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1. Nakamura M, Ishida E, Shimada K, Nakase H, Sakaki T, Konishi N: Frequent HRK inactivation associated with low apoptotic index in secondary glioblastomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Oct;110(4):402-10
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  • [Title] Frequent HRK inactivation associated with low apoptotic index in secondary glioblastomas.
  • To detect and identify the genetic alterations and methylation status of the HRK gene in human glioblastomas, we analyzed a cohort of astrocytic tumors for hypermethylation, loss of heterozygosity on 12q13.1, and gene expression.
  • Our study examined a series of 36 diffuse low-grade astrocytomas, 32 anaplastic astrocytomas, 64 primary glioblastomas, and 28 secondary glioblastomas that had evolved from either 24 low-grade diffuse astrocytomas or 4 anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • The region around the HRK transcription start site was methylated in 19% of diffuse astrocytomas, in 22% of anaplastic astrocytomas, in 27% of primary glioblastomas, and in 43% of secondary glioblastomas.
  • Reverse transcription-PCR analysis also demonstrated a clear agreement between reduced HRK protein levels and low or absent HRK transcripts.
  • Lack of HRK immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with a low apoptotic index, whereas a strong association between methylation status and apoptosis was found only in secondary glioblastomas.
  • Abnormal methylation of HRK was detected in astrocytic tumors concurrent with methylation of multiple genes, including p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF).
  • Our findings suggest that HRK is inactivated mainly by aberrant DNA methylation in astrocytic tumors and that reduced HRK expression contributes to the loss of apoptotic control in high-grade tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16155764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / HRK protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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2. van den Bent MJ: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma. Neurol Clin; 2007 Nov;25(4):1089-109, ix-x
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  • The only clinical relevant meaning of this histologic diagnosis was the observation that the prognosis of OD was in general better than that of astrocytic tumors of similar grade.
  • Observations have led to the current tendency to consider 1p/19q loss low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma a separate biologic entity, at least within clinical trials, since they have a much better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology


3. Schramm J, Aliashkevich AF: Surgery for temporal mediobasal tumors: experience based on a series of 235 patients. Neurosurgery; 2007 Feb;60(2):285-94; discussion 294-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, various approaches, and outcomes in a retrospective review of a large series of temporomediobasal (TMB) tumors.
  • METHODS: Charts from 235 patients with TMB tumors were identified from the glioma and epilepsy surgery database and from the electronic operations log.
  • The largest tumor groups were astrocytomas (38.0%), gangliogliomas (29.8%), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (11.1%), and glioblastomas (11.1%).
  • The most frequent tumor location was the mesial Type A tumor (45.1%), with this type also showing the highest proportion of benign (World Health Organization Grades I and II) histological features (91.3%).
  • Larger tumor size was associated with higher frequency of malignant histopathological findings.
  • Thirty-eight patients with low-grade tumors had undergone surgery previously.
  • CONCLUSION: Small tumor size, magnetic resonance imaging, and microsurgery have made resection of mostly benign TMB tumors possible in a large number of patients.

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  • [ReprintIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1272-82 [18695547.001]
  • (PMID = 17290179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Sarkar C, Karak AK, Nath N, Sharma MC, Mahapatra AK, Chattopadhyay P, Sinha S: Apoptosis and proliferation: correlation with p53 in astrocytic tumours. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):93-100
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  • [Title] Apoptosis and proliferation: correlation with p53 in astrocytic tumours.
  • We, as well as several other groups, have earlier demonstrated the association of p53 immunopositivity with increased degree of cell proliferation in astrocytic tumours.
  • Here we have studied the extent of apoptosis in 62 primary human astrocytic tumours [25 Diffuse Astrocytoma (DA), 9 Anaplastic Astrocytoma (AA) and 28 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)] in relation to tumour grade, proliferative status and p53 protein expression.
  • However this was not observed in p53 +ve GBM or in low grade DA either p53 positive or negative.
  • Taking p53 negativity in IHC as evidence of a functional gene/protein, this extends the link between proliferation and apoptosis, hitherto observed only in cultured cells with functional p53, to a subset of solid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15981097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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5. La Torre D, de Divitiis O, Conti A, Angileri FF, Cardali S, Aguennouz M, Aragona M, Panetta S, d'Avella D, Vita G, La Torre F, Tomasello F: Expression of telomeric repeat binding factor-1 in astroglial brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2005 Apr;56(4):802-10
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  • METHODS: Twenty flash-frozen surgical specimens obtained from adult patients who underwent craniotomy for microsurgical tumor resection, histologically verified as World Health Organization Grade II to IV astrocytomas, were used.
  • Expression of TRF1 in astrocytomas of different grades was studied by means of both immunohistochemical and Western blotting analysis.
  • RESULTS: TRF1 was expressed in all tumor samples.
  • The level of its expression was variable, decreasing from low-grade through high-grade astrocytomas (P = 0.0032).
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the loss of TRF1 expression capability, as a result of down-regulation of TRF1 expression in malignant gliomas cells, may play a role in the malignant progression of astroglial brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15792519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Telomeric Repeat Binding Protein 1
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6. Salmaggi A, Gelati M, Pollo B, Marras C, Silvani A, Balestrini MR, Eoli M, Fariselli L, Broggi G, Boiardi A: CXCL12 expression is predictive of a shorter time to tumor progression in low-grade glioma: a single-institution study in 50 patients. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(3):287-93
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  • [Title] CXCL12 expression is predictive of a shorter time to tumor progression in low-grade glioma: a single-institution study in 50 patients.
  • The clinical course of 50 patients with low-grade glioma (31 male, 19 female) undergoing surgery at a single Institution from 1992 to 1996 was analyzed in relationship with known prognostic factors as far as time to tumor progression (TTP) and survival time (ST) are concerned.
  • Histology revealed 11 fibrillary, 6 protoplasmatic, 5 gemistocytic astrocytoma, 18 oligoastrocytoma and 10 oligodendroglioma.
  • Of the remaining 46, twenty-four have shown disease progression and 14 have died.
  • Complete gross tumor removal was associated to a longer TTP (P = 0.04 logrank).
  • Of the investigated immunohistochemical parameters, while MVD was not predictive of subsequent TTP, expression of CXCL12 was associated with a significantly shorter TTP (P = 0.01 logrank): this predictive value remained significant (P = 0.02) at multivariate analysis.
  • The data suggest the possible prognostic value for CXCL-12 (an angiogenesis- and tumor-growth-related chemokine) on TTP in low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Chemokines, CXC / biosynthesis. Glioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemokine CXCL12. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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7. Weller M, Steinbach JP, Wick W: Temozolomide: a milestone in the pharmacotherapy of brain tumors. Future Oncol; 2005 Dec;1(6):747-54
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  • Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent earlier approved for recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma and approved for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma in the USA and Europe in 2005.
  • The early preliminary evidence for activity in recurrent malignant gliomas further resulted in a broad evaluation of TMZ for other tumors in neuro-oncology, mainly low-grade gliomas, brain metastases and primary cerebral lymphomas.

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  • (PMID = 16556052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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8. Ueda R, Low KL, Zhu X, Fujita M, Sasaki K, Whiteside TL, Butterfield LH, Okada H: Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma. J Transl Med; 2007 Dec 19;5:68
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  • [Title] Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: In patients with high grade glioma, little is known regarding existence of naturally occurring adaptive T cell reactivity against glioma-associated antigens (GAAs).
  • In this report, we characterized GAA-specific CD8+ T cells and innate immune cells in a patient who has survived with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) for over 12 years without recurrence.
  • RESULTS: The patient's tumor expressed both EphA2 and IL-13Ralpha2, and in vitro stimulated PBMC demonstrated superior EphA2883-891 and IL-13Ralpha2345-353-specific CTL reactivity compared to PBMC samples from two other patients with progressing malignant glioma.

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  • (PMID = 18093336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA100327; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS040923; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS40923
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / HLA-A2 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2244605
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9. Torii K, Tsuyuguchi N, Kawabe J, Sunada I, Hara M, Shiomi S: Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Dec;19(8):677-83
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  • [Title] Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The uptake of L-methyl-11C-methionine (MET) by gliomas is greater than that by intact tissue, making methionine very useful for evaluation of tumor extent.
  • METHODS: We performed this study on 67 glioma patients between 3 and 69 years of age (36 males and 31 females).
  • Tumors included diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, choroid plexus papilloma, central neurocytoma, optic glioma, gliomatosis cerebri, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma.
  • Tumor activity and degree of malignancy were evaluated using Ki-67LI (LI: labeling index) and Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
  • The correlations between methionine uptake and tumor proliferation (tumor versus contralateral gray matter ratio (T/N) and Ki-67LI) were determined for the group of all subjects.
  • The existence of significant correlations between T/N and Ki-67LI and between SUV and Ki-67LI was determined for astrocytic tumors.
  • Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of T/N and standardized uptake value (SUV) was performed for the group of astrocytic tumors.
  • RESULTS: For the 67 cases of glioma, the degree of accumulation was variable.
  • Ki-67LI differed significantly between the high-grade group and low-grade group at T/N levels between 1.5 and 1.8 on analysis using tumor proliferative potential (p = 0.019-0.031).
  • The prognosis differed significantly between the high-grade and low-grade groups when T/N was in the range of 1.6-1.8 (p = 0.028-0.032).
  • CONCLUSIONS: When analysis was confined to cases of astrocytic tumor, a correlation was noted between methionine accumulation and Ki-67LI.
  • For the astrocytic tumors, T/N ratio seemed to be more useful as a diagnostic indicator than SUV.
  • The cut-off level of T/N ratio for distinction between high-grade and low-grade astrocytoma appears to lie between 1.5 and 1.6.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Methionine / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods


10. Li YZ, Huang ZL, Wei DN, Xie CM, He HQ, Wei YF, Chen L, Wu PH: [Diffusion tensor imaging of the white matter tracts in preoperative patients with cerebral neoplasm]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2006 Nov;26(11):1648-51
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  • [Title] [Diffusion tensor imaging of the white matter tracts in preoperative patients with cerebral neoplasm].
  • METHODS: Four female and 8 male patients aged from 21 to 62 years with brain malignancies (2 malignant lymphomas, 2 low-grade astrocytomas, and 8 high-grade cerebral gliomas) underwent conventional contrast-enhanced MR and DTI examinations before operation.
  • The DTI patterns in WMT altered by the tumor were categorized on the basis of FA1/FA2 ratio as follows: pattern 1, FA1/FA2> or =75% with normal or only slightly decreased FA; pattern 2, 50%< or =FA1/FA2<75% with WMT displacement; pattern 3, 25%< or =FA1/FA2/50% with WMT involvement; pattern 4, FA1/FA2<25% with WMT destruction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DTI allows for visualization of WMT and benefits surgical planning for patients with intrinsic brain tumor.
  • There is a positive relationship between the bilateral FA ratio (FA1/FA2) variation and WMT alterations resulting from the tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Fibers / radiography. Neural Pathways / radiation effects. Preoperative Care. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17121724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Salmaggi A, Fariselli L, Milanesi I, Lamperti E, Silvani A, Bizzi A, Maccagnano E, Trevisan E, Laguzzi E, Rudà R, Boiardi A, Soffietti R, Associazione Italiana di Neuro-oncologia: Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study. J Neurol; 2008 Feb;255(2):171-7
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  • [Title] Natural history and management of brainstem gliomas in adults. A retrospective Italian study.
  • Brainstem gliomas in adults are rare tumors, with heterogeneous clinical course; only a few studies in the MRI era describe the features in consistent groups of patients.
  • In this retrospective study, we report clinical features at onset, imaging characteristics and subsequent course in a group of 34 adult patients with either histologically proven or clinico-radiologically diagnosed brainstem gliomas followed at two centers in Northern Italy.
  • In 21 of the patients histology was obtained and in 20 it was informative (2 pilocytic astrocytoma, 9 low-grade astrocytoma, 8 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 glioblastoma).
  • Only minor radiological responses were observed after treatments; in a significant proportion of patients (9 out of 15) clinical improvement during therapy occurred in the context of radiologically (MRI) stable disease.
  • Grade III or IV myelotoxicity was observed in 6 patients.
  • After a follow-up ranging from 9 to 180 months, all but 2 patients have progressed and 14 have died (12 for disease progression, 2 for pulmonary embolism).
  • Investigation of putative prognostically relevant parameters showed that a short time between disease onset and diagnosis was related to a shorter survival.
  • Compared with literature data, our study confirms the clinical and radiological heterogeneity of adult brainstem gliomas and underscores the need for multicenter trials in order to assess the efficacy of treatments in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Italy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18293027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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12. Saunders DE, Phipps KP, Wade AM, Hayward RD: Surveillance imaging strategies following surgery and/or radiotherapy for childhood cerebellar low-grade astrocytoma. J Neurosurg; 2005 Mar;102(2 Suppl):172-8
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  • [Title] Surveillance imaging strategies following surgery and/or radiotherapy for childhood cerebellar low-grade astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: The authors sought to evaluate surveillance strategies for the detection and monitoring of residual and recurrent disease in children with cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) treated surgically or with radiotherapy.
  • (2) those with residual disease with no immediate adjuvant therapy; and (3) those who received radiotherapy for residual/recurrent disease.
  • Eighty-four children were followed for a mean period of 73 months (range 2-159 months).
  • Following an incomplete resection, radiologically detected tumor progression leading to further treatment was detected at 7, 9, 12, 13, and 20 months, respectively, and an additional six tumors regressed or stablized.
  • For follow up of residual tumor, 6-month interval imaging for at least 3 years, yearly images for another 2 years, and subsequent 2-year imaging is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / radiography. Cerebellum / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Remission, Spontaneous. Time Factors


