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1. Sekula RF Jr, Marchan EM, Quigley MR, Frederickson AM, Pu C: A case of an elderly adult presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a rare hemorrhagic suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 Nov-Dec;27(6):396-9
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  • [Title] A case of an elderly adult presenting with obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a rare hemorrhagic suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Urgent surgery was performed and final pathology eventuated a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Although rare cases of suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma in children and adults have been reported, we report an interesting case of a hemorrhagic suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma in an elderly adult (without prior anticoagulant use) causing impending brain herniation secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Hydrocephalus / etiology


2. Zhao YC, Li NY, Zhou XJ: [Updates on clinicopathologic researches of pilocytic astrocytoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Dec;36(12):846-8
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  • [Title] [Updates on clinicopathologic researches of pilocytic astrocytoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18346360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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3. Hu W, Shen F, Chen G, Shen G, Liu W, Zhou J: Possible involvement of brain tumour stem cells in the emergence of a fast-growing malignant meningioma after surgical resection and radiotherapy of high-grade astrocytoma: case report and preliminary laboratory investigation. J Int Med Res; 2009 Jan-Feb;37(1):240-6
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  • [Title] Possible involvement of brain tumour stem cells in the emergence of a fast-growing malignant meningioma after surgical resection and radiotherapy of high-grade astrocytoma: case report and preliminary laboratory investigation.
  • The case of a 62-year old man diagnosed with radiation-induced meningioma (RIM) after treatment for astrocytoma with an unusually short latency period of 7 months is reported.
  • Gross total resection was performed and the tumour was confirmed to be an astrocytoma.
  • A rare fraction of brain tumour stem cells (BTSC) was isolated from the primary astrocytoma using a serum-free culture system, suggesting that BTSC may have been involved in the rapid emergence of RIM after resection and radiation of the primary astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / secondary. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19215696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Scholz M, Lorenz A, Pesavento A, Brendel B, Khaled W, Engelhardt M, Pechlivanis I, Noack V, Harders A, Schmieder K: Current status of intraoperative real-time vibrography in neurosurgery. Ultraschall Med; 2007 Oct;28(5):493-7
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  • The aim of the present study was to test the application of vibrography during brain tumor surgery.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The real-time vibrography system consisted of a conventional ultrasound system (Siemens Sonoline Omnia) with a custom-designed RF interface and a 6.5-MHz endocavity curved array (Siemens 6.5EC10).
  • In one patient minimal bleeding of the cortical surface occurred in a frontobasal tumor; however, no postoperative deficits were noted.
  • In low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, this additional technique can be used to control resection.

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  • (PMID = 17918047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Huang CX, Liu YS, Hou YH: [Detection and clinical significance of urinary epidermal growth factor in brain tumor patients]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Apr;31(2):268-70
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  • [Title] [Detection and clinical significance of urinary epidermal growth factor in brain tumor patients].
  • METHODS: The levels of EGF in urine samples collected from 20 patients (9 low grade astrocytomas, 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 5 meningiomas) and 5 healthy individuals were determined.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative urinary EGF levels of astrocytoma patients were statistically higher than those of meningioma patients and the controls (P < 0.01).
  • Preoperative urinary EGF levels showed a positive correlation with the degree of malignance in the astrocytoma patients (P < 0.05).
  • A significant decrease of the postoperative levels of EGF was observed in the astrocytoma patients who underwent gross total resection (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The urinary EGF levels of astrocytoma patients correlate with the WHO grade of malignance and significantly decrease after gross total removal.
  • Urinary EGF may be of practical value in diagnosing and evaluating the surgical efficacy of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / urine. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Brain Neoplasms / urine. Epidermal Growth Factor / urine

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  • (PMID = 16706130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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6. Vital AL, Tabernero MD, Castrillo A, Rebelo O, Tão H, Gomes F, Nieto AB, Resende Oliveira C, Lopes MC, Orfao A: Gene expression profiles of human glioblastomas are associated with both tumor cytogenetics and histopathology. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Sep;12(9):991-1003
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiles of human glioblastomas are associated with both tumor cytogenetics and histopathology.
  • Despite the increasing knowledge about the genetic alterations and molecular pathways involved in gliomas, few studies have investigated the association between the gene expression profiles (GEP) and both cytogenetics and histopathology of gliomas.
  • Here, we analyzed the GEP (U133Plus2.0 chip) of 40 gliomas (35 astrocytic tumors, 3 oligodendrogliomas, and 2 mixed tumors) and their association with tumor cytogenetics and histopathology.
  • Unsupervised and supervised analyses showed significantly different GEP in low- vs high-grade gliomas, the most discriminating genes including genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and signal transduction.
  • In turn, among glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 3 subgroups of tumors were identified according to their GEP, which were closely associated with the cytogenetic profile of their ancestral tumor cell clones: (i) EGFR amplification, (ii) isolated trisomy 7, and (iii) more complex karyotypes.
  • In summary, our results show a clear association between the GEP of gliomas and tumor histopathology; additionally, among grade IV astrocytoma, GEP are significantly associated with the cytogenetic profile of the ancestral tumor cell clone.

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  • (PMID = 20484145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940695
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7. Marsh J, Mukherjee P, Seyfried TN: Akt-dependent proapoptotic effects of dietary restriction on late-stage management of a phosphatase and tensin homologue/tuberous sclerosis complex 2-deficient mouse astrocytoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7751-62
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  • [Title] Akt-dependent proapoptotic effects of dietary restriction on late-stage management of a phosphatase and tensin homologue/tuberous sclerosis complex 2-deficient mouse astrocytoma.
  • PURPOSE: Malignant astrocytomas exhibit constitutive Akt phosphorylation due to reduced phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) tumor suppressor expression or to increased growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activation.
  • Many astrocytomas are also tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) protein deficient and exhibit constitutive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity.
  • Astrocytomas harboring PTEN/Akt/TSC2 pathway mutations are dependent on glycolysis to satisfy their bioenergetic requirements.
  • Therapies that disrupt energy homeostasis can potentially manage astrocytoma growth and progression.
  • Although dietary restriction (DR) reduces glycolysis and manages early-stage astrocytoma growth, no prior studies have identified the mechanisms involved or determined if DR can also manage late-stage tumor growth.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effects of a late-onset intermittent DR feeding paradigm were examined in adult C57BL/6J mice bearing the syngeneic CT-2A malignant astrocytoma grown orthotopically or subcutaneously.
  • DR initiated 10 to 14 days after tumor implantation (late onset) reduced CT-2A growth, delayed malignant progression, and significantly extended survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that IGF-I/Akt signaling is associated with the antiapoptotic and glycolytic phenotype of the CT-2A astrocytoma and that DR targets this pathway.
  • Our findings highlight the efficacy of late-onset DR in managing astrocytoma growth and suggest that DR may be an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor of Akt signaling in PTEN/TSC2-deficient astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diet therapy. Brain Neoplasms / diet therapy. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / deficiency. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 19047102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102135; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 055195
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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8. Parhar P, Ezer R, Shao Y, Allen JC, Miller DC, Newcomb EW: Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas. Brain Res Mol Brain Res; 2005 Jun 13;137(1-2):98-103
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  • [Title] Possible association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with susceptibility to adult and pediatric high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Polymorphisms in codon 72 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene have been associated with susceptibility to human cancer.
  • In this study, we scored 135 brain tumor samples (92 adult and 43 pediatric cases consisting of 64 high-grade astrocytomas and 71 non-astrocytomas) for the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms.
  • (ii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas compared with non-astrocytomas (P = 0.002); and (iii) that there was a significant increase in the Arg/Pro heterozygous genotype among high-grade astrocytomas containing transdominant as well as recessive p53 mutations compared with controls (P = 0.002).
  • Our results suggest a possible association between P53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms and susceptibility to brain tumors, particularly high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Codon / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15950766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-328X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research. Molecular brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U10 CA13539-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90290
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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9. Sanders RP, Kocak M, Burger PC, Merchant TE, Gajjar A, Broniscer A: High-grade astrocytoma in very young children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7):888-93
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  • [Title] High-grade astrocytoma in very young children.
  • BACKGROUND: High-grade astrocytomas are rare in young children, but have been reported to have a better prognosis than similar tumors in older patients.
  • PROCEDURE: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, survival, and long-term sequelae for patients younger than 3 years old with high-grade astrocytoma, treated at a single institution between 1984 and 2005.
  • Histology included anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 9), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 5), and malignant glioma (n = 2).
  • Six patients received scheduled irradiation and six were irradiated at the time of disease progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Young children with high-grade astrocytoma have better long-term overall survival than older patients, but recurrence is common, and most children require irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neuropsychological Tests. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007 Dec;49(7):879-80 [17941062.001]
  • (PMID = 17554787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Honma S, Saito M, Kikuchi H, Saito Y, Oshima Y, Nakahata N, Yoshida M: A reduction of epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in brefelamide-induced inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK in human astrocytoma cells. Eur J Pharmacol; 2009 Aug 15;616(1-3):38-42
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  • [Title] A reduction of epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in brefelamide-induced inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK in human astrocytoma cells.
  • We found that brefelamide has a potent inhibitory growth effect measured by MTT assay in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.
  • These results suggest that one of the mechanisms of action of brefelamide is assumed to be inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK through a reduction of EGF receptor activity in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Amides / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Phenols / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Tyrosine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19559020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0712
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phenols; 0 / brefelamide; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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11. Maiti AK, Ghosh K, Chatterjee U, Chakrobarti S, Chatterjee S, Basu S: Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas. Neurol India; 2008 Oct-Dec;56(4):456-62
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in astrocytomas.
  • AIMS: The involvement of various growth factors, growth factor receptors and proliferative markers in the molecular pathogenesis of astrocytic neoplasms are being studied extensively.
  • Since EGFR and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are involved in mitogenic signal transduction and cellular proliferation pathway, we have studied the correlation between the expression of EGFR and PCNA labeling index in astrocytic tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of EGFR and PCNA using the appropriate monoclonal antibodies in 40 cases of astrocytic tumors of which 21 cases were glioblastoma, eight cases were Grade III or anaplastic astrocytomas and six cases were Grade II or diffuse astrocytomas and five cases were Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Both the EGFR expression and PCNA labeling index increase with increasing grades of astrocytomas with a significantly high percentage of cells showing positive staining for both EGFR and PCNA in GBM and Grade III astrocytomas compared to Grade II astrocytomas.
  • The expression levels of both EGFR and PCNA were low in Grade I or pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A significant correlation was found between EGFR overexpression and PCNA labeling index in Grade III and Grade II astrocytomas and glioblastoma.
  • These suggest that the tumor proliferation, at least in higher grades of astrocytomas is dependent in some measure on EGF and EGFR-related signaling pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism


12. Lacoste-Collin L, d'Aure D, Aziza J, Quintyn ML, Uro-Coste E, Courtade-Saïdi M: Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic findings of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):871-4
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  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic findings of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm with a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • Characteristic histologic features include pleomorphic tumor cells and lipidized cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), corresponding to a World Health Organization grade 2 tumor.
  • Computed tomography of the central nervous system revealed a supracallous periventricular tumor mass suggestive of either a lymphoma or a metastatic carcinoma.
  • CSF revealed 18 cells/mm3 and contained numerous tumor cells highly pleomorphic in size and shape.
  • A primitive glial proliferation was found, and paraffin-embedded tumor tissue obtained by biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic PXA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Essig M, Rohrer M, Giesel F, Tüttenberg J, Weber MA, Michaely H, Gerigk L, Voth M: Human brain tumor imaging with a protein-binding MR contrast agent: initial experience. Eur Radiol; 2010 Jan;20(1):218-26
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  • [Title] Human brain tumor imaging with a protein-binding MR contrast agent: initial experience.
  • In one nonenhancing low grade astrocytoma an enhancing nodule became visible only 5 h after gadofosvesest injection.
  • As shown in this initial report, contrast-enhanced intracranial tumor imaging is possible with the protein-binding blood pool agent gadofosveset.
  • The agent gives a significant tumor contrast in early postcontrast imaging comparable with conventional agents.

