation of this neurological sign and the lack of association with the possibility of spinal or posterior fossa tumor.
  • This delay in the diagnosis of these diseases led to progressive neurological deterioration and to the increase in the tumor size, which made surgical intervention difficult and the prognosis unfavorable.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Eosinophilic Granuloma / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Infratentorial Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications. Torticollis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Craniotomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Spinal Cord / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16924460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Komotar RJ, Carson BS, Rao C, Chaffee S, Goldthwaite PT, Tihan T: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the spinal cord: report of three cases. Neurosurgery; 2005;56(1):191
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the spinal cord: report of three cases.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described, rare, circumscribed glioma similar to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Despite its circumscribed nature, PMA implies a worse overall outcome than typical pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Since these original reports, we have encountered three tumors in the spinal cord with histological features identical to those of PMA.
  • INTERVENTION: The first patient's cervical and thoracic neoplasm was treated with subtotal resection and multiple laminectomies and spinal fusion for recurrence.
  • The neonate underwent laminectomy and biopsy of his holocord tumor.
  • The cases presented in this report suggest that PMA can occur at a later age and can involve the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15617606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Eroes CA, Zausinger S, Kreth FW, Goldbrunner R, Tonn JC: Intramedullary low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. Surgical results and predicting factors for clinical outcome. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Apr;152(4):611-8
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  • [Title] Intramedullary low grade astrocytoma and ependymoma. Surgical results and predicting factors for clinical outcome.
  • INTRODUCTION: The optimal time point for surgery of intramedullary spinal astrocytomas and ependymomas is often debated on, as predicting factors are poorly defined.
  • Complete tumor resection was achieved in 79% of ependymomas, 50% of astrocytomas WHO grade I, and 14% of astrocytomas WHO grade II (significantly more often in ependymomas than in astrocytomas, p < 0.05).
  • Preoperative MCS <3 and extent of tumor <5 levels were significantly (p = 0.01 and p < 0.05) associated with a favorable outcome (MCS <3) in early and late follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: An MCS of less than 3 and a tumor extent of less than 5 levels are the most important factors for a favorable postoperative functional outcome.
  • Therefore, surgery should be initiated before significant clinical symptomatology or substantial tumor growth occurs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20119838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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63. Horbinski C, Hamilton RL, Nikiforov Y, Pollack IF: Association of molecular alterations, including BRAF, with biology and outcome in pilocytic astrocytomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 May;119(5):641-9
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  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common glioma in the pediatric population.
  • Neither 1p, 9p, and 10q nor 19q showed significant association with outcome in PAs, although p16 deletion was more common in PAs of the midbrain, brainstem, and spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20044755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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64. Maris C, Rorive S, Sandras F, D'Haene N, Sadeghi N, Bièche I, Vidaud M, Decaestecker C, Salmon I: Tenascin-C expression relates to clinicopathological features in pilocytic and diffuse astrocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2008 Jun;34(3):316-29
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  • AIMS: Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix brain glycoprotein for which conflicting in vitro and in vivo results are reported in the literature dealing with its involvement in astrocytoma aggressiveness, in particular astrocytoma invasion.
  • Paralleling these observations, we showed that TN-C expression in low-grade astrocytomas similarly varies according to tumour site.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Tenascin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17983425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tenascin
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65. Arulrajah S, Huisman TA: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the spinal cord with cerebrospinal fluid and peritoneal metastasis. Neuropediatrics; 2008 Aug;39(4):243-5
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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the spinal cord with cerebrospinal fluid and peritoneal metastasis.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described rare tumor which is a variant of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • Spinal cord PMA has been reported in two articles in the past and none of the reported case had extraneural metastasis.
  • We report on a female child with cervical cord PMA with diffuse leptomeningeal metastasis involving the brain and spinal cord.
  • Two years later she presented with peritoneal carcinomatoses which was consistent with metastatic tumor via a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Astrocytoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19165714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-304X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Lim BS, Park SQ, Chang UK, Kim MS: Spinal cord tanycytic ependymoma associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Jul;17(7):922-4
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  • [Title] Spinal cord tanycytic ependymoma associated with neurofibromatosis type 2.
  • Reports of this tumor in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) are rare.
  • MRI revealed an intramedullary lesion within the upper cervical spinal cord, which was removed surgically.
  • This rare morphology of tanycytic ependymoma could be misinterpreted as pilocytic astrocytoma or other tumor types that exhibit elongated cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiography. Neurofibromatosis 2 / radiography. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20403699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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67. Chen YC, Lui CC, Liao JJ, Huang SC, Chang YC: Spinal cord tumor mimicking obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2008 Feb;100(2):179-80
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  • [Title] Spinal cord tumor mimicking obstetric brachial plexus palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brachial Plexus Neuropathies / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18061191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Okazaki T, Kageji T, Matsuzaki K, Horiguchi H, Hirose T, Watanabe H, Ohnishi T, Nagahiro S: Primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with widespread neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis--a pediatric case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2009 Sep;94(3):431-7
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  • Head- and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed widespread gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced lesions extending to the bilateral frontal- and medial temporal lobes and the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Head / diagnostic imaging. Head / pathology. Humans. Male. Spinal Cord / diagnostic imaging. Spinal Cord / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


69. Yamada M, Tanaka H, Morita T, Takahashi H: Separate CNS lesions involving the brainstem and spinal cord in a 47-year-old man. Neuropathology; 2008 Jun;28(3):341-4
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  • [Title] Separate CNS lesions involving the brainstem and spinal cord in a 47-year-old man.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18021196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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70. Mora J, Cruz O, Gala S, Navarro R: Successful treatment of childhood intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas with irinotecan and cisplatin. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Jan;9(1):39-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of childhood intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas with irinotecan and cisplatin.
  • Childhood spinal cord astrocytomas are rare diseases, and their management is controversial.
  • The first patient was a 16-month-old girl who presented with a grade III intramedullary astrocytoma that rapidly progressed after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The second patient was a 19-month-old boy with a C3-T4 grade II intramedullary astrocytoma who received up-front vincristine and carboplatin for two months but remained clinically symptomatic.
  • A followup MRI showed a larger tumor, and the patient was switched to the I/C regimen.
  • The third patient was a 10-month-old girl with a C2-T3 grade II intramedullary astrocytoma.
  • MRI at the end of therapy showed a significant reduction in tumor size, and one year after diagnosis the patient remains symptom free.
  • Using this I/C regimen for childhood intramedullary astrocytoma, we obtained remarkable clinicoradiological responses while avoiding the use of radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17108066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1828108
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71. Lima MA, Filho PA, Campos JC, Nogueira J: Extensive hydromyelia. Pediatr Neurol; 2005 Sep;33(3):211-3
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  • This report describes the case of a 9-year old male with an extensive hydromyelia associated with a spinal cord tumor and an oligosymptomatic clinical presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications. Syringomyelia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16139738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Tihan T, Chi JH, McCormick PC, Ames CP, Parsa AT: Pathologic and epidemiologic findings of intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2006 Jan;17(1):7-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic and epidemiologic findings of intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Hemangioblastoma / epidemiology. Hemangioblastoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / epidemiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16448902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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73. Chi JH, Cachola K, Parsa AT: Genetics and molecular biology of intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2006 Jan;17(1):1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetics and molecular biology of intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Hemangioblastoma / genetics. Neurofibromatoses / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16448901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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74. Titlic M, Tonkic A, Jukic I, Buca A, Punda A: Leptomeningeal metastases of an astrocytoma of the conus medullaris: a case report. Acta Neurol Belg; 2008 Dec;108(4):170-2
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastases of an astrocytoma of the conus medullaris: a case report.
  • We describe a case of spinal leptomeningeal metastases of an astrocytoma of the conus medullaris that presented with quadriplegia.
  • The patient was a 50-year-old woman with a previously treated astrocytoma of the conus medullaris and a spinal cord metastasis at the Th2-L level.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed an intradural extramedullary metastatic tumor deposit at the C3-C6 level.
  • Spinal leptomeningeal metastases need to be suspected in patients with a history of intramedullary astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19239049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9009
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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75. Khongkhatithum C, Visudtibhan A, Chiemchanya S, Visudhiphan P, Sanvivad P, Larbcharoensub N, Phudhicharoenrat S: Multicentric anaplastic astrocytoma in a child. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Feb;14(2):176-9
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  • [Title] Multicentric anaplastic astrocytoma in a child.
  • We report a rare case of anaplastic astrocytoma with multicentric central nervous system lesions in a 10-year-old girl presenting with a 1-month history of progressive headache and paraparesis.
  • Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple tumour foci within the suprasellar region, cerebellar hemisphere, cervical and thoracic cords.
  • After an uneventful laminectomy and excision of the tumour at the T8-9 level, a significant improvement of motor function was observed.
  • The histological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma based on the WHO classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17161293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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76. Reis C, Carneiro E, Fonseca J, Pereira P, Vaz R, Pinto R, Capelinha AF, Lopes JM, Salgado A: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and multiple thoraco-lumbar lateral meningoceles: two rare pathological entities in a patient with NF-1. Neuroradiology; 2005 Feb;47(2):165-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare vascular soft-tissue tumour of intermediate malignancy.
  • We report a case of a 31-year-old woman, with NF-1 and past history of right thalamic/peduncular astrocytoma WHO grade II, admitted to the Neurosurgery Department in December 2003 due to severe low back pain, irradiating to the left leg without a radicular pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / etiology. Meningocele / etiology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15688204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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77. Hyder DJ, Sung L, Pollack IF, Gilles FH, Yates AJ, Davis RL, Boyett JM, Finlay JL: Anaplastic mixed gliomas and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in children: results from the CCG 945 experience. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):1-8
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  • Complete resection and cerebral tumor location was associated with better overall survival (OS) in patients with institutional diagnoses of AMG.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17252186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. McGirt MJ, Goldstein IM, Chaichana KL, Tobias ME, Kothbauer KF, Jallo GI: Extent of surgical resection of malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord: outcome analysis of 35 patients. Neurosurgery; 2008 Jul;63(1):55-60; discussion 60-1
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  • [Title] Extent of surgical resection of malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord: outcome analysis of 35 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The optimal management of malignant intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas remains controversial.
  • We report the outcomes of the surgical management of 35 malignant spinal cord astrocytomas and assess the association of extent of resection with survival after aggressive resection of these tumors.
  • METHODS: An institutional intramedullary spinal cord tumor database (1990-2002) was reviewed to identify all patients treated for malignant astrocytomas of the spinal cord (anaplastic astrocytoma [AA] or glioblastoma multiforme [GBM]).
  • Tumor involved six +/- four vertebral levels.
  • Postoperative tumor dissemination was associated with decreased survival (P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSION: Neurological function can be preserved with aggressive resection of malignant intramedullary spinal astrocytomas; however, motor decline may be observed in many cases.
  • Biopsy alone may not provide the best outcomes for patients with malignant spinal cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18728568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Bloomer CW, Ackerman A, Bhatia RG: Imaging for spine tumors and new applications. Top Magn Reson Imaging; 2006 Apr;17(2):69-87
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  • OBJECTIVES: Discuss intramedullary, intradural/extramedullary, and extradural spinal tumors including imaging characteristics with emphasis on MR and advances in treatment.
  • RESULTS: Spinal tumors: intramedullary, intradural/extramedullary, and extradural, comprise a wide range of histological tumors with an even wider range of clinical symptoms and prognostic features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance plays an integral role in evaluation of spinal tumors with increasing role in staging and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / classification. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Dermoid Cyst / diagnosis. Dermoid Cyst / physiopathology. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / physiopathology. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Epidermal Cyst / physiopathology. Epidural Abscess / diagnosis. Epidural Abscess / physiopathology. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / physiopathology. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17198224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-3459
  • [Journal-full-title] Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Top Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Grau E, Balaguer J, Canete A, Martinez F, Orellana C, Oltra S, Hernandez M, Castel V: Subtelomeric analysis of pediatric astrocytoma: subchromosomal instability is a distinctive feature of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jun;93(2):175-82
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  • [Title] Subtelomeric analysis of pediatric astrocytoma: subchromosomal instability is a distinctive feature of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.
  • Astrocytic neoplasms are genetically heterogeneous; however a low frequency of genomic changes has been found in juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) in molecular studies.
  • We studied the subtelomeric regions of 19 primary astrocytoma tumors.
  • Our results indicate that the chromosomal and genetic aberrations in PXAs differed from those typically associated with the diffusely infiltrating astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Chromosomal Instability / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Female. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Sequence Deletion. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19099200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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81. Sun J, Wang Z, Li Z, Liu B: Microsurgical treatment and functional outcomes of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):666-71
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  • [Title] Microsurgical treatment and functional outcomes of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
  • We aimed to prospectively analyze correlations between clinical features and histological classification of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors (MSICTs), and the extent of microsurgical resection and functional outcomes.
  • Fifty-six patients with MSICTs underwent microsurgery for tumor removal using a posterior approach.
  • The tumor was exposed through a dorsal myelotomy.
  • Correlation analyses were performed between functional outcome (IJOA score) and histological features, age, tumor location, and the longitudinal extent of spinal cord involvement.
  • Ependymoma was the most frequent MSICT type, seen in 22 of 56 patients (39%), followed by low grade astrocytoma (17 patients, 30%) and glioblastoma multiforme (3 patients, 5%).
  • Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 33 cases (58%), subtotal resection in 4 (7%), and partial resection in 16 (28%).
  • The histological classification of the tumor was the most important factor influencing the extent of surgical removal (chi2=22.17, p=0.00).
  • Thus, MSICTs were most commonly seen in the medullo cervical and cervicothoracic regions, with ependymoma and low grade astrocytoma the most common tumour types.
  • [MeSH-major] Laminectomy / methods. Microsurgery / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neurologic Examination / methods. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19303302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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82. Tsutsumi S, Higo T, Kondo A, Abe Y, Yasumoto Y, Ito M: Atypical cervical astrocytoma manifesting as occipitalgia. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Aug;47(8):371-4
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  • [Title] Atypical cervical astrocytoma manifesting as occipitalgia.
  • Cervical MR imaging revealed a cervical intramedullary tumor.
  • Intraoperatively the subpial tumor was found to stretch the 3rd-5th dorsal nerve roots posteriorly, which was thought to cause the intolerable headache.
  • Total tumor resection was achieved without requiring myelotomy using electrophysiological monitoring with somatosensory and motor evoked potentials.
  • Histological examination identified diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Cervical astrocytoma of subpial location is a very rare cause of headache in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / pathology. Headache / etiology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Evoked Potentials / physiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pia Mater / pathology. Pia Mater / surgery. Spinal Nerve Roots / pathology. Spinal Nerve Roots / physiopathology. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17721055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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83. Schittenhelm J, Ebner FH, Tatagiba M, Wolff M, Nägele T, Meyermann R, Mittelbronn M: Holocord pilocytic astrocytoma--case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2009 Feb;111(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Holocord pilocytic astrocytoma--case report and review of the literature.
  • Intramedullary glial neoplasms affecting the entire cord from the cervicomedullary junction to the conus are termed "holocord tumors" and those diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma are rare.
  • Herein, we present a 13-year-old girl with a tumor extending from the cervicomedullary junction to the conus which was partially resected in a four-stage approach.
  • Histopathological examination of all specimens resulted in diagnosis of a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Residual parts of the tumor showed progress making additional surgery necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18980798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6968
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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84. Roonprapunt C, Houten JK: Spinal cord astrocytomas: presentation, management, and outcome. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2006 Jan;17(1):29-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord astrocytomas: presentation, management, and outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16448905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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85. Bohner G, Masuhr F, Distl R, Katchanov J, Klingebiel R, Zschenderlein R, von Deimling A, van Landeghem FK: Pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: report of a unique case and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Sep;110(3):306-11
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: report of a unique case and review of the literature.
  • Spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed extended intradural, extramedullary, contrast-enhancing masses with compression of the myelon.
  • Spinal leptomeningeal biopsy revealed a pilocytic astrocytoma WHO grade I.
  • Sequence analysis of tumor protein 53 gene (TP53) revealed a missense mutation in exon 5, and expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1) (PTEN) protein was not detected, which may have contributed to astrocytoma development.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first definitive case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as PDLG.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meninges / pathology. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mutation / genetics. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


86. Hébert-Blouin MN, Bishop AT, Shin AY, Wetmore C, Spinner RJ: Tardy spinal cord tumor following avulsive brachial plexus injury: coincidental or causal? World Neurosurg; 2010 Aug-Sep;74(2-3):368-73
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  • [Title] Tardy spinal cord tumor following avulsive brachial plexus injury: coincidental or causal?
  • RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography myelogram revealed spinal cord herniation at the same level of the previous nerve root avulsions.
  • Surgical open biopsy demonstrated a spinal cord anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The probable coincidental versus possible causal interrelationship of these two processes (BPI and spinal cord tumor) is discussed, but no conclusions can be reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / etiology. Brachial Plexus / injuries. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] World Neurosurg. 2010 Aug-Sep;74(2-3):275-6 [21492559.001]
  • (PMID = 21492572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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87. Seddighi AS, Seddighi A: Extramedullary hematopoiesis presenting as a compressive cord and cerebral lesion in a patient without a significant hematologic disorder: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:319
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  • [Title] Extramedullary hematopoiesis presenting as a compressive cord and cerebral lesion in a patient without a significant hematologic disorder: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Intracranial or spinal compressive lesions due to extramedullary hematopoiesis have been reported in the medical literature.
  • Most of the reported cases are extradural lesions or, on rare occasions, foci within another neoplasm such as hemangioblastoma, meningioma or pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Often these cases occur in patients with an underlying hematological disorder such as acute myelogenic leukemia, myelofibrosis, or other myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 43-year-old Iranian woman in whom extramedullary hematopoiesis presented as a compressive cord lesion and then later as an intracranial lesion.

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  • (PMID = 20939863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2972301
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88. Minehan KJ, Brown PD, Scheithauer BW, Krauss WE, Wright MP: Prognosis and treatment of spinal cord astrocytoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Mar 1;73(3):727-33
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  • [Title] Prognosis and treatment of spinal cord astrocytoma.
  • PURPOSE: To identify the prognostic factors for spinal cord astrocytoma and determine the effects of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: This retrospective study reviewed the cases of consecutive patients with spinal cord astrocytoma treated at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1962 and 2005.
  • Of these 136 patients, 69 had pilocytic and 67 had infiltrative astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that histologic type is the most important prognostic variable affecting the outcome of spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18687533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Marinovic T, Grahovac G, Habek M, Lambasa S, Tomac D: Simultaneous conus medullaris ependymoma and cerebellar astrocytoma in the same patient. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 May-Jun;28(3):173-6
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  • [Title] Simultaneous conus medullaris ependymoma and cerebellar astrocytoma in the same patient.
  • We report a patient who had pilocytic astrocytoma in the cerebellum and ependymoma in the cauda equina region, occurring simultaneously.
  • The suggested mechanism of this association is that primitive multipotent cells might have been displaced in the different CNS areas and developed in different tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19537133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Pennant WA, Sciubba DM, Noggle JC, Tyler BM, Tamargo RJ, Jallo GI: Microsurgical removal of intramedullary spinal cord gliomas in a rat spinal cord decreases onset to paresis, an animal model for intramedullary tumor treatment. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Aug;24(8):901-7
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  • [Title] Microsurgical removal of intramedullary spinal cord gliomas in a rat spinal cord decreases onset to paresis, an animal model for intramedullary tumor treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) pose significant challenges given their recurrence rate and limited treatment options.
  • Using our previously described rat model of IMSCT, we describe a technique for microsurgical tumor resection and present the functional and histopathological analysis of tumor progression.
  • Group 1 continued with daily assessments using the BBB scale following tumor implantation, but received no further treatment.
  • Group 2 underwent surgical removal of intramedullary tumor on postoperative day five.
  • Hematoxylin-eosin cross-sections confirmed the presence of intramedullary 9L tumor invading the spinal cord in both groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Gliosarcoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Paralysis / prevention & control. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Female. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasms, Experimental. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Reproducibility of Results. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18317780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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91. Huisman TA: Pediatric tumors of the spine. Cancer Imaging; 2009;9 Spec No A:S45-8
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  • Spinal cord neoplasms are rare lesions in children.
  • Most of the spinal cord neoplasms are astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Back Pain / etiology. Biopsy. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Child. Child, Preschool. Early Diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / contraindications

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  • (PMID = 19965293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797470
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92. Klase D, Gottschalk S, Reusche E, Hagel C, Goebel E, Tronnier V, Giese A: Lumbosacral glioblastoma and leptomeningeal gliomatosis complicating the course of a cervicothoracic astrocytoma WHO grade II. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Aug;23(8):907-12
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  • [Title] Lumbosacral glioblastoma and leptomeningeal gliomatosis complicating the course of a cervicothoracic astrocytoma WHO grade II.
  • CASE REPORT: The reported female patient underwent sub-total resection of an intra-medullary cervicothoracic astrocytoma classified as WHO grade II in 1984 at the age of 18 months and received local irradiation.
  • Sixteen years later, a small recurrent cervicothoracic tumour was found and spinal seeding to the equine nerve roots and the left cerebellar cortex was apparent on MRI.
  • The patient was implanted with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for a pseudo-tumour cerebri producing papilloedema, which eventually lead to amaurosis.
  • After an extended biopsy, the invasive lumbosacral tumour was classified as glioblastoma multiforme.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Anaplastic progression and dissemination of spinal astrocytomas even two decades after initial diagnosis and treatment are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Glioblastoma / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17440736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Vassilyadi M, Michaud J: Hydrocephalus as the initial presentation of a spinal cord astrocytoma associated with leptomeningeal spread. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Jan-Feb;41(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Hydrocephalus as the initial presentation of a spinal cord astrocytoma associated with leptomeningeal spread.
  • The lesion was subtotally resected (70%) and diagnosed as an astrocytoma (mostly Kernohan grade 2 but with areas of grade 3).
  • Chemotherapy was administered and follow-up spine MRI at 2 months did not reveal any residual tumor, however, the leptomeningeal enhancement persisted.
  • This case illustrates how a spinal cord astrocytoma can metastasize via spinocranial dispersion and present early with hydrocephalus rather than myelopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15886510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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94. Gibson CJ, Parry NM, Jakowski RM, Eshar D: Anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). Vet Pathol; 2008 Nov;45(6):934-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma in the spinal cord of an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).
  • Grossly, the bladder was large and flaccid and the cervical and lumbar spinal cord were regionally enlarged, light grey, and friable with multifocal hemorrhages.
  • The thoracic spinal cord was grossly normal.
  • Microscopically all regions of the spinal cord had similar changes, although the cervical and lumbar sections were most severely affected.
  • These regions were completely effaced by a moderately cellular infiltration of highly pleomorphic polygonal to spindle shaped cells, mineralization, and necrosis, which were most consistent with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The thoracic spinal cord white matter was similarly infiltrated by the neoplastic cells, with perivascular extension into the otherwise normal grey matter.
  • A diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma was confirmed using immunohistochemical stains that were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / veterinary. Hedgehogs. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18984799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Rondinelli PI, Osório CA, Cohen MP, Novaes PE: Unusual dissemination patterns of low-grade astrocytomas in childhood. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2008 Mar;66(1):45-9
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  • Medical reports do not recommend examination of the spinal cord at diagnosis or during treatment, since the risk of dissemination of the lesion to the spine is minimal according to medical experience.
  • We describe here four cases of children with low-grade astrocytoma with aggressive dissemination to the neuroaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18392413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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96. Tendulkar RD, Pai Panandiker AS, Wu S, Kun LE, Broniscer A, Sanford RA, Merchant TE: Irradiation of pediatric high-grade spinal cord tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 01;78(5):1451-6
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  • [Title] Irradiation of pediatric high-grade spinal cord tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To report the outcome using radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric patients with high-grade spinal cord tumors.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review was conducted that included 17 children with high-grade spinal cord tumors treated with RT at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1981 and 2007.
  • The tumor diagnosis was glioblastoma multiforme (n = 7), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 8), or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 2).
  • Local tumor progression at 12 months (79% vs. 30%, p = 0.02) and median survival (13.1 vs. 27.2 months, p = 0.09) were worse for patients with glioblastoma multiforme compared with anaplastic astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High-grade spinal cord primary tumors in children have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20346593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Abdel-Wahab M, Etuk B, Palermo J, Shirato H, Kresl J, Yapicier O, Walker G, Scheithauer BW, Shaw E, Lee C, Curran W, Thomas T, Markoe A: Spinal cord gliomas: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 15;64(4):1060-71
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  • [Title] Spinal cord gliomas: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (POXRT) on outcome in spinal cord gliomas.
  • PFS in ependymoma patients was 74%, 60%, and 35% at 5, 10, 15 years, respectively, and was significantly influenced by treatment type, race, age, tumor grade, and type of surgery on univariate analysis, with age being the only significant factor on multivariate analysis (MVA) (p = 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16373081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Mendiratta-Lala M, Kader Ellika S, Gutierrez JA, Patel SC, Jain R: Spinal cord pilomyxoid astrocytoma: an unusual tumor. J Neuroimaging; 2007 Oct;17(4):371-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord pilomyxoid astrocytoma: an unusual tumor.
  • We present the imaging findings of a case of spinal pilomyxoid astrocytoma in a 29-year-old woman with history of neck and back pain and weakness of bilateral upper extremities.
  • Spinal pilomyxoid astrocytoma is rare with only three reported cases in pediatric population in the literature.
  • This report illustrates the MR findings of an unusual case of intradural extramedullary spinal pilomyxoid tumor in an adult patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myxoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17894633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1051-2284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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99. Koga T, Morita A, Maruyama K, Tanaka M, Ino Y, Shibahara J, Louis DN, Reifenberger G, Itami J, Hara R, Saito N, Todo T: Long-term control of disseminated pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features by means of stereotactic irradiation. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Aug;11(4):446-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm of the brain.
  • A 47-year-old woman presented with an epileptic seizure due to a large tumor in the right frontal lobe.
  • The tumor was resected and diagnosed as PXA with anaplastic features.
  • Two years later, the patient developed a tumor nodule in the cervical spinal cord that histologically corresponded to a small-cell glioma with high cellularity and prominent MIB-1 (mindbomb homolog 1) labeling.
  • In the following months, multiple nodular lesions appeared throughout the CNS, and STI was performed six times for eight intracranial lesions using Gamma Knife and twice using a linear accelerator, for three spinal cord lesions in total.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19164434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2743225
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100. Raz E, Antonelli M, Pichierri A, Consoli A, Giangaspero F, Fiorelli M: 35 year-old man with falcine tumor. Brain Pathol; 2010 Sep;20(5):987-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 35 year-old man with falcine tumor.
  • At surgery, the tumour appeared as an extra-axial lesion and was removed via a left midline frontal craniotomy.
  • Given the localization, microscopic features were diagnostic of primary intracranial solitary leptomeningeal astrocytoma (PLA), WHO grade 3.
  • PLA is a very rare lesion that arises in the leptomeninges of the brain or spinal cord with no involvement of intraparenchymatous tissue.

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  • (PMID = 20695870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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