13. Gu S, Bao N, Yin MZ: Combined fontanelle puncture and surgical operation in treatment of desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma: case report and a review of the literature. J Child Neurol; 2010 Feb;25(2):216-21
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  • [Title] Combined fontanelle puncture and surgical operation in treatment of desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma: case report and a review of the literature.
  • Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma is a rare low-grade malignant brain tumor found in infants.
  • A case of desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma, including its clinical manifestations, pathological characteristics, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cranial Fontanelles / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods


14. Katsetos CD, Reddy G, Dráberová E, Smejkalová B, Del Valle L, Ashraf Q, Tadevosyan A, Yelin K, Maraziotis T, Mishra OP, Mörk S, Legido A, Nissanov J, Baas PW, de Chadarévian JP, Dráber P: Altered cellular distribution and subcellular sorting of gamma-tubulin in diffuse astrocytic gliomas and human glioblastoma cell lines. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 May;65(5):465-77
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  • [Title] Altered cellular distribution and subcellular sorting of gamma-tubulin in diffuse astrocytic gliomas and human glioblastoma cell lines.
  • Centrosome amplification is a pivotal mechanism underlying tumorigenesis but its role in gliomas is underinvestigated.
  • The present study specifically examines the expression and distribution of the centrosome-associated cytoskeletal protein gamma-tubulin in 56 primary diffuse astrocytic gliomas (grades II-IV) and in 4 human glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, U118MG, U138MG, and T98G).
  • In tumors in adults (n = 46), varying degrees of localization were detected in all tumor grades, but immunoreactivity was significantly increased in high-grade anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme as compared to low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (p = 0.0001).
  • A similar trend was noted in diffuse gliomas in children but the sample of cases was too small as to be statistically meaningful.
  • Our results indicate that overexpression and ectopic cellular distribution of gamma-tubulin in astrocytic gliomas may be significant in the context of centrosome protein amplification and may be linked to tumor progression and anaplastic potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens / metabolism. Blotting, Northern / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods

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  • (PMID = 16772870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / pericentrin
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15. Schomas DA, Laack NN, Brown PD: Low-grade gliomas in older patients: long-term follow-up from Mayo Clinic. Cancer; 2009 Sep 1;115(17):3969-78
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  • [Title] Low-grade gliomas in older patients: long-term follow-up from Mayo Clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are uncommon in older patients, and long-term clinical behavior and prognostic factors are not well defined in this group.
  • METHODS: The authors retrospectively searched their tumor registry for the records of adult patients (> or =18 years) diagnosed as having nonpilocytic LGG between 1960 and 1992 at Mayo Clinic.
  • Operative pathologic diagnoses comprised astrocytoma (n = 22, 69%), mixed oligoastrocytoma (n = 7, 22%), and oligodendroglioma (n = 3, 9%).
  • Pathologic sampling error failing to recognize higher-grade tumors does not seem to account for these poor outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 19536875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024150; None / None / / UL1 RR024150-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1 UL1 RR024150-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024150-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140676; NLM/ PMC2789453
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16. Di Costanzo A, Pollice S, Trojsi F, Giannatempo GM, Popolizio T, Canalis L, Armillotta M, Maggialetti A, Carriero A, Tedeschi G, Scarabino T: Role of perfusion-weighted imaging at 3 Tesla in the assessment of malignancy of cerebral gliomas. Radiol Med; 2008 Feb;113(1):134-43
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  • [Title] Role of perfusion-weighted imaging at 3 Tesla in the assessment of malignancy of cerebral gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: This study was performed to clarify the role of perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) at 3 Tesla in the characterisation of haemodynamic heterogeneity within gliomas and surrounding tissues and in the differentiation of high-grade from low-grade gliomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 36 patients with histologically verified gliomas (25 with high-grade and 11 with low-grade gliomas).
  • RESULTS: In high-grade gliomas, rCBV were markedly increased in mass [mean+/-standard deviation (SD), 4.3+/-1.2] and margins (4.0+/-1.1) and reduced in necrotic areas (0.3+/-0.3).
  • In low-grade gliomas, mass (2.0+/-1.5) and margin (2.2+/-1.2) rCBV were significantly lower than in high-grade gliomas (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Three-Tesla PWI helps to distinguish necrosis from tumour mass, infiltrating tumour from oedema and high-grade from low-grade gliomas.
  • It enhances the magnetic resonance (MR) assessment of cerebral gliomas and provides useful information for planning surgical and radiation treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Blood Volume / physiology. Brain Edema / diagnosis. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18338133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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17. Brown PD: Low-grade gliomas: the debate continues. Curr Oncol Rep; 2006 Jan;8(1):71-7
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  • [Title] Low-grade gliomas: the debate continues.
  • Low-grade gliomas (LGG) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that tend to occur primarily in young adults and children.
  • Many questions remain in the management of LGGs, including the role of surgical resection (ie, maximal tumor resection), the optimal timing of radiation (ie, postoperative vs at the time of tumor progression), and the role of chemotherapy (ie, salvage after radiotherapy, primary treatment after surgery, concurrent with radiotherapy).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16566078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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18. Jacques TS, Eldridge C, Patel A, Saleem NM, Powell M, Kitchen ND, Thom M, Revesz T: Mixed glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle with prominent rosette formation. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Apr;32(2):217-20
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  • Our cases demonstrate the morphological features of the 'rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle', a recently identified tumour characterised by its unique location, neurocytic pseudo-rosette formation and the presence of a low grade astrocytoma component.
  • However, the clinical data available including the cases presented here, along with the histological features, suggest that these are low grade tumours with a good prognosis after surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurocytoma / metabolism. Neurocytoma / pathology. Neurocytoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16599951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Galldiks N, Kracht LW, Berthold F, Miletic H, Klein JC, Herholz K, Jacobs AH, Heiss WD: [11C]-L-methionine positron emission tomography in the management of children and young adults with brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jan;96(2):231-9
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  • Only a few Methyl-[11C]-L-methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET) studies have focused on children and young adults with brain neoplasm.
  • The MET tumor-uptake relative to a corresponding control region was calculated.
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed to determine the MET-uptake value that best distinguishes tumorous from non-tumorous brain lesions.
  • A differentiation between high grade malignant lesions (mean MET-uptake = 2.00 +/- 0.46) and low grade tumors (mean MET-uptake = 1.84 +/- 0.31) was not possible.
  • There was a significant difference in MET-uptake between the histologically homogeneous subgroups of astrocytoma WHO grade II and anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III (P = 0.02).

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  • (PMID = 19575148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine; BN630929UL / methionine methyl ester
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2808525
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20. Raab P, Hattingen E, Franz K, Zanella FE, Lanfermann H: Cerebral gliomas: diffusional kurtosis imaging analysis of microstructural differences. Radiology; 2010 Mar;254(3):876-81
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  • [Title] Cerebral gliomas: diffusional kurtosis imaging analysis of microstructural differences.
  • PURPOSE: To characterize the non-Gaussian diffusion patterns of cerebral glioma microstructure with respect to the different glioma grades by using a new method called diffusional kurtosis (DK) imaging.
  • A Mann-Whitney test was used to compare each histologic glioma subtype regarding the diffusion measurements.
  • Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to test for the parameter with the best sensitivity and specificity for glioma grade discrimination.
  • RESULTS: In 34 patients with cerebral gliomas (five World Health Organization [WHO] grade II astrocytomas, 13 WHO grade III astrocytomas, and 16 WHO grade IV glioblastomas multiforme), significantly different diffusion patterns were found among the three glioma groups.
  • MK values increased with higher glioma malignancy, whereas ADCs tended to decrease with higher malignancy; FA values did not differ significantly among tumor groups.
  • Significant differences between astrocytoma grades WHO II and WHO III were demonstrated only by DK values.
  • Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was highest for normalized MK (0.972) during testing to discriminate between low- and high-grade gliomas.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates specific diffusion patterns for low- and high-grade gliomas, showing that DK imaging is able to depict microstructural changes within glioma tissue and is able to help differentiate among glioma grades. (c) RSNA, 2010.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Glioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20089718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Darken RS, Bogitch R, Leonard J, Perry A, McKinstry RC, Gutmann DH, Rubin JB: Brainstem glioma presenting as pruritus in children with neurofibromatosis-1. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Dec;31(12):972-6
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  • [Title] Brainstem glioma presenting as pruritus in children with neurofibromatosis-1.
  • The most common intracranial tumors are low-grade astrocytomas, which most frequently involve the optic pathway, and less often, the brainstem.
  • In cases of brainstem glioma in NF1, treatment decisions are frequently complicated by the paucity of symptoms referable to the tumor.
  • Here, we describe 2 children with NF1 whose initial presentation of a growing brainstem glioma was localized pruritus.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Pruritus / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19935099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Pal D, Hall G, Loughrey C, Shivane A, Chakrabarty A, Chumas P: Primitive neuroectodermal tumour arising within low grade astrocytoma: transformation, de novo or radiation induced? Report of three cases and review of literature. Br J Neurosurg; 2008 Jun;22(3):402-8
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  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumour arising within low grade astrocytoma: transformation, de novo or radiation induced? Report of three cases and review of literature.
  • The transformation from low grade to aggressive astrocytoma is well known.
  • However, the development of a completely different tumour such as a primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) within a low grade astrocytoma (LGA) is rare.
  • All three patients had histologically proven low-grade astrocytoma and received radiotherapy following biopsy.
  • Two patients underwent partial resection for recurrence, one at five and the other ten years later with histological confirmation of low-grade astrocytoma.
  • Histology now revealed high grade PNET.
  • Among the six reported cases of PNET arising following prophylactic radiation therapy to low grade astrocytomas, only two occurred within the original tumour.
  • Whether these cases represent transformation of low-grade astrocytoma, de novo formation of new tumour or radiation induced neoplasm is uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18568729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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23. Stojic J, Hagemann C, Haas S, Herbold C, Kühnel S, Gerngras S, Roggendorf W, Roosen K, Vince GH: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 is correlated with the WHO-grading of human malignant gliomas. Neurosci Res; 2008 Jan;60(1):40-9
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 is correlated with the WHO-grading of human malignant gliomas.
  • Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most prevalent type of malignant primary brain tumor in adults.
  • They may manifest de novo or develop from low-grade astrocytomas (LGA) or anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Tumor progression is facilitated by an increased activity of proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • Therefore, MMP-1, MMP-11 and MMP-19 might be of importance for the development of high-grade astrocytic tumors and may be promising targets for therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / enzymology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 11 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17980449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-0102
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinase 11; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted; EC 3.4.24.- / matrix metalloproteinase 19; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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24. Combs SE, Ahmadi R, Schulz-Ertner D, Thilmann C, Debus J: Recurrent low-grade gliomas: the role of fractionated stereotactic re-irradiation. J Neurooncol; 2005 Feb;71(3):319-23
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  • [Title] Recurrent low-grade gliomas: the role of fractionated stereotactic re-irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of re-irradiation in recurrent low-grade gliomas (LGG).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic re-irradiation in the case of recurrent gliomas.
  • At primary diagnosis of the tumor, the histology was grade II astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our retrospective data suggest that stereotactically guided fractionated re-irradiation in recurrent glioma represents an effective treatment option with good results and few complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation. Glioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15735924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Payne CA, Maleki S, Messina M, O'Sullivan MG, Stone G, Hall NR, Parkinson JF, Wheeler HR, Cook RJ, Biggs MT, Little NS, Teo C, Robinson BG, McDonald KL: Loss of prostaglandin D2 synthase: a key molecular event in the transition of a low-grade astrocytoma to an anaplastic astrocytoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 2008 Oct;7(10):3420-8
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  • [Title] Loss of prostaglandin D2 synthase: a key molecular event in the transition of a low-grade astrocytoma to an anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Reduction in the mRNA and protein expression of lipocalin-like prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) synthase (PGDS), the main arachidonic acid metabolite produced in neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system, is a significant biological event involved in the malignant progression of astrocytomas and is predictive of poor survival.
  • This finding has exciting implications for early interventional efforts for the grade 2 and 3 astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / deficiency
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / pharmacology. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Introns / genetics. Lipocalins / genetics. Multivariate Analysis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prostaglandin D2 / pharmacology. Protein Transport / drug effects. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18852145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Lipocalins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 5.3.- / Intramolecular Oxidoreductases; EC 5.3.99.2 / prostaglandin R2 D-isomerase; RXY07S6CZ2 / Prostaglandin D2
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26. Stege EM, Kros JM, de Bruin HG, Enting RH, van Heuvel I, Looijenga LH, van der Rijt CD, Smitt PA, van den Bent MJ: Successful treatment of low-grade oligodendroglial tumors with a chemotherapy regimen of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine. Cancer; 2005 Feb 15;103(4):802-9
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of low-grade oligodendroglial tumors with a chemotherapy regimen of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine.
  • Only limited data are available on the role of chemotherapy in low-grade OD.
  • The authors retrospectively studied the outcome of the procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy regimen in a group of 16 patients with newly diagnosed OD and 5 patients with recurrent low-grade OD.
  • In the newly diagnosed and responding patients, radiotherapy was withheld until the time of disease recurrence.
  • The median time to disease progression in this group was >24 months.
  • Only one of these patients experienced disease progression while receiving chemotherapy.
  • Several patients showed a signficant clinical improvement despite only a modest improvement of the tumor on the MRI scans.
  • MRI scans were of limited value for the assessment of response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Procarbazine / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15637687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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27. Ramírez-Aguilar R, Castillo-Montoya C, Alonso-Vanegas M: [Complex partial seizures secondary to a low-grade lipoastrocytoma]. Rev Neurol; 2007 Dec 16-31;45(12):766
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  • [Title] [Complex partial seizures secondary to a low-grade lipoastrocytoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Crisis parciales complejas secundarias a un lipoastrocitoma de bajo grado.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Epilepsy, Complex Partial / etiology. Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / etiology. Lipoma / complications. Supratentorial Neoplasms / complications. Temporal Lobe / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18075993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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28. Mehling M, Simon P, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Ferrone S, Weller M, Wiendl H: WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism? Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Aug;114(2):111-9
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  • [Title] WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism?
  • We investigated the expression of APM components in astrocytomas without detectable defects in HLA class I antigen expression and correlated it with grade of malignancy.
  • Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of astrocytomas revealed reduced expression of the cytosolic proteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2), the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) transporter associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1), and the ER chaperone beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in astrocytoma cells when compared to astrocytes from nonpathological brain.
  • Among human WHO grade II-IV astrocytomas, downregulation of LMP2, TAP1 and beta2m correlated with grade of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, astrocytoma cell lines (n = 12) expressed all APM components analyzed at levels comparable to dendritic cells (DC), which were used for comparative purposes.
  • However, upregulation of beta2m after stimulation with inflammatory cytokines was significantly lower in astrocytoma cell lines than in control cells.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that coordinated downregulation or impaired upregulation of certain HLA class I APM components may serve as a mechanism for astrocytoma cells to evade the host's immune response, even if HLA class I antigen surface expression is not altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen Presentation / immunology. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Tumor Escape / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / biosynthesis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cysteine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. World Health Organization. beta 2-Microglobulin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17541610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / TAP1 protein, human; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases
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29. Kita D, Yonekawa Y, Weller M, Ohgaki H: PIK3CA alterations in primary (de novo) and secondary glioblastomas. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):295-302
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  • [Title] PIK3CA alterations in primary (de novo) and secondary glioblastomas.
  • We assessed alterations in the EGFR/PTEN/PI3K pathway in 107 primary (de novo) glioblastomas and 32 secondary glioblastomas that progressed from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Furthermore, this signaling pathway was altered by either PTEN mutations or PIK3CA amplification in 10 of 12 (83%) malignant glioma cell lines analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioblastoma / classification. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17235514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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30. Pfister S, Janzarik WG, Remke M, Ernst A, Werft W, Becker N, Toedt G, Wittmann A, Kratz C, Olbrich H, Ahmadi R, Thieme B, Joos S, Radlwimmer B, Kulozik A, Pietsch T, Herold-Mende C, Gnekow A, Reifenberger G, Korshunov A, Scheurlen W, Omran H, Lichter P: BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas. J Clin Invest; 2008 May;118(5):1739-49
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  • [Title] BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas.
  • The molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytomas is still poorly understood.
  • To further understand the genetic abnormalities associated with these tumors, we performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number aberrations in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas by using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Similarly, a marked proportion of low-grade astrocytomas from adult patients also had BRAF duplication.
  • Both the stable silencing of BRAF through shRNA lentiviral transduction and pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2, the immediate downstream phosphorylation target of BRAF, blocked the proliferation and arrested the growth of cultured tumor cells derived from low-grade gliomas.
  • Our findings implicate aberrant activation of the MAPK pathway due to gene duplication or mutation of BRAF as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in low-grade astrocytomas and suggest inhibition of the MAPK pathway as a potential treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Duplication. MAP Kinase Signaling System / physiology. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism


31. Spacca B, Mallucci C, Riordan A, Appleton R, Thorp N, Pizer B: HSV encephalitis in a child with brain stem glioma: a rare complication of therapy. Case report and review of the neurosurgical literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Nov;23(11):1347-50
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  • [Title] HSV encephalitis in a child with brain stem glioma: a rare complication of therapy. Case report and review of the neurosurgical literature.
  • CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old boy was diagnosed with an inoperable, biopsy-proven pontine grade II astrocytoma.
  • He made slow improvement but died 8 months after diagnosis from tumor progression.
  • A low threshold for both investigation with CSF PCR and empirical treatment with intravenous aciclovir is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex / etiology. Herpesvirus 1, Human. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17593375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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32. Balss J, Meyer J, Mueller W, Korshunov A, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Analysis of the IDH1 codon 132 mutation in brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Dec;116(6):597-602
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We analyzed the genomic region spanning wild type R132 of IDH1 by direct sequencing in 685 brain tumors including 41 pilocytic astrocytomas, 12 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 7 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, 93 diffuse astrocytomas, 120 adult glioblastomas, 14 pediatric glioblastomas, 105 oligodendrogliomas, 83 oligoastrocytomas, 31 ependymomas, 58 medulloblastomas, 9 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 17 schwannomas, 72 meningiomas and 23 pituitary adenomas.
  • A total of 221 somatic IDH1 mutations were detected and the highest frequencies occurred in diffuse astrocytomas (68%), oligodendrogliomas (69%), oligoastrocytomas (78%) and secondary glioblastomas (88%).
  • Primary glioblastomas and other entities were characterized by a low frequency or absence of mutations in amino acid position 132 of IDH1.
  • The very high frequency of IDH1 mutations in WHO grade II astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas suggests a role in early tumor development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Gene Frequency. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioma / etiology. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18985363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
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33. Sasayama T, Nishihara M, Kondoh T, Hosoda K, Kohmura E: MicroRNA-10b is overexpressed in malignant glioma and associated with tumor invasive factors, uPAR and RhoC. Int J Cancer; 2009 Sep 15;125(6):1407-13
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  • [Title] MicroRNA-10b is overexpressed in malignant glioma and associated with tumor invasive factors, uPAR and RhoC.
  • Although the oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions of several miRNAs have been characterized, the role of miRNAs in mediating tumor invasion and migration remains largely unexplored.
  • Here, we performed real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays on 43 glioma samples (17 glioblastoma, 6 anaplastic astrocytoma, 10 low-grade astrocytoma, 6 oligodendroglioma and 4 ependymoma) and 6 glioma cell lines.
  • We found that miR-10b expression was upregulated in all glioma samples compared to non-neoplastic brain tissues.
  • The expression levels of miR-10b were associated with higher grade glioma.
  • Finally, multifocal lesions on enhanced MRI of 7 malignant gliomas were associated with higher expression levels of miR-10b (p = 0.02).
  • Our data indicated that miR-10b might play some role in the invasion of glioma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioma / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Receptors, Immunologic / genetics. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] 2009 UICC
  • (PMID = 19536818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / LILRB2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RHOC protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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34. Coenen VA, Huber KK, Krings T, Weidemann J, Gilsbach JM, Rohde V: Diffusion-weighted imaging-guided resection of intracerebral lesions involving the optic radiation. Neurosurg Rev; 2005 Jul;28(3):188-95
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  • DWI studies were performed together with T1-weighted postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in four patients with lesions in or adjacent to the OR (glioblastoma, oligo-astrocytoma, cavernoma, and metastasis; n = 1 each).
  • Preoperative and postoperative neuroophthalmological testing included, among others, perimetry to define the value of diffusion-weighted image guidance during OR lesion resection.
  • In one case, low-grade tumor parts infiltrating the OR were intentionally left.
  • [MeSH-major] Affect / physiology. Deep Brain Stimulation. Parkinson Disease / psychology. Parkinson Disease / therapy. Subthalamic Nucleus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15747136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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35. Chosdol K, Misra A, Puri S, Srivastava T, Chattopadhyay P, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:5
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  • [Title] Frequent loss of heterozygosity and altered expression of the candidate tumor suppressor gene 'FAT' in human astrocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: We had earlier used the comparison of RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) DNA fingerprinting profiles of tumor and corresponding normal DNA to identify genetic alterations in primary human glial tumors.
  • METHODS: In this study we used RAPD-PCR to identify novel genomic alterations in the astrocytic tumors of WHO grade II (Low Grade Diffuse Astrocytoma) and WHO Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme).
  • RESULTS: Bands consistently altered in the RAPD profile of tumor DNA in a significant proportion of tumors were identified.
  • One such 500 bp band, that was absent in the RAPD profile of 33% (4/12) of the grade II astrocytic tumors, was selected for further study.
  • Its sequence corresponded with a region of FAT, a putative tumor suppressor gene initially identified in Drosophila.
  • Fifty percent of a set of 40 tumors, both grade II and IV, were shown to have Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus by microsatellite (intragenic) and by SNP markers.
  • Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed low FAT mRNA levels in a major subset of tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: These results point to a role of the FAT in astrocytic tumorigenesis and demonstrate the use of RAPD analysis in identifying specific alterations in astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Loss of Heterozygosity

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  • (PMID = 19126244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / FAT1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631005
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36. Christmann M, Nagel G, Horn S, Krahn U, Wiewrodt D, Sommer C, Kaina B: MGMT activity, promoter methylation and immunohistochemistry of pretreatment and recurrent malignant gliomas: a comparative study on astrocytoma and glioblastoma. Int J Cancer; 2010 Nov 1;127(9):2106-18
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  • [Title] MGMT activity, promoter methylation and immunohistochemistry of pretreatment and recurrent malignant gliomas: a comparative study on astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
  • The DNA repair protein O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a key player in tumor cell resistance.
  • However, it is unclear whether MGMT promoter methylation correlates with MGMT activity and whether MGMT promoter methylation of the pretreatment tumor predicts the MGMT status of recurrences.
  • To address these questions, we determined MGMT activity promoter methylation and immunoreactivity in pretreatment and recurrent glioblastomas (GB, WHO Grade IV), and in astrocytomas (WHO Grade III).
  • For astrocytomas, promoter-methylated samples displayed 0-28 fmol/mg and, nonmethylated samples, 23-107 fmol/mg.
  • Given a threshold level of 30 fmol/mg of protein, we found a correlation between promoter methylation and no/low MGMT activity in 82.4% of the tumors.
  • Therefore, classification of hemimethylated tumors remains questionable.
  • Although individual exceptions were found, the data show an overall correlation between promoter methylation and lack/low MGMT activity in GB and astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Glioblastoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 20131314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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37. Horbinski C, Wang G, Wiley CA: YKL-40 is directly produced by tumor cells and is inversely linked to EGFR in glioblastomas. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010 Jan 01;3(3):226-37
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  • [Title] YKL-40 is directly produced by tumor cells and is inversely linked to EGFR in glioblastomas.
  • YKL-40 is a secreted chitinase-like molecule whose expression is associated with glioma grade.
  • Expression is higher in astrocytomas than oligodendrogliomas and has been reported to predict shorter survival and radiation resistance in glioblastomas (GBMs).
  • Whether YKL-40 is directly produced by glioma cells or other admixed nonneo-plastic cells, and whether it correlates with 1p/19q status or other hallmark molecular abnormalities, are unclear.
  • A rank-order list of YKL-40 expression was determined immunohistochemically in 79 untreated high-grade adult glio-mas, including 28 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs) and 51 GBMs.
  • Relative YKL-40 expression was compared with glioma class, key molecular alterations, and immunohistochemical markers via a series of Spearman rank correlations.
  • YKL-40 mRNA was abundant in glioma cells as well as reactive astrocytes, but was low in admixed neurons and macrophages.

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  • (PMID = 20224722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / K24 MH001717; United States / PHS HHS / / K24 M401717
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Lectins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2836500
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 10q / 1p19q / EGFR / YKL-40 / glioblastoma / oligodendroglioma
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38. Rosenzweig T, Ziv-Av A, Xiang C, Lu W, Cazacu S, Taler D, Miller CG, Reich R, Shoshan Y, Anikster Y, Kazimirsky G, Sarid R, Brodie C: Related to testes-specific, vespid, and pathogenesis protein-1 (RTVP-1) is overexpressed in gliomas and regulates the growth, survival, and invasion of glioma cells. Cancer Res; 2006 Apr 15;66(8):4139-48
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  • [Title] Related to testes-specific, vespid, and pathogenesis protein-1 (RTVP-1) is overexpressed in gliomas and regulates the growth, survival, and invasion of glioma cells.
  • In this study, we examined the expression and functions of related to testes-specific, vespid, and pathogenesis protein 1 (RTVP-1) in glioma cells.
  • RTVP-1 was expressed in high levels in glioblastomas, whereas its expression in low-grade astrocytomas and normal brains was very low.
  • Transfection of glioma cells with small interfering RNAs targeting RTVP-1 decreased cell proliferation in all the cell lines examined and induced cell apoptosis in some of them.
  • Overexpression of RTVP-1 increased astrocyte and glioma cell proliferation and the anchorage-independent growth of the cells.
  • In addition, overexpression of RTVP-1 rendered glioma cells more resistant to the apoptotic effect of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and serum deprivation.
  • Finally, we found that RTVP-1 regulated the invasion of glioma cells as was evident by their enhanced migration through Matrigel and by their increased invasion in a spheroid confrontation assay.
  • Our results suggest that the expression of RTVP-1 is correlated with the degree of malignancy of astrocytic tumors and that RTVP-1 is involved in the regulation of the growth, survival, and invasion of glioma cells.
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that RTVP-1 is a potential therapeutic target in gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Apoptosis / physiology. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / physiology. Glioblastoma / enzymology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness


39. Komotar RJ, Zacharia BE, Sughrue ME, Mocco J, Carson BS, Tihan T, Otten ML, Burger PC, Garvin JH, Khandji AG, Anderson RC: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Neurol Res; 2008 Nov;30(9):945-51
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified pediatric low-grade neoplasm that was previously classified as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), yet demonstrates unique histological features and more aggressive behavior.
  • These tumors have been shown to have significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival probability than classical low-grade astrocytomas, as well as a high rate of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination.
  • Radiographic characteristics of the tumor were recorded in each case.
  • CONCLUSION: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a well-circumscribed pediatric neoplasm that commonly originates from the midline of the neuroaxis and lacks peritumoral edema or central necrosis.
  • It is critical to recognize the predominantly solid and well-circumscribed nature of the neoplasm to avoid confusion with an infiltrating astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 18662499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Aarsen FK, Paquier PF, Reddingius RE, Streng IC, Arts WF, Evera-Preesman M, Catsman-Berrevoets CE: Functional outcome after low-grade astrocytoma treatment in childhood. Cancer; 2006 Jan 15;106(2):396-402
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  • [Title] Functional outcome after low-grade astrocytoma treatment in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: The relatively high survival rate of patients with low-grade astrocytoma necessitates increasing attention to physical and psychosocial outcomes.
  • The objective of the current study was to investigate functional outcomes among children who were treated for low-grade or pilocytic astrocytoma in different areas of the brain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At long-term follow-up, children who had low-grade or pilocytic astrocytomas were found to have poor functional outcomes, depending on tumor site, age, and recurrence.
  • Therefore, the authors suggest a long-term follow-up of children who are treated for low-grade or pilocytic astrocytomas at a young age to detect and subsequently offer support focused on the medical and cognitive impairments as well as on the behavioral and social consequences of their disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disabled Children. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 16353203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Smith JS, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Chang SM, Prados MD, Cha S, Tihan T, Vandenberg S, McDermott MW, Berger MS: Role of extent of resection in the long-term outcome of low-grade hemispheric gliomas. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Mar 10;26(8):1338-45
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  • [Title] Role of extent of resection in the long-term outcome of low-grade hemispheric gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: The prognostic role of extent of resection (EOR) of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) is a major controversy.
  • Region-of-interest analysis was performed to measure tumor volumes based on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) imaging.
  • RESULTS: Median preoperative and postoperative tumor volumes and EOR were 36.6 cm(3) (range, 0.7 to 246.1 cm(3)), 3.7 cm(3) (range, 0 to 197.8 cm(3)) and 88.0% (range, 5% to 100%), respectively.
  • After adjusting each measure of tumor burden for age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor location, and tumor subtype, OS was predicted by EOR (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.972; 95% CI, 0.960 to 0.983; P < .001), log preoperative tumor volume (HR = 4.442; 95% CI, 1.601 to 12.320; P = .004), and postoperative tumor volume (HR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.001 to 1.019; P = .03), progression-free survival was predicted by log preoperative tumor volume (HR = 2.711; 95% CI, 1.590 to 4.623; P <or= .001) and postoperative tumor volume (HR = 1.007; 95% CI, 1.001 to 1.014; P = .035), and malignant progression-free survival was predicted by EOR (HR = 0.983; 95% CI, 0.972 to 0.995; P = .005) and log preoperative tumor volume (HR = 3.826; 95% CI, 1.632 to 8.969; P = .002).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Oligodendroglioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18323558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Akar S, Drappatz J, Hsu L, Blinder RA, Black PM, Kesari S: Hypertrophic olivary degeneration after resection of a cerebellar tumor. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;87(3):341-5
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  • [Title] Hypertrophic olivary degeneration after resection of a cerebellar tumor.
  • We report a case of hypertrophic olivary degeneration due to cerebellar surgery for a low-grade tumor.
  • A 27-year-old female presented with right-sided paresthesias and intermittent leg paresis following a right cerebellar resection of a tumor 2 weeks prior.
  • An MRI scan revealed a hypertrophied left anterolateral medulla with increased T2 signal and no diffusion abnormality.
  • Hypertrophic olivary degeneration may be mistaken for tumor progression, post-operative vasculopathy or granulation tissue and should be considered in patients undergoing cerebellar surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Olivary Nucleus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Ataxia / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy. Hypesthesia / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18217209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Rorive S, Maris C, Debeir O, Sandras F, Vidaud M, Bièche I, Salmon I, Decaestecker C: Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Aug;65(8):794-807
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  • [Title] Exploring the distinctive biological characteristics of pilocytic and low-grade diffuse astrocytomas using microarray gene expression profiles.
  • Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and grade II diffuse astrocytomas have been classified for decades as different clinicopathologic entities, few, if any, data are available on the biologic features explaining these differences.
  • Although more than 50 microarray-related studies have been carried out to characterize the molecular profiles of astrocytic tumors, we have identified only 11 that provide sound data on low-grade astrocytomas.
  • We have incorporated these data into a comparative analysis for the purpose of identifying the most relevant molecular markers characterizing grade I pilocytic and grade II diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Our analysis has identified various interesting genes that are differentially expressed in either grade I or grade II astrocytomas when compared with normal tissue and/or high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas.
  • Interestingly, a group of 6 genes (TIMP4, C1NH, CHAD, THBS4, IGFBP2, and TLE2) constitute an expression profile characteristic of grade I astrocytomas as compared with all other categories of tissue (normal brain, grade II, and high-grade astrocytomas).
  • The end products (proteins) of these genes act as antimigratory compounds, a fact that could explain why pilocytic astrocytomas behave as compact (well-circumscribed) tumors as opposed to all the other astrocytic tumor types that diffusely invade the brain parenchyma.
  • Having validated these molecular markers by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, an integrated model was proposed illustrating how and why pilocytic astrocytomas constitute a distinct biologic and pathologic entity when compared with diffuse astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Adhesion / genetics. Cell Movement / genetics. Child. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Models, Neurological. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16896313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins
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44. Pöpperl G, Kreth FW, Herms J, Koch W, Mehrkens JH, Gildehaus FJ, Kretzschmar HA, Tonn JC, Tatsch K: Analysis of 18F-FET PET for grading of recurrent gliomas: is evaluation of uptake kinetics superior to standard methods? J Nucl Med; 2006 Mar;47(3):393-403
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  • [Title] Analysis of 18F-FET PET for grading of recurrent gliomas: is evaluation of uptake kinetics superior to standard methods?
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether extended analyses of O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) uptake kinetics provide results superior to those of standard tumor-to-background ratios in predicting tumor grade in patients with pretreated gliomas.
  • METHODS: Dynamic 18F-FET PET studies (0-40 min after injection of 180 MBq of 18F-FET) were performed on 45 glioma patients with suspected tumor recurrence after multimodal treatment.
  • For the standard method, tumoral maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and the ratio to the background were derived from a summed image 20-40 min after injection.
  • Results were correlated with the histopathologic findings of MRI/PET-guided stereotactic biopsies and were evaluated with respect to their discriminatory power to separate low- from high-grade tumors using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses.
  • RESULTS: The parameters taking into account the individual time course of 18F-FET uptake were able to differentiate low-grade from high-grade recurrent astrocytomas with high diagnostic accuracy, reaching the best differentiation with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.94.
  • The lowest performance was provided by the standard method (SUVmax: 73% sensitivity, 54% specificity, and 0.60 AUC; SUVmax-to-background ratio: 62% sensitivity, 62% specificity, and 0.59 AUC).
  • Time-activity curves (5-40 min after injection) slightly and steadily increased in tumor-free patients and in low-grade tumors, whereas high-grade tumors showed an early peak around 10-15 min after injection followed by a decrease.
  • CONCLUSION: This study has shown differences in the dynamics of 18F-FET uptake between recurrent low- and high-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives

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  • [ErratumIn] J Nucl Med. 2006 May;47(5):806
  • (PMID = 16513607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / O-(2-fluoroethyl)tyrosine; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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45. Passarin MG, Moretto G, Musso AM, Ottaviani S, Masotto B, Ghimenton C, Iuzzolino P, Buffone E, Rudà R, Soffietti R, Vattemi E, Pedersini R: Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in combination with temozolomide in low-grade oligoastrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;97(3):439-44
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  • [Title] Intrathecal liposomal cytarabine in combination with temozolomide in low-grade oligoastrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade gliomas is an uncommon event.
  • A nonenhancing lesion in the right cerebellar peduncle was identified, subtotally resected, and diagnosed as a grade II astrocytoma.
  • Complete remission was achieved after 12 months of treatment and the patient is still free from the disease after a follow-up of 24 months.

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  • (PMID = 19876600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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46. Essig M, Giesel F, Stieltjes B, Weber MA: [Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy)]. Radiologe; 2007 Jun;47(6):513-9
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  • In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning.
  • PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplasically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visu-alization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics.
  • Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor.
  • Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17505814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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47. Kinjo S, Hirato J, Nakazato Y: Low grade diffuse gliomas: shared cellular composition and morphometric differences. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):455-65
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  • [Title] Low grade diffuse gliomas: shared cellular composition and morphometric differences.
  • Low grade diffuse gliomas arising in the brain are challenging to treat because of their ability to infiltrate adjacent tissue.
  • We attempted to clarify the cellular composition and histopathological features of low grade gliomas by utilizing morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses.
  • Seventy-eight cases of low grade gliomas were examined including 21 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 36 oligodendrogliomas (OL), and 21 oligoastrocytomas (OA), based on the WHO classification system.
  • Double immunostaining revealed that expression of Olig2 and GFAP, and Olig2 and nestin was mutually exclusive in most glioma cells.
  • We conclude that each glioma include cells expressing GFAP, cells expressing nestin, and cells expressing Olig2 in a characteristic proportion for each tumor type.
  • We suggest that diffuse gliomas share cellular compositions in different ratios and that they can be distinguished by morphometrical analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / biosynthesis. Humans. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Nestin. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18282166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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48. Burgoyne AM, Palomo JM, Phillips-Mason PJ, Burden-Gulley SM, Major DL, Zaremba A, Robinson S, Sloan AE, Vogelbaum MA, Miller RH, Brady-Kalnay SM: PTPmu suppresses glioma cell migration and dispersal. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Dec;11(6):767-78
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  • [Title] PTPmu suppresses glioma cell migration and dispersal.
  • Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the highest grade of primary brain tumors with astrocytic similarity and are characterized by marked dispersal of tumor cells.
  • PTPmu expression was examined in human GBM, low-grade astrocytoma, and normal brain tissue.
  • These studies revealed a striking loss of PTPmu protein expression in highly dispersive GBMs compared to less dispersive low-grade astrocytomas and normal brain.
  • The migration of brain tumor cells was assessed in vitro using a scratch wound assay.
  • To assess migration, labeled U-87 MG glioma cells were injected into adult rat brain slices, and their movement was followed over time.
  • Together, these data suggest that loss of PTPmu in human GBMs contributes to tumor cell migration and dispersal, implicating loss of PTPmu in glioma progression.

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  • (PMID = 19304959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS051520-04; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY011373; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS051520; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01-NS051520; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA101954; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS051520-04; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY011373-119002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA103736; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY011373-129002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA043703; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY011373-139002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA059366; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS051520-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS051520-01A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011373-139002; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32-GM007250; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30-EY11373; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011373-119002; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS051520-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS051520-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS051520-01A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011373-129002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08-CA101954; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA116257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA043703; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32-CA059366; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116257; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007250; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS051520-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20-CA103736
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 3.1.3.48 / Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2802397
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49. Ess KC, Kamp CA, Tu BP, Gutmann DH: Developmental origin of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex. Neurology; 2005 Apr 26;64(8):1446-9
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  • [Title] Developmental origin of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) harbor developmental brain abnormalities (cortical tubers) and low-grade tumors (subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs]).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics. Tuberous Sclerosis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Animals. Cell Lineage / genetics. Child. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / genetics. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Infant. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Neurons / metabolism. Stem Cells / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


50. Dixit VD, Weeraratna AT, Yang H, Bertak D, Cooper-Jenkins A, Riggins GJ, Eberhart CG, Taub DD: Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility. J Biol Chem; 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16681-90
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  • [Title] Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility.
  • Here, we demonstrate that the human astrocytoma cell lines U-118, U-87, CCF-STTG1, and SW1088 express 6-, 11-, 15-, and 29-fold higher levels of GHS-R compared with primary normal human astrocytes.
  • The ligation of GHS-R by ghrelin on these cells resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium mobilization, protein kinase C activation, actin polymerization, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, and astrocytoma motility.
  • In addition, ghrelin led to actin polymerization and membrane ruffling on cells, with the specific co-localization of the small GTPase Rac1 with GHS-R on the leading edge of the astrocytoma cells and imparting the tumor cells with a motile phenotype.
  • Disruption of the endogenous ghrelin/GHS-R pathway by RNA interference resulted in diminished motility, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and Rac expression, whereas tumor cells stably overexpressing GHS-R exhibited increased cell motility.
  • The relevance of ghrelin and GHS-R expression was verified in clinically relevant tissues from 20 patients with oligodendrogliomas and grade II-IV astrocytomas.
  • Analysis of a central nervous system tumor tissue microarray revealed that strong GHS-R and ghrelin expression was significantly more common in high grade tumors compared with low grade ones.
  • Together, these findings suggest a novel role for the ghrelin/GHS-R axis in astrocytoma cell migration and invasiveness of cancers of central nervous system origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Peptide Hormones / physiology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Central Nervous System / metabolism. Ghrelin. Humans. Models, Biological. Peptides. RNA Interference. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin

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  • (PMID = 16527811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000758-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS41150; NLM/ PMC2271047
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51. Mason WP: Progress in clinical neurosciences: Advances in the management of low-grade gliomas. Can J Neurol Sci; 2005 Feb;32(1):18-26
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  • [Title] Progress in clinical neurosciences: Advances in the management of low-grade gliomas.
  • The management of low-grade gliomas represents one of the most challenging and controversial areas in neuro-oncology.
  • Many aspects of the treatment of low-grade gliomas are debated, including the optimal timing of surgery and radiotherapy, the benefit of extensive surgery, and the impact of these variables on the natural history of these indolent and generally incurable tumours.
  • The recognition that as many as two thirds of low-grade gliomas have oligodendroglial features, advances in molecular diagnostics making accurate pathologic diagnosis of oligodendroglial tumours possible, and the established chemosensitivity of malignant oligodendrogliomas, have raised new issues surrounding the potential value of chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas.
  • This review will be restricted to low-grade diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and low-grade mixed oligoastrocytomas in adults, and provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of these tumours, including the emerging role of chemotherapy as initial treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Glioma

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  • (PMID = 15825542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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52. Hourani R, Horská A, Albayram S, Brant LJ, Melhem E, Cohen KJ, Burger PC, Weingart JD, Carson B, Wharam MD, Barker PB: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging to differentiate between nonneoplastic lesions and brain tumors in children. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2006 Feb;23(2):99-107
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  • PURPOSE: To investigate whether in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can differentiate between 1) tumors and nonneoplastic brain lesions, and 2) high- and low-grade tumors in children.
  • Nineteen patients had a neuropathologically confirmed brain tumor, and 13 patients had a benign lesion.
  • Ratios of N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), and Cho/Cr were evaluated in the lesion and the contralateral hemisphere.
  • The best discriminant function to differentiate between high- and low-grade tumors included the ratios of NAA/Cr and Cho(norm) (Wilks' lambda, P = 0.001; 89.5% of original grouped cases correctly classified).
  • Cr levels in low-grade tumors were slightly lower than or comparable to control regions and ranged from 53% to 165% of the control values in high-grade tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Proton MRSI may have a promising role in differentiating pediatric brain lesions, and an important diagnostic value, particularly for inoperable or inaccessible lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Germinoma / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16374884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS042851; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41RR15241
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Kashyap R, Ryan C, Sharma R, Maloo MK, Safadjou S, Graham M, Tretheway D, Jain A, Orloff M: Liver grafts from donors with central nervous system tumors: a single-center perspective. Liver Transpl; 2009 Oct;15(10):1204-8
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  • However, it has become a common practice to accept organs from donors that have low-grade tumors or tumors with low metastatic potential.
  • A retrospective review of 1173 liver transplants performed between 1992 and 2006 identified 42 donors diagnosed with a CNS tumor.
  • Twenty (47.6%) of the CNS tumors were glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma grade IV), 11 (26.2%) were other astrocytomas, and 1 (2.4%) was an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Twenty (62.5%) neoplasms were grade IV tumors, 8 (25%) were grade II tumors, and 4 (12.5%) were grade III tumors.
  • In conclusion, in our experience, despite violation of the blood-brain barrier and high-grade CNS tumors, recurrence was uncommon.
  • Grafts from these donors are often an overlooked source of high-quality organs from younger donors and can be appropriately used, particularly in patients who, despite low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, carry a high risk of mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Tissue and Organ Procurement / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood-Brain Barrier. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AASLD
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):916 [20583090.001]
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):914-5 [20583288.001]
  • (PMID = 19790151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6473
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Law M, Oh S, Johnson G, Babb JS, Zagzag D, Golfinos J, Kelly PJ: Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging predicts patient outcome as an adjunct to histopathology: a second reference standard in the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of low-grade gliomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Jun;58(6):1099-107; discussion 1099-107
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  • [Title] Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging predicts patient outcome as an adjunct to histopathology: a second reference standard in the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of low-grade gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) can predict patient outcome, specifically tumor progression, in low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and thus provide a second reference standard in the surgical and postsurgical management of LGGs.
  • METHODS: Thirty-five patients with histologically diagnosed LGGs (21 low-grade astrocytomas and 14 low-grade oligodendrogliomas and low-grade mixed oligoastrocytomas) were studied with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Tumor volumes and CBV measurements were obtained at the initial examination and again at follow-up to determine the association of rCBV with tumor volume progression.
  • RESULTS: Wilcoxon tests showed patients manifesting an adverse event (either death or progression) had significantly higher rCBV (P = 0.003) than did patients without adverse events (complete response or stable disease).
  • Log-rank tests showed that rCBV exhibited a significant negative association with disease-free survival (P = 0.0015), such that low rCBV values were associated with longer time to progression.
  • Lesions with low baseline rCBV (< 1.75) demonstrated stable tumor volumes when followed up over time, and lesions with high baseline rCBV (> 1.75) demonstrated progressively increasing tumor volumes over time.
  • CONCLUSION: Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion magnetic resonance imaging may be used to identify LGGs that are either high-grade gliomas, misdiagnosed because of sampling error at pathological examination or that have undergone angiogenesis in the progression toward malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Oligodendroglioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blood Volume. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Reference Standards. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


55. Combs SE, Steck I, Schulz-Ertner D, Welzel T, Kulozik AE, Behnisch W, Huber PE, Debus J: Long-term outcome of high-precision radiotherapy in patients with brain stem gliomas: results from a difficult-to-treat patient population using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Apr;91(1):60-6
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome of high-precision radiotherapy in patients with brain stem gliomas: results from a difficult-to-treat patient population using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: To assess long-term outcome in 85 patients with brain stem gliomas treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT).
  • Histopathological examination confirmed a low-grade glioma in 57 patients.
  • Of the group of high-grade gliomas, six were anaplastic astrocytomas, and two were classified as glioblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term outcome of FSRT in patients with brain stem gliomas is acceptable with low rates of side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Stereotaxic Techniques. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19285356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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56. Jalali R, Dutta D, Kamble R, Gupta T, Munshi A, Sarin R, Dinshaw K: Prospective assessment of activities of daily living using modified Barthel's Index in children and young adults with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 Dec;90(3):321-8
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  • [Title] Prospective assessment of activities of daily living using modified Barthel's Index in children and young adults with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To report prospective evaluations of activities of daily living (ADL) in young patients with low-grade gliomas treated with stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2001 and February 2008, 38 children and young adults (age 5-25 years, median 12.5 years) with low-grade gliomas with residual/progressive disease and treated with SCRT were accrued in a prospective protocol.
  • RESULT: The patient population consisted of 38 patients (male 29, female 9) with a diagnosis of residual or progressive low-grade glioma (pilocytic astrocytoma in 27, fibrillary astrocytoma in 5, ependymoma in 4, and oligodendroglioma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in 1 each).
  • At baseline pre-radiotherapy assessment, patients with impaired visual function and with low performance status (Karnofsky performance score, KPS < 70) had significantly lower BI than those with normal vision (P <or= 0.001) and with good performance status (P = 0.001).
  • On follow-up, maximum improvement in individual BI was seen in the ambulation-related domain in patients with impaired visual function (P = 0.027), low KPS (P = 0.015), and age less than 13 years (P = 0.103).
  • The mean pre-radiotherapy baseline BI of three patients, who eventually developed local recurrence, was only 64 (SD 32.1) as compared with a baseline score of 97.18 seen in patients whose tumor remained controlled at follow-up (P <or= 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Young patients with low-grade gliomas after surgical intervention had a lower than normal BI before starting radiotherapy, suggesting a decrease in ADL possibly due to tumor- and surgery-related factors.
  • Patients who developed tumor recurrence at follow-up had a significantly lower BI at baseline than patients with controlled disease (P <or= 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living. Brain Neoplasms / psychology. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / psychology. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Stereotaxic Techniques. Surveys and Questionnaires
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18704269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Radulović D: [Natural history of supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma: case report]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2006 Nov-Dec;134(11-12):537-40
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  • [Title] [Natural history of supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma: case report].
  • Low-grade astrocytomas comprise a group of primary brain neoplasms with relatively low anaplastic potential, although through time they tend to behave more aggressively.
  • This report presents a natural history of a patient with low grade astrocytoma.
  • Initial computerized tomography and magnetic resonance of brain revealed oval, 4 cm in diameter, lesion in the left parietal region that was considered as low-grade glioma.
  • Repeated computerized tomography showed huge tumor in the left frontoparietal region at the site of previous lesion.
  • Urgent left frontoparietal craniotomy and reduction of tumor were performed.
  • The described patient with low-grade astrocytoma lived without any oncological treatment eight years and four months from the time when diagnosis was made until intracranial herniation.
  • The natural history of disease in presented patient indicated that rational therapeutic strategy, for low-grade astrocytoma with epilepsy only, would be deferral of surgery until the time of manifestation of neurological or radiological deterioration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Brain Neoplasms. Parietal Lobe

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  • (PMID = 17304770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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58. Katakowski M, Jiang F, Zheng X, Gutierrez JA, Szalad A, Chopp M: Tumorigenicity of cortical astrocyte cell line induced by the protease ADAM17. Cancer Sci; 2009 Sep;100(9):1597-604
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  • EGFR is a key component of autonomous growth signaling in several tumors, and correlates with the malignancy grade of astrocytoma.
  • When implanted in the nude mouse brain, CTX-TNA2 cells induced low histological grade, benign intraventricular gliomas.
  • In contrast, the same astrocytes with hADAM17 formed large malignant gliomas.

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  • (PMID = 19515085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043892-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100486-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA043892; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100486-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100486; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA043892-17
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inducing Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.4.24.- / ADAM Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / tumor necrosis factor-alpha convertase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS142282; NLM/ PMC2756136
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59. Leighton C, Fisher B, Macdonald D, Stitt L, Bauman G, Cairncross J: The dose-volume interaction in adult supratentorial low-grade glioma: higher radiation dose is beneficial among patients with partial resection. J Neurooncol; 2007 Apr;82(2):165-70
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  • [Title] The dose-volume interaction in adult supratentorial low-grade glioma: higher radiation dose is beneficial among patients with partial resection.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the hypothesis that adults with partially resected (PR<50% resection) supratentorial low-grade glioma (LGG) benefit from higher doses of radiation.
  • METHODS: Patients receiving post-operative radiation for WHO grade I-II LGG at the University of Western Ontario between 1979 and 2001 were studied.
  • Patient characteristics evaluated included: age, gender, symptom duration>30 days, seizures at presentation, Karnofsky performance status (KPS)<70, astrocytoma pathology (AS), and radiation dose.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The outcome for patients with LGG is dependent on extent of tumor resection and radiation dose.
  • Future trials on therapeutic strategies for LGG should consider stratification of patients by extent of tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • [ErratumIn] J Neurooncol. 2007 Dec;85(3):357
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  • (PMID = 17357830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Molina Saera J, Segura Huerta A, Palomar Abad L, Giménez Ortiz A, Ponce Lorenzo J, Reynés Muntaner G: [Extra-cranial anaplastic oligoastrocytoma development from a low-grade glioma]. Clin Transl Oncol; 2005 Apr;7(3):127-9
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  • [Title] [Extra-cranial anaplastic oligoastrocytoma development from a low-grade glioma].
  • [Transliterated title] Afectación extracraneal de oligoastrocitoma anaplásico desarrollado sobre un glioma de bajo grado.
  • This type of glioma has a favourable prognosis compared to other brain tumours.
  • We present a patient who had received treatment previously for a lowgrade glioma and who subsequently developed an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma in the same zone together with skull and extra-cranial involvement in the disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / pathology. Temporal Bone. Temporal Lobe

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  • (PMID = 15899221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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61. Lefranc F, Rynkowski M, DeWitte O, Kiss R: Present and potential future adjuvant issues in high-grade astrocytic glioma treatment. Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg; 2009;34:3-35
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  • [Title] Present and potential future adjuvant issues in high-grade astrocytic glioma treatment.
  • Despite major advances in the management of malignant gliomas of which glioblastomas represent the ultimate grade of malignancy, they remain characterized by dismal prognoses.
  • Malignant gliomas are associated with such dismal prognoses because glioma cells can actively migrate through the narrow extra-cellular spaces in the brain, often travelling relatively long distances, making them elusive targets for effective surgical management.
  • Clinical and experimental data have demonstrated that invasive malignant glioma cells show a decrease in their proliferation rates and a relative resistance to apoptosis (type I programmed cell death) as compared to the highly cellular centre of the tumor, and this may contribute to their resistance to conventional pro-apoptotic chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Monoclonal antibodies and low molecular-weight kinase inhibitors of these pathways are the most common classes of agents in targeted cancer treatment.
  • Despite resistance to apoptosis being closely linked to tumorigenesis, tumor cells can still be induced to die by non-apoptotic mechanisms such as necrosis, senescence, autophagy (type II programmed cell death) and mitotic catastrophe.
  • Another way to potentially overcome apoptosis resistance is to decrease the migration of malignant glioma cells in the brain, which then should restore a level of sensitivity to pro-apoptotic drugs.
  • Recent series of studies have supported the concept that malignant gliomas might be seen as an orchestration of cross-talks between cancer cells, microenvironment, vasculature and cancer stem cells.
  • The present chapter focuses on (i) the major signaling pathways making glioblastomas resistant to apoptosis, (ii) the signaling pathways distinctly activated by pro-autophagic drugs as compared to pro-apoptotic ones, (iii) autophagic cell death as an alternative to combat malignant gliomas, (iv) the major scientific data already obtained by researchers to prove that temozolomide is actually a pro-autophagic and pro-apoptotic drug, (v) the molecular and cellular therapies and local drug delivery which could be used to complement conventional treatments, and a review of some of the currently ongoing clinical trials, (vi) the fact that reducing the levels of malignant glioma cell motility can restore pro-apoptotic drug sensitivity, (vii) the observation that inhibiting the sodium pump activity reduces both glioma cell proliferation and migration, (viii) the brain tumor stem cells as a target to complement conventional treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy


62. Wang Y, Xiong J, Chu SG, Liu Y, Cheng HX, Wang YF, Zhao Y, Mao Y: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor: report of an unusual case with intraventricular dissemination. Acta Neuropathol; 2009 Dec;118(6):813-9
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  • [Title] Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor: report of an unusual case with intraventricular dissemination.
  • A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) was encountered in a 16-year-old Chinese girl.
  • She was followed for 7 months, and there was no radiological or clinical evidence of tumor progression.
  • Histological examination demonstrated two regions characterized by predominant neurocytic rosettes and scant low grade astrocytoma.
  • Immunohistological studies showed that the small round tumor cells forming rosettes were strongly positive for Olig2.
  • While the pathological features of our case closely resembled those reported in the original description, the diffuse intraventricular growth pattern of the tumor was different from previous examples.

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  • (PMID = 19585134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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63. Perry SL, Bohlin C, Reardon DA, Desjardins A, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Vredenburgh JJ: Tinzaparin prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):129-134
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  • [Title] Tinzaparin prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of tinzaparin for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in newly diagnosed grade III-IV malignant glioma patients.
  • Forty patients were enrolled into the study, 35 with glioblastoma multiforme and 5 with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Possible attributable toxicity was limited to two patients who developed CNS hemorrhages (one grade 1 and one grade 2) and one patient with an increase in liver enzymes (grade 3).
  • There were no patients with a grade 4 or 5 CNS hemorrhages or systemic hemorrhages >or=grade 2.
  • Tinzaparin at a fixed prophylactic dose is safe and may decrease the incidence of thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Glioma / complications. Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight / therapeutic use. Venous Thromboembolism / etiology. Venous Thromboembolism / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19415455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-01A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23-HL084233-02
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight; 7UQ7X4Y489 / tinzaparin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180651; NLM/ PMC2837514
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64. Xie D, Zeng YX, Wang HJ, Tai LS, Wen JM, Tao Y, Ma NF, Hu L, Sham JS, Guan XY: Amplification and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor gene in glioblastomas of Chinese patients correlates with patient's age but not with tumor's clinicopathological pathway. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Nov;110(5):481-9
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  • [Title] Amplification and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor gene in glioblastomas of Chinese patients correlates with patient's age but not with tumor's clinicopathological pathway.
  • Primary (de novo) GBM most often occurs in older individuals, and is characterized by the overexpression/amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR), whereas secondary GBM, which progresses from a low-grade astrocytoma, often affects younger individuals and frequently contains the TP53 mutation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Child. China. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Female. Genes, p53. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Ploidies. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology


65. Fischer U, Keller A, Leidinger P, Deutscher S, Heisel S, Urbschat S, Lenhof HP, Meese E: A different view on DNA amplifications indicates frequent, highly complex, and stable amplicons on 12q13-21 in glioma. Mol Cancer Res; 2008 Apr;6(4):576-84
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  • [Title] A different view on DNA amplifications indicates frequent, highly complex, and stable amplicons on 12q13-21 in glioma.
  • To further understand the biological significance of amplifications for glioma development and recurrencies, we characterized amplicon frequency and size in low-grade glioma and amplicon stability in vivo in recurring glioblastoma.
  • We developed a 12q13-21 amplicon-specific genomic microarray and a bioinformatics amplification prediction tool to analyze amplicon frequency, size, and maintenance in 40 glioma samples including 16 glioblastoma, 10 anaplastic astrocytoma, 7 astrocytoma WHO grade 2, and 7 pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Analyzing 40 glioma, we found that all analyzed glioblastoma and the majority of pilocytic astrocytoma, grade 2 astrocytoma, and anaplastic astrocytoma showed at least one amplified subregion, indicating a much higher amplification frequency than previously suggested.
  • Amplifications in low-grade glioma were smaller in size and displayed clearly different distribution patterns than amplifications in glioblastoma.
  • Our data indicate that amplifications on 12q13-21 (a) are more frequent than previously thought and present in low-grade tumors and (b) are maintained as extended regions over long periods of time.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Amplification. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Southern. Carbocyanines. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial. Computational Biology. Cosmids. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18403636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbocyanines; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / cyanine dye 3; 0 / cyanine dye 5
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66. Figarella-Branger D, Colin C, Coulibaly B, Quilichini B, Maues De Paula A, Fernandez C, Bouvier C: [Histological and molecular classification of gliomas]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2008 Jun-Jul;164(6-7):505-15
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  • [Title] [Histological and molecular classification of gliomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Classification histologique et moléculaire des gliomes.
  • Gliomas are the most frequent tumors of the central nervous system.
  • The WHO classification, based on the presumed cell origin, distinguishes astrocytic, oligodendrocytic and mixed gliomas.
  • The main histological subtype of grade I gliomas are pilocytic astrocytomas, which are benign.
  • Diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas are low-grade (II) or high-grade (III and IV) tumors.
  • Glioblastomas correspond to grade IV astrocytomas. C.
  • Daumas-Duport et al. have proposed another classification based on histology and imaging data, which distinguishes oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas of grade A (without endothelial proliferation and/or contrast enhancement), oligodendrogliomas and mixed gliomas of grade B (with endothelial proliferation or contrast enhancement), glioblastomas and glioneuronal malignant tumors.
  • Many studies have searched for a molecular classification.
  • Recurrent abnormalities in gliomas have been found.
  • De novo glioblastomas, which occur in young patients without of a prior history of brain tumor and harbor frequent amplification of EGFR, deletion of p16 and mutation of PTEN while mutation of p53 is infrequent.
  • Secondary glioblastomas occur in the context of a preexisting low-grade glioma and are characterized by more frequent mutation of p53.
  • However, histological and molecular classifications do not always correspond as many alterations are shared by high-grade tumors, whatever their histological type.
  • Besides, few molecular alterations have a prognostic value.
  • However, some concerns exist for the method of detection of this abnormality.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Chromosomes / genetics. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / classification. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Signal Transduction / physiology


67. Khan MA, Hashmi S: Low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial scalloping. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):155-7
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  • [Title] Low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial scalloping.
  • Gliomas are tumors of the white matter.
  • Only 1 case of low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial erosion has been reported in the literature of the CT era.
  • We report the first case of a low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial erosion in an adolescent.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Osteolysis / pathology. Osteolysis / surgery. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Skull / pathology. Skull / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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68. Schlierf B, Friedrich RP, Roerig P, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Wegner M: Expression of SoxE and SoxD genes in human gliomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Dec;33(6):621-30
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  • [Title] Expression of SoxE and SoxD genes in human gliomas.
  • Here, we have examined Sox gene expression in 60 human primary gliomas.
  • Transcripts from each of the six group E and group D genes were expressed in gliomas of various types and malignancy grades, but with significant differences.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas, but not glioblastomas, also showed elevated SOX8 transcript levels.
  • Taken together, the expression pattern of Sox genes in gliomas is heterogeneous and overall compatible with the less differentiated state of glioma cells as compared with their normal adult counterparts.
  • Despite their restricted expression in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes during normal development, none of the Sox genes was selectively expressed in tumours of the oligodendroglial or astrocytic lineage.
  • This is compatible with an origin of gliomas from neuroepithelial stem or precursor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression. Glioma / metabolism. Sex-Determining Region Y Protein / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17961134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
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69. Rushing EJ, Sandberg GD, Horkayne-Szakaly I: High-grade astrocytomas show increased Nestin and Wilms's tumor gene (WT1) protein expression. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;18(4):255-9
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  • [Title] High-grade astrocytomas show increased Nestin and Wilms's tumor gene (WT1) protein expression.
  • Wilms's tumor gene (WT1) is overexpressed in a variety of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
  • Recently, WT1 protein has been considered as a molecular target of cancer immunotherapy for several solid tumors and as a tool for monitoring minimal residual disease in leukemia patients.
  • There are only few investigations on WT1 expression in central nervous system neoplasms, which suggest that the WT1 gene may play an important role in tumorigenesis of primary astrocytic tumors and that high-grade tumors express high levels of WT1 proteins.
  • We examined 50 low-grade and high-grade gliomas using tissue microarray and immunohistochemical methods to identify WT1 protein, P53, Ki-67, GFAP, NFP, EGFR, nestin, and Neu-N expression.
  • WT1 and nestin shared overlapping expression in all gliomas and were increased in high-grade examples, highlighting their potential use as diagnostic and prognostic tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. WT1 Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult


70. Nagpal J, Jamoona A, Gulati ND, Mohan A, Braun A, Murali R, Jhanwar-Uniyal M: Revisiting the role of p53 in primary and secondary glioblastomas. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6C):4633-9
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  • GBM may develop de novo (primary) or through progression from a low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary).
  • Mutational inactivation of the p53 gene and presence of aberrant p53 expression are reported in GBM, suggesting that p53 has a role in tumor progression.
  • This study of seven de novo GBM and four secondary GBM patients, indicated that nine out of eleven (82%) had overexpression of p53.
  • Our histopathological analysis showed that the expression of p53 in three out of four (75%) secondary GBM was confined to the nucleus and the p53 positive cells were randomly distributed throughout the tumor.
  • The expression of p53 in four out of seven (57%) de novo GBM was cytoplasmic, diffusive, and confined to the perivascular region of the tumor.
  • In two (29%) de novo samples both nuclear as well as cytoplasmic staining that was not confined to the perivascular area was observed.
  • The results suggest that cytoplasmic p53 may contribute to the formation and maintenance of de novo GBM by virtue of its control of the vasculature of tumors.
  • These results underscore the significance of p53 in the tumorigenesis of de novo GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17214319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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71. Dickinson PJ, Sturges BK, Higgins RJ, Roberts BN, Leutenegger CM, Bollen AW, LeCouteur RA: Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and peritumoral edema in canine primary central nervous system tumors. Vet Pathol; 2008 Mar;45(2):131-9
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  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of tumor angiogenesis and vascular permeability, and has been implicated both in progression of central nervous system (CNS) tumors and development of vasogenic peritumoral edema.
  • Increased expression of VEGF relative to normal cerebral cortex tissue was seen predominantly in high grade astrocytic (grade IV) and oligodendroglial (grade III) tumors, with lower expression in low grade astrocytomas (grade II) and meningiomas (grade I).
  • Peritumoral edema was present in all tumor types; however, a significant association between the extent of peritumoral edema and the level of VEGF expression was not apparent.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / metabolism. Brain Edema / veterinary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / veterinary. Dogs. Meningioma / genetics. Meningioma / metabolism. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / veterinary. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / veterinary. Polymerase Chain Reaction / veterinary. Protein Isoforms. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18424825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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72. Lehnhardt FG, Bock C, Röhn G, Ernestus RI, Hoehn M: Metabolic differences between primary and recurrent human brain tumors: a 1H NMR spectroscopic investigation. NMR Biomed; 2005 Oct;18(6):371-82
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  • High-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed on tissue specimens from 33 patients with astrocytic tumors (22 astrocytomas, 11 glioblastomas) and 13 patients with meningiomas.
  • Increased anaplasia, with respect to malignant transformation, resulting in a higher malignancy grade, was present in 11 recurrences of 22 astrocytoma patients.
  • Spectroscopic features of tumor types, as determined on samples of the primary occurrences, were in good agreement with previous studies.
  • Compared with the respective primary astrocytomas, characteristic features of glioblastomas were significantly increased concentrations of alanine (Ala) (p = 0.005), increased metabolite ratios of glycine (Gly)/total creatine (tCr) (p = 0.0001) and glutamate (Glu)/glutamine (Gln) (p = 0.004).
  • Meningiomas showed increased Ala (p = 0.02) and metabolite ratios [Gly, total choline (tCho), Ala] over tCr (p = 0.001) relative to astrocytomas, and N-acetylaspartate and myo-inositol were absent.
  • Metabolic changes of an evolving tumor were observed in recurrent astrocytomas: owing to their consecutive assessments, more indicators of malignant degeneration were detected in astrocytoma recurrences (e.g.
  • Gly, p = 0.029; tCho, p = 0.034; Glu, p = 0.015; tCho/tCr, p = 0.001) in contrast to the comparison of primary astrocytomas with primary glioblastomas.
  • The present investigation demonstrated a correlation of the tCho-signal with tumor progression.
  • Significantly elevated concentrations of Ala (p = 0.037) and Glu (p = 0.003) and metabolite ratio tCho/tCr (p = 0.005) were even found in recurrent low-grade astrocytomas with unchanged histopathological grading (n = 11).
  • This may be related to an early stage of malignant transformation, not yet detectable morphologically, and emphasizes the high sensitivity of 1H NMR spectroscopy in elucidating characteristics of brain tumor metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Meningioma / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  • (PMID = 15959923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3480
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons
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73. Schittenhelm J, Mittelbronn M, Nguyen TD, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: WT1 expression distinguishes astrocytic tumor cells from normal and reactive astrocytes. Brain Pathol; 2008 Jul;18(3):344-53
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  • [Title] WT1 expression distinguishes astrocytic tumor cells from normal and reactive astrocytes.
  • Particularly in small brain biopsies, it might be difficult to distinguish reactive astrogliosis from low-grade or infiltration zones of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Recently, the over-expression of Wilms' tumor gene product WT1 was reported in astrocytic tumor cells.
  • Therefore, we investigated WT1 expression in paraffin-embedded brain sections from 28 controls, 48 cases with astrogliosis of various etiology and 219 astrocytomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grades I-IV] by immunohistochemistry.
  • In astrocytomas, WT1-positive tumor cells were found in pilocytic astrocytomas (66.7% of cases), diffuse astrocytomas (52.7%) WHO grade II (52.7%), anaplastic astrocytomas (83.4%) and glioblastomas (98.1%).
  • Overall, the majority of all astrocytic neoplasms (84.5%) expressed WT1.
  • Establishing a cut-off value of 0% immunoreactive tumor cells served to recognize neoplastic astrocytes with 100% specificity and 68% sensitivity and was associated with positive and negative predictive values of 1 and 0.68, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18371184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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74. Roodink I, van der Laak J, Kusters B, Wesseling P, Verrijp K, de Waal R, Leenders W: Development of the tumor vascular bed in response to hypoxia-induced VEGF-A differs from that in tumors with constitutive VEGF-A expression. Int J Cancer; 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2054-62
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  • [Title] Development of the tumor vascular bed in response to hypoxia-induced VEGF-A differs from that in tumors with constitutive VEGF-A expression.
  • Tumors arise initially as avascular masses in which central hypoxia induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and subsequently tumor vascularization.
  • We previously reported that in a mouse brain metastasis model of human melanoma, VEGF-A(121) induced a qualitatively different tumor vascular phenotype than VEGF-A(165) and VEGF-A(189): in contrast to the latter ones, and VEGF-A(121) did not induce a neovascular bed but rather led to leakage and dilatation of preexistent brain vessels.
  • Here, we correlate vascular phenotypes with spatial VEGF-A expression profiles in clinical brain tumors (low grade gliomas; n = 6, melanoma metastases; n = 4, adenocarcinoma metastases; n = 4, glioblastoma multiforme; n = 3, sarcoma metastasis; n = 1, renal cell carcinoma metastasis; n = 1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Division. Cell Hypoxia. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Melanoma / blood supply. Melanoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16804907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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75. Pérez-Gómez JL, Rodríguez-Alvarez CA, Marhx-Bracho A, Rueda-Franco F: Stereotactic biopsy for brainstem tumors in pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jan;26(1):29-34
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  • The histopathology was anaplastic astrocytoma (30%), followed by fibrillary and pilocytic types (25% each), low-grade astrocytoma (5%), high-grade astrocytoma (5%), and normal tissue (10%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic biopsy done for clarifiying a diagnostic imaging in brainstem tumors is important in obtaining a definitive diagnosis with a low rate of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • (PMID = 19784659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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76. Horger M, Fenchel M, Nägele T, Moehle R, Claussen CD, Beschorner R, Ernemann U: Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Nov;193(5):1384-7
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  • [Title] Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum can be reliably differentiated with measurement of water diffusivity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR images of 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme, five patients with low-grade astrocytoma, five patients with gliomatosis cerebri, and nine patients with primary lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Regions of interest were drawn on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps inside the callosal tumor.
  • ADCs were normalized by calculation of the ratio between the ADC of the tumor and the ADC of an uninvolved region of corpus callosum.
  • RESULTS: The mean ADC of glioblastoma multiforme was 1.13 +/- 0.31 (SD) x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.51 +/- 0.46; of low-grade astrocytoma, 1.14 +/- 0.23 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.54 +/- 0.28; gliomatosis cerebri, 1.01 +/- 0.20 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.31 +/- 0.36; and lymphoma, 0.71 +/- 0.13 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 0.93 +/- 0.19.
  • The difference between the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio of lymphoma and that of all grades of astrocytoma (1.48 +/- 0.43) was statistically significant (p < 0.001).
  • The optimal ADC threshold for discriminating astrocytic tumor and lymphoma was 0.90 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 89%).
  • The optimal threshold for tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.22 (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 100%).
  • CONCLUSION: The water diffusivity and the ADC ratio of the tumor to normal-appearing corpus callosum of astrocytic tumor differ significantly from those of lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum, allowing reliable differentiation of the two types of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Glioblastoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Water / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19843757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water
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77. Varghese M, Olstorn H, Sandberg C, Vik-Mo EO, Noordhuis P, Nistér M, Berg-Johnsen J, Moe MC, Langmoen IA: A comparison between stem cells from the adult human brain and from brain tumors. Neurosurgery; 2008 Dec;63(6):1022-33; discussion 1033-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To directly compare stem cells from the normal adult human brain (adult human neural stem cells [AHNSC]), Grade II astrocytomas (AC II), and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), with respect to proliferative and tumor-forming capacity and differentiation potential.
  • METHODS: Cells were isolated from tissue obtained during epilepsy surgery (AHNSCs) or tumor surgery (glioma stem cells [GSC]).
  • 1) GBM stem cells formed tumors after orthotopic transplantation; AHNSCs showed no sign of tumor formation;.
  • 3) both the growth rate and telomerase expression were high in GSCs and correlated with malignancy grade (GBM higher than AC II); AHNSCs had low telomerase expression;.
  • 7) upon differentiation, AHNSCs produced normal glia and neurons; GSCs produced morphologically aberrant cells often expressing both glial and neuronal antigens; and 8) differentiation of AHNSCs resulted in 2 typical functional phenotypes: neurons (high electrical membrane resistance, ability to generate action potentials) and glial cells (low membrane resistance, no action potentials).
  • CONCLUSION: AHNSCs and stem cells from AC II and GBM differ with respect to proliferation, tumor-forming capacity, and rate and pattern of differentiation.


78. Kurian KM, Summers DM, Statham PF, Smith C, Bell JE, Ironside JW: Third ventricular chordoid glioma: clinicopathological study of two cases with evidence for a poor clinical outcome despite low grade histological features. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Aug;31(4):354-61
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  • [Title] Third ventricular chordoid glioma: clinicopathological study of two cases with evidence for a poor clinical outcome despite low grade histological features.
  • Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a rare glial tumour whose precise histogenesis remains uncertain.
  • The neoplasm tends to occur in women and its clinical presentation is variable, resulting from acute hydrocephalus or impingement upon local structures.
  • The main differentials for histological diagnosis include chordoid meningiomas, pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / physiopathology. Third Ventricle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16008819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Glotsos D, Georgiadis P, Kostopoulos S, Daskalakis A, Kalatzis I, Ravazoula P, Cavouras D: A pilot study investigating the minimum requirements necessary for grading astrocytomas remotely. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2009 Oct;31(5):262-8
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  • [Title] A pilot study investigating the minimum requirements necessary for grading astrocytomas remotely.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the minimum requirements necessary for remote grading astrocytomas in terms of selected static images and descriptive histologic characteristics.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A histopathologist examined 106 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Next, the grade of each tumor was assessed based on the set of 5 images and the World Health Organization (WHO) description of 8 histologic characteristics defined as crucial in grading astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a telepathology system might be valuable for accurate grade diagnosis of astrocytomas-providing a means for avoiding diagnostic errors-without blocks or slides having to leave the department.

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  • (PMID = 20701092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. El-Gaidi MA, Eissa EM: Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(4):272-82
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  • [Title] Infantile intracranial neoplasms: characteristics and surgical outcomes of a contemporary series of 21 cases in an Egyptian referral center.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the demographic, clinical, radiological, pathological and surgical features and outcomes of infantile intracranial neoplasms, the second most common neoplasm in infants.
  • The most common tumor was choroid plexus papilloma (23.8%), followed by teratoma (19%) then astrocytoma and ependymoma (14.3% each).
  • The statistically significant predictors of prognosis were the extent of resection and tumor grade.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the prognosis for infantile intracranial neoplasms is worse than for older children, an overall promising outcome with low operative morbidity and mortality was achieved using gross total excision and appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy as part of a multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Egypt / epidemiology. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Morbidity. Neurilemmoma / drug therapy. Neurilemmoma / mortality. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / mortality. Teratoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21160236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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81. Bobola MS, Silber JR, Ellenbogen RG, Geyer JR, Blank A, Goff RD: O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, O6-benzylguanine, and resistance to clinical alkylators in pediatric primary brain tumor cell lines. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Apr 1;11(7):2747-55
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  • [Title] O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, O6-benzylguanine, and resistance to clinical alkylators in pediatric primary brain tumor cell lines.
  • Our purpose is (a) to assess the contribution of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) to the resistance of pediatric brain tumor cell lines to clinical alkylating agents and (b) to evaluate variables for maximal potentiation of cell killing by the MGMT inhibitor O6-benzylguanine, currently in clinical trials.
  • Few such data for pediatric glioma lines, particularly those from low-grade tumors, are currently available.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used clonogenic assays of proliferative survival to quantitate cytoxicity of the chloroethylating agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and the methylating agent temozolomide in 11 glioma and five medulloblastoma lines.
  • Twelve lines are newly established and characterized here, nine of them from low-grade gliomas including pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: (a) MGMT is a major determinant of BCNU resistance and the predominant determinant of temozolomide resistance in both our glioma and medulloblastoma lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Guanine / pharmacology. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / enzymology. Brain / pathology. Carmustine / pharmacology. Cell Survival / drug effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Synergism. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15814657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 19916-73-5 / O(6)-benzylguanine; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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82. Knizetova P, Ehrmann J, Hlobilkova A, Vancova I, Kalita O, Kolar Z, Bartek J: Autocrine regulation of glioblastoma cell cycle progression, viability and radioresistance through the VEGF-VEGFR2 (KDR) interplay. Cell Cycle; 2008 Aug 15;7(16):2553-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Given the significance of tumor microenvironment in general, and the established role of paracrine VEGF signaling in glioblastoma (GBM) biology in particular, we explored the potential autocrine control of human astrocytoma behavior by VEGF.
  • Using a range of cell and molecular biology approaches to study a panel of astrocytoma (grade III and IV/GBM)-derived cell lines and a series of clinical specimens from low- and high-grade astrocytomas, we show that co-expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) occurs commonly in astrocytoma cells.
  • Blockade of VEGFR2 by the selective inhibitor (SU1498) abrogated the VEGF-mediated enhancement of astrocytoma cell growth and viability under unperturbed culture conditions.
  • In addition, such interference with VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling potentiated the ionizing radiation-induced tumor cell death.
  • In clinical specimens, both VEGFRs and VEGF were co-expressed in astroglial tumor cells, and higher VEGF expression correlated with tumor progression, thereby supporting the relevance of functional VEGF-VEGFR signaling in vivo.
  • Overall, our results are consistent with a potential autocrine role of the VEGF-VEGFR2 (KDR) interplay as a factor contributing to malignant astrocytoma growth and radioresistance, thereby supporting the candidacy of this signaling cascade as a therapeutic target, possibly in combination with radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Autocrine Communication. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Radiation Tolerance. Signal Transduction


83. Burkhardt K, Heuberger F, Delavelle J: Pilocytic astrocytoma in the elderly. Clin Neuropathol; 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):306-10
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  • [Title] Pilocytic astrocytoma in the elderly.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO Grade 1) is a low-grade glioma with a favorable prognosis most commonly diagnosed in patients aged below 20.
  • It is the most common glioma in children, and cases discovered in elderly patients are rare.
  • We report the highly unusual case of an 85-year-old man whose neurological signs included Parkinsonism, and in whom post mortem examination revealed a pilocytic astrocytoma of the brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Parkinson Disease / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18232598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Nakamura M, Chiba K, Ishii K, Ogawa Y, Takaishi H, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y: Surgical outcomes of spinal cord astrocytomas. Spinal Cord; 2006 Dec;44(12):740-5
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  • [Title] Surgical outcomes of spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze prognostic factors for patients with spinal cord astrocytomas.
  • Impacts of the tumor histological grade, the level of the tumor, the types of surgical interventions, and the use of adjuvant radiotherapies on the survival and functional outcomes of 30 patients (18 in low-grade and 12 high-grade malignancy tumors) were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The survival rate of the low-grade malignancy group was significantly higher than that of the high-grade group.
  • The survival rate of the patients with thoracic astrocytomas was significantly higher than those with cervical astrocytomas.
  • In both the low- and high-grade groups, the survival rates in groups P/T were significantly higher than those in group B.
  • In the low-grade group, five patients, whose preoperative functional statuses were classified as 'fair' or better, remained 'fair' or better after surgery.
  • In the high-grade group, the postoperative functional statuses were classified as 'no change' or 'aggravated' in all except two patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The tumor grade and the extent of tumor resection were significant prognostic factors for survival rate.
  • In low-grade malignancy group, good motor function was retained when surgeries were performed before substantial neurological deterioration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16670687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Keshavarzi S, Meltzer H, Ben-Haim S, Newman CB, Lawson JD, Levy ML, Murphy K: Initial clinical experience with frameless optically guided stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy in pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jul;25(7):837-44
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pediatric patients were selected for treatment after evaluation by a multidisciplinary neuro-oncology team including neurosurgery, neurology, pathology, oncology, and radiation oncology.
  • Patients were treated for juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA; n = 2), pontine low-grade astrocytoma (n = 1), pituitary adenoma (n = 3), metastatic medulloblastoma (n = 1), acoustic neuroma (n = 1), and pineocytoma (n = 1).
  • We followed patients for a median of 12 months (range 3-18 months) with no in-field failures and were able to obtain encouraging toxicity profiles.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pineal Gland / surgery. Pinealoma / radiotherapy. Pinealoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Prolactinoma / radiotherapy. Prolactinoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19326128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2691523
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86. Hughes MA, Parisi M, Grossman S, Kleinberg L: Primary brain tumors treated with steroids and radiotherapy: low CD4 counts and risk of infection. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Aug 1;62(5):1423-6
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  • [Title] Primary brain tumors treated with steroids and radiotherapy: low CD4 counts and risk of infection.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of low CD4 counts and whether monitoring CD4 counts during and after radiotherapy (RT) is warranted.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: CD4 counts were measured during RT in 70 of 76 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed Grade III and IV astrocytoma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma treated with corticosteroids and seen at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.
  • Prophylactic trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg p.o. every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) or dapsone (100 mg p.o. daily) in those with sulfa allergy was prescribed only if patients developed a low CD4 count.
  • All patients with low CD4 counts were treated with prophylactic antibiotics, and no patient developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
  • A prospective study is underway to determine the frequency, depth, and prognostic implications of this finding.

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  • (PMID = 16029802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
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87. Hunter SB, Varma V, Shehata B, Nolen JD, Cohen C, Olson JJ, Ou CY: Apolipoprotein D expression in primary brain tumors: analysis by quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):963-9
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  • Apolipoprotein D (apoD) expression has been shown to correlate both with cell cycle arrest and with prognosis in several types of malignancy, including central nervous system astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • Sixteen poorly infiltrating WHO grade I glial neoplasms (i.e., pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas) showed an average 20-fold higher apoD expression level compared with the 20 diffusely infiltrating glial neoplasms (i.e., glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendrogliomas; p=0.00004).
  • A small number of exceptions (i.e., two high-expressing glioblastomas and three low-expressing gangliogliomas) were identified.
  • Analyzed as individual tumor groups, poorly infiltrating grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas differed significantly from each tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating higher-grade category (p<0.05 for each comparison) but not from each other (p>0.05).
  • Conversely, each individual tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating category differed significantly from both pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas (p<0.05) but did not vary from other infiltrating tumors (p>0.05).
  • Ependymomas, non-infiltrating grade II neoplasms, expressed levels of apoD similar to or lower than levels expressed by the diffusely infiltrating gliomas.
  • In addition, apoD expression was 5-fold higher in the slowly proliferating grade I glial neoplasms compared with non-proliferating normal brain tissue (p=0.01), suggesting that apoD expression is not simply an inverse measure of proliferation.
  • ApoD expression measured by quantitative RT-PCR may be useful in the differential diagnosis of primary brain tumors, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apolipoproteins / biosynthesis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16055749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins; 0 / Apolipoproteins D; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; 8002-74-2 / Paraffin
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88. Morales H, Kwock L, Castillo M: Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):682-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of pilomyxoid astrocytomas: case reports and comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) have been described only recently.
  • They appear as low-grade tumors sharing imaging features similar to pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs).
  • However, pilomyxoid astrocytomas have different histological features and behave more aggressively than PAs.
  • Short echo time MRS obtained in 2 PMAs showed low myoinositol/Cr ratios in tumoral regions in comparison with PA.
  • The third PMA was different to those previously reported in the literature because it was hemispheric rather than hypothalamic in location in addition to having low intratumoral ratios of Cho/Cr.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Myxoma / metabolism. Myxoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17895777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4L6452S749 / Inositol; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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89. Ohnishi M, Matsumoto T, Nagashio R, Kageyama T, Utsuki S, Oka H, Okayasu I, Sato Y: Proteomics of tumor-specific proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with astrocytoma: usefulness of gelsolin protein. Pathol Int; 2009 Nov;59(11):797-803
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proteomics of tumor-specific proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with astrocytoma: usefulness of gelsolin protein.
  • Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition have been shown to accurately reflect pathological processes in the CNS, and are potential indicators of abnormal CNS states, such as tumor growth.
  • To detect biomarkers in high-grade astrocytomas, the differential expression of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed from two cases each of diffuse astrocytoma (grade II), and glioblastoma (grade IV) using agarose 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE).
  • It was found that the expression of gelsolin protein decreased with histological grade.
  • To examine whether gelsolin is a useful indicator of tumor aggressiveness or patient outcome, its expression was further studied on immunohistochemistry in 41 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded astrocytomas.
  • The positive cell rate of gelsolin in tumors was 59.4% in grade II, 30.0% in grade III and 29.4% in grade IV, respectively.
  • Gelsolin expression was significantly lower in high-grade astrocytomas (grade III or IV) than in low-grade astrocytomas (grade II; P < 0.05).
  • Moreover, in astrocytomas the overall survival of patients in the low-expression group was significantly poorer than in the high expression group (P < 0.05).
  • These data suggest that gelsolin is a prognostic factor in astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Gelsolin / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 19883430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gelsolin
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90. Juhász C, Chugani DC, Muzik O, Wu D, Sloan AE, Barger G, Watson C, Shah AK, Sood S, Ergun EL, Mangner TJ, Chakraborty PK, Kupsky WJ, Chugani HT: In vivo uptake and metabolism of alpha-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan in human brain tumors. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab; 2006 Mar;26(3):345-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Abnormal metabolism of tryptophan has been implicated in modulation of tumor cell proliferation and immunoresistance. alpha-[(11)C]Methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) is a PET tracer to measure cerebral tryptophan metabolism in vivo.
  • In the present study, we have measured tumor tryptophan uptake in 40 patients with primary brain tumors using AMT PET and standard uptake values (SUV).
  • All grade II to IV gliomas and glioneuronal tumors showed increased AMT SUV, including all recurrent/residual tumors.
  • Low-grade astrocytic gliomas showed increased tryptophan metabolism, as measured by k(3)'.
  • In astrocytic tumors, low grade was associated with high k(3)' and lower VD', while high-grade tumors showed the reverse pattern.
  • The findings show high AMT uptake in primary and residual/recurrent gliomas and glioneuronal tumors.
  • Increased AMT uptake can be due to increased metabolism of tryptophan and/or high volume of distribution, depending on tumor type and grade.
  • High tryptophan metabolic rates in low-grade tumors may indicate activation of the kynurenine pathway, a mechanism regulating tumor cell growth.
  • AMT PET might be a useful molecular imaging method to guide therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling tumor cell proliferation by acting on tryptophan metabolism.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carbon Radioisotopes. Child. Child, Preschool. Electroencephalography / methods. Electroencephalography / standards. Female. Gadolinium. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / standards. Seizures / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16079785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-678X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 13510-08-2 / alpha-methyltryptophan; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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91. Spena G, Garbossa D, Barletta L, Prevost C, Versari P: Preoperative chemotherapy for infiltrative low-grade oligoastrocytoma: a useful strategy to maximize surgical resection -case report-. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(5):410-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative chemotherapy for infiltrative low-grade oligoastrocytoma: a useful strategy to maximize surgical resection -case report-.
  • A 38-year-old woman presented with a large infiltrative left frontal low-grade glioma manifesting as partial seizures of the left arm and lower limb.
  • The residual tumor was stable, and the frequency of seizures had lessened dramatically at the last follow-up examination at 18 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Preoperative Period

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  • (PMID = 20505301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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92. Gasinska A, Skolyszewski J, Glinski B, Niemiec J, Adamczyk A, Krzyszkowski T, Zabek M: Age and bromodeoxyuridine labelling index as prognostic factors in high-grade gliomas treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Aug;18(6):459-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Age and bromodeoxyuridine labelling index as prognostic factors in high-grade gliomas treated with surgery and radiotherapy.
  • AIMS: To determine the prognostic value of proliferative potential and DNA ploidy in 72 brain tumours (36 grade III and 36 grade IV astrocytomas) using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation and flow cytometry.
  • No difference was observed in mean BrdUrd LI between grade III and grade IV sub-groups.
  • A significantly higher percentage of DNA aneuploidy was observed in grade III gliomas (69.4%) than in grade IV gliomas (52.8%).
  • Univariate analysis showed that younger patients (< or = 51 years) (P = 0.021) with grade III gliomas (P = 0.030) and low tumour proliferation rate (BrdUrd LI < or = 2.7%, P = 0.028) had significantly higher 5-year survival rates.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, independent prognostic factors for patients with high-grade gliomas treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy are age and tumour proliferation rate assessed according to the BrdUrd LI.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Bromodeoxyuridine. Glioma / radiotherapy. Glioma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / drug effects. Disease Progression. Female. Flow Cytometry. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Oxygen / pharmacology. Ploidies. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16909969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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93. Ohgaki H: Genetic pathways to glioblastomas. Neuropathology; 2005 Mar;25(1):1-7
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