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  • (PMID = 19672603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium; XM33Q67UVH / gadofosveset trisodium
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14. Wolff JE, Berrak S, Koontz Webb SE, Zhang M: Nitrosourea efficacy in high-grade glioma: a survival gain analysis summarizing 504 cohorts with 24193 patients. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;88(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Nitrosourea efficacy in high-grade glioma: a survival gain analysis summarizing 504 cohorts with 24193 patients.
  • Even though past studies have suggested efficacy of nitrosourea drugs in patients with high-grade glioma and temozolomide has recently been shown significantly to be beneficial, no conclusive comparisons between these agents have been published.
  • We performed a survival gain analysis of 364 studies describing 24,193 patients with high-grade glioma treated in 504 cohorts, and compared the effects of drugs.
  • The most frequent diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (72%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (22%).
  • This information allowed the calculation of a predicted mOS for each cohort based on their prognostic factors independent of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Carmustine / adverse effects. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cohort Studies. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Databases, Factual. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Lomustine / adverse effects. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Male. Nimustine / adverse effects. Nimustine / therapeutic use. Reproducibility of Results. Selection Bias. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18253699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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15. Mobasheri MB, Jahanzad I, Mohagheghi MA, Aarabi M, Farzan S, Modarressi MH: Expression of two testis-specific genes, TSGA10 and SYCP3, in different cancers regarding to their pathological features. Cancer Detect Prev; 2007;31(4):296-302
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  • METHODS: In this study expression of TSGA10 and SYCP3 were investigated in different cancers (156 tumor samples) using RT-PCR.
  • But, SYCP3 transcripts were found in four tumor samples (moderately differentiated gemistocytic astrocytoma, pituitary adenoma, glioma and an ovarian tumor).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gene Expression. Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17920210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-090X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / SYCP3 protein, human; 0 / TSGA10 protein, human
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16. Hansen K, Wagner B, Hamel W, Schweizer M, Haag F, Westphal M, Lamszus K: Autophagic cell death induced by TrkA receptor activation in human glioblastoma cells. J Neurochem; 2007 Oct;103(1):259-75
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  • The neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) and its ligand nerve growth factor (NGF) are expressed in astrocytomas, and an inverse association of TrkA expression with malignancy grade was described.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Gene Transfer Techniques. Humans. JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Nerve Growth Factor / pharmacology. Vacuoles / ultrastructure


17. Zhou B, Phan V, Liu X, Juhasz A, Chu PG, Yen Y: Production of a monoclonal antibody against the hRRM2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and immunohistochemistry study of human cancer tissues. Hybridoma (Larchmt); 2006 Oct;25(5):264-70
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  • [Title] Production of a monoclonal antibody against the hRRM2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and immunohistochemistry study of human cancer tissues.
  • We report production of a monoclonal antibody against the hRRM2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of human cancer tissues available in paraffin block.
  • No staining was identified on astrocytoma, mesothelioma, or myeloma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Humans. Hybridomas / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Ribonucleotide Reductases / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17044781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-0014
  • [Journal-full-title] Hybridoma (2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hybridoma (Larchmt)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; EC 1.17.4.- / Ribonucleotide Reductases; EC 1.17.4.- / ribonucleotide reductase M2; EC 1.17.4.1 / Ribonucleoside Diphosphate Reductase
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18. Tamiya T, Takao S, Ichikawa T, Chayama K, Date I: Successful chemotherapy for congenital malignant gliomas: a report of two cases. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(4):240-4
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  • [Title] Successful chemotherapy for congenital malignant gliomas: a report of two cases.
  • We describe the cases of 2 patients with a congenital malignant glioma that responded to chemotherapy.
  • A T(1)-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance image showed a large tumor in his right frontal lobe.
  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was malignant ganglioglioma.
  • The child then underwent 6 cycles of chemotherapy (mainly carboplatin and etoposide), and the residual tumor shrank.
  • The tumor was then partially resected during a second operation, after which the patient underwent 5 cycles of chemotherapy (a combination of carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, ifosfamide, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide).
  • The tumor has not recurred in more than 8.5 years.
  • The T(1)-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance image showed a large suprasellar tumor.
  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The patient underwent 8 cycles of chemotherapy (MCNU, carboplatin and etoposide) and the tumor has not recurred in more than 7.5 years.
  • Our experience indicates that, if surgical removal and chemotherapy are done aggressively for malignant gliomas in neonates and infants, long-term survival is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ganglioglioma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16714866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; RYH2T97J77 / ranimustine
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19. Buckle MJ, Ellis RW, Bone M, Lockman H: Neurologically presenting Whipple disease: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Oct;61(10):1140-1
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  • [Title] Neurologically presenting Whipple disease: case report and review of the literature.
  • A previously healthy male with subacute onset right leg weakness was suspected to have an astrocytoma as imaging showed a lesion.
  • Subsequent biopsy showed the presence of foamy macrophages containing periodic acid-Schiff staining granules, suggesting Whipple disease as a possible diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Diseases / pathology. Whipple Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18381382.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 75J73V1629 / Ceftriaxone; 8064-90-2 / Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
  • [Number-of-references] 5
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20. Katakowski M, Jiang F, Zheng X, Gutierrez JA, Szalad A, Chopp M: Tumorigenicity of cortical astrocyte cell line induced by the protease ADAM17. Cancer Sci; 2009 Sep;100(9):1597-604
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  • EGFR is a key component of autonomous growth signaling in several tumors, and correlates with the malignancy grade of astrocytoma.
  • When implanted in the nude mouse brain, CTX-TNA2 cells induced low histological grade, benign intraventricular gliomas.
  • In contrast, the same astrocytes with hADAM17 formed large malignant gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 19515085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043892-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100486-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA043892; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100486-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100486; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA043892-17
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS142282; NLM/ PMC2756136
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21. Mason WP: Progress in clinical neurosciences: Advances in the management of low-grade gliomas. Can J Neurol Sci; 2005 Feb;32(1):18-26
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  • [Title] Progress in clinical neurosciences: Advances in the management of low-grade gliomas.
  • The management of low-grade gliomas represents one of the most challenging and controversial areas in neuro-oncology.
  • Many aspects of the treatment of low-grade gliomas are debated, including the optimal timing of surgery and radiotherapy, the benefit of extensive surgery, and the impact of these variables on the natural history of these indolent and generally incurable tumours.
  • The recognition that as many as two thirds of low-grade gliomas have oligodendroglial features, advances in molecular diagnostics making accurate pathologic diagnosis of oligodendroglial tumours possible, and the established chemosensitivity of malignant oligodendrogliomas, have raised new issues surrounding the potential value of chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas.
  • This review will be restricted to low-grade diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and low-grade mixed oligoastrocytomas in adults, and provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of these tumours, including the emerging role of chemotherapy as initial treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Glioma

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  • (PMID = 15825542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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22. Regan EM, Uney JB, Dick AD, Zhang Y, Nunez-Yanez J, McGeehan JP, Claeyssens F, Kelly S: Differential patterning of neuronal, glial and neural progenitor cells on phosphorus-doped and UV irradiated diamond-like carbon. Biomaterials; 2010 Jan;31(2):207-15
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  • In the present study we complement and extend these findings by exploring patterning of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants, human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) and U-87 astroglioma cells on P:DLC.

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  • (PMID = 19833386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5905
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 7782-40-3 / Diamond
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23. Poliani PL, Sperli D, Valentini S, Armentano A, Bercich L, Bonetti MF, Corriero G, Brisigotti M, Quattrone A, Lanza PL: Spinal glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and meningeal dissemination: histopathological and radiological study of a pediatric case. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):574-8
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  • [Title] Spinal glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and meningeal dissemination: histopathological and radiological study of a pediatric case.
  • In the present report we describe a case of a 15-month-old child with a spinal GTNI of the cervical region and meningeal dissemination.
  • Histologically the tumor was composed of round, small neurocytic-like cells arranged around eosinophilic neuropil cores and embedded in a diffuse fibrillar glial component forming prominent "rosetted" neuropil islands displaying strong immunoreactivity for neuronal markers.
  • Cerebral GTNI shows abundant glial components not rarely exhibiting anaplastic features that justify their inclusion within the group of diffuse astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 19077041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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24. Armand JP, Ribrag V, Harrousseau JL, Abrey L: Reappraisal of the use of procarbazine in the treatment of lymphomas and brain tumors. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2007 Jun;3(2):213-24
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  • Procarbazine alone, or more commonly combined in the PCV (procarbazine, lomustine [CCNU], and vincristine) regimen, is also effective in treating gliomas comprising astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • In conclusion, the use of procarbazine in combination with other drugs means that it remains a major anticancer drug in the management of Hodgkin's lymphoma and gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 18360630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1936303
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25. Shukla K, Parikh B, Shukla J, Trivedi P, Shah B: Accuracy of cytologic diagnosis of central nervous system tumours in crush preparation. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Oct;49(4):483-6
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  • The most common tumor in intracranial cavity was astrocytoma (56.68%), followed by meningioma (6.88%), medulloblastoma (5.66%) and ependymoma (5.56%).
  • The most common tumor in intraspinal cavity was ependymoma (38.46%), followed by meningioma (23.07%) and schwannoma (23.07%).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cytodiagnosis. Ependymoma. Medulloblastoma. Meningioma. Neurilemmoma

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  • (PMID = 17183833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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26. Choi WH, Ji KA, Jeon SB, Yang MS, Kim H, Min KJ, Shong M, Jou I, Joe EH: Anti-inflammatory roles of retinoic acid in rat brain astrocytes: Suppression of interferon-gamma-induced JAK/STAT phosphorylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Apr 1;329(1):125-31
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  • In primary cultured rat brain astrocytes and C6 astroglioma cells, both cRA and tRA decreased IFN-gamma-induced expression of interferon regulatory factor-1.
  • Furthermore, the effect of pre-treated RA was abolished in the presence of cycloheximide, indicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis.

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  • (PMID = 15721283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Socs1 protein, rat; 0 / Socs3 protein, rat; 0 / Stat1 protein, rat; 0 / Stat3 protein, rat; 0 / Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / Jak1 protein, rat; EC 2.7.10.2 / Jak2 protein, rat; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 1; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2
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27. Becher OJ, Peterson KM, Khatua S, Santi MR, MacDonald TJ: IGFBP2 is overexpressed by pediatric malignant astrocytomas and induces the repair enzyme DNA-PK. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1205-13
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  • [Title] IGFBP2 is overexpressed by pediatric malignant astrocytomas and induces the repair enzyme DNA-PK.
  • To identify targets critical to malignant childhood astrocytoma, we compared the expression of receptor tyrosine kinase- associated genes between low-grade and high-grade pediatric astrocytomas.
  • The highest differentially overexpressed gene in high-grade astrocytoma is insulin-like growth factor- binding protein-2 (P = .0006).
  • Insulin-like growth factor- binding protein-2 stimulation had no effect on astrocytoma cell growth and migration, and minimally inhibited insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated migration, but not insulin-like growth factor-2-mediated migration.
  • DNA-PKcs is also highly overexpressed by high-grade astrocytomas.
  • These findings suggest insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 plays a role in astrocytoma progression by promoting DNA-damage repair and therapeutic resistance.

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  • (PMID = 18952587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA092056; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA92056-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / DNA-Activated Protein Kinase; EC 2.7.11.1 / PRKDC protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS473094; NLM/ PMC3674842
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28. Harris JE, Friedland JS: l-Glutamate in Middlebrook 7H9 culture medium upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion from human astrocytoma cells. J Neurosci Methods; 2008 Aug 30;173(2):291-4
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  • [Title] l-Glutamate in Middlebrook 7H9 culture medium upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion from human astrocytoma cells.
  • Whilst investigating the secretion of MMP-2 from human U373-MG astrocytoma cells, we observed elevated MMP-2 secretion in response to Middlebrook 7H9 media but not to Mycobacterium tuberculosis itself.
  • Middlebrook 7H9 media did not stimulate MMP-1 or MMP-9 secretion from astrocytoma cells.
  • The excitatory neurotransmitter l-glutamate, at concentrations found in Middlebrook 7H9 media, induced significant astrocytoma MMP-2 secretion (p<0.05).
  • l-Glutamate-induced MMP-2 activity may contribute to neuropathology in various CNS diseases and may generate misleading data in pathogen studies where Middlebrook 7H9 is the culture medium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma. Cell Culture Techniques / standards. Cell Line, Tumor. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Extracellular Matrix / drug effects. Extracellular Matrix / enzymology. Extracellular Matrix / microbiology. Humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / drug effects. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / enzymology. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic / standards. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18611410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0270
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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29. Hamada H, Kurimoto M, Hayashi N, Nagai S, Kurosaki K, Nomoto K, Kanegane H, Nomura K, Endo S: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma in a patient presenting with fatal hemorrhage. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 Mar;1(3):244-6
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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma in a patient presenting with fatal hemorrhage. Case report.
  • The authors report on a rare case of pilomyxoid astrocytoma in a patient presenting with fatal hemorrhage.
  • Because the pathological diagnosis was pilomyxoid astrocytoma, chemotherapy was administered.
  • In this report, the authors review the literature and discuss the clinical features and treatment of pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Hemorrhage / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18352771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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30. Rashid MH, Ahmad SU, Rahman MH, Raihan MZ, Sayed MA: Surgical outcome of low grade astrocytoma of brain. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Apr;19(2):185-90
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  • [Title] Surgical outcome of low grade astrocytoma of brain.
  • This study was carried out in the department of Neurosurgery, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of January 2003 to December 2006 to elucidate the effectiveness of surgical treatment in the management of low grade astrocytoma of brain.
  • For this purpose, a total number of 50 cases admitted during the study period with low grade astrocytoma of brain supported by clinical features and radiological investigations (CT and MRI scan) were included in this study.
  • Out of 50 patients 60.0% had gross total removal of tumor and 40.0% sub total tumor resection.
  • Histopathological study was done in all cases after tumor resection.
  • Among the gross total tumor removal cases highest percentage had good recovery (93.4%) in the immediate post operative period.
  • Another 2(4.0%), those underwent subtotal tumor resection died during subsequent follow up period at 8th and 14th postoperative day.

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  • (PMID = 20395910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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31. Giffoni SD, Cendes F, Valente M, Gil-da-Silva-Lopes VL: Midline facial defects with hypertelorism and low-grade astrocytoma: a previously undescribed association. Cleft Palate Craniofac J; 2006 Nov;43(6):748-51
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  • [Title] Midline facial defects with hypertelorism and low-grade astrocytoma: a previously undescribed association.
  • We report on a child with midline facial defects with hypertelorism (MFDH), median cleft lip, sphenoidal ventriculocele, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and low-grade astrocytoma in the cervicomedullary junction.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Craniofacial Abnormalities / complications. Hypertelorism / complications


32. Holden LJ, Coleman MD: Further preliminary assessment of three human glioma cell lines as models of human astrocytic toxicity in vitro. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol; 2008 Nov;26(3):290-6
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  • [Title] Further preliminary assessment of three human glioma cell lines as models of human astrocytic toxicity in vitro.
  • Three human astroglioma lines U251-MG, U373-MG and CCF-STTG1 have been evaluated further as possible models for astrocytotoxicity (GFAP and IL-6 release).
  • It is possible that batteries of astrocytic human glioma cell lines may be applicable to the sensitive evaluation of toxicants on astrogliotic expression markers such as GFAP and IL-6.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21791377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1382-6689
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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33. Koul D: PTEN signaling pathways in glioblastoma. Cancer Biol Ther; 2008 Sep;7(9):1321-5
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  • Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor in adults, but the prognosis for patients with these tumors remains poor despite advances in diagnosis and standard therapies such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Progress in the treatment of gliomas now depends to a great extent on an increased understanding of the biology of these tumors.
  • Recent insights into the biology of gliomas include the finding that tyrosine kinase receptors and signal transduction pathways play a role in tumor initiation and maintenance.
  • Deregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways resulting from genetic alterations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene on 10q23 at the level of LOH, mutation and methylation have been identified in at least 60% of glioblastoma.
  • Loss of PTEN function by mutation or LOH correlates with poor survival in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, suggesting that PTEN plays a role in patient outcome.
  • Interestingly, amplification of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the background of heterozygous PTEN knockout mice develop invasive glioma very similar to human glioblastoma, demonstrating the importance of PTEN in glioma progression and providing a model system to evaluate the efficacy of targeting PTEN in glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology


34. Rickert CH, Riemenschneider MJ, Schachenmayr W, Richter HP, Bockhorn J, Reifenberger G, Paulus W: Glioblastoma with adipocyte-like tumor cell differentiation--histological and molecular features of a rare differentiation pattern. Brain Pathol; 2009 Jul;19(3):431-8
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  • [Title] Glioblastoma with adipocyte-like tumor cell differentiation--histological and molecular features of a rare differentiation pattern.
  • We report on three adult patients with primary glioblastomas showing prominent adipocytic (lipomatous) differentiation, hence referred to as "glioblastomas with adipocyte-like tumor cell differentiation."
  • Histologically, the tumors demonstrated typical features of glioblastoma but additionally contained areas consisting of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytic tumor cells resembling adipocytes, that is, containing large intracellular lipid vacuoles.
  • The second tumor showed gains of chromosomes 3, 4, 8q and 12 as well as losses of chromosomes 10, 13, 15q, 19 and 22.
  • In addition, this tumor carried homozygous deletions of CDKN2A and p14(ARF) as well as point mutations in the TP53 and PTEN genes.
  • The third tumor also had a mutation in the PTEN gene.
  • Taken together, our results define a rare glioblastoma differentiation pattern and indicate that glioblastomas with adipocyte-like tumor cell differentiation share common molecular genetic features with other primary glioblastomas.


35. Suzuki T, Izumoto S, Fujimoto Y, Maruno M, Ito Y, Yoshimine T: Clinicopathological study of cellular proliferation and invasion in gliomatosis cerebri: important role of neural cell adhesion molecule L1 in tumour invasion. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):166-71
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  • Because the nosological definition and histogenesis of GC remain controversial, the morphology and immunohistochemical staining patterns of neoplastic GC cells were compared with those of other gliomas.
  • METHODS: An immunohistochemical analysis of neoplastic cells from four patients with GC and 20 with astrocytic tumours using antibodies against Ki-67, GFAP, and L1, the last of which is a neural cell adhesion molecule putatively related to glioma invasion.
  • Cells from patients with other gliomas were positive for GFAP but concurrent L1 expression was negative or weakly positive.
  • CONCLUSION: The strong expression of L1 in patients with GC and its poor expression in the 20 patients with other types of glioma, including those with GFAP positive gemistocytic astrocytomas, suggest that L1 expression may play a role in the histogenesis of GC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Neoplasm / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Chemistry. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Glioblastoma / chemistry. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / immunology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15677537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770574
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36. Baurand A, Eckly A, Hechler B, Kauffenstein G, Galzi JL, Cazenave JP, Léon C, Gachet C: Differential regulation and relocalization of the platelet P2Y receptors after activation: a way to avoid loss of hemostatic properties? Mol Pharmacol; 2005 Mar;67(3):721-33
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  • In the present study, we investigated the desensitization and trafficking of the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors after agonist-induced stimulation of platelets or astrocytoma cells transfected with the P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors fused to green fluorescent protein.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Diphosphate / pharmacology. Amino Acid Sequence. Astrocytoma. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / physiology. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal. Molecular Sequence Data. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1. Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15602005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-895X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / P2RY1 protein, human; 0 / P2RY12 protein, human; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 61D2G4IYVH / Adenosine Diphosphate; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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37. Ishii D, Natsume A, Wakabayashi T, Hatano H, Asano Y, Takeuchi H, Shimato S, Ito M, Fujii M, Yoshida J: Efficacy of temozolomide is correlated with 1p loss and methylation of the deoxyribonucleic acid repair gene MGMT in malignant gliomas. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Aug;47(8):341-9; discussion 350
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  • [Title] Efficacy of temozolomide is correlated with 1p loss and methylation of the deoxyribonucleic acid repair gene MGMT in malignant gliomas.
  • Promoter methylation of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair gene, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), is associated with improved outcome of patients with glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma treated with temozolomide (TMZ).
  • Molecular genetic analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 1p, 19q, or 10q, p53 mutation, and MGMT promoter methylation was performed in 44 assessable tumor specimens obtained from 46 patients with recurrent malignant gliomas, including 21 with glioblastoma multiforme, 17 with anaplastic astrocytoma, and eight with anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, which have heterogeneous features and variable histological diagnosis, to assess the correlation with the response to TMZ.
  • LOH of 1p in the heterogeneous population of malignant gliomas may be one of the important factors besides MGMT methylation that predict better outcome in patients treated with TMZ.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Repair / genetics. Female. Genetic Markers / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Genetic Testing. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17721049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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38. Liebrich M, Guo LH, Schluesener HJ, Schwab JM, Dietz K, Will BE, Meyermann R: Expression of interleukin-16 by tumor-associated macrophages/activated microglia in high-grade astrocytic brain tumors. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2007 Jan-Feb;55(1):41-7
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  • [Title] Expression of interleukin-16 by tumor-associated macrophages/activated microglia in high-grade astrocytic brain tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of IL-16 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in human astrocytic brain tumors and the rat C6 glioblastoma tumor model.
  • IL-16 was detected in both human astrocytic brain tumors and rat C6 glioma.
  • RESULTS: Compared with human control brains, a significant increase in the percentages of parenchymal IL-16+ macrophages/microglia was observed already in grade II astrocytomas, indicating that IL-16+ immunostaining could be a descriptor of a macrophage/microglia subset in astrocytic brain tumors.
  • A further increase was observed at the transition from grade II to III astrocytomas.
  • This increase in IL-16 immunoreactivity correlated with WHO grades of human astrocytic brain tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, IL-16 might be a so far unknown factor in the regulation of the local inflammatory milieu of human and experimental astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Glioblastoma / immunology. Interleukin-16 / biosynthesis. Macrophages / immunology. Microglia / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Inflammation Mediators / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 17221335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-069X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Interleukin-16
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234149
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39. Ishihara R, Katayama Y, Watanabe T, Yoshino A, Fukushima T, Sakatani K: Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Feb;47(2):53-7; discussion 57
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  • [Title] Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • The fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced endogenously by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) administration has recently been used for the intraoperative visualization of glioma tissues.
  • To increase the sensitivity of photodetection, the emission spectra of 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence was quantitatively measured in tissues taken from six cases of en bloc resected diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (2 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 2 glioblastomas), and the correlation assessed between the fluorescence intensity and histological features.
  • The ratio of the peak emission intensity to reflected excitation intensity or fluorescence intensity ratio was less than 0.001 for all 36 non-tumor tissues.
  • The MIB-1 proliferation index was the most powerful determinant, suggesting that higher cell proliferation may govern preferential PpIX accumulation in glioma cells.
  • This preliminary study suggests that spectroscopic analysis may be useful for optimizing the removal of diffuse gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Protoporphyrins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aminolevulinic Acid. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Photosensitizing Agents. Spectrometry, Fluorescence

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  • (PMID = 17317941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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40. Yamada K, Takeshima H, Sakurama T, Kuratsu J: Secondary cervical dystonia following stereotactic radiosurgery in a patient with thalamic glioma. Surg Neurol; 2007 Dec;68(6):665-70
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  • [Title] Secondary cervical dystonia following stereotactic radiosurgery in a patient with thalamic glioma.
  • We report the first patient with secondary CD after stereotactic radiosurgery for thalamic glioma.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old woman complaining of headache and left motor weakness was found to have a thalamic tumor on the right side.
  • Histopathologically, tumor samples manifested features of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Torticollis / etiology


41. Hales RK, Shokek O, Burger PC, Paynter NP, Chaichana KL, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Jallo GI, Cohen KJ, Song DY, Carson BS, Wharam MD: Prognostic factors in pediatric high-grade astrocytoma: the importance of accurate pathologic diagnosis. J Neurooncol; 2010 Aug;99(1):65-71
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in pediatric high-grade astrocytoma: the importance of accurate pathologic diagnosis.
  • To characterize a population of pediatric high-grade astrocytoma (HGA) patients by confirming the proportion with a correct diagnosis, and determine prognostic factors for survival in a subset diagnosed with uniform pathologic criteria.
  • Log-rank analysis was used to compare survival by patient, tumor, and treatment factors.
  • Pathologic misdiagnosis should be suspected in patients who are long term survivors of a pediatric high grade astrocytoma.

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  • (PMID = 20043190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Li M, Jia ZZ, Gu HM, Zhou XJ, Tang LM: [Application of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy in identification of tumor component and grading of brain astrocytoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Dec 23;88(47):3352-5
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  • [Title] [Application of apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy in identification of tumor component and grading of brain astrocytoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in identification of tumor element and grading of brain astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients with histologically confirmed astrocytoma underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and conventional MRI before operation.
  • The values of ADC and FA of different regions in the same tumor and of astrocytoma of different grades were measured and compared.
  • RESULTS: The ADC values of the tumor parenchyma, necrotic region, peritumoral edema region were (1.28 +/- 0.44), (1.97 +/- 0.53), and (1.74 +/- 0.47) respectively, all significantly higher than that of the corresponding normal brain tissues [(0.80 +/- 0.18), P = 0.009, P = 0.000, P = 0.000] with significantly differences between the tumor parenchyma and necrotic region and peritumoral edema region (both P < 0.05), however, there was not significant difference between the necrotic region and peritumoral edema region.
  • The FA values of the tumor parenchyma, necrotic region, and peritumoral edema region were (0.18 +/- 0.07), (0.14 +/- 0.05), and (0.16 +/- 0.05) respectively, all significantly higher than that of the corresponding normal brain tissues [(0.58 +/- 0.10), all P = 0.000], without significant differences among the former 3 groups.
  • There were no significant differences in the ADC and FA values among the tumors at different grades, however, there was a tendency of ADC to decrease and of FA to increase along the increase of grade of tumor, although not significantly.
  • CONCLUSION: ADC value plays an important part in distinguishing tumor components and determining tumor boundary, and plays a certain role in judging the grade of astrocytomas.
  • FA value is vital to determine the tumor boundary, and has certain value in differentiating high-grade from low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anisotropy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19257968.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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43. Khalatbari M, Borghei-Razavi H, Shayanfar N, Behzadi AH, Sepehrnia A: Collision tumor of meningioma and malignant astrocytoma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(5):357-61
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  • [Title] Collision tumor of meningioma and malignant astrocytoma.
  • The pathology of tumors reported collision tumors composed of meningioma and malignant astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21389747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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44. Seyfried NT, Huysentruyt LC, Atwood JA 3rd, Xia Q, Seyfried TN, Orlando R: Up-regulation of NG2 proteoglycan and interferon-induced transmembrane proteins 1 and 3 in mouse astrocytoma: a membrane proteomics approach. Cancer Lett; 2008 May 18;263(2):243-52
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  • [Title] Up-regulation of NG2 proteoglycan and interferon-induced transmembrane proteins 1 and 3 in mouse astrocytoma: a membrane proteomics approach.
  • Traditionally, cell surface membrane antigens have served as biomarkers that distinguish brain tumor origin and malignancy.
  • In this study, membrane proteins were identified from a terminally differentiated mouse astrocyte (AC) and CT-2A astrocytoma (CT-2A) cell line using liquid-chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
  • Therefore, our data suggest that the CT-2A tumor may be derived from NG2 glia rather than from fully differentiated astrocytes.
  • Moreover, the CT-2A cells also express a series of interferon-induced signature proteins that may be specific to this tumor.
  • These data highlight the utility of LC-MS/MS for the identification of brain tumor membrane biomarkers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Proteins / metabolism. Proteoglycans / metabolism. Proteomics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Lineage. Chromatography, Liquid. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Mice. Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18281150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR005351; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR005351; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR005351-20; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR018502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Ifit1 protein, mouse; 0 / Ifit3 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS48651; NLM/ PMC2726046
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45. Xu GW, Mymryk JS, Cairncross JG: Inactivation of p53 sensitizes astrocytic glioma cells to BCNU and temozolomide, but not cisplatin. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(2):141-9
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  • [Title] Inactivation of p53 sensitizes astrocytic glioma cells to BCNU and temozolomide, but not cisplatin.
  • p53 inactivation sensitizes U87MG astrocytic glioma cells to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and temozolomide (TMZ), drugs used clinically to treat high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this report, we examined the effect of p53 inactivation on the chemosensitivity of two additional human astrocytic glioma cell lines, D54 and A172, in order to assess whether sensitization is a general property of astrocytic tumor cells.
  • Sensitization to both BCNU and TMZ was associated with failure of p21(WAF1) induction, lack of a sustained G2 cell cycle arrest and significant tumor cell death.
  • These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity to BCNU and TMZ is a general property of human astrocytic glioma cells in which p53 was disrupted.
  • In contrast, p53 inactivation rendered D54 and U87MG cells significantly more resistant to cis-dichlorodiamminoplatinum (CDDP), another chemotherapeutic to which high-grade astrocytomas sometimes respond.
  • These results indicate that p53 status influences the chemosensitivity of astrocytic glioma cells in a drug-type specific manner, a finding that may have implications for the selection of drug treatments for patients with astrocytic gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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46. Pusch L, Wegmann S, Caldwell JD, Jirikowski GF: Expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin in human astrocytoma cell line. Cell Mol Neurobiol; 2009 Jun;29(4):583-8
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  • [Title] Expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin in human astrocytoma cell line.
  • Glial tumor cells are known to be sensitive to glucocorticoids (GC) in vivo and in vitro.
  • Here we studied the expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) in the low-grade malignant human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Transcortin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19172388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-6830
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Insulin; 0 / NR3C1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9010-38-2 / Transcortin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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47. Capper D, Zentgraf H, Balss J, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Monoclonal antibody specific for IDH1 R132H mutation. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Nov;118(5):599-601
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  • IDH1 R132H mutations occur in approximately 70% of astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors.
  • Here, we show the high specificity and sensitivity of this antibody on Western blots and tissue sections from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor specimens.
  • This antibody is highly useful for tumor classification, in detecting single infiltrating tumor cells and for the characterization of the cellular role of mutant IDH1 protein.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Arginine / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Histidine / genetics. Humans. Mice. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity


48. Doherty MJ, Hampson NB: Partial seizure provoked by hyperbaric oxygen therapy: possible mechanisms and implications. Epilepsia; 2005 Jun;46(6):974-6
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  • We report a patient after resection of anaplastic astrocytoma and 5,580 cGy of total external-beam radiation treatments with brain radiation necrosis who underwent HBO2 therapy and developed a partial seizure during treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis / etiology. Necrosis / pathology. Necrosis / therapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15946345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-9580
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Chen AY, Lee H, Hartman J, Greco C, Ryu JK, O'Donnell R, Boggan J: Secondary supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor following irradiation in a patient with low-grade astrocytoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2005 Jan;26(1):160-2
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  • [Title] Secondary supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor following irradiation in a patient with low-grade astrocytoma.
  • We report a case of a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) that occurred 12 years after cranial irradiation for a grade II astrocytoma.
  • Neuroimaging was unable to distinguish between a recurrence of the original neoplasm and the development of a new, distinct entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation. Frontal Lobe. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Synaptophysin / analysis


50. Tchaicha JH, Mobley AK, Hossain MG, Aldape KD, McCarty JH: A mosaic mouse model of astrocytoma identifies alphavbeta8 integrin as a negative regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Oncogene; 2010 Aug 5;29(31):4460-72
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  • [Title] A mosaic mouse model of astrocytoma identifies alphavbeta8 integrin as a negative regulator of tumor angiogenesis.
  • Furthermore, little is known about how cancer cells selectively circumvent the actions of these inhibitors to promote pathological angiogenesis, a requisite event for tumor progression.
  • Using mosaic mouse models of the malignant brain cancer, astrocytoma, we report that tumor cells induce pathological angiogenesis by suppressing expression of the ECM protein receptor alphavbeta8 integrin.
  • Diminished integrin expression in astrocytoma cells leads to reduced activation of latent TGFbetas, resulting in impaired TGFbeta receptor signaling in tumor-associated endothelial cells.
  • These data reveal that astrocytoma cells manipulate their angiogenic balance by selectively suppressing alphavbeta8 integrin expression and function.

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  • (PMID = 20531304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS059876-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01NS059876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA127001; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS059876-02S2; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS059876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA127001; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS059876-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / integrin alphavbeta8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS198457; NLM/ PMC3037767
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51. Burzynski SR: Treatments for astrocytic tumors in children: current and emerging strategies. Paediatr Drugs; 2006;8(3):167-78
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  • [Title] Treatments for astrocytic tumors in children: current and emerging strategies.
  • Despite these accomplishments, CNS tumors remain the leading cause of death in pediatric oncology.
  • Astrocytic tumors form the most common histologic group among childhood brain tumors.
  • They are a heterogeneous group that from a practical therapeutic point of view can be subdivided into low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), optic pathway gliomas (OPG), high-grade astrocytomas (HGA), and brainstem gliomas (BSG).
  • Careful follow-up without any treatment is indicated for a small percentage of patients diagnosed with LGA with an indolent course including children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  • Radiation therapy is generally recommended for children with progressive LGA, or after failure of chemotherapy, accomplishing tumor control at 10 years in over 60% of patients.
  • OPG is the most common type of brain tumor associated with NF1.
  • Tumor growth in some of these patients is slow with no treatment recommended for an extended period of time.
  • The prognosis for children with the remaining types of astrocytomas remains poor.
  • Careful evaluation of histology, location of the tumor, patient age, and consideration of treatment-related morbidity play an important part in selecting between clinical observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or investigational agents.
  • The goals of treatment for astrocytic tumors should extend well beyond objective responses and increased survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16774296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5878
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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52. Adamson DC, Rasheed BA, McLendon RE, Bigner DD: Central nervous system. Cancer Biomark; 2010;9(1-6):193-210
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  • The prognoses for these tumors are related to several factors, such as the age of the patient and the location and histology of the tumor.
  • Arising from glial cells, gliomas represent over 36% of all primary CNS tumors and consist of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, mixed gliomas, and neuroepithelial tumors.
  • The most common gliomas are astrocytomas, and these tumors are typically classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Grades I through IV.
  • Grade IV, the most malignant grade of astrocytoma, includes glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant primary CNS glioma in adults, which represents 51% of all CNS gliomas.
  • Here we describe the molecular and cellular events associated with malignant glioma initiation and progression.
  • We also review the importance of glioma stem cell biology and tumor immunology in early gliomagenesis.
  • In addition, we present a brief description of the most common malignant primary CNS glioma in pediatric patients - medulloblastoma, as well as familial cancer syndromes that include gliomas as part of the syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 22112477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8592
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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53. Rush SZ, Abel TW, Valadez JG, Pearson M, Cooper MK: Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):790-8
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  • [Title] Activation of the Hedgehog pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is commonly viewed as a benign lesion.
  • However, disease onset is most prevalent in the first two decades of life, and children are often left with residual or recurrent disease and significant morbidity.
  • The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of higher WHO grade gliomas, and in this study, we have evaluated the activation and operational status of this regulatory pathway in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Expression levels of the Hh pathway transcriptional target PTCH were elevated in 45% of tumor specimens analyzed (ages 1-22 years) and correlated inversely with patient age.
  • Evaluation of a tissue array revealed oligodendroglioma-like features, pilomyxoid features, infiltration, and necrosis more commonly in specimens from younger patients (below the median patient age of 10 years).
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Hh pathway activation is common in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may be associated with younger age at diagnosis and tumor growth.

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  • (PMID = 20223881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K02NS053614
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / patched receptors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940682
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54. Shin JH, Kim SW, Lim CM, Jeong JY, Piao CS, Lee JK: alphaB-crystallin suppresses oxidative stress-induced astrocyte apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activation. Neurosci Res; 2009 Aug;64(4):355-61
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  • To investigate the functional significance of alphaB-crystallin induction in astrocytes, we generated a stable C6 astroglioma cell line overexpressing alphaB-crystallin.
  • Furthermore, the repression of alphaB-crystallin expression by alphaB-crystallin siRNA transfection suppressed this protective effect, indicating that alphaB-crystallin is responsible for the protection against H2O2-induced apoptosis in C6 astroglioma cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytoprotection / physiology. Down-Regulation / physiology. Hydrogen Peroxide / toxicity. Neurodegenerative Diseases / genetics. Neurodegenerative Diseases / metabolism. Neurodegenerative Diseases / physiopathology. Oxidants / toxicity. Protein Binding / physiology. RNA Interference / physiology. Rats. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19379782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8111
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oxidants; 0 / alpha-Crystallin B Chain; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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55. Yang SH, Hong YK, Yoon SC, Kim BS, Lee YS, Lee TK, Lee KS, Jeun SS, Kim MC, Park CK: Radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy for patients with malignant glioma. Oncol Rep; 2007 Jun;17(6):1359-64
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy for patients with malignant glioma.
  • We analyzed the clinical efficacy and toxicity of concurrent therapy as a first line modality for malignant glioma patients.
  • From 1998 to 2004, 39 patients, 22 with glioblastoma (GM), nine with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), 7 with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and 1 with anaplastic oligodendro-astrocytoma (AOA) were enrolled in this study.
  • Modified concurrent chemoradiotherapy may be a feasible option for treating malignant glioma with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Lomustine / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / adverse effects. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17487391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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56. Hartmann C, Hentschel B, Wick W, Capper D, Felsberg J, Simon M, Westphal M, Schackert G, Meyermann R, Pietsch T, Reifenberger G, Weller M, Loeffler M, von Deimling A: Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Dec;120(6):707-18
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  • [Title] Patients with IDH1 wild type anaplastic astrocytomas exhibit worse prognosis than IDH1-mutated glioblastomas, and IDH1 mutation status accounts for the unfavorable prognostic effect of higher age: implications for classification of gliomas.
  • WHO grading of human brain tumors extends beyond a strictly histological grading system by providing a basis predictive for the clinical behavior of the respective neoplasm.
  • For example, patients with glioblastoma WHO grade IV usually show a less favorable clinical course and receive more aggressive first-line treatment than patients with anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III.
  • Here we provide evidence that the IDH1 status is more prognostic for overall survival than standard histological criteria that differentiate high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We sequenced the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) at codon 132 in 382 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma from the NOA-04 trial and from a prospective translational cohort study of the German Glioma Network.
  • Patients with anaplastic astrocytomas carried IDH1 mutations in 60%, and patients with glioblastomas in 7.2%.
  • The sequence from more favorable to poorer outcome was (1) anaplastic astrocytoma with IDH1 mutation, (2) glioblastoma with IDH1 mutation, (3) anaplastic astrocytoma without IDH1 mutation and (4) glioblastoma without IDH1 mutation (p < 0.0001).
  • In this combined set of anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas both, IDH1 mutation and IDH1 expression status were of greater prognostic relevance than histological diagnosis according to the current WHO classification system.
  • We propose to complement the current WHO classification and grading of high-grade astrocytic gliomas by the IDH1 mutation status and to use this combined histological and molecular classification in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioma / classification. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Young Adult


57. Okamoto H, Mineta T, Ueda S, Nakahara Y, Shiraishi T, Tamiya T, Tabuchi K: Detection of JC virus DNA sequences in brain tumors in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;102(3 Suppl):294-8
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  • METHODS: Genomic DNA sequences were isolated from 62 brain tumors (32 medulloblastomas, 18 ependymomas, five choroid plexus papillomas, and seven pilocytic astrocytomas) and analyzed for the presence of JC virus DNA by Southern blot hybridization and direct sequencing.
  • None of the medulloblastomas or pilocytic astrocytomas contained JC virus DNA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Viral, Tumor / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / virology. Base Sequence. Blotting, Southern. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / virology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / virology. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / virology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / virology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / pathology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15881753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral
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58. Hulleman E, Helin K: Molecular mechanisms in gliomagenesis. Adv Cancer Res; 2005;94:1-27
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  • Glioma, and in particular high-grade astrocytoma termed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most common primary tumor of the brain.
  • Modeling of astrocytomas by genetic manipulation of mice suggests that deregulation of the pathways that control gliogenesis during normal brain development, such as the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into astrocytes, might contribute to GBM formation.
  • Use of novel techniques including large-scale genomics and proteomics in combination with relevant mouse models will most likely provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma formation and will hopefully lead to development of treatment modalities for GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioma / classification. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16095998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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59. Bartik P, Maglott A, Entlicher G, Vestweber D, Takeda K, Martin S, Dontenwill M: Detection of a hypersialylated beta1 integrin endogenously expressed in the human astrocytoma cell line A172. Int J Oncol; 2008 May;32(5):1021-31
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  • [Title] Detection of a hypersialylated beta1 integrin endogenously expressed in the human astrocytoma cell line A172.
  • Gliomas are the most common deadly brain tumors.
  • As a potential new target, alpha5beta1 was investigated here in two human astrocytoma cell lines, A172 and U87MG.
  • Overexpression of the beta1 integrin subunit in A172 cells not only increased the hypersialylated form but also led to the appearance of a non-hypersialylated beta1 form also addressed to the cell surface.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD29 / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Sialic Acids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Dimerization. Fibronectins / metabolism. Glycosylation. Humans. Integrin alpha5 / metabolism. Integrin alpha5beta1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Integrin alpha5beta1 / metabolism. Propionates / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Spiro Compounds / pharmacology. Transfection. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18425328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD29; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Integrin alpha5; 0 / Integrin alpha5beta1; 0 / Propionates; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / SJ749; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / Spiro Compounds
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60. Higgins SC, Pilkington GJ: The in vitro effects of tricyclic drugs and dexamethasone on cellular respiration of malignant glioma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Feb;30(2):391-7
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  • [Title] The in vitro effects of tricyclic drugs and dexamethasone on cellular respiration of malignant glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: In this investigation the effects of tricyclic drugs on cellular respiration were studied using the anaplastic astrocytoma cell line IPSB-18 by use of a Clark-type oxygen electrode which measured changes in cellular respiration rate (oxygen consumption), in a dose-response assay.
  • Overall, it appeared that clomipramine and its metabolite norclomipramine were the most potent inhibitors of cellular respiration in glioma cells over the concentration range 0.5-0.9 mM.
  • Dexamethasone was able to induce inhibition of cellular respiration both alone in glioma cells, and in combination with clomipramine, where it had an additive or synergistic effect, thereby increasing cell death.
  • CONCLUSION: The extensive research currently ongoing and previously reported regarding the use of clomipramine as a potential antineoplastic agent aimed at targeting the mitochondria of gliomas is promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Respiration / drug effects. Dexamethasone / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amitriptyline / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Clomipramine / pharmacology. Doxepin / pharmacology. Humans. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects. Respiratory Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20332444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 1668-19-5 / Doxepin; 1806D8D52K / Amitriptyline; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; NUV44L116D / Clomipramine
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61. Lee JM, Kim SH, Lee JI, Ryou JY, Kim SY: Acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor. Korean J Ophthalmol; 2009 Sep;23(3):228-31
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  • [Title] Acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor.
  • We report a case of acute comitant esotropia in a child with a cerebellar tumor.
  • A 3-year-old boy was referred for management of a 9 month history of acute acquired comitant esotropia.
  • The mass was completely excised and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Therefore, acute onset comitant esotropia in a child can be the first sign of a cerebellar tumor, even without any other neurological signs and symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Cerebellar Neoplasms / complications. Esotropia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Brain / pathology. Child, Preschool. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurosurgical Procedures. Oculomotor Muscles / surgery. Refraction, Ocular. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19794955.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-9382
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2739968
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute onset / Cerebellar tumor / Comitant esotropia
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62. Jin M, Komohara Y, Shichijo S, Yamanaka R, Nikawa J, Itoh K, Yamada A: Erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte B6 variant-derived peptides with the ability to induce glioma-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human leukocyte antigen-A2+ glioma patients. Cancer Sci; 2008 Aug;99(8):1656-62
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  • [Title] Erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte B6 variant-derived peptides with the ability to induce glioma-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes in human leukocyte antigen-A2+ glioma patients.
  • In the present study, we examined the expression of the EphB6 variant (EphB6v) in a panel of brain tumor cell lines and glioblastoma tissues and we found that EphB6v was preferentially expressed in malignant brain tumors, such as glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The two EphB6v-derived peptides exhibited the ability to bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A0201 molecules, and each of them was able to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HLA-A2(+) glioma patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression. Glioblastoma / metabolism. HLA-A Antigens. HLA-A2 Antigen. Hepatocytes. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18754880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-A Antigens; 0 / HLA-A*02:01 antigen; 0 / HLA-A2 Antigen; EC 2.7.1.- / EPHB6 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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63. Spacca B, Mallucci C, Riordan A, Appleton R, Thorp N, Pizer B: HSV encephalitis in a child with brain stem glioma: a rare complication of therapy. Case report and review of the neurosurgical literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Nov;23(11):1347-50
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  • [Title] HSV encephalitis in a child with brain stem glioma: a rare complication of therapy. Case report and review of the neurosurgical literature.
  • CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old boy was diagnosed with an inoperable, biopsy-proven pontine grade II astrocytoma.
  • He made slow improvement but died 8 months after diagnosis from tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex / etiology. Herpesvirus 1, Human. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17593375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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64. Darendeliler F, Karagiannis G, Wilton P, Ranke MB, Albertsson-Wikland K, Anthony Price D, On Behalf Of The Kigs International Board: Recurrence of brain tumours in patients treated with growth hormone: analysis of KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). Acta Paediatr; 2006 Oct;95(10):1284-90
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  • [Title] Recurrence of brain tumours in patients treated with growth hormone: analysis of KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database).
  • AIM: To analyse KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database) with respect to tumour recurrence in patients with brain tumours.
  • METHODS: Data for tumour recurrence were analysed retrospectively in 1038 patients with craniopharyngiomas, 655 with medulloblastomas, 113 with ependymomas, 297 with germinomas, and 400 with astrocytomas or gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniopharyngioma / drug therapy. Craniopharyngioma / mortality. Craniopharyngioma / radiotherapy. Craniopharyngioma / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / mortality. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Germinoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16982503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0803-5253
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Paediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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65. Jaing TH, Lin KL, Tsay PK, Hsueh C, Hung PC, Wu CT, Tseng CK: Treatment of optic pathway hypothalamic gliomas in childhood: experience with 18 consecutive cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Mar;30(3):222-4
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  • [Title] Treatment of optic pathway hypothalamic gliomas in childhood: experience with 18 consecutive cases.
  • The aim of this study was to present our 17-year experience (1989 to 2006) in the treatment of optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas (OPHG) in 18 children younger than 17 years (median age, 66 mo).
  • Histologic studies showed low-grade astrocytoma (WHO grade I or II) in 16 cases, anaplastic astrocytoma in 1, and oligoastrocytoma (WHO grade III) in 1.
  • Treatment included partial tumor resection in 12 patients, chemotherapy in 5, and radiotherapy in 3.
  • All treatment modalities led to tumor shrinkage and stabilization for a variable period, but none of them totally eradicated the tumor.
  • Fourteen (78%) of 18 patients had a sustained reduction of tumor size between 6 months and 17 years.
  • Two patients died, none with neurofibromatosis-1, with a hypothalamic/chiasmatic tumor with suprasellar extension and accompanying electrolyte abnormalities.
  • Because progression of these tumors is slow and associated with endocrinopathy, we recommend chemotherapy as a primary treatment of OPHG if the disease progresses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / therapy. Visual Pathways / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18376285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Mamedova L, Capra V, Accomazzo MR, Gao ZG, Ferrario S, Fumagalli M, Abbracchio MP, Rovati GE, Jacobson KA: CysLT1 leukotriene receptor antagonists inhibit the effects of nucleotides acting at P2Y receptors. Biochem Pharmacol; 2005 Dec 19;71(1-2):115-25
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  • In 1321N1 astrocytoma cells stably expressing human P2Y(1,2,4,6) receptors, CysLT1 antagonists inhibited both the P2Y agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization.
  • In control astrocytoma cells expressing an endogenous M3 muscarinic receptor, 10 microM montelukast had no effect on the carbachol-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+.

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  • (PMID = 16280122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK031116-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Chromones; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Quinolines; 0 / Receptors, Leukotriene; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / leukotriene D4 receptor; 0 / pranlukast; MHM278SD3E / montelukast; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; UT0S826Z60 / Uridine Triphosphate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS31385; NLM/ PMC4967539
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67. McNatt SA, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Nelson MD, McComb JG: Synchronous multicentric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: case report. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jul;57(1):E191; discussion E191
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare, low-grade astrocytoma of adolescence.
  • INTERVENTION: A right frontal craniotomy was performed for excisional biopsy of a superficial lesion beneath the coronal suture.
  • Three years after treatment, the patient remains neurologically nonfocal and shows no evidence of disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 15987556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Harder T, Plagemann A, Harder A: Birth weight and subsequent risk of childhood primary brain tumors: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol; 2008 Aug 15;168(4):366-73
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  • Previous studies have suggested that high birth weight is associated with an increased brain tumor risk.
  • The authors identified eight studies involving 1,748,964 children, of whom 4,162 suffered from brain tumors of three histologic types (astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, and ependymoma).
  • For astrocytoma, high birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.79), with each 1,000-g increase in birth weight being associated with a 19% (95% CI: 4, 36) increase in risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Birth Weight. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Fetal Macrosomia / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18579539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-6256
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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69. Durmaz R, Vural M, Işildi E, Coşan E, Ozkara E, Bal C, Ciftçi E, Arslantaş A, Atasoy MA: Efficacy of prognostic factors on survival in patients with low grade glioma. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):336-44
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  • [Title] Efficacy of prognostic factors on survival in patients with low grade glioma.
  • AIM: In this report, we aim to determine the prognostic factors influencing the length of survival in patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • The diagnoses of the patients were histopathologically verified as low-grade glioma(LGG).
  • The medical records of the patients were reviewed for age, gender, tumor locations, extent of resection, and presence of seizure, the neurological status as defined by the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) and radiotherapy treatment after surgery as possible prognostic factors.
  • Median survival time was 216+/-78.52 months for astrocytoma Grade I; 115+/-8.22 months for astrocytoma Grade II, and 242+/-76.36 months for oligodendroglioma.
  • Young age, histology subtype (oligodendroglioma) and preoperative KPS were determined to have positive influence on survival according to Log Rank Test.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / mortality. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aging. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Oligodendroglioma / mortality. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Seizures / etiology. Survival. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult


70. Stark AM, Fritsch MJ, Claviez A, Dörner L, Mehdorn HM: Management of tectal glioma in childhood. Pediatr Neurol; 2005 Jul;33(1):33-8
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  • [Title] Management of tectal glioma in childhood.
  • Tectal glioma is a topographical diagnosis including tumors of different histology, mainly low-grade astrocytomas.
  • This report discusses the management of this rare tumor in children.
  • Clinical charts of 12 children with tectal glioma treated in our department between 1976 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The duration between first symptoms and the diagnosis of tectal glioma was in the range of 2 days to 9 years.
  • Ten patients presented with symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure, one patient presented with ataxia, and in one case tectal glioma was an incidental finding.
  • First-line therapy was endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 5 cases (42%), ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 6 cases (50%), and combined partial tumor resection and shunting in one case.
  • Histology was obtained in 5 cases (low-grade astrocytoma, n = 4; ependymoma, n = 1).
  • Tectal glioma represents a distinct subgroup of brainstem tumors associated with a good (or favorable) prognosis.
  • Effective treatment for hydrocephalus is essential; the tumor should be monitored by regular clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Biopsy is warranted in cases with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Superior Colliculi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15876519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Shimizu H, Mori O, Ohaki Y, Kamoi S, Kobayashi S, Okada S, Maeda S, Naito Z: Cytological interface of diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma and its marginal tissue. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2005;22(2):59-74
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  • [Title] Cytological interface of diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma and its marginal tissue.
  • Cytological differences between infiltrating lesions of the diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma (DIA) and reactive gliosis at its periphery have not yet been established.
  • The cytological findings of this area are important because the surgeon may have to make a rapid diagnosis regarding the existence of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Gliosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytes / ultrastructure. Axons / ultrastructure. Biopsy. Carcinoma / secondary. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelin Sheath / ultrastructure. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neurons / ultrastructure. Oligodendroglia / ultrastructure. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 18095107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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72. Server A, Kulle B, Maehlen J, Josefsen R, Schellhorn T, Kumar T, Langberg CW, Nakstad PH: Quantitative apparent diffusion coefficients in the characterization of brain tumors and associated peritumoral edema. Acta Radiol; 2009 Jul;50(6):682-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has a number of limitations in the diagnosis of the most common intracranial brain tumors, including tumor specification and the detection of tumoral infiltration in regions of peritumoral edema.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively assess if diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) could be used to differentiate between different types of brain tumors and to distinguish between peritumoral infiltration in high-grade gliomas, lymphomas, and pure vasogenic edema in metastases and meningiomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: MR imaging and DWI was performed on 93 patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors: 59 patients had histologically verified high-grade gliomas (37 glioblastomas multiforme, 22 anaplastic astrocytomas), 23 patients had metastatic brain tumors, five patients had primary cerebral lymphomas, and six patients had meningiomas.
  • Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tumor (enhancing regions or the solid portion of tumor) and peritumoral edema, and ADC ratios (ADC of tumor or peritumoral edema to ADC of contralateral white matter, ADC of tumor to ADC of peritumoral edema) were compared with the histologic diagnosis.
  • ADC values and ratios of high-grade gliomas, primary cerebral lymphomas, metastases, and meningiomas were compared by using ANOVA and multiple comparisons.
  • Optimal thresholds of ADC values and ADC ratios for distinguishing high-grade gliomas from metastases were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
  • RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for minimum and mean of ADC tumor and ADC tumor ratio values between metastases and high-grade gliomas when including only one factor at a time.
  • Including a combination of in total four parameters (mean ADC tumor, and minimum, maximum and mean ADC tumor ratio) resulted in sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) of 72.9, 82.6, 91.5, and 54.3% respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that ADC values and ADC ratios (minimum and mean of ADC tumor and ADC tumor ratio) may be helpful in the differentiation of metastases from high-grade gliomas.
  • It cannot distinguish high-grade gliomas from lymphomas, and lymphomas from metastases.
  • ADC values and ADC ratios in peritumoral edema cannot be used to differentiate edema with infiltration of tumor cells from vasogenic edema when measurements for high-grade gliomas, lymphomas, metastases, and meningiomas were compared.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Meningioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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73. Yang X, Cao W, Lin H, Zhang W, Lin W, Cao L, Zhen H, Huo J, Zhang X: Isoform-specific expression of 14-3-3 proteins in human astrocytoma. J Neurol Sci; 2009 Jan 15;276(1-2):54-9
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  • [Title] Isoform-specific expression of 14-3-3 proteins in human astrocytoma.
  • In the present study, the levels of all seven 14-3-3 isoforms were examined in astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: The expression of 14-3-3 isoforms and their protein expression levels were examined in five glioma cell lines by western blotting.
  • Then in astrocytoma tissues, we investigated expression percentages of each isoform by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: 14-3-3beta and eta were specifically expressed in astrocytoma, and their expression frequencies and levels increased with the increase of astrocytoma malignancy.
  • The result from glioma cell lines was consistent with that from astrocytoma tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we found two tumor-specific isoforms of 14-3-3 in astrocytoma.
  • They might be involved in astrocytoma tumorigenesis and may be useful as targets for therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18851859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the neurological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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74. Amin A, Monabati A, Kumar PV, Hashemi SB: Nasal glioma (neuroglial heterotopia) mimicking an astrocytoma: case report. Ear Nose Throat J; 2005 Oct;84(10):657-8
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  • [Title] Nasal glioma (neuroglial heterotopia) mimicking an astrocytoma: case report.
  • Nasal glioma is a rare benign tumor that usually occurs during infancy.
  • We report a case of nasal glioma in a 6-month-old boy in which the histomorphologic features resembled those of an anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Neuroglia / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16382748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Nafe R, Schlote W, Schneider B: Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Feb;31(1):34-44
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  • [Title] Histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei in astrocytomas using shape analysis, densitometry and topometric analysis.
  • Although tumour cell nuclei are important histological structures for grading of astrocytomas according to the WHO-classification of brain tumours, there is no reported morphometric study of astrocytomas which describes quantitatively the four main morphologic criteria of tumour cell nuclei: size, shape, texture (densitometric characteristics) and spatial relationships between the nuclei (topometric analysis).
  • Using a set of morphometric parameters describing these criteria as well as the Ki67-proliferation index, 74 astrocytomas from 74 patients were studied by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • The objective of the study was to test, if these morphometric parameters were sufficient for statistical discrimination between pilocytic astrocytomas WHO-grade I, astrocytomas grade II and anaplastic astrocytomas grade III.
  • In conclusion, the present morphometric procedure provided good discrimination between the tumour grades, supporting the view that histomorphometry of tumour cell nuclei could be a valuable tool for grading of astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / ultrastructure. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 15634229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Xiong J, Liu Y, Wang Y, Ke RH, Mao Y, Ye ZR: Chromosome 1p/19q status combined with expression of p53 protein improves the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of oligodendrogliomas. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Dec;123(24):3566-73
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  • In order to improve the diagnostic criteria and to predict the prognosis of oligodendroglioma patients, the status of chromosome 1p/19q deletion, the methylation of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and the expression of p53 protein were evaluated and investigated in relation to patients' outcomes.
  • RESULTS: Both oligodendrogliomas and astrocytic gliomas exhibited frequent methylation of MGMT.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 22166632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; Chromosome 1, monosomy 1p
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77. Endale M, Kim SD, Lee WM, Kim S, Suk K, Cho JY, Park HJ, Wagley Y, Kim S, Oh JW, Rhee MH: Ischemia induces regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) protein upregulation and enhances apoptosis in astrocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol; 2010 Mar;298(3):C611-23
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  • We report the role of ischemic stress in RGS2 protein expression in rat C6 astrocytoma cells and primary mouse astrocytes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cell Hypoxia. Cell Line, Tumor. Glucose / deficiency. Humans. Mice. Oxidative Stress. Phosphorylation. Protein Kinase C-delta / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase C-delta / genetics. Protein Kinase C-delta / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Time Factors. Transfection. Up-Regulation. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20032508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-1563
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of physiology. Cell physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / RGS Proteins; 0 / RGS2 protein, human; 0 / RGS2 protein, rat; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Rgs2 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C-delta; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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78. Narayana A, Bhatia S, Souweidane M, Khakoo Y, Zaider M: (32)P radioisotope therapy for recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma. Brachytherapy; 2005;4(2):171-3
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  • [Title] (32)P radioisotope therapy for recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Its effectiveness in the treatment of a selected brain tumor is illustrated here.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Basal Ganglia / pathology. Brachytherapy / methods. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Phosphorus Radioisotopes / therapeutic use


79. Holland H, Koschny T, Ahnert P, Meixensberger J, Koschny R: WHO grade-specific comparative genomic hybridization pattern of astrocytoma - a meta-analysis. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Oct 15;206(10):663-8
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  • [Title] WHO grade-specific comparative genomic hybridization pattern of astrocytoma - a meta-analysis.
  • To detect novel genetic alterations, many astrocytomas have been investigated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
  • To identify aberration profiles characteristic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade I, II, III, and IV astrocytoma, we performed a meta-analysis of detailed genome wide CGH data of all 467 cases published so far.
  • Low-grade astrocytoma has already demonstrated one characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme, gain of chromosome 7 with a hot spot at 7q32, but without loss of chromosome 10.
  • In anaplastic astrocytoma, a more complex aberration pattern emerges from diffuse genetic imbalances.
  • In contrast to lower tumor grades, glioblastoma multiforme demonstrates +7p12 as the most frequently affected band on chromosome 7.
  • To quantify the gradual transition from WHO grade II-IV astrocytoma, we calculated the relative increase and decrease in frequency for each detected aberration of the tumor genome.
  • The most pronounced and diverse changes of genetic material occur at the virtual transition from low-grade to anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Summing up, the expansion of the CGH results to the 850 GTG-band resolution enabled a meta-analysis to visualize WHO grade-specific aberration profiles in astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Glioblastoma / genetics. World Health Organization
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genotype. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Phenotype. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20570053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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80. van den Bent MJ, Afra D, de Witte O, Ben Hassel M, Schraub S, Hoang-Xuan K, Malmström PO, Collette L, Piérart M, Mirimanoff R, Karim AB, EORTC Radiotherapy and Brain Tumor Groups and the UK Medical Research Council: Long-term efficacy of early versus delayed radiotherapy for low-grade astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults: the EORTC 22845 randomised trial. Lancet; 2005 Sep 17-23;366(9490):985-90
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  • [Title] Long-term efficacy of early versus delayed radiotherapy for low-grade astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults: the EORTC 22845 randomised trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Postoperative policies of "wait-and-see" and radiotherapy for low-grade glioma are poorly defined.
  • In 1986 the EORTC Radiotherapy and Brain Tumor Groups initiated a prospective trial to compare early radiotherapy with delayed radiotherapy.
  • Patients with low-grade astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, and incompletely resected pilocytic astrocytoma, with a WHO performance status 0-2 were eligible.
  • Radiotherapy could be deferred for patients with low-grade glioma who are in a good condition, provided they are carefully monitored.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2005 Dec;6(12):921; author reply 922 [16321759.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Lancet. 2006 Jun 3;367(9525):1818
  • (PMID = 16168780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-547X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-16
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Li B, Qi XQ, Chen X, Huang X, Liu GY, Chen HR, Huang CG, Luo C, Lu YC: Expression of targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 is associated with progression of human malignant astrocytoma. Brain Res; 2010 Sep 17;1352:200-7
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  • [Title] Expression of targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 is associated with progression of human malignant astrocytoma.
  • However, the contribution of TPX2 expression to astrocytoma progression is unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate TPX2 expression in human astrocytoma samples and cell lines.
  • TPX2 protein expression was detected in the nucleus of astrocytoma tissues by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining.
  • Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of TPX2 were higher in high-grade astrocytoma tissues and cell lines than that in low-grade astrocytoma tissues and normal cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from 52 patients with astrocytoma showed that TPX2 over-expression was significantly associated with decreased patient survival.
  • These data suggest that TPX2 expression is associated with the progression of malignant astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Aurora Kinases. Brain / metabolism. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin B1 / genetics. Cyclin D1 / genetics. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / genetics. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20599806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6240
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / TPX2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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82. Ohta K, Kuwahara K, Zhang Z, Makino K, Komohara Y, Nakamura H, Kuratsu J, Sakaguchi N: Decreased expression of germinal center-associated nuclear protein is involved in chromosomal instability in malignant gliomas. Cancer Sci; 2009 Nov;100(11):2069-76
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  • [Title] Decreased expression of germinal center-associated nuclear protein is involved in chromosomal instability in malignant gliomas.
  • Malignant glioma (MG) is highly proliferative and invasive, with the malignant characteristics associated with aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN).
  • Glioblastomas showed a significantly lower level of ganp mRNA than anaplastic astrocytomas, as measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, in 101 cases of adult MG.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetyltransferases / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomal Instability. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Female. Genes, p53. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. RNA Interference. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19686285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; EC 2.3.1.- / Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.- / MCM3AP protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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83. Montemor JP, Peria FM, Monti CR, Petrilli LS, Colli BO, Carlotti Júnior CG: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel in malignant cerebral glioma treatment. Onkologie; 2008 Sep;31(8-9):435-9
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  • [Title] Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel in malignant cerebral glioma treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic astrocytomas (AA) and glioblastomas (GB) are the most common malignant gliomas, and despite newly developed drugs and combined treatments, they still have an adverse prognosis.
  • Paclitaxel is a cytotoxic agent with radiosensitizing properties and exerts objective growth inhibition in glioma tumor cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemoradiotherapy with weekly paclitaxel is safe and tolerable although there was no increase in the overall survival and 12-month survival of malignant glioma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18787350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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84. Ikota H, Kinjo S, Yokoo H, Nakazato Y: Systematic immunohistochemical profiling of 378 brain tumors with 37 antibodies using tissue microarray technology. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 May;111(5):475-82
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  • Our TMA consisted of a grid of 1.5-mm cores that were extracted from individual donor blocks.
  • Ten antibodies [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Olig2, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), alpha-internexin, nestin, pinealocytes PP5, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) M13d and AQP4M13e] discriminated between astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumors.
  • Six antibodies [EMA, AE1/AE3, TUJ1, nestin, neurofilament protein-MH (NF-MH) and perivascular cells GP-1] showed significant differences between high-grade and low-grade gliomas.
  • Our data have revealed new antibodies with potential diagnostic utility (Olig2, PP5, GP-1) and demonstrate that TMA technology is highly useful for evaluating newly established antibodies in brain-tumor research.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / immunology. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Oligodendroglioma / immunology. Protein Array Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aquaporin 4 / immunology. Aquaporin 4 / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / immunology. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cluster Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / immunology. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Intermediate Filament Proteins / immunology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / immunology. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. Prognosis. Vimentin / immunology. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16598485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP4 protein, human; 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / Vimentin; 0 / alpha-internexin
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85. Kitis O, Altay H, Calli C, Yunten N, Akalin T, Yurtseven T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficients in the evaluation of brain tumors. Eur J Radiol; 2005 Sep;55(3):393-400
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging by using minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC(min)) values could differentiate various brain tumors including gliomas, metastases, and lymphomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 65 patients with histologically or clinically diagnosed brain tumors (12 low-grade gliomas, 31 high-grade gliomas, 14 metastatic tumors, and 8 lymphomas) using a 1.5 T MR unit.
  • RESULTS: The ADC(min) values of low-grade gliomas (1.09+/-0.20 x 10(-3)mm(2)/s) were significantly higher (p<.001) than those of other tumors.
  • There were no statistical significant differences between glioblastomas (0.70+/-0.16 mm(2)/s), anaplastic astrocytomas (0.77+/-0.21 mm(2)/s), metastases (0.78+/-0.21 mm(2)/s), and lymphomas.
  • But, lymphomas had lower mean ADC(min) values (0.54+/-0.10mm(2)/s) than high-grade gliomas and metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: The ADC measurements may help to differentiate low-grade gliomas from high-grade gliomas, metastases, and lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16129247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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86. Bajenaru ML, Garbow JR, Perry A, Hernandez MR, Gutmann DH: Natural history of neurofibromatosis 1-associated optic nerve glioma in mice. Ann Neurol; 2005 Jan;57(1):119-27
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  • [Title] Natural history of neurofibromatosis 1-associated optic nerve glioma in mice.
  • Children affected with the inherited tumor predisposition syndrome, neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), are prone to the development of low-grade astrocytic optic pathway tumors (optic pathway glioma [OPG]).
  • Previously, we developed a model of NF1-associated astrocytoma (GFAPCre; Nf1(flox/mut) mice) in which mice develop optic nerve and chiasm glioma.
  • Last, we observed neovascularization and microglial cell infiltration by 3 weeks of age before overt neoplastic transformation, suggesting that these cellular changes participate in the early stages of tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Animals. Animals, Newborn. Antigens / metabolism. Blood Vessels / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Indoles / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. Staining and Labeling / methods. von Willebrand Factor / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15622533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-5134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R24 CA 83060; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / 5T32 EY 13360-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 36996; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 91842
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Von Willebrand antigen; 0 / von Willebrand Factor; 47165-04-8 / DAPI
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87. Morales H, Kwock L, Castillo M: Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):682-7
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) have been described only recently.
  • They appear as low-grade tumors sharing imaging features similar to pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas have different histological features and behave more aggressively than PAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Myxoma / metabolism. Myxoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17895777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4L6452S749 / Inositol; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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88. Fakhrai H, Mantil JC, Liu L, Nicholson GL, Murphy-Satter CS, Ruppert J, Shawler DL: Phase I clinical trial of a TGF-beta antisense-modified tumor cell vaccine in patients with advanced glioma. Cancer Gene Ther; 2006 Dec;13(12):1052-60
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  • [Title] Phase I clinical trial of a TGF-beta antisense-modified tumor cell vaccine in patients with advanced glioma.
  • We performed a phase I clinical trial in grade IV astrocytoma to assess the safety of a whole-cell vaccine comprising autologous tumor cells genetically modified by a transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) antisense vector.
  • Blocking secretion of the immunosuppressive molecule TGF-beta in this manner should inhibit one of the major mechanisms by which tumor cells evade immune surveillance and should lead to clinically effective antitumor immunity.
  • Six patients with progressive WHO grade IV astrocytoma were enrolled in the trial.
  • Patients received 2-7 subcutaneous injections of 5 x 10(6)-2 x 10(7) autologous tumor cells per injection.
  • TGF-beta2 secretion by the tumor cells used to vaccinate patients was inhibited by 53-98%.
  • Two patients had partial regressions and two had stable disease following therapy.
  • Median survival of the responding patients was 78 weeks, compared to a historic value of 47 weeks for glioma patients treated conventionally.
  • These findings support further clinical evaluation of vaccines comprised of TGF-beta antisense-modified tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Transforming Growth Factor beta2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibody Formation. Female. Humans. Injections, Intradermal. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16826191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-1903
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA105964; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96025
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta2
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89. Opstad KS, Bell BA, Griffiths JR, Howe FA: Taurine: a potential marker of apoptosis in gliomas. Br J Cancer; 2009 Mar 10;100(5):789-94
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  • [Title] Taurine: a potential marker of apoptosis in gliomas.
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can determine the tumour biochemical profile in vivo, and we have investigated whether a specific spectroscopic signature exists for apoptosis in human astrocytomas.
  • Metabolites, mobile lipids and macromolecules were quantified from presaturation HRMAS (1)H spectra acquired from 41 biopsies of grades II (n=8), III (n=3) and IV (n=30) astrocytomas.
  • We suggest that the taurine (1)H MRS signal in astrocytomas may be a robust apoptotic biomarker that is independent of tumour necrotic status.

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  • (PMID = 19223899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1459/A2592
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653765
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90. Greco Crasto S, Soffietti R, Rudà R, Cassoni P, Ducati A, Davini O, De Lucchi R, Rizzo L: Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and ADC Maps in the Diagnosis of Intracranial Cystic or Necrotic Lesions. A Retrospective Study on 49 Patients. Neuroradiol J; 2007 Dec 31;20(6):666-75
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  • Eleven tumours (11/44) appeared hyperintense on DWI: eight metastases from lung cancer (mean ADC value 0.86 mm(2)/s, range 0.75-1.2 mm(2)/s), two GBMs (mean 0.7 mm(2)/s, range 0.67-0.76 mm(2)/s) and one anaplastic astrocytoma (ADC value 1.24 mm(2)/s).

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  • (PMID = 24300002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Harris LM, Davies N, Macpherson L, Foster K, Lateef S, Natarajan K, Sgouros S, Brundler MA, Arvanitis TN, Grundy RG, Peet AC: The use of short-echo-time 1H MRS for childhood cerebellar tumours prior to histopathological diagnosis. Pediatr Radiol; 2007 Nov;37(11):1101-9
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  • Peak heights for N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mIns) were determined and receiver operator characteristic curves used to select ratios that best discriminated between the tumour types.
  • NAA/Cr >4.0 distinguished all but one of the astrocytomas from the other tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Choline / analysis. Creatine / analysis. Inositol / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17823793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601327
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 4L6452S749 / Inositol; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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92. Janzarik WG, Kratz CP, Loges NT, Olbrich H, Klein C, Schäfer T, Scheurlen W, Roggendorf W, Weiller C, Niemeyer C, Korinthenberg R, Pfister S, Omran H: Further evidence for a somatic KRAS mutation in a pilocytic astrocytoma. Neuropediatrics; 2007 Apr;38(2):61-3
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  • [Title] Further evidence for a somatic KRAS mutation in a pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common brain tumors of childhood.
  • However, knowledge of the molecular etiology of astrocytomas WHO grade I and II is limited.
  • Germline mutations in the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein, neurofibromin, in individuals with neurofibromatosis type I predispose to pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • This association suggests that constitutive activation of the Ras signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in astrocytoma development.
  • We screened 25 WHO I and II astrocytomas for mutations of PTPN11, NRAS, KRAS, and HRAS genes and identified the somatic G12A KRAS mutation in one pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Analyzed astrocytomas without mutations in Ras or neurofibromin may harbor mutations in other proteins of this pathway leading to hyperactive Ras signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17712732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-304X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPN11 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11; EC 3.6.5.2 / HRAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras); EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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93. Terasaki M, Tokutomi T, Shigemori M: Salvage therapy with temozolomide for recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas refractory to ACNU [1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidynyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride]. Mol Med Rep; 2009 May-Jun;2(3):417-21
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  • [Title] Salvage therapy with temozolomide for recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas refractory to ACNU [1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidynyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride].
  • This study aimed to determine safety, response rate, toxicity and 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) by using temozolomide (TMZ) as salvage chemotherapy for 25 adults with recurrent or progressive high-grade gliomas (HGGs) who failed 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidynyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) therapy.
  • Twenty-six patients with recurrent or progressive ACNU refractory HGG, including 12 with glioblastoma (GBM) and 13 with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) were evaluated in a prospective study of temozolomide salvage chemotherapy.
  • The best response to chemotherapy had no impact on the duration of disease control.

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  • (PMID = 21475844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-3004
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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94. Haidinger M, Hecking M, Weichhart T, Poglitsch M, Enkner W, Vonbank K, Prayer D, Geusau A, Oberbauer R, Zlabinger GJ, Soleiman A, Hörl WH, Säemann MD: Sirolimus in renal transplant recipients with tuberous sclerosis complex: clinical effectiveness and implications for innate immunity. Transpl Int; 2010 Aug;23(8):777-85
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  • Beneficial effects of sirolimus against TSC were detected in the skin, along with improved spirometric measurements and an arrest of astrocytoma progression.

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  • (PMID = 20070623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2277
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcineurin Inhibitors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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95. Perry SL, Bohlin C, Reardon DA, Desjardins A, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Vredenburgh JJ: Tinzaparin prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):129-134
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  • [Title] Tinzaparin prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of tinzaparin for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in newly diagnosed grade III-IV malignant glioma patients.
  • Forty patients were enrolled into the study, 35 with glioblastoma multiforme and 5 with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Tinzaparin at a fixed prophylactic dose is safe and may decrease the incidence of thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Glioma / complications. Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight / therapeutic use. Venous Thromboembolism / etiology. Venous Thromboembolism / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19415455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-01A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23-HL084233-02
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight; 7UQ7X4Y489 / tinzaparin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180651; NLM/ PMC2837514
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96. Pinto GR, Clara CA, Santos MJ, Almeida JR, Burbano RR, Rey JA, Casartelli C: Mutation analysis of gene PAX6 in human gliomas. Genet Mol Res; 2007;6(4):1019-25
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  • [Title] Mutation analysis of gene PAX6 in human gliomas.
  • Gliomas are the most common tumors of the central nervous system.
  • In spite of the marked advances in the characterization of the molecular pathogenesis of gliomas, these tumors remain incurable and, in most of the cases, resistant to treatments, due to their molecular heterogeneity.
  • Gene PAX6, which encodes a transcription factor that plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system, was recently recognized as a tumor suppressor in gliomas.
  • The objective of the present study was to analyze the mutational status of the coding and regulating regions of PAX6 in 94 gliomas: 81 astrocytomas (11 grade I, 23 grade II, 8 grade III, and 39 grade IV glioblastomas), 5 oligodendrogliomas (3 grade II, and 2 grade III), and 8 ependymomas (5 grade II, and 3 grade III).
  • Therefore, we conclude that the tumor suppressor role of PAX6, reported in previous studies on gliomas, is not due to mutation in its coding and regulating regions, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the silencing of PAX6 in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Eye Proteins / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Mutation. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Base Sequence. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Gene Silencing. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18273794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / PAX6 protein; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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97. Song HY, Ryu J, Ju SM, Park LJ, Lee JA, Choi SY, Park J: Extracellular HIV-1 Tat enhances monocyte adhesion by up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene expression via ROS-dependent NF-kappaB activation in astrocytes. Exp Mol Med; 2007 Feb 28;39(1):27-37
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  • In this study, we examined the effect of HIV-1 Tat on the expression of adhesion molecules, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-kappaB activation in CRT-MG human astroglioma cells.

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  • (PMID = 17334226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental & molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; 0 / tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
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98. Steinbrenner H, Alili L, Bilgic E, Sies H, Brenneisen P: Involvement of selenoprotein P in protection of human astrocytes from oxidative damage. Free Radic Biol Med; 2006 May 1;40(9):1513-23
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  • We show that primary human astrocytes and the human astrocytoma cell line MOG-G-CCM express SeP as an unglycosylated protein, which is not secreted.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Glutathione Peroxidase / drug effects. Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism. Humans. RNA, Small Interfering. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Selenium / pharmacology. Transfection. tert-Butylhydroperoxide / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 16632112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-5849
  • [Journal-full-title] Free radical biology & medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Free Radic. Biol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Selenoprotein P; 955VYL842B / tert-Butylhydroperoxide; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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99. Pei Y, Wechsler-Reya RJ: A malignant oligarchy: progenitors govern the behavior of oligodendrogliomas. Cancer Cell; 2010 Dec 14;18(6):546-7
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  • Recent studies have suggested that brain tumors arise from neural stem cells and are maintained by stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs).
  • In this issue of Cancer Cell, Persson et al. report that oligodendrogliomas, unlike malignant astrocytomas, originate from-and are propagated by-cells that resemble oligodendrocyte progenitors.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentOn] Cancer Cell. 2010 Dec 14;18(6):669-82 [21156288.001]
  • (PMID = 21156279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3686
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122759-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122759-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122759-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122759-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122759; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122759-03
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS257439; NLM/ PMC3012268
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100. Sulman EP, Guerrero M, Aldape K: Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2009 Jul;19(3):142-9
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  • [Title] Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas (HGGs) represent a heterogenous group of tumors and account for most primary brain tumors.
  • These tumors include the anaplastic (World Health Organization [WHO] grade III) histologies of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas and the WHO grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • Prognostication for patients with these tumors has relied principally on tumor grade and clinical factors (age, performance status, and so on) and has been inexact at best in identifying those with long-term survival potential.
  • An even greater challenge has been to identify predictive biomarkers of therapy in the hope of tailoring a patient's therapy based on their tumor's molecular characteristics.
  • This review discusses the molecular pathology of high-grade gliomas, with particular emphasis on anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs because these represent the most common forms of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19464628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-9461
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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