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1. Pipas JM, Meyer LP, Rhodes CH, Cromwell LD, McDonnell CE, Kingman LS, Rigas JR, Fadul CE: A Phase II trial of paclitaxel and topotecan with filgrastim in patients with recurrent or refractory glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2005 Feb;71(3):301-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A Phase II trial of paclitaxel and topotecan with filgrastim in patients with recurrent or refractory glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • PURPOSE: Therapy for high-grade gliomas remains unsatisfactory.
  • We conducted a Phase II trial of these agents in combination with filgrastim (G-CSF) in patients with recurrent or refractory glioblastoma multiforme or anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients with radiographic evidence of recurrent or progressive tumor following primary therapy were eligible for study.
  • Patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV over 3 h on day 1 and topotecan 1.0 mg/m2 IV over 30 min on days 1-5.
  • Hematologic toxicity was common with 25 /% of patients experiencing grade III or IV leukopenia despite G-CSF support.
  • CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel and topotecan with G-CSF support exhibits modest activity in adults with recurrent or refractory glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The significant hematotoxicity encountered, however, cannot justify further investigation of this combination in patients with high grade brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia / chemically induced. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Female. Filgrastim. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Topotecan / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15735921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; PVI5M0M1GW / Filgrastim
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2. Chen H, Huang Q, Zhai DZ, Dong J, Wang AD, Lan Q: [CDK1 expression and effects of CDK1 silencing on the malignant phenotype of glioma cells]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Jul;29(7):484-8
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  • METHODS: Glioma tissue array was constructed, which was composed of surgical specimens of gliomas with different malignancy grades, glioma xenografts in nude mice, cellular spheroids of brain tumor stem cells, normal neural stem cells and glioma cell line.
  • CDK1 expression in human brain glioma cell line and relevant xenogeneic graft tumor was inhibited by retroviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs).
  • The positive expression rates of CDK1 in human brain glioma tissues were 22.2% (grade I), 40.0% (grade II), 69.6% (grade III) and 78.6% (grade IV), P = 0.01, respectively.
  • The positive expression rate of CDK1 in glioma cell line and implanted xenografts was similar as the clinical tumors with high malignancy, and higher than those in neural stem cells and brain tumor stem cells (P = 0.0014).
  • Expression of CDK1 was high in human fetal brain tissues and bone marrows of nude mice, but low in normal adult human brain tissues.
  • Downregulation of CDK1 inhibited the proliferation activities notably both in SHG-44 cells in vitro and relevant xenogeneic graft tumors, and induced apoptosis of tumor cells prominantly as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Gene Silencing. Glioma / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Ganglioglioma / genetics. Ganglioglioma / metabolism. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm Transplantation. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18069625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2 Protein Kinase
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3. Iacob G, Dinca EB: Current data and strategy in glioblastoma multiforme. J Med Life; 2009 Oct-Dec;2(4):386-93
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  • [Title] Current data and strategy in glioblastoma multiforme.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or astrocytoma grade IV on WHO classification is the most aggressive and the most frequent of all primary brain tumors.
  • Glioblastoma is multiforme, resistant to therapeutic interventions illustrating the heterogeneity exhibited by this tumor in its every aspect, including clinical presentation, pathology, genetic signature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioblastoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Chromosome Mapping. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Amplification. Humans. Middle Aged. Mutation. Oncogenes. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / deficiency. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20108752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 45
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019011
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4. Hlobilkova A, Ehrmann J, Sedlakova E, Krejci V, Knizetova P, Fiuraskova M, Kala M, Kalita O, Kolar Z: Could changes in the regulation of the PI3K/PKB/Akt signaling pathway and cell cycle be involved in astrocytic tumor pathogenesis and progression? Neoplasma; 2007;54(4):334-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Could changes in the regulation of the PI3K/PKB/Akt signaling pathway and cell cycle be involved in astrocytic tumor pathogenesis and progression?
  • The aim of our study was to detect changes in expression of the following proteins: the tumor suppressors PTEN, p53, and p21Waf1/Cip1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, as a marker of astroglial differentiation), the phosphorylated form of protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt), which is downstream to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and MDM2, which degrades p53.
  • Paraffin-embedded astrocytoma tissue samples from 89 patients were divided into low grade (grade I-II; 42 samples) and high grade astrocytomas (grade III-IV; 47 samples).
  • EGFR protein was detected in 29 % of low grade and in 60 % of high grade astrocytomas.
  • The expression of phosphorylated PKB/Akt was found in roughly the same proportions: in 86% of low grade and in 79% of high grade astrocytomas.
  • PTEN was not found in most of astrocytomas, 64% of low grade and 74% of high grade tumors showed no PTEN staining.
  • GFAP expression was decreased in tumor astrocytes compared to normal astrocytes and this decreased with grading.
  • GFAP positive tumor cells were detected in only 50% of low grade, and 32% of high grade astrocytomas.
  • Loss of p21Waf1/Cip1 expression was shown in 20% of low and in 45% of high grade tumors.
  • In the subgroup of high grade tumors with wild type p53, 86% showed p21Waf1/Cip1 expression, whereas in the subgroup of high grade tumors with altered p53, only 35% displayed p21Waf1/Cip1.
  • We conclude that EGFR expression increases with astrocytoma grading.
  • PTEN defects may also participate in aggressive tumor behaviour through activation of the PKB/Akt pathway.
  • EGFR is one of the factors, which drives the progression of astrocytomas from low to high grade stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17822324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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5. Umesh S, Tandon A, Santosh V, Anandh B, Sampath S, Chandramouli BA, Sastry Kolluri VR: Clinical and immunohistochemical prognostic factors in adult glioblastoma patients. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Sep-Oct;28(5):362-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and immunohistochemical prognostic factors in adult glioblastoma patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Glioblastomas are the commonest and the most malignant of all adult brain tumors, characterized by genetic instability, intratumoral histopathological variability, and unpredictable clinical behavior.
  • The utility of tumor markers that reflect their underlying biology is becoming increasingly important with respect to patient prognostication and their potential role as molecular targets of therapy is being recognized.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 54 cases of adult supratentorial glioblastomas operated over a span of 1 year, with respect to clinical features such as age, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), extent of resection, adjuvant therapy, and immunohistochemical expression of p53, EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) and PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin homolog).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that EGFR and p53 overexpression along with loss of PTEN expression are important adjuncts to clinical variables in prognosticating glioblastoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Young Adult


6. Zhao ZX, Lan K, Xiao JH, Zhang Y, Xu P, Jia L, He M: A new method to classify pathologic grades of astrocytomas based on magnetic resonance imaging appearances. Neurol India; 2010 Sep-Oct;58(5):685-90
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  • BACKGROUND: Astrocytoma is the most common neuroepithelial neoplasm, and its grading greatly affects treatment and prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: According to relevant factors of astrocytoma, this study developed a support vector machine (SVM) model to predict the astrocytoma grades and compared the SVM prediction with the clinician's diagnostic performance.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were recruited from a cohort of astrocytoma patients in our hospital between January 2008 and April 2009.
  • Among all astrocytoma patients, nine had grade I, 25 had grade II, 12 had grade III, and 60 had grade IV astrocytoma.
  • The SVM model was trained with nine magnetic resonance (MR) features and one clinical parameter by fivefold cross-validation and differentiated astrocytomas of grades I-IV at two levels, respectively.
  • The clinician also predicted the grade of astrocytoma.
  • According to the two prediction methods above, the areas under receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curves to discriminate low- and high-grade groups, accuracies of high-grade grouping, overall accuracy, and overall kappa values were compared.
  • The diagnostic performance of SVM is significantly better than clinician performance, with the exception of the low-grade group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The SVM model can provide useful information to help clinicians improve diagnostic performance when predicting astrocytoma grade based on MR images.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Databases, Factual / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. ROC Curve. Young Adult


7. Frenay MP, Fontaine D, Vandenbos F, Lebrun C: First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas. Eur J Neurol; 2005 Sep;12(9):685-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications.
  • We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT.
  • CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity.
  • These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Epilepsy / complications. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16128869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-5101
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds
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8. Samaras V, Piperi C, Levidou G, Zisakis A, Kavantzas N, Themistocleous MS, Boviatsis EI, Barbatis C, Lea RW, Kalofoutis A, Korkolopoulou P: Analysis of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in human astrocytomas: associations with IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and microvessel morphometry. Hum Immunol; 2009 Jun;70(6):391-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • IL-6- and IL-8-secreting peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) were evaluated in 17 glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), 5 anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and 6 diffuse astrocytoma patients (WHO grade II), in parallel with 23 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay.
  • The IL-8 expression was assessed immunohistochemically in patients' tumor tissue sections and correlated with the expression of COX-2, VEGF, IL-6, and microvessel morphometry (assessed using CD34 antibody).
  • IL-8 immunoreactivity was detected in malignant cells or macrophages in perivascular areas and in pseudopalisading cells around necrosis and was positively correlated with histological grade (p = 0.0175) and tumor necrosis (p = 0.0793).
  • The coordinate expression and topographical relationship of IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and VEGF in the same tumor areas (e.g., perinecrotic areas) attest to their intimate liaison in terms of cancer-induced angiogenesis, which is probably secondary to the induction of multiple interdependent molecular pathways.
  • Moreover, our study seems to be the first attempt to link IL-8 expression by tumor cells with histological grade, implicating its potent role in gliomagenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / immunology. Microvessels / immunology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / immunology. Female. Humans. Interleukin-6 / immunology. Interleukin-8 / immunology. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / immunology. Male. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19332096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Human immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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9. Liu J, Zheng S, Yu JK, Zhang JM, Chen Z: Serum protein fingerprinting coupled with artificial neural network distinguishes glioma from healthy population or brain benign tumor. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2005 Jan;6(1):4-10
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  • [Title] Serum protein fingerprinting coupled with artificial neural network distinguishes glioma from healthy population or brain benign tumor.
  • To screen and evaluate protein biomarkers for the detection of gliomas (Astrocytoma grade I-IV) from healthy individuals and gliomas from brain benign tumors by using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) coupled with an artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm.
  • SELDI-TOF-MS protein fingerprinting of serum from 105 brain tumor patients and healthy individuals, included 28 patients with glioma (Astrocytoma I-IV), 37 patients with brain benign tumor, and 40 age-matched healthy individuals.
  • Two thirds of the total samples of every compared pair as training set were used to set up discriminating patterns, and one third of total samples of every compared pair as test set were used to cross-validate; simultaneously, discriminate-cluster analysis derived SPSS 10.0 software was used to compare Astrocytoma grade I-II with grade III-IV ones.
  • An accuracy of 95.7%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% were obtained in a blinded test set comparing gliomas patients with healthy individuals; an accuracy of 86.4%, sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 84.6%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 85.7% were obtained when patient's gliomas was compared with benign brain tumor.
  • Total accuracy of 85.7%, accuracy of grade I-II Astrocytoma was 86.7%, accuracy of III-IV Astrocytoma was 84.6% were obtained when grade I-II Astrocytoma was compared with grade III-IV ones (discriminant analysis).
  • The high sensitivity and specificity achieved by the use of selected biomarkers showed great potential application for the discrimination of gliomas patients from healthy individuals and gliomas from brain benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted / methods. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Peptide Mapping / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Networks (Computer). Protein Array Analysis / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization / methods

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  • (PMID = 15593384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1390751
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10. Hu CH, Fang XM, Hu XY, Cui L: Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas. Clin Imaging; 2009 Nov-Dec;33(6):417-23
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  • METHODS: Both conventional and perfusion CT were performed on 29 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytomas (15 cases in Grades I-II, 14 cases in Grades III-IV).
  • RESULTS: Twelve low-grade astrocytomas showed low or medium values of both rCBF (46.95+/-22.92 ml 100 g(-1) mm(-1)) and rCBV (5.74+/-3.61 ml 100 g(-1)); 12 high-grade astrocytomas showed high values of both rCBF (95.44+/-42.58 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1)) and rCBV (9.24+/-5.32 ml 100g(-1)).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19857800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Ashamalla H, Zaki B, Mokhtar B, Lewis L, Lavaf A, Nasr H, Colella F, Dosik D, Krishnamurthy M, Saad N, Guriguis A: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy boost and weekly paclitaxel in malignant gliomas clinical and pharmacokinetics results. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Jun;6(3):169-76
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  • Twenty-three Glioblastoma Multiforme and two Anaplastic Astrocytoma were studied.
  • The median survival for RPA prognostic classes III, IV, V, and VI were 20, 14, 12, and 11 months.
  • No grade 4 CTCAE (version 3.0) toxicities were observed.
  • Enhanced survival was demonstrated with gross tumor resection (20.8 months), KPS > or =80 (18.7 months) and age < or =60 years (27 months) as compared to subtotal resection or biopsy (12.1 months, P< 0.005), KPS < or =70 (10.8 months, P=0.
  • ii) the regimen resulted in improvement of survival of RPA classes IV, V, VI; and iii) the use of FSRT boost may be studied with other chemotherapeutic agents to see if superior results can be attained.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacokinetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Paclitaxel / pharmacokinetics. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anticonvulsants / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phenytoin / blood. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17535024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6158TKW0C5 / Phenytoin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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12. Narayana A, Yamada J, Berry S, Shah P, Hunt M, Gutin PH, Leibel SA: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 1;64(3):892-7
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: clinical and dosimetric results.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-eight consecutive high-grade gliomas were treated between January 2001 and December 2003 with dynamic multileaf collimator IMRT, planned with the inverse approach.
  • Glioblastoma accounted for 70% of the cases, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma histology (pure or mixed) was seen in 15% of the cases.
  • The median progression-free survival time for anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma histology was 5.6 and 2.5 months, respectively.
  • The overall survival time for anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma was 36 and 9 months, respectively.
  • No Grade IV/V late neurologic toxicities were noted.
  • A comparative dosimetric analysis revealed that regardless of tumor location, IMRT did not significantly improve target coverage compared with three-dimensional planning.
  • Intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered with a limited number of beams did not result in an increased dose to the normal brain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is unlikely that IMRT will improve local control in high-grade gliomas without further dose escalation compared with conventional radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / radiation effects. Disease Progression. Female. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16458777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Marcus HJ, Carpenter KL, Price SJ, Hutchinson PJ: In vivo assessment of high-grade glioma biochemistry using microdialysis: a study of energy-related molecules, growth factors and cytokines. J Neurooncol; 2010 Mar;97(1):11-23
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  • [Title] In vivo assessment of high-grade glioma biochemistry using microdialysis: a study of energy-related molecules, growth factors and cytokines.
  • This study's objective was to utilise microdialysis to monitor levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate and glycerol in patients following surgery for intrinsic brain tumours, and to assess the concentration of growth factors, cytokines and other proteins involved in the pathogenesis of high-grade gliomas in vivo.
  • Eight patients with suspected high-grade gliomas were studied.
  • Histology demonstrated WHO IV glioblastoma in five cases, WHO III anaplastic astrocytoma in two cases, and one cerebral lymphoma.
  • In the high-grade gliomas (WHO IV and III), tumour margin microdialysates consistently showed significantly lower glucose, higher lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio, higher glutamate and higher glycerol, relative to peritumour microdialysates (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Glutamic Acid / metabolism. Glycerol / metabolism. Humans. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Microdialysis / methods. Middle Aged. Pyruvic Acid / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19714445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0600986; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9439390; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8558G7RUTR / Pyruvic Acid; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; PDC6A3C0OX / Glycerol
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14. Hara A, Saegusa M, Ichinoe M, Okayasu I: Diagnostic and prognostic significance of cyclin A expression in low-grade astrocytomas: comparison with astrogliosis and high-grade tumours. J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;61(3):287-92
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic significance of cyclin A expression in low-grade astrocytomas: comparison with astrogliosis and high-grade tumours.
  • AIM: Definitive distinction between low-grade astrocytoma and astrogliosis is a long-standing difficulty due to their similar histopathological characteristics.
  • To clarify differences in biological significance, this study focused on various components of the cell cycle machinery and proliferation as key parameters, comparing expression in astrogliosis, as well as low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: The expression of p16, p21 and p27, and cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Rb and Ki-67 was immunohistochemically examined in 40 cases of astrogliosis and 48 cases of low-grade astrocytomas (grade II), as well as 50 high-grade tumours (grades III and IV).
  • RESULTS: Cell proliferation determined by Ki-67 immunoreactivity did not differ between astrogliosis and low-grade tumours.
  • Average labelling indices (LIs) for p16, p21, Rb, cyclin A and cyclin E showed a stepwise increase from astrogliosis, through low- to high-grade astrocytomas, indicating the possibility that over 9%, 6% and 4% of LIs for p16, p21 and cyclin A, respectively, may be useful predictors in the case of the latter, in contrast to significant decrease in p27 LIs.
  • Significantly higher mean LI values for cyclin D1 were also evident in astrogliosis (12.42) as compared with astrocytomas (low grade, 2.26; high grade, 4.60).
  • Positive correlations between LIs for Rb and Ki-67 were observed with astrogliosis and low- but not high-grade tumours.
  • In addition, high cyclin A LI values were independently associated with poor outcome in low-grade tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence that expression of cell-cycle-related molecules may be a reliable parameter for differential diagnosis of low-grade astrocytomas and astrogliosis.
  • Moreover, detection of cyclin A appears to be useful for predicting behaviour of low-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cyclin A / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin D1 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / mortality. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Proportional Hazards Models. Retinoblastoma Protein / analysis. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18156430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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15. Yue WY, Yu SH, Zhao SG, Chen ZP: Molecular markers relating to malignant progression in Grade II astrocytoma. J Neurosurg; 2009 Apr;110(4):709-14
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  • [Title] Molecular markers relating to malignant progression in Grade II astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: Astrocytoma may progress rapidly or remain stable for many years.
  • To clarify whether molecular characteristics could be prognostic factors, several cell cycling-associated molecular alterations in the diffuse astrocytoma have been investigated.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three patients in whom WHO Grade II astrocytoma had been initially diagnosed were assigned to 1 of 3 groups.
  • Group 1 consisted of 10 patients with malignant progression; the tumor had recurred within 5 years and histological analysis had confirmed that the tumor progressed to Grade III or IV.
  • Group 2 consisted of 10 patients in whom there was no malignant progression; the tumor recurred within 5 years, but histological analysis confirmed that the tumor remained at Grade II.
  • Expression of Ki 67, TP53, p27, and p21 was examined using immunohistochemical analysis for the tumor samples obtained during the first and second (in recurrent cases) surgeries.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / chemistry. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Base Sequence. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19025355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / p27 antigen
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16. Zhang W, Zhao J, Guo D, Zhong W, Shu J, Luo Y: [Application of susceptibility weighted imaging in revealing intratumoral blood products and grading gliomas]. J Radiol; 2010 Apr;91(4):485-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate the application of SWI for revealing inratumoral blood products and diagnosing high-grade gliomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conventional MR sequences and SWI were performed in 32 patients, 10 low-grade gliomas (1 grade I and 9 grade II) and 22 high-grade gliomas (8 grade III and 14 grade IV).
  • Logistic regression and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to evaluate the diagnostic value of SWI for high-grade gliomas.
  • No statistical difference was found in detection rate of blood products between low-grade and high-grade group.
  • According to the result of logistic regression, the frequency of blood products and the diameter of maximum blood products were significant determinants of high-grade gliomas.
  • The result of ROC analysis indicated that with an optimal cut-off point (0.67), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosing high-grade gliomas with blood products detected by SWI were 81.8%, 80.0%, 90.0%, and 66.6%, respectively.
  • With a high-grade gliomas risk estimation model based on two variables, satisfied sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / pathology. Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20514004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins
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17. Hou BL, Bradbury M, Peck KK, Petrovich NM, Gutin PH, Holodny AI: Effect of brain tumor neovasculature defined by rCBV on BOLD fMRI activation volume in the primary motor cortex. Neuroimage; 2006 Aug 15;32(2):489-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of brain tumor neovasculature defined by rCBV on BOLD fMRI activation volume in the primary motor cortex.
  • We utilized blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and MR perfusion imaging methods to study the influence of brain tumor neovascularity on the BOLD fMRI activation volume in the primary motor cortex (PMC).
  • The results from 57 brain tumor cases demonstrated that, for grade IV gliomas only, decreases in the BOLD fMRI activation volumes within the ipsilateral PMC, when compared with that observed in the contralateral PMC, correlated with increases in the relative regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in the PMC.
  • In addition, relative increases in the activation volumes, corresponding to decreases in the rCBV, exhibited a linear dependence on the distance between the grade IV glioma and PMC.
  • These findings lend support to the hypothesis that decreases in the fMRI activation volumes adjacent to a GBM may, in part, be due to the increased contribution of aberrant tumor neovascularity, with the resultant de-coupling of blood flow from neuronal activity.
  • The nature of the relationship between the resulting activation volumes and adjacent tumor characteristics is complex, but is found to be dependent on the tumor grade and type, as well as the distance of the tumor to the PMC.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Blood Volume / physiology. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioblastoma / blood supply. Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Motor Cortex / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. Oligodendroglioma / blood supply. Oxygen / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Hemangiopericytoma / blood supply. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / blood supply. Meningioma / blood supply. Middle Aged. Neurons / physiology. Regional Blood Flow / physiology. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16806983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-8119
  • [Journal-full-title] NeuroImage
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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18. Zhou W, Jiang Z, Song X, Liu Y, Wen P, Guo Y, Xu F, Kong L, Zhang P, Han A, Yu J: Promoter hypermethylation-mediated down-regulation of CXCL12 in human astrocytoma. J Neurosci Res; 2008 Oct;86(13):3002-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Promoter hypermethylation-mediated down-regulation of CXCL12 in human astrocytoma.
  • However, the role of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, especially CXCL12, in the regulation of tumor invasiveness is largely still unknown.
  • Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays, we observed that CXCR4 expression increased with increasing WHO grade in astrocytoma, suggesting that CXCR4 may be a marker of aggressive biological behavior of astrocytoma.
  • Epigenetic inactivation of CXCL12 was implicated mainly in low-grade astrocytomas, via DNA hypermethylation by DNMT1, -3A, and -3B; 21.1% (16/76) of the astrocytomas showed reduced or lack of CXCL12 expression, in line with epigenetic silencing of gene transcripts.
  • However, it is interesting to note that 61.8% (47/76) of tumors, mainly high-grade astrocytomas, displayed elevated transcription of CXCL12.
  • The expression levels of CXCL12 mRNA in glioblastomas (WHO grade IV) were significantly higher than in normal brain tissues.
  • In summary, our data show that CXCL12 promoter hypermethylation is an early event in astrocytoma development.
  • However, the high expressions of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in glioblastomas, the more invasive astrocytomas, suggest a different role of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis in astrocytoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chemokine CXCL12 / genetics. DNA Methylation. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Down-Regulation. Epigenesis, Genetic. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, CXCR4 / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18512766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4547
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4
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19. Tehrani M, Friedman TM, Olson JJ, Brat DJ: Intravascular thrombosis in central nervous system malignancies: a potential role in astrocytoma progression to glioblastoma. Brain Pathol; 2008 Apr;18(2):164-71
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  • [Title] Intravascular thrombosis in central nervous system malignancies: a potential role in astrocytoma progression to glioblastoma.
  • Intravascular thrombosis is a frequent finding in glioblastoma [GBM; World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV] specimens and could potentially be involved in astrocytoma progression to GBM or represent a surrogate marker of GBM histology.
  • We investigated whether intravascular thrombosis was more frequent or prominent in GBM than other central nervous system (CNS) malignancies and considered its prognostic significance in anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; WHO grade III), which lacks necrosis.
  • Histologic sections were examined for thrombosis, necrosis and microvascular hyperplasia from each of 297 CNS tumors, including 103 GBMs, 46 AAs, 20 diffuse astrocytoma (DAs; WHO grade II), eight anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs; WHO grade III), 20 oligodendrogliomas (ODs; WHO grade II), 49 metastatic carcinomas (METs), 31 primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) and 20 medulloblastomas (MBs).
  • Among newly diagnosed tumors, thrombosis was present in 92% of GBM resections, significantly greater than other types of CNS malignancies.
  • Thus, intravascular thrombosis is more frequent in GBM than other CNS malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 18093251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053727-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053727; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS053727; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS053727-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82090; NLM/ PMC2610479
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20. Gimenez M, Souza VC, Izumi C, Barbieri MR, Chammas R, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Marie SK, Rosa JC: Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin. Proteomics; 2010 Aug;10(15):2812-21
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of low- to high-grade astrocytomas reveals an alteration of the expression level of raf kinase inhibitor protein and nucleophosmin.
  • The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in diffuse astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and glioblastoma multiforme grade IV in human tumor samples and in non-neoplastic brain tissue as control using 2-DE and MS.
  • Tumor and control brain tissue dissection was guided by histological hematoxylin/eosin tissue sections to provide more than 90% of tumor cells and astrocytes.
  • Six proteins were detected as up-regulated in higher grade astrocytomas and the most important finding was nucleophosmin (NPM) (p<0.05), whereas four proteins were down-regulated, among them raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) (p<0.05).
  • We report here for the first time the alteration of NPM and RKIP expression in brain cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein / genetics. Proteomics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Proteins / genetics. Proteins / isolation & purification


21. Mott RT, Turner KC, Bigner DD, McLendon RE: Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):330-5
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  • OBJECT: Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • Although useful, this grading system is often limited due to small sample sizes and the subjectivity in interpretation.
  • Given the important roles for EGFR and PTEN in the malignant progression of astrocytomas, the authors hypothesized that the fraction of tumor cells with aberrations in these genetic loci would correlate with the histological grade.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated 217 consecutive diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas that were graded using the WHO guidelines, including 16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO Grade II), 72 anaplastic astrocytomas ([AAs] WHO Grade III), and 129 glioblastomas multiforme ([GBMs] WHO Grade IV).
  • RESULTS: The population of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus correlated significantly with histological grade.
  • In particular, high-grade astrocytomas (that is, AAs and GBMs) had elevated fractions of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus.
  • Using these findings, the authors generated a mathematical model capable of subcategorizing high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The successful model incorporated only the percentage of tumor cells with polysomy of EGFR and monosomy of PTEN, as well as patient age.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Genes, erbB-1 / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aneuploidy. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Disease Progression. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Monosomy / genetics. Survival Rate


22. Loh KC, Willert J, Meltzer H, Roberts W, Kerlin B, Kadota R, Levy M, White G, Geddis A, Schiff D, Martin L, Yu A, Kung F, Spear MA: Temozolomide and radiation for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 May;27(5):254-8
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  • [Title] Temozolomide and radiation for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies.
  • This study describes the outcomes of children treated with combinations of temozolomide and radiation therapy for various aggressive central nervous system malignancies.
  • Toxicities observed included low-grade neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia.
  • The combination of temozolomide and radiotherapy appears to be well tolerated in a variety of treatment schemas for aggressive pediatric central nervous system malignancies.
  • This information is of particular use in designing future studies, given the recent positive results in a randomized study examining the use of temozolomide concomitant with radiation in the treatment of adult glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15891559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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23. Nakamura M, Ishii K, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Takaishi H, Matsumoto M, Toyama Y, Chiba K: Surgical treatment of intramedullary spinal cord tumors: prognosis and complications. Spinal Cord; 2008 Apr;46(4):282-6
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  • METHODS: We reviewed 68 cases of intramedullary tumors (ependymoma, 33; astrocytoma, 23; hemangioblastoma, 12), treated surgically between 1994 and 2003.
  • The tumor malignancy grade according to the WHO classification was astrocytoma grade I, 3; grade II, 8 (low-grade: 11 cases); grade III, 10; grade IV, 2 (high-grade: 12 cases).
  • All ependymomas were grade II.
  • Approximately 50% of low-grade astrocytomas could be totally excised with favorable survival outcomes, suggesting that total excision should be attempted for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • However, total excision of high-grade tumors was difficult and the functional outcomes were poor.
  • Cordotomy should be considered in patients with a thoracic high-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cervical Vertebrae. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thoracic Vertebrae. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17909556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Scrideli CA, Carlotti CG Jr, Mata JF, Neder L, Machado HR, Oba-Sinjo SM, Rosemberg S, Marie SK, Tone LG: Prognostic significance of co-overexpression of the EGFR/IGFBP-2/HIF-2A genes in astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jul;83(3):233-9
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  • Overexpression of the EGFR, IGFBP-2 and HIF-2A genes has been observed in high-grade astrocytomas and these genes seem to be functionally related to one another.
  • This study aimed to define the profile of their expressions, interactions and correlation with clinical features and prognostic significance in microdissected tumor samples from 84 patients with astrocytomas of different grades and from 6 white matter non-neoplasic brain tissue sample.
  • EGFR, IGFBP-2 and HIF-2A gene expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and differed significantly between grades I-IV astrocytic tumors (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P: 0.0013, respectively) when analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test.
  • Grade I astrocytomas presented gene expression levels similar to those encountered in samples of microdissected white matter of non-neoplastic brain tissue Overexpression of the EGFR, IGFBP-2 and HIF-2A genes was significantly associated with lower 2-year survival (P: 0.009, P: 0.0002 and P: 0.008, respectively).
  • Co-overexpression of these genes was strongly associated with high-grade gliomas and lower survival in univariate (P < 0.0001) and multivariate (P: 0.009) analysis, suggesting that the co-expression of the EGFR/IGFBP-2/HIF-2A pathway genes may have a more important clinical and biological impact than the expression of each individual gene alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17285230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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25. Cho KH, Kim JY, Lee SH, Yoo H, Shin SH, Moon SH, Kim TH, Shin KH, Yoon M, Lee DH, Pyo HR: Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with high-grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Oct 1;78(2):390-7
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  • [Title] Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with high-grade gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: We analyzed outcomes of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with high-grade gliomas, compared with a literature review.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty consecutive patients (WHO grade III, 14 patients; grade IV, 26 patients) treated with SIB-IMRT were analyzed.
  • A dose of 2.0 Gy was delivered to the planning target volume with a SIB of 0.4 Gy to the gross tumor volume with a total dose of 60 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 50 Gy to the planning target volume in 25 fractions during 5 weeks.
  • One- and 2-year survival rates were 78% and 65%, respectively, for patients with grade III tumors and 56% and 31%, respectively, for patients with grade IV tumors.
  • Age (≤50 vs. >50), grade (III vs. IV), subtype (astrocytoma vs. oligodendroglioma or mixed), and a Zubrod performance score (0-1 vs. >2) were predictive of survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20097489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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26. Jain R, Ellika SK, Scarpace L, Schultz LR, Rock JP, Gutierrez J, Patel SC, Ewing J, Mikkelsen T: Quantitative estimation of permeability surface-area product in astroglial brain tumors using perfusion CT and correlation with histopathologic grade. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Apr;29(4):694-700
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  • [Title] Quantitative estimation of permeability surface-area product in astroglial brain tumors using perfusion CT and correlation with histopathologic grade.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glioma angiogenesis and its different hemodynamic features, which can be evaluated by using perfusion CT (PCT) imaging of the brain, have been correlated with the grade and the aggressiveness of gliomas.
  • Our hypothesis was that quantitative estimation of permeability surface area product (PS), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and mean transit time (MTT) in astroglial brain tumors by using PCT will correlate with glioma grade.
  • High-grade gliomas will show higher PS and CBV as compared with low-grade gliomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: PCT was performed in 32 patients with previously untreated astroglial tumors (24 high-grade gliomas and 8 low-grade gliomas) by using a total acquisition time of 170 seconds.
  • RESULTS: The differences in PS, CBV, and CBF between the low- and high-grade tumor groups were statistically significant, with the low-grade group showing lower mean values than the high-grade group.
  • ROC analyses showed that both CBV (C-statistic 0.930) and PS (C-statistic 0.927) were very similar to each other in differentiating low- and high-grade gliomas and had higher predictability compared with CBF and MTT.
  • Within the high-grade group, differentiation of WHO grade III and IV gliomas was also possible by using PCT parameters, and PS showed the highest C-statistic value (0.926) for the ROC analyses in this regard.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both PS and CBV showed strong association with glioma grading, high-grade gliomas showing higher PS and CBV as compared with low-grade gliomas.
  • Perfusion parameters, especially PS, can also be used to differentiate WHO grade III from grade IV in the high-grade tumor group.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Capillary Permeability. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Flow Velocity. Blood Volume. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18202239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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27. Klironomos G, Bravou V, Papachristou DJ, Gatzounis G, Varakis J, Parassi E, Repanti M, Papadaki H: Loss of inhibitor of growth (ING-4) is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of human astrocytomas. Brain Pathol; 2010 Mar;20(2):490-7
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  • Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING-4) is a tumor suppressor gene that interacts with nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and represses its transcriptional activity.
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that the tumor suppressor gene ING-4, the transcription factor NF-kappaB and its target genes matrix metalloproteases MMP-2, MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) are critically involved in tumor invasion.
  • We found that ING-4 expression was significantly decreased in astrocytomas, and ING-4 loss was associated with tumor grade progression.
  • Expression of p65, a NF-kappaB subunit, was significantly higher in grade IV than in grade III and grade I/II tumors, and a statistical significant negative correlation between expression of ING-4 and expression of nuclear p65 was noticed.
  • Of note, astrocytomas of advanced histologic grades (grade III, IV) displayed significantly higher expression levels of these proteins compared to tumors of lower grades (grade I, II).
  • Collectively, our data suggest an essential role for ING-4 in human astrocytoma development and progression possibly through regulation of the NF-kappaB-dependent expression of genes involved in tumor invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Child. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Middle Aged. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19775294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / ING4 protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.4.24.24 / MMP2 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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28. Samaras V, Piperi C, Korkolopoulou P, Zisakis A, Levidou G, Themistocleous MS, Boviatsis EI, Sakas DE, Lea RW, Kalofoutis A, Patsouris E: Application of the ELISPOT method for comparative analysis of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 secretion in peripheral blood of patients with astroglial tumors. Mol Cell Biochem; 2007 Oct;304(1-2):343-51
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  • Glioblastoma, (grade IV astrocytoma), is characterized by rapid growth and resistance to treatment.
  • Identification of markers of aggressiveness in this tumor could represent new therapeutic targets.
  • IL-6 and IL-10 secretion levels were determined using ELISPOT methodology in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 18 patients with astrocytic neoplasms (3 grade II and 15 grade IV), in parallel with 18 healthy controls.
  • In addition, IL-10 secretion from peripheral mononuclear and tumor cells of glioma patients was also higher as compared to healthy controls (P = 0.0002).
  • Based on immunohistochemical staining, IL-6 expression was localized in tumor cells and macrophages as well as in areas of large ischemic necrosis, while the major source of IL-10 expression in glioblastomas was the microglia/macrophage cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Interleukin-10 / blood. Interleukin-10 / secretion. Interleukin-6 / blood. Interleukin-6 / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Female. Glioblastoma / blood. Humans. Leukocytes / secretion. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17551671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Cannon GM, Tomé WA, Robins HI, Howard SP: Pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy: case report : a novel re-treatment strategy in the management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jul;83(3):307-11
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  • [Title] Pulsed reduced dose-rate radiotherapy: case report : a novel re-treatment strategy in the management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.
  • We report a case of a 37 year-old male diagnosed with a Grade II astrocytoma initially treated with surgery and external beam radiation therapy consisting of 54 Gy delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions that subsequently progressed to a Grade IV astrocytoma.
  • Despite delivering 104 Gy to the tumor bed and the surrounding brain parenchyma, at no time was there radiographic evidence of radiation-induced normal tissue necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retreatment. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17252184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Nakamura M, Shimada K, Ishida E, Higuchi T, Nakase H, Sakaki T, Konishi N: Molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytic tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):113-23
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytic tumors.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common pediatric brain tumors, accounting for 7%-8% of all childhood cancers.
  • Relatively few studies have been performed on their molecular properties; therefore, classification of pediatric astrocytic tumors into genetic subtypes similar to that of adult tumors remains to be defined.
  • Here, we report an extensive characterization of 44 pediatric astrocytomas--16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO grade II), 10 anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III), and 18 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV)--in terms of genetic alterations frequently observed in adult astrocytomas.
  • EGFR amplification was detected in only one anaplastic astrocytoma and two glioblastomas, but no amplification was observed for the PDGFR-alpha gene.
  • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 1p/19q and 10p/10q was less common in pediatric astrocytic tumors than in those seen in adults, but the frequency of LOH on 22q was comparable, occurring in 44% of diffuse astrocytomas, 40% of anaplastic astrocytomas, and 61% of glioblastomas.
  • Our results suggest some differences in children compared to adults in the genetic pathways leading to the formation of de novo astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Amplification. Genes, p53. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17327574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871665
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31. McGirt MJ, Chaichana KL, Gathinji M, Attenello F, Than K, Ruiz AJ, Olivi A, Quiñones-Hinojosa A: Persistent outpatient hyperglycemia is independently associated with decreased survival after primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2008 Aug;63(2):286-91; discussion 291
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  • [Title] Persistent outpatient hyperglycemia is independently associated with decreased survival after primary resection of malignant brain astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with malignant brain astrocytomas are at high risk for developing hyperglycemia secondary to frequent corticosteroid administration.
  • Furthermore, hyperglycemia augments in vitro astrocytoma growth, whereas hypoglycemia attenuates in vitro astrocytoma cell growth.
  • We hypothesized that persistent hyperglycemic states in the outpatient setting may serve as a prognostic marker of decreased survival in patients with malignant brain astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 367 cases of craniotomy for malignant brain astrocytomas (World Health Organization Grade III or IV).
  • RESULTS: A total of 367 craniotomies (209 primary, 158 secondary) were performed for malignant brain astrocytomas (glioblastoma multiforme, 297; anaplastic astrocytomas, 70); 68 (19%) and 28 (8%) of the patients experienced isolated or persistent outpatient hyperglycemia, respectively.
  • Adjusting for intergroup differences and variables associated with survival in this model, age (P = 0.001), Karnofsky Performance Scale score (P = 0.001), tumor grade (P = 0.001), primary versus secondary resection (P = 0.008), temozolomide (P = 0.007), subsequent resection (P = 0.07), and continued outpatient dexamethasone therapy, persistent outpatient hyperglycemia (relative risk, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.05, P = 0.03) remained independently associated with decreased survival.
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience, persistent outpatient hyperglycemia was associated with decreased survival in patients undergoing surgical resection for malignant astro- cytomas and was independent of the degree of disability, tumor grade, diabetes, prolonged dexamethasone use, or subsequent treatment modalities.
  • Increased glucose control is warranted in this patient population and may contribute to improved outcomes in the treatment of malignant brain astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Ambulatory Care / trends. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hyperglycemia / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Craniotomy / adverse effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends

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  • (PMID = 18797358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Sankar T, Kuznetsov YE, Ryan RW, Caramanos Z, Antel SB, Arnold DL, Preul MC: The metabolic epicenter of supratentorial gliomas: a 1H-MRSI study. Can J Neurol Sci; 2009 Nov;36(6):696-706
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  • We approached the problem using multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) to define a tumor "metabolic epicenter", and examined the relationship of metabolic epicenter location to survival and histopathological grade.
  • METHODS: We studied 54 consecutive patients with a supratentorial glioma (astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma, WHO grades II-IV).
  • The metabolic epicenter in each tumor was defined as the 1H-MRSI voxel containing maximum intra-tumoral choline on preoperative imaging.
  • Tumor location was considered the X-Y-Z coordinate position, in a standardized stereotactic space, of the metabolic epicenter.
  • Correlation between epicenter location and survival or grade was assessed.
  • A predictive model based on both metabolic epicenter location and histopathological grade accounted for 70% of the variability in survival, substantially improving on histology alone to predict survival.
  • Location also correlated significantly with grade (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.001): higher grade tumors had a metabolic epicenter closer to the midpoint of the brain.
  • The location of the metabolic epicenter is strongly correlated with overall survival and histopathological grade, suggesting that it reflects biological factors underlying glioma growth and malignant dedifferentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Chi-Square Distribution. Choline / metabolism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Protons. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19960747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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33. Guo D, Nilsson J, Haapasalo H, Raheem O, Bergenheim T, Hedman H, Henriksson R: Perinuclear leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domain proteins (LRIG1-3) as prognostic indicators in astrocytic tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2006 Mar;111(3):238-46
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  • [Title] Perinuclear leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domain proteins (LRIG1-3) as prognostic indicators in astrocytic tumors.
  • We have previously characterized three human leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) genes and proteins, named LRIG1-3 and proposed that they may act as suppressors of tumor growth.
  • In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression level of LRIG1-3 in human glioma cell lines and control-matched glioma tissues, characterized the sub-cellular localization of an LRIG3-GFP fusion protein, and analyzed the relationship between sub-cellular localization of LRIG1-3 and clinical parameters in 404 astrocytic tumors by immunohistochemistry.
  • Perinuclear staining of LRIG1-3 was associated with low WHO grade and better survival of the patients.
  • Perinuclear staining of LRIG3 was associated with a lower proliferation index and was in addition to tumor grade, an independent prognostic factor.
  • Furthermore, within the groups of grade III and grade IV tumors, perinuclear staining of LRIG3 significantly correlated with better survival.
  • These results indicate that expression and sub-cellular localization of LRIG1-3 might be of importance in the pathogenesis and prognosis of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Survival Rate


34. Van Laere K, Ceyssens S, Van Calenbergh F, de Groot T, Menten J, Flamen P, Bormans G, Mortelmans L: Direct comparison of 18F-FDG and 11C-methionine PET in suspected recurrence of glioma: sensitivity, inter-observer variability and prognostic value. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 Jan;32(1):39-51
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  • PURPOSE: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 11C-methionine (MET) PET imaging studies allow the investigation of metabolism and amino acid transport in brain tumours.
  • Their (relative) usefulness and prognostic value in suspected recurrence or progression of primary brain tumours after previous therapy is an issue of debate.
  • METHODS: Cerebral uptake of FDG and MET was determined sequentially on the same day in 30 patients (21 males, nine females; age 40.4+/-15.6 years), on average 4.0 years (range 0.1-18) after therapy for a primary brain tumour (23 grade II-IV astrocytomas, four oligodendrogliomas and three mixed oligo-astrocytomas).
  • The combination of FDG and MET information resulted in the highest prognostic accuracy (p=0.003), while MET alone was the best prognostic predictor in the subgroup of patients with primary astrocytoma (n=23).
  • CONCLUSION: FDG and MET PET studies provide complementary prognostic information in patients with suspected brain tumour recurrence or progression after primary therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Glioma / diagnostic imaging. Glioma / mortality. Methionine. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Belgium / epidemiology. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / statistics & numerical data. Prevalence. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15309329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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35. Perry SL, Bohlin C, Reardon DA, Desjardins A, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Vredenburgh JJ: Tinzaparin prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Oct;95(1):129-134
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  • [Title] Tinzaparin prophylaxis against venous thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the safety of tinzaparin for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in newly diagnosed grade III-IV malignant glioma patients.
  • Forty patients were enrolled into the study, 35 with glioblastoma multiforme and 5 with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Possible attributable toxicity was limited to two patients who developed CNS hemorrhages (one grade 1 and one grade 2) and one patient with an increase in liver enzymes (grade 3).
  • There were no patients with a grade 4 or 5 CNS hemorrhages or systemic hemorrhages >or=grade 2.
  • Tinzaparin at a fixed prophylactic dose is safe and may decrease the incidence of thromboembolic complications in brain tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Fibrinolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Glioma / complications. Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight / therapeutic use. Venous Thromboembolism / etiology. Venous Thromboembolism / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Pulmonary Embolism / prevention & control. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19415455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23 HL084233-01A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K23-HL084233-02
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrinolytic Agents; 0 / Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight; 7UQ7X4Y489 / tinzaparin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180651; NLM/ PMC2837514
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36. Mehling M, Simon P, Mittelbronn M, Meyermann R, Ferrone S, Weller M, Wiendl H: WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism? Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Aug;114(2):111-9
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  • [Title] WHO grade associated downregulation of MHC class I antigen-processing machinery components in human astrocytomas: does it reflect a potential immune escape mechanism?
  • We investigated the expression of APM components in astrocytomas without detectable defects in HLA class I antigen expression and correlated it with grade of malignancy.
  • Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of astrocytomas revealed reduced expression of the cytosolic proteasome subunit low molecular weight protein 2 (LMP2), the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) transporter associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1), and the ER chaperone beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in astrocytoma cells when compared to astrocytes from nonpathological brain.
  • Among human WHO grade II-IV astrocytomas, downregulation of LMP2, TAP1 and beta2m correlated with grade of malignancy.
  • Furthermore, astrocytoma cell lines (n = 12) expressed all APM components analyzed at levels comparable to dendritic cells (DC), which were used for comparative purposes.
  • However, upregulation of beta2m after stimulation with inflammatory cytokines was significantly lower in astrocytoma cell lines than in control cells.
  • Our results support the hypothesis that coordinated downregulation or impaired upregulation of certain HLA class I APM components may serve as a mechanism for astrocytoma cells to evade the host's immune response, even if HLA class I antigen surface expression is not altered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen Presentation / immunology. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Tumor Escape / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / biosynthesis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Cysteine Endopeptidases / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. World Health Organization. beta 2-Microglobulin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17541610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / TAP1 protein, human; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases
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37. Mahzouni P, Mohammadizadeh F, Mougouei K, Moghaddam NA, Chehrei A, Mesbah A: Determining the relationship between "microvessel density" and different grades of astrocytoma based on immunohistochemistry for "factor VIII-related antigen" (von Willebrand factor) expression in tumor microvessels. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):605-10
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  • [Title] Determining the relationship between "microvessel density" and different grades of astrocytoma based on immunohistochemistry for "factor VIII-related antigen" (von Willebrand factor) expression in tumor microvessels.
  • BACKGROUND: Astrocytic brain tumors are the most common primary central nervous system tumors, which are classified into four grades.
  • One of the most important pathologic criteria for the diagnosis of higher-grade astrocytomas (especially glioblastoma multiforme) is microvessel proliferation, particularly in the form of glomeruloid complex.
  • Because tumor angiogenesis is a necessary factor for growth and invasiveness of malignancies, microvessel density (MVD) and intensity of angiogenesis may be used to determine the grade of astrocytomas and plan therapy accordingly.
  • We have planned this study to evaluate the relationship between vwf expression in microvessels and different grades of astrocytoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded blocks of surgical specimens with diagnosis of astrocytoma (grades I to IV, each of them 16 blocks) were selected in a simple-nonrandom sampling.
  • Scores 0 and 1 of microvessel staining intensity were not observed in any grades studied, but severe staining intensity (score 3) was observed in 18.8%, 37.5%, 56.3%, and 87.5% of grades I, II, III, and IV astrocytomas, respectively.
  • "Vwf vessel index" (MVD staining intensity of microvessels) was 23.84, 25.62, 31.62, and 62.43 in grades I, II, III, and IV astrocytomas, respectively.
  • The intensity of microvessel stain increases in parallel with increasing tumor grade.
  • Regarding "microvessel density" and "vwf vessel index," the difference is predominantly between grade IV and all other grades.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Microvessels / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Severity of Illness Index. von Willebrand Factor / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Female. Formaldehyde. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Pathology / methods. Statistics as Topic. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 21045378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / von Willebrand Factor; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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38. Scheithauer BW, Erdogan S, Rodriguez FJ, Burger PC, Woodruff JM, Kros JM, Gokden M, Spinner RJ: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of cranial nerves and intracranial contents: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):325-38
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  • In addition, 1 tumor involved the optic chiasm (n=1).
  • Only 1 tumor arose in brain parenchyma of (frontal lobe).
  • One patient with a vestibular tumor and presumed NF2 had previously undergone resection of a contralateral vestibular cellular schwannoma.
  • One posterior fossa tumor was a malignant melanotic schwannoma.
  • One patient was irradiated for hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytoma and another for cervical Hodgkin disease.
  • All tumors were histologically high grade (6 grade III and 10 grade IV).
  • More often scattered than diffuse, S-100 protein staining was noted in 11 of 16 tumors and variable collagen IV staining in 10 of the 16.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19065105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Yoo H, Sohn S, Nam BH, Min HS, Jung E, Shin SH, Gwak HS, Lee SH: The expressions of carbonic anhydrase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor in astrocytic tumors predict a poor prognosis. Int J Mol Med; 2010 Jul;26(1):3-9
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  • [Title] The expressions of carbonic anhydrase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor in astrocytic tumors predict a poor prognosis.
  • Hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment triggers a variety of genetic and adoptive responses that regulate tumor growth.
  • Tumor hypoxia is often associated with a malignant phenotype, resistance to therapy, and poor survival.
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expressions of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in astrocytic gliomas and to relate patterns of expression with prognosis, that is with histological grade and survival.
  • We investigated 78 World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, III, and IV astrocytic gliomas.
  • Fourteen tumors were grade II, 30 were grade III, and 34 were grade IV.
  • It was found that CA9 expression was significantly associated with a higher-grade histology (p<0.001).
  • There were 3 CA9 positive tumors in grade II (21.4%), 10 in grade III (33.3%), and 27 in grade IV (79.4%).
  • For all tumors and WHO grade II, overall survival was found to be significantly dependent on CA9 expression (p=0.004, p=0.01).
  • Furthermore, VEGF expression was found to be significantly related to tumor grade (p=0.02) and tended to be related to overall survival (p=0.1).
  • Nevertheless, the expressions of CA9 and VEGF were found to be associated with tumor grade and possibly with survival.
  • Further studies on a larger patient population are needed to determine the correlation between the expressions of CA9, and VEGF in astrocytic gliomas and clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Carbonic Anhydrases / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / statistics & numerical data. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models

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  • (PMID = 20514415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-244X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
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40. Chen J, Huang SL, Li T, Chen XL: In vivo research in astrocytoma cell proliferation with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Neuroradiology; 2006 May;48(5):312-8
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  • [Title] In vivo research in astrocytoma cell proliferation with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy: correlation with histopathology and immunohistochemistry.
  • INTRODUCTION: Assessment of brain tumor proliferative potential provides important prognostic information that supplements standard histopathologic grading.
  • Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) gives completely different information, relating to cell membrane proliferation, neuronal damage, energy metabolism and necrotic transformation of brain or tumor tissues.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between (1)H-MRS and tumor proliferative potential in astrocytomas.
  • The tumor in 26 of these patients was classified as grade I/II (low grade), and the tumor in the remaining patients as grade III/IV (high grade) according to the World Health Organization classification criteria of nervous system tumors (2000).
  • The tumor in 21 patients was homogeneous astrocytoma, and of these 17 were classified as low grade and 4 as high grade.
  • RESULTS: The ratios of choline (Cho) to N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and Cho to creatine (Cr) in those with high-grade astrocytomas (n=4) were significantly higher than in those with low-grade astrocytomas (n=17) (t=2.899, P=0.009; t=3.96, P=0.001, respectively), and were found to be significantly correlated with the expression of PCNA in 21 patients with homogeneous astrocytomas (r=0.455, P=0.038; r=0.633, P=0.002, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that (1)H-MRS may be a valuable method for predicting preoperatively the degree of malignancy of homogeneous astrocytomas by enabling the calculation of the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios in vivo, and indirect evaluation of the tumor proliferative potential and prognosis, which are not available using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Child. Choline / metabolism. Creatine / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 16552583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Pediatric and adult glioblastoma have different gene expression profiles. Nat Clin Pract Neurol; 2009 Mar;5(3):122-3
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  • [Title] Pediatric and adult glioblastoma have different gene expression profiles.

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  • [CommentOn] Neuro Oncol. 2009 Jun;11(3):274-80 [18981259.001]
  • (PMID = 20387321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8358
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Maire JP, Huchet A, Catry-Thomas I: [Radiotherapy of adult glial tumors: new developments and perspectives]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2008 Jun-Jul;164(6-7):531-41
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  • [Title] [Radiotherapy of adult glial tumors: new developments and perspectives].
  • Adult gliomas (WHO grade II, III and IV) are heterogeneous primitive brain tumors.
  • Median survivals are different with regard to the tumor grade.
  • During the 1990s, temozolomide (TMZ) was specifically developed as a chemotherapy agent against primary brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Medical Oncology / trends. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18565351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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43. Chen J, Xia J, Zhou YC, Xia LM, Zhu WZ, Zou ML, Feng DY, Wang CY: [Correlation between magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging and cell density in astrocytoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 May;27(5):309-11
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  • [Title] [Correlation between magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging and cell density in astrocytoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) in magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging with echo-planar technique in depicting the tumor cellularity and grading of astrocytoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-four astrocytoma patients including 18 male and 16 female with age from 10 to 73 years (mean 38.4 years) were examined by MRI and eventually proved by surgical resection and pathological examination.
  • Of them, 26 had low-grade (grade I, II) astrocytoma and 8 high-grade (grade III, IV) astrocytoma.
  • ADC value of astrocytoma was determined on magnetic resonance diffusion weighted images.
  • Cellularity of the astrocytoma was analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0.1 software.
  • RESULTS: The mean ADC value (in units of 10(-4) mm(2)/s) of the high-grade astrocytomas (7.34 +/- 2.95) was significantly lower than that of the low-grade astrocytomas (13.76 +/- 3.31) (t = 4.91, P < 0.001).
  • The mean cellularity of the high-grade astrocytomas (19.81 +/- 9.73)% was significantly higher than that of the low-grade astrocytomas (4.74 +/- 2.96)% (t = 4.32, P = 0.003).
  • ADC value of the astrocytoma was significantly and negatively correlated with its cellularity (r = -0.535, P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: ADC value of astrocytoma is significantly and negatively correlated with its cellularity.
  • Magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging may well be highly potential in predicting the degree of astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Count. Child. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15996330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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44. Yan H, Parsons DW, Jin G, McLendon R, Rasheed BA, Yuan W, Kos I, Batinic-Haberle I, Jones S, Riggins GJ, Friedman H, Friedman A, Reardon D, Herndon J, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE, Vogelstein B, Bigner DD: IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. N Engl J Med; 2009 Feb 19;360(8):765-73
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  • BACKGROUND: A recent genomewide mutational analysis of glioblastomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV glioma) revealed somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) in a fraction of such tumors, most frequently in tumors that were known to have evolved from lower-grade gliomas (secondary glioblastomas).
  • METHODS: We determined the sequence of the IDH1 gene and the related IDH2 gene in 445 central nervous system (CNS) tumors and 494 non-CNS tumors.
  • RESULTS: We identified mutations that affected amino acid 132 of IDH1 in more than 70% of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and in glioblastomas that developed from these lower-grade lesions.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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  • (PMID = 19228619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043460-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA57345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA118822; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA043460; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA043460-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108786; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2P30-CA-14236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P50-CA-108786; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA062924-150012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA043460-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R37-CA-11898; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37CA11898-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA140316; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA43460; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043460-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121113-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20023-21; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA057345-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA057345-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA057345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA062924-150012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA057345; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118822; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5P50-NS-20023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA011898
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.41 / isocitrate dehydrogenase 2, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS107443; NLM/ PMC2820383
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45. Bax DA, Gaspar N, Little SE, Marshall L, Perryman L, Regairaz M, Viana-Pereira M, Vuononvirta R, Sharp SY, Reis-Filho JS, Stávale JN, Al-Sarraj S, Reis RM, Vassal G, Pearson AD, Hargrave D, Ellison DW, Workman P, Jones C: EGFRvIII deletion mutations in pediatric high-grade glioma and response to targeted therapy in pediatric glioma cell lines. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Sep 15;15(18):5753-61
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  • [Title] EGFRvIII deletion mutations in pediatric high-grade glioma and response to targeted therapy in pediatric glioma cell lines.
  • PURPOSE: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified and overexpressed in adult glioblastoma, with response to targeted inhibition dependent on the underlying biology of the disease.
  • We have sought to clarify the role of EGFR in pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG).
  • Pediatric glioblastoma cells transduced with wild-type or deletion mutant EGFRvIII were not rendered more sensitive to erlotinib despite expressing wild-type PTEN.
  • Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinase profiling showed a specific activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha/beta in EGFRvIII-transduced pediatric glioblastoma cells, and targeted coinhibition with erlotinib and imatinib leads to enhanced efficacy in this model.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Child. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Humans. Prognosis. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15;15(22):7110
  • (PMID = 19737945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1178/A10294; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C309/A2187; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C309/A8274
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / epidermal growth factor receptor VIII; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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46. Lee EJ, Lee SK, Agid R, Bae JM, Keller A, Terbrugge K: Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2008 Nov;29(10):1872-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade astrocytomas on MR imaging: diagnostic value of minimum apparent diffusion coefficient.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histopathologic grade of glial tumors is inversely correlated with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC).
  • We assessed the diagnostic values of minimum ADC for preoperative grading of supratentorial astrocytomas that were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 118 patients with astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV), 16 who showed typical MR imaging findings of low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas on conventional MR imaging were included.
  • The minimum ADC value of each tumor was determined from several regions of interest in the tumor on ADC maps.
  • To assess the relationship between the minimum ADC and tumor grade, we performed the Mann-Whitney U test.
  • A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the cutoff value of the minimum ADC that had the best combination of sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Eight of the 16 patients (50%) were confirmed as having high-grade astrocytomas (WHO grades III and IV), and the other 8 patients were confirmed as having low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II).
  • The median minimum ADC of the high-grade astrocytoma (1.035 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • sec(-1)) group was significantly lower than that of the low-grade astrocytoma group (1.19 x 10(-3) mm(2) .
  • CONCLUSION: Measuring minimum ADC can provide valuable diagnostic information for the preoperative grading of presumptive low-grade supratentorial astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18719036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Shen CF, Yuan XR, Qin ZQ: [Clinical significance of the expression of the RCAS1 mRNA and protein in astrocytic tumors]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2007 Oct;32(5):836-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance of the expression of the RCAS1 mRNA and protein in astrocytic tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the mRNA and protein expressions of RCAS1 in human astrocytic tumors, and to explore the relation between their expression and the genesis and development of tumor.
  • METHODS: The RCAS1 mRNA expression in human astrocytic tumors was evaluated by RT-PCR, and the RCAS1 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemical staining.
  • RESULTS: The quantities of RCAS1 mRNA expression between diffusive astrocytoma(Grade II) and anaplastic astrocytoma(Grade III), anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma(Grade IV) were significantly different(P<0.05), while the expression scores of RCAS1 protein were different only between the anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma(P<0.01).
  • RCAS1 protein expression was positively correlated with the tumor grade (r=0.573,P<0.001).
  • The RCAS1 protein was not detected in normal brain tissues by immunohistochemical staining.
  • CONCLUSION: The RCAS1 expression is related to the histological grade of astrocytic tumor.
  • In astrocytic tumors, the RCAS1 expression is regulated transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18007080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / EBAG9 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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48. Grasbon-Frodl EM, Kreth FW, Ruiter M, Schnell O, Bise K, Felsberg J, Reifenberger G, Tonn JC, Kretzschmar HA: Intratumoral homogeneity of MGMT promoter hypermethylation as demonstrated in serial stereotactic specimens from anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 1;121(11):2458-64
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  • Hypermethylation of the DNA repair gene O(6)-methyl-guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been linked to prolonged survival in glioblastoma patients treated with alkylating agents.
  • Twenty-five adult patients were included (20 patients with primary World Health Organisation (WHO) Grade III or IV malignant gliomas, 5 patients with secondary malignant gliomas).
  • About 2-4 biopsy specimens per tumor were collected from different sites within the tumor.
  • The overall MGMT promoter methylation rate was 30% in the de novo group and 80% in the tumor progression group.
  • No differences in MGMT promoter methylation were detected between the different samples of each individual tumor in 24 of 25 patients.
  • Tissue samples taken from different sites of each individual tumor (13 tumors investigated) exhibited equal or highly similar MGMT protein expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biopsy / methods. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Germany. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Prospective Studies. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17691113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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49. Lymbouridou R, Soufla G, Chatzinikola AM, Vakis A, Spandidos DA: Down-regulation of K-ras and H-ras in human brain gliomas. Eur J Cancer; 2009 May;45(7):1294-303
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of K-ras and H-ras in human brain gliomas.
  • Ras genes, a class of nucleotide-binding proteins that regulate normal and transformed cell growth, have been scarcely investigated in human brain tumours.
  • We evaluated the mutational, mRNA and protein expression profile of the ras genes in 21 glioblastomas multiforme (grade IV), four fibrillary astrocytoma (grade II), four anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and 15 normal specimens.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme cases exhibited significantly lower K- and H-ras mRNA levels compared to controls (P < 10(-4)).
  • Our findings provide evidence of K- and H-ras involvement in brain malignant transformation through transcriptional down-regulation, while N-ras seems to contribute less to brain carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, ras. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Blotting, Western / methods. Case-Control Studies. Codon. Female. Gene Expression. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / mortality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / analysis. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / metabolism. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19179066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; EC 3.6.5.2 / Oncogene Protein p21(ras)
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50. Bozinov O, Kalk JM, Krayenbühl N, Woernle CM, Sure U, Bertalanffy H: Decreasing expression of the interleukin-13 receptor IL-13Ralpha2 in treated recurrent malignant gliomas. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(8):617-21
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  • The expression level of IL-13Ralpha2 was examined in a total of 45 tissue samples of anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) World Health Organization (WHO) grade III, glioblastomas (GBMs) WHO grade IV, and first-recurrent glioblastomas (frGBMs) after treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / genetics. Actins / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Exotoxins / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Immunotoxins / therapeutic use. Interleukin-13 / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Nimustine / administration & dosage. RNA / analysis. Teniposide / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20805641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / IL13-PE38QQR; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 957E6438QA / Teniposide
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51. Mondin V, Ferlito A, Devaney KO, Woolgar JA, Rinaldo A: A survey of metastatic central nervous system tumors to cervical lymph nodes. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2010 Nov;267(11):1657-66
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  • [Title] A survey of metastatic central nervous system tumors to cervical lymph nodes.
  • There are, of course, less frequently encountered differential diagnostic possibilities; one of the most uncommon of all is the possibility of metastasis from an intracranial tumor.
  • The present review examines the published experience with 128 tumors that gave rise to cervical node metastases in both adult and in pediatric patients.
  • While it is presumed that the blood-brain barrier blocks the spread of most tumors beyond the intracranial locale, this is speculative.
  • Although many of the cervical node metastases reported here arose after craniotomy (and, presumably, after breaching of the blood-brain barrier), some arose in the absence of any preceding surgical procedure.
  • Cervical node metastases may arise from glial tumors (including glioblastoma multiforme, in both adult and pediatric patients) and non-glial tumors (such as medulloblastoma in pediatric patients).
  • The history of a previous intracranial lesion is often the key to correct diagnosis, since, without prompting, neither the pathologist nor the radiologist is likely to think of a cervical node metastasis from a brain tumor when assessing a cervical mass of unknown etiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood-Brain Barrier. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20694730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-4726
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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52. Watanabe Y, Yamasaki F, Kajiwara Y, Saito T, Nishimoto T, Bartholomeusz C, Ueno NT, Sugiyama K, Kurisu K: Expression of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) in astrocytic tumors: a novel approach of correlating malignancy grade and prognosis. J Neurooncol; 2010 Dec;100(3):449-57
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  • [Title] Expression of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) in astrocytic tumors: a novel approach of correlating malignancy grade and prognosis.
  • Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa (PEA-15) is a multifunctional protein that was first identified in brain astrocytes and that has subsequently been shown to be expressed in different tissues.
  • Despite its many important roles, the clinical significance of PEA-15 expression levels in astrocytic tumors has yet to be properly defined.
  • We studied the PEA-15 expression pattern of 65 patients [diagnosed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] with diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), and glioblastoma (grade IV).
  • In grade II astrocytoma (diffuse astrocytoma) and grade III astrocytoma (anaplastic astrocytoma), 100% and 88.9% of patients expressed high PEA-15 levels, respectively, while a smaller number (50%) of patients with grade IV astrocytoma (glioblastoma) expressed high PEA-15 levels.
  • PEA-15 expression level was inversely associated with WHO grade (P = 0.0006).
  • Next, we evaluated prognosis and PEA-15 expression levels in 43 patients with high-grade astrocytomas based on the following parameters: age, gender, WHO grade, surgical resection extent, MIB-1 labeling index (LI), and PEA-15 expression level.
  • Multivariable analyses revealed that high PEA-15 expression level displayed a significant correlation with longer overall survival (OS) in high-grade astrocytomas (P = 0.0024).
  • In conclusion, PEA-15 expression level was inversely associated with WHO grade and may serve as an important prognostic factor for high-grade astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Statistics as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Statistics, Nonparametric. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20455002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / PEA15 protein, human; 0 / Phosphoproteins
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53. Jiang Z, Hu J, Li X, Jiang Y, Zhou W, Lu D: Expression analyses of 27 DNA repair genes in astrocytoma by TaqMan low-density array. Neurosci Lett; 2006 Dec 1;409(2):112-7
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  • [Title] Expression analyses of 27 DNA repair genes in astrocytoma by TaqMan low-density array.
  • The mRNA expressions of 27 genes of the DNA repair system as well as their correlation with the clinical characteristics were studied in human astrocytoma.
  • We applied TaqMan low-density array to investigate the mRNA expressions of 27 DNA repair genes in 40 astrocytoma tissues (10 of grade II, 10 of grade III, and 20 of grade IV, according to the WHO Grading System).
  • And the normal brain tissues from 10 non-astrocytoma patients were collected as the control.
  • We found that the expression of the 13 genes were significantly (P<0.01) down-regulated in grade II, III, IV of astrocytoma compared to normal brain tissues, including ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, MGMT, MLH1, MLH3, NTHL1, OGG1, RAD50, SMUG1, XRCC4 and XRCC5.
  • Meanwhile, we found that the expression of MSH2, MSH6, NUDT1 and XRCC3 were only significantly lower in grade II and III of astrocytoma, and the expression of MRE11A and MUS81 were only significantly lower in grade III and IV.
  • But the expression of MPG, MSH3, MUTHY and RAD51 were not changed in any grade of astrocytoma.
  • We suggest that TaqMan low-density array is an effective multivariate technique to examine the expression of DNA repair genes in astrocytomas, which can be applied to identify tumor-specific genes.
  • We also suggest that the down-regulation of some DNA repair genes may be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Repair / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA, Complementary / biosynthesis. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Female. Gene Expression / physiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival


54. Uematsu M, Ohsawa I, Aokage T, Nishimaki K, Matsumoto K, Takahashi H, Asoh S, Teramoto A, Ohta S: Prognostic significance of the immunohistochemical index of survivin in glioma: a comparative study with the MIB-1 index. J Neurooncol; 2005 May;72(3):231-8
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  • METHODS: We prepared polyclonal anti-survivin serum to establish a survivin index for stained sections, using an immunohistochemical procedure, according to the method used for scoring MIB-1 index, and then stained 29 paraffin-embedded sections from surgical specimens of 29 patients who were classified into three grades of World Health Organization with the mean age of low grade astocytoma (grade II) being 34.7; anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), 48.8; and glioblastoma multiform (grade IV), 58.4.
  • The mean percentage of immunoreactive cells in each specimen was 70.0 (SD 18.2) in grade II, 81.3 (16.5) in grade III, and 85.0 (13.6) in grade IV.
  • Then we compared the survivin index to the MIB-1 index and found that in low-grade gliomas (grade II and III), the difference in survival times between the high and low survivin indexes was significant (P=0.007), whereas that between the high and low MIB-1 indexes was not significant (P=0.092).
  • ONCLUSION: Survivin is more sensitive marker than MIB-1 for the evaluation of low-grade gliomas in that it helps to predict patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Blotting, Western. Child. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15937645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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55. Keles GE, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Tihan T, Chang CJ, Chang SM, Berger MS: Volumetric extent of resection and residual contrast enhancement on initial surgery as predictors of outcome in adult patients with hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg; 2006 Jul;105(1):34-40
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  • [Title] Volumetric extent of resection and residual contrast enhancement on initial surgery as predictors of outcome in adult patients with hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: To investigate the prognostic significance of the volumetrically assessed extent of resection on time to tumor progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and tumor recurrence patterns, the authors retrospectively analyzed preoperative and postoperative tumor volumes in 102 adult patients from the time of the initial resection of a hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma (AA).
  • METHODS: The quantification of tumor volumes was based on a previously described method involving computerized analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) images.
  • Analysis of contrast-enhancing tumor volumes on T1-weighted MR images was conducted for 67 patients who had contrast-enhancing tumors.
  • The presence or absence of preresection enhancement, actual volume of this enhancement, and the percentage of preoperative enhancement as it relates to the total T2 tumor volume did not have a statistically significant relationship to TTP or OS.
  • In addition to age, the volume of residual disease measured on T2-weighted MR images was the most significant predictor of TTP (p < 0.001), and residual contrast-enhancing tumor volume was the most significant predictor of OS (p = 0.003) on multivariate analysis.
  • In contrast to low-grade gliomas, there was no statistically significant relationship between the extent of resection and histological characteristics at the time of recurrence, that is, tumor Grade III compared with Grade IV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Data from this retrospective analysis of a histologically uniform group of hemispheric AAs treated in the MR imaging era suggest that residual tumor volumes, as documented on postoperative imaging studies, may be a prognostic factor for TTP and OS for this patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16871879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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56. Hlobilkova A, Ehrmann J, Knizetova P, Krejci V, Kalita O, Kolar Z: Analysis of VEGF, Flt-1, Flk-1, nestin and MMP-9 in relation to astrocytoma pathogenesis and progression. Neoplasma; 2009;56(4):284-90
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  • [Title] Analysis of VEGF, Flt-1, Flk-1, nestin and MMP-9 in relation to astrocytoma pathogenesis and progression.
  • Astrocytomas, particularly high grade astrocytoma, are brain tumors with potent angiogenic activity.
  • Our immnunohistochemical study assessed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptors (Flk-1, and Flt-1), the intermediate filamental protein nestin which plays a role in central nervous system development, and MMP-9, which belongs the family of matrix metalloproteinases implicated in tumor invasion and angiogenesis regulation.
  • We investigated the expression of VEGF, its receptors, nestin and MMP-9 in astrocytomas and their correlation with tumor grade.
  • We used paraffin-embedded samples from 66 patients, 29 with low grade (WHO-grade II) and 37 with high grade (WHO-grade III and IV) astrocytomas.
  • Expression of Flt-1 and Flk-1 showed no significant differences between low and high grade tumor groups.
  • Expression of VEGF and MMP-9 was increased in the high grade group (p equal to or less than 0.026 and 0.024).
  • Nestin expression in tumor astrocytes and endothelial cells increased in high grade group (p same 0.007 and 0.003).
  • Higher expression of VEGF in high grade astrocytomas may subsequently lead to activation of survival, angiogenesis and migration.
  • Expression of nestin and MMP-9 also suggest their likely role in astrocytoma vascular development and proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Nestin. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19473053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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57. Järvelä S, Helin H, Haapasalo J, Järvelä T, Junttila TT, Elenius K, Tanner M, Haapasalo H, Isola J: Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor in astrocytic tumours by chromogenic in situ hybridization: association with clinicopathological features and patient survival. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Aug;32(4):441-50
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  • [Title] Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor in astrocytic tumours by chromogenic in situ hybridization: association with clinicopathological features and patient survival.
  • Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was used to detect amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in tissue microarrays of tumours derived from 287 patients with grade II-IV diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Amplification was found in 32% of the tumours with a highly significant association with histological grade (4% in grade II, 21% in grade III and 39% in grade IV; P < 0.001).
  • The survival of patients with EGFR gene-amplified grade III tumours was significantly shorter than in those with grade III non-amplified tumours (P = 0.03).
  • No such difference was noted in glioblastomas (grade IV tumours).
  • Our data verify the central role of EGFR in the pathobiology of astrocytic tumours, and highlight the advantages of CISH as a simple and practical assay to screen for EGFR gene amplification in astrocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis / physiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromogenic Compounds. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Array Analysis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • [ErratumIn] Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2006 Oct;32(5):568. Järvellä, S [corrected to Järvelä, Sally]; Järvellä, T [corrected to Järvelä, Timo]
  • (PMID = 16866989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogenic Compounds; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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58. Floeth FW, Sabel M, Stoffels G, Pauleit D, Hamacher K, Steiger HJ, Langen KJ: Prognostic value of 18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine PET and MRI in small nonspecific incidental brain lesions. J Nucl Med; 2008 May;49(5):730-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of 18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine PET and MRI in small nonspecific incidental brain lesions.
  • Nonspecific incidental brain lesions (NILs) are being detected more frequently because of an increasing number of screening or research MRI scans of the brain, and their natural course is uncertain.
  • Patients with seizures, focal neurologic deficits, signs of local or systemic infection or inflammation, known brain disease, or any kind of previous cerebral treatment were excluded.
  • Mean lesion-to-brain (L/B) ratios of >or=1.6 on (18)F-FET PET were rated as positive.
  • In group C, 2 NILs grew slowly over years, and an astrocytoma of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II was diagnosed after resection in each case.
  • In group D, 4 NILs showed sudden and rapid growth, with clinical deterioration, and a high-grade glioma of WHO grade III or IV was diagnosed after resection in all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: For NILs, a circumscribed growth pattern on MRI and normal or low (18)F-FET uptake on PET are strong predictors for a benign course, with the eventual development of a low-grade glioma.
  • In contrast, NILs with a diffuse growth pattern on MRI and increased (18)F-FET uptake indicate a high risk for the development of a high-grade glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Disease Progression. Female. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18413396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / O-(2-fluoroethyl)tyrosine; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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59. Zhang L, Zhang WP, Hu H, Wang ML, Sheng WW, Yao HT, Ding W, Chen Z, Wei EQ: Expression patterns of 5-lipoxygenase in human brain with traumatic injury and astrocytoma. Neuropathology; 2006 Apr;26(2):99-106
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  • [Title] Expression patterns of 5-lipoxygenase in human brain with traumatic injury and astrocytoma.
  • The levels of leukotrienes increase after brain injury and when tumors are present.
  • It has been reported that 5-LOX is widely expressed in the brain and that 5-LOX inhibition provides neuroprotection.
  • However, there is still no information available for the expression patterns of 5-LOX in human brain following trauma or with astrocytomas.
  • In traumatic brain injury, 5-LOX expression increased in glial cells and neutrophils.
  • No 5-LOX expression was found in brain microvessel endothelia, except in the regenerated endothelia of a patient 8 days following brain trauma.
  • Furthermore, 5-LOX expression increased and showed a granular pattern in high-grade (grade III/IV) astrocytoma.
  • These results indicate that 5-LOX has multiple expression patterns, and can be induced by brain injury, which implies that 5-LOX might have pathophysiological roles in the human brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Brain Injuries / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroglia / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16708542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
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60. Ritz R, Müller M, Dietz K, Duffner F, Bornemann A, Roser F, Tatagiba M: Hypericin uptake: a prognostic marker for survival in high-grade glioma. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Jul;15(7):778-83
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  • [Title] Hypericin uptake: a prognostic marker for survival in high-grade glioma.
  • Currently adjuvant chemotherapy for glioblastoma patients can prolong survival time relative to patients who receive only surgery and radiotherapy.
  • Despite these improvements and experimental and clinical efforts the prognosis for glioblastoma patients remains poor.
  • Photodynamic therapy may be a promising therapeutic option in the treatment of glioblastoma.
  • In this investigation we examined whether uptake of hypericin (HY), a fluorescent photosensitization agent, by ex vivo glioblastoma cell lines correlates with prognosis of the individual from which the cell lines were derived.
  • Three patients suffered from an anaplastic astrocytoma, WHO grade III, nine had a glioblastoma, WHO grade IV.
  • In summary, HY uptake by ex vivo glioblastoma cell cultures seems to be positively associated with survival of patients with malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Glioma / drug therapy. Perylene / analogs & derivatives. Photochemotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Therapy. Female. Fluorescence. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / physiopathology. Humans. Light. Lipoproteins, LDL / metabolism. Male. Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / metabolism. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Neurosci. 2009 Oct;16(10):1381-2 [19595595.001]
  • (PMID = 18394904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipoproteins, LDL; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 5QD5427UN7 / Perylene; 7V2F1075HD / hypericin
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61. Kitange G, Misra A, Law M, Passe S, Kollmeyer TM, Maurer M, Ballman K, Feuerstein BG, Jenkins RB: Chromosomal imbalances detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in human oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2005 Jan;42(1):68-77
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  • In this study, we used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGHa) of mapped BAC DNA to screen for such alterations in 31 oligodendrogliomas (20 grade II, 9 grade III, and 2 grade IV) and 4 mixed oligoastrocytomas (1 grade I, 1 grade II, and 2 grade IV).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Nucleic Acid Hybridization / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15472895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85799
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Chang EF, Potts MB, Keles GE, Lamborn KR, Chang SM, Barbaro NM, Berger MS: Seizure characteristics and control following resection in 332 patients with low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):227-35
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  • [Title] Seizure characteristics and control following resection in 332 patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • OBJECT: Seizures play an important role in the clinical presentation and postoperative quality of life of patients who undergo surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs).
  • METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective chart review of all cases involving adult patients who underwent initial surgery for LGGs at the University of California, San Francisco between 1997 and 2003.
  • Cortical location and oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma subtypes were significantly more likely to be associated with seizures compared with deeper midline locations and astrocytoma, respectively (p=0.017 and 0.001, respectively; multivariate analysis).
  • For the cohort of patients that presented with seizures, 12-month outcome after surgery (Engel class) was as follows: seizure free (I), 67%; rare seizures (II), 17%; meaningful seizure improvement (III), 8%; and no improvement or worsening (IV), 9%.
  • Seizure recurrence after initial postoperative seizure control was associated with tumor progression (p=0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Glioma / complications. Seizures / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Epilepsies, Partial / etiology. Epilepsies, Partial / prevention & control. Epilepsy, Complex Partial / etiology. Epilepsy, Complex Partial / prevention & control. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / complications. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Quality of Life. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Epilepsy Curr. 2009 Jul-Aug;9(4):98-100 [19693324.001]
  • (PMID = 18240916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants
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63. Schittenhelm J, Mittelbronn M, Nguyen TD, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: WT1 expression distinguishes astrocytic tumor cells from normal and reactive astrocytes. Brain Pathol; 2008 Jul;18(3):344-53
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  • [Title] WT1 expression distinguishes astrocytic tumor cells from normal and reactive astrocytes.
  • Particularly in small brain biopsies, it might be difficult to distinguish reactive astrogliosis from low-grade or infiltration zones of high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Recently, the over-expression of Wilms' tumor gene product WT1 was reported in astrocytic tumor cells.
  • Therefore, we investigated WT1 expression in paraffin-embedded brain sections from 28 controls, 48 cases with astrogliosis of various etiology and 219 astrocytomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grades I-IV] by immunohistochemistry.
  • In astrocytomas, WT1-positive tumor cells were found in pilocytic astrocytomas (66.7% of cases), diffuse astrocytomas (52.7%) WHO grade II (52.7%), anaplastic astrocytomas (83.4%) and glioblastomas (98.1%).
  • Overall, the majority of all astrocytic neoplasms (84.5%) expressed WT1.
  • Establishing a cut-off value of 0% immunoreactive tumor cells served to recognize neoplastic astrocytes with 100% specificity and 68% sensitivity and was associated with positive and negative predictive values of 1 and 0.68, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18371184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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64. Miyajima Y, Sato Y, Oka H, Utsuki S, Kondo K, Tanizaki Y, Nagashio R, Tsuchiya B, Okayasu I, Fujii K: Prognostic significance of nuclear DJ-1 expression in astrocytoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jan;30(1):265-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of nuclear DJ-1 expression in astrocytoma.
  • The present study was conducted to determine whether any correlation exists between the expression of DJ-1 and WHO grading of the tumor or patient prognosis, and to analyze the function of this oncogene in astrocytomas.
  • Twenty-nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded glioblastomas (grade IV), 21 anaplastic astorocytomas (grade III), and 14 diffuse astrocytomas (grade II) were immunohistochemically studied to identify the expression of DJ-1 protein.
  • The expression of DJ-1 was detected both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of tumor cells; however, such expression varied from case to case.
  • The present study demonstrated that the survival of patients with astrocytomas was correlated with the nuclear DJ-1 status of the tumor.
  • We herein demonstrated for the first time that the DJ-1 molecule might therefore play an important role as a tumor suppressor in astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20150646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / PARK7 protein, human
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65. Mabrouk GM, Ali EM, El-Rehany MA, El-Samoly HM: TGF-beta1, TNF-alpha and cytochrome c in human astrocytic tumors: a short-term follow up and correlation with survival. Clin Biochem; 2007 Feb;40(3-4):255-60
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  • [Title] TGF-beta1, TNF-alpha and cytochrome c in human astrocytic tumors: a short-term follow up and correlation with survival.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured TGF-beta1, TNF-alpha and cytoplasmic cytochrome c in 30 astrocytic tumors Grade II, III and IV.
  • RESULTS: We found that TNF-alpha and cytochrome c release in Grade IV tends to be significantly lower than those in Grade II, whereas TGF-beta1 did not significantly change in the different grades.
  • Patients with astrocytic tumors having elevated cytochrome c showed a better survival rate compared to those with less release.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cytochromes c / analysis. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / analysis. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17070791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9120
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c
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66. Wang DL, Wang YF, Shi GS, Huang H: [Correlation of hTERT expression to maspin and bFGF expression and their significance in glioma]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Jun;26(6):601-6
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  • METHODS: The expression of hTERT, maspin, and bFGF in 128 specimens of human glioma and 8 specimens of normal brain tissue were detected by in situ hybridization and SP immunohistochemistry.
  • H-score system of Gatalica was used for semi-quantitative evaluation.
  • The correlations of hTERT, maspin, and bFGF expression to tumor grade were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis.
  • RESULTS: The positive rates of hTERT, maspin, bFGF were 51.6%, 46.9%, and 62.5% respectively in gliomas, and 0, 87.5%, and 0 in normal brain tissues.
  • In the 43 specimens of grade II, 55 specimens of grade III and 30 specimens of grade IV gliomas, the positive rates of hTERT were 32.6%, 54.5%, and 73.3% (P < 0.05); the positive rates of maspin were 58.1%, 49.1%, and 26.7% (P < 0.05); the positive rates of bFGF were 39.5%, 72.7%, and 76.7% (P < 0.05).The expression of hTERT and bFGF were positively correlated to pathologic grade (rho=0.515, P < 0.01; rho=0.611, P < 0.01), while the expression of maspin was negatively correlated to pathologic grade (rho=-0.425, P < 0.05).
  • The expression of hTERT showed no relationship with the age, sex, tumor size, and cell density (P > 0.05), but had obvious relationship with karyokinesis, vessel density, and necrosis (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Serpins / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / metabolism. Child. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17562265.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SERPIN-B5; 0 / Serpins; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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67. Revert Ventura AJ, Sanz-Requena R, Martí-Bonmatí L, Jornet J, Piquer J, Cremades A, Carot JM: [Nosological analysis of MRI tissue perfusion parameters obtained using the unicompartmental and pharmacokinetic models in cerebral glioblastomas]. Radiologia; 2010 Sep-Oct;52(5):432-41
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  • OBJECTIVES: To classify the tumor areas in patients with grade IV astrocytoma by calculating and statistically analyzing quantitative MRI perfusion parameters.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We applied two models of MRI perfusion, the unicompartmental and the pharmacokinetic models, in 15 patients diagnosed with grade IV astrocytoma.
  • For each parameter, histograms were obtained for the total tumor area, for the peritumoral area, and for the healthy tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: When parameters are considered individually, CBV is the one that best enables differentiation between tumor, peritumoral, and healthy tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / physiopathology. Magnetic Resonance Angiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20655078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8338
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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68. Capper D, Mittelbronn M, Goeppert B, Meyermann R, Schittenhelm J: Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression in astrocytic tumour cells negatively correlates with proliferation, while vascular SPARC expression is associated with patient survival. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2010 Apr;36(3):183-97
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  • [Title] Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression in astrocytic tumour cells negatively correlates with proliferation, while vascular SPARC expression is associated with patient survival.
  • As no large-scale study has yet been undertaken, we investigated human brain and astrocytomas for SPARC expression and associations with tumour grade, proliferation, vascular density and patient survival.
  • METHODS: A spectrum of 188 WHO grade I-IV astrocytic tumours and 24 autopsy cases were studied by immunohistochemistry for SPARC, MIB-1 proliferation index and CD31-positive vessels.
  • RESULTS: In normal brain, SPARC is expressed in cortical marginal glia, cerebellar Bergmann glia and focally in white matter but is absent in neurones or vessels.
  • High SPARC expression levels in the cytoplasm of astrocytic tumour cells decreased with the grade of malignancy but showed an increase with grade of malignancy in tumour vessels.
  • While cytoplasmic SPARC staining was not associated with survival, vascular SPARC showed a significant association in the group of grade II-IV tumours (P = 0.02) and also in grade II astrocytomas alone (P = 0.01) with vascular SPARC associated with worse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Blood Vessels / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Osteonectin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Movement. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Cytoplasm / pathology. Female. Glioblastoma / blood supply. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / mortality. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Nerve Fibers, Myelinated / metabolism. Nerve Fibers, Myelinated / pathology. Neuroglia / metabolism. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / metabolism. Neurons / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20132490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Osteonectin; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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69. Kashyap R, Ryan C, Sharma R, Maloo MK, Safadjou S, Graham M, Tretheway D, Jain A, Orloff M: Liver grafts from donors with central nervous system tumors: a single-center perspective. Liver Transpl; 2009 Oct;15(10):1204-8
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  • [Title] Liver grafts from donors with central nervous system tumors: a single-center perspective.
  • However, it has become a common practice to accept organs from donors that have low-grade tumors or tumors with low metastatic potential.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze our experience with the use of liver grafts from donors with central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • A retrospective review of 1173 liver transplants performed between 1992 and 2006 identified 42 donors diagnosed with a CNS tumor.
  • Twenty (47.6%) of the CNS tumors were glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma grade IV), 11 (26.2%) were other astrocytomas, and 1 (2.4%) was an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Twenty (62.5%) neoplasms were grade IV tumors, 8 (25%) were grade II tumors, and 4 (12.5%) were grade III tumors.
  • Over 80% of the patients had at least 1 kind of invasive procedure violating the blood-brain barrier.
  • The rate of recurrence for the entire group was 2.4% (all CNS tumors).
  • There was no difference in survival between recipients of grafts from donors with CNS tumors and recipients of grafts from donors without CNS tumors (1 year: 82% versus 83.3%, P = not significant; 3 years: 77.4% versus 72%, P = not significant).
  • In conclusion, in our experience, despite violation of the blood-brain barrier and high-grade CNS tumors, recurrence was uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Tissue and Organ Procurement / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood-Brain Barrier. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AASLD
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):916 [20583090.001]
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):914-5 [20583288.001]
  • (PMID = 19790151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6473
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Sharma S, Sharma MC, Gupta DK, Sarkar C: Angiogenic patterns and their quantitation in high grade astrocytic tumors. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):19-30
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  • [Title] Angiogenic patterns and their quantitation in high grade astrocytic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study on high grade astrocytic tumors were (i) to establish differences, if any, between grades III & IV tumors among angiogenic parameters, both qualitative and quantitative, and (ii) to correlate angiogenic parameters with proliferation indices, namely T2a and MIB1 labeling indices.
  • DESIGN: Twenty nine consecutive cases of WHO grades III (11) and IV (18) astrocytic tumors diagnosed in the year-2004 were studied, using H&E and CD34, MIB1 and T2a immunostaining by streptavidin biotin technique.
  • Statistically significant differences (P<0.05) were seen between grades III and IV in iMVD, aspect, MD and FD, but not in angiogenic patterns or MVA (P = 0.27).
  • Intratumoral endothelial MIB1 LI was significantly higher in grade IV as compared to grade III, but did not correlate with angiogenic parameters.
  • Limited follow up data showed all recurrent grade IV tumors to be of glomeruloid type.
  • CONCLUSION: Increased angiogenesis in grade IV, as compared to grade III, astrocytic tumors is characterized by an increased number/density of vessels: an increase in vessels characterized by disproportionate lengthening and likely associated with the infiltrative properties of the tumors; and an increase in pliable, irregularly shaped or structured vessels.
  • The lack of correlation of these angiogenesis parameters with the MIB1 and T2a proliferation indices reflects the complexity of angiogenesis parameters in high grade gliomas.
  • Further studies are needed to determine the usefulness of the angiogenic parameters in the improved diagnosis (grading) and prognosis of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16807783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Hwang SL, Lin CL, Lieu AS, Hwang YF, Howng SL, Hong YR, Chang DS, Lee KS: The expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in human astrocytomas. Surg Neurol; 2008 Dec;70 Suppl 1:S1:4-8; discussion S1:8
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  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormone plays a major role in normal mammalian brain maturation and affects the development of astrocytes.
  • METHODS: In this study, RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of human TR isoforms in 34 human astrocytoma samples.
  • RESULTS: We compared the TR expression between low grade (WHO grade II) and high grade (WHO grade III and IV).
  • The frequency of TRalpha1 or TRalpha2 expression significantly decreased with the grade of malignancy (P=.005 and P=.043, respectively).
  • Our result provides insight into the potential use of hormonal therapy for brain tumors that overexpress or underexpress TRs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aging / metabolism. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA / biosynthesis. RNA / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sex Characteristics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha / biosynthesis. Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha / genetics. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / biosynthesis. Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18617237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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72. Faria MH, Gonçalves BP, do Patrocínio RM, de Moraes-Filho MO, Rabenhorst SH: Expression of Ki-67, topoisomerase IIalpha and c-MYC in astrocytic tumors: correlation with the histopathological grade and proliferative status. Neuropathology; 2006 Dec;26(6):519-27
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  • [Title] Expression of Ki-67, topoisomerase IIalpha and c-MYC in astrocytic tumors: correlation with the histopathological grade and proliferative status.
  • Astrocytomas represent the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system.
  • Recently, the determination of the proliferative index of astrocytic tumors by different methods has been proposed as a valuable tool for tumor grading and also as a prognostic marker.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of cell proliferation-related proteins in human astrocytic tumors of different histopathological grades (WHO).
  • An immunohistochemical study of the Ki-67, Topoisomerase IIalpha (Topo IIalpha) and c-MYC proteins using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was performed in 55 astrocytomas (13 grade I, 14 grade II, 7 grade III and 21 grade IV) and five samples of non-tumor brain tissue (control group).
  • Ki-67, Topo IIalpha and c-MYC positive indices tended to increase according to malignant progression, were absent in non-tumor brain tissue and showed maximum values in high-grade astrocytomas (III and IV).
  • Ki-67 antigen detection in more than 8.0% of the tumor cells distinguished astrocytoma grade IV, while a labeling index between 1.5 and 8.0% characterized astrocytomas grade III and values below 1.5% discriminated low-grade tumors (I and II).
  • Moreover, Ki-67 antigen was found to be the best marker of cellular proliferation, and its expression predicts the grade of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Cell Division. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17203587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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73. Haapasalo J, Mennander A, Helen P, Haapasalo H, Isola J: Ultrarapid Ki-67 immunostaining in frozen section interpretation of gliomas. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Mar;58(3):263-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Astrocytic tumours, the most common gliomas, are often classified intraoperatively using standard morphological staining.
  • A comparison of Ultrarapid-Ki67 and MIB-1 immunostaining of paraffin wax sections showed almost identical quantitative correlation in astrocytic gliomas (r = 0.916; p<0.001).
  • The Ultrarapid-Ki67 indices (percentage of positive cells) of low grade (I/II) astrocytomas ranged from 0% to 6.1%, whereas those of representative high grade (III/IV) tumours were significantly higher (range, 5.6-45%; p<0.001).
  • The best prognostic cutoff point for Ultrarapid-Ki67 was 7.5%, which divided diffuse grade II-IV astrocytomas into significantly differing subsets (p = 0.0008).
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrarapid-Ki67 immunostaining is a useful adjunct to morphological diagnosis and grading of astrocytic tumours, and as a fast test (approximately 10 minutes for staining plus three to four minutes for scoring), it could be used in routine intraoperative diagnosis of gliomas and other neoplastic diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Intraoperative Care / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prognosis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15735157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MIB-1 antibody; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770597
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74. Marumoto T, Tashiro A, Friedmann-Morvinski D, Scadeng M, Soda Y, Gage FH, Verma IM: Development of a novel mouse glioma model using lentiviral vectors. Nat Med; 2009 Jan;15(1):110-6
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  • We report the development of a new method to induce glioblastoma multiforme in adult immunocompetent mice by injecting Cre-loxP-controlled lentiviral vectors expressing oncogenes.
  • Cell type- or region-specific expression of activated forms of the oncoproteins Harvey-Ras and AKT in fewer than 60 glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells in the hippocampus, subventricular zone or cortex of mice heterozygous for the gene encoding the tumor suppressor Tp53 were tested.
  • Mice developed glioblastoma multiforme when transduced either in the subventricular zone or the hippocampus.
  • Transplantation of brain tumor cells into naive recipient mouse brain resulted in the formation of glioblastoma multiforme-like tumors, which contained CD133(+) cells, formed tumorspheres and could differentiate into neurons and astrocytes.
  • We suggest that the use of Cre-loxP-controlled lentiviral vectors is a novel way to generate a mouse glioblastoma multiforme model in a region- and cell type-specific manner in adult mice.


75. Potter NE, Phipps K, Harkness W, Hayward R, Thompson D, Jacques TS, Harding B, Thomas DG, Rees J, Darling JL, Warr TJ: Astrocytoma derived short-term cell cultures retain molecular signatures characteristic of the tumour in situ. Exp Cell Res; 2009 Oct 1;315(16):2835-46
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  • [Title] Astrocytoma derived short-term cell cultures retain molecular signatures characteristic of the tumour in situ.
  • We have characterised gene expression changes induced by short-term culture in astrocytoma in order to determine whether derived short-term cell cultures are representative of the tumour in situ.
  • We have used the Affymetrix GeneChip U133A to generate gene expression profiles of 6 paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) biopsies and derived short-term cell cultures and 3 adult glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) biopsies and derived short-term cultures.
  • This gene cohort can distinguish PA and GBM tumours, regardless of the sample source, suggesting that astrocytoma derived short-term cultures do retain key aspects of the global tumour expression profile and are representative of the tumour in situ.
  • Furthermore, these genes are involved in pathways and functions characteristic of adult GBM including VEGF signalling, hypoxia and TP53 signalling.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Child. Cluster Analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19523942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2422
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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76. Ebinger M, Senf L, Wachowski O, Scheurlen W: No aberrant methylation of neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1) promoter in pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Jan-Feb;22(1):83-7
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  • [Title] No aberrant methylation of neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1) promoter in pilocytic astrocytoma in childhood.
  • Tumors of the central nervous system are the most frequent solid tumors in childhood.
  • With 30-40% of this heterogenous group, low-grade astrocytomas represent the most common subtype.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is strongly associated with the development of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), frequently appearing as optic glioma.
  • Neurofibromatosis 1 gene (NF1 ) fulfills the criteria of a tumor suppressor gene and is deleted or mutated heterozygously in patients with NF1.
  • To rule out that silencing of NF1 by promoter methylation is restricted to higher-grade astrocytomas, 15 pediatric WHO II degree and IV degree astrocytomas were analyzed: 12 astrocytomas II and 3 glioblastomas displayed no NF1 promoter methylation.
  • The authors conclude that NF1 silencing by methylation plays no role in low-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Methylation. Gene Silencing. Glioblastoma / genetics. Neurofibromin 1 / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male


77. Novillo López ME, Gómez-Ibáñez A, Rosenfeld M, Dalmau J: [Gliomatosis cerebri: review of 22 patients]. Neurologia; 2010 Apr;25(3):168-73
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  • INTRODUCTION: gliomatosis cerebri is a diffuse astrocytic neoplasm that involves more than two lobes of the brain.
  • The most frequent pathological findings were grade III astrocytoma (36.4%), grade II astrocytoma (22.7%), and grade IV astrocytoma (18.3%).
  • In this study de median survival of patients who received treatment was similar to that reported in series of glioblastoma multiforme.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elservier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20492863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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78. Xu P, Pu PY, Kang CS, Jia ZF, Zhou X, Wang GX: [Differential expression of Notch1 and Notch2 in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;37(7):450-3
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  • [Title] [Differential expression of Notch1 and Notch2 in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the differential expression of Notch1 and Notch2 in human astrocytoma and medulloblastoma; and to study the role of Notch1 and Notch2 in the development of both tumors.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (SP method) and Western blot analysis were used to detect Notch1 and Notch2 expression in tissue arrays and freshly resected samples of normal brain tissue, astrocytoma and medulloblastoma.
  • RESULTS: Notch1 and Notch2 were negative in normal human brain tissue.
  • Notch1 was highly expressed (total positive rate 80.0%, 48/60) while Notch2 was not detected in grade IV astrocytomas and sporadically observed in lower grade astrocytomas (total positive rate 10.0%, 6/60).
  • The percentage of positive tumor cells and expression level of Notch1 increased with higher histologic grade (r = 0.859, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Notch1 and Notch2 show differential expression in astrocytoma and medulloblastoma.
  • This may be related to their different functional activities during the process of brain development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Receptor, Notch1 / metabolism. Receptor, Notch2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19035115.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptor, Notch2
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79. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Meltesen L, McGavran L, Lillehei KO: Characterization of glioblastomas in young adults. Brain Pathol; 2006 Oct;16(4):273-86
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  • Most adult glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) present in patients 45-70 years old; tumors occurring at the extremes of the adult age spectrum are uncommon, and seldom studied.
  • We hypothesized that young-adult GBMs would differ from elderly-adult and from pediatric GBMs.
  • Twenty-eight (74%) of our 38 young-adult GBM patients had primary de novo tumors, two of which occurred in patients with cancer syndromes.
  • GBMs in young adults are a more inhomogeneous tumor group than GBMs occurring in older adult patients and show features that overlap with both pediatric and adult GBMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / mortality. Glioblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mitotic Index. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17107596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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80. Cui W, Kong X, Cao HL, Wang X, Gao JF, Wu RL, Wang XC: [Mutations of p53 gene in 41 cases of human brain gliomas]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Jan;27(1):8-11
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  • [Title] [Mutations of p53 gene in 41 cases of human brain gliomas].
  • The mutation rate of p53 gene was significantly higher in grade III-IV gliomas than in grade I-II gliomas (P<0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Mutation, Missense. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Child. Exons. Female. Frameshift Mutation. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Point Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18184456.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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81. Hur H, Jung S, Jung TY, Kim IY: Cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme in an adult. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2008 Apr;43(4):194-7
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  • [Title] Cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme in an adult.
  • Primary cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a rare tumor in adults that accounts for just 1% of all cases of GBM.
  • After operation, glioblastoma was histologically confirmed.

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  • (PMID = 19096643.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2588262
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cerebellum / Differential diagnosis / Glioblastoma multiforme / Pathogenesis
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82. Guan X, Lai S, Lackey J, Shi J, Techavipoo U, Moulding HD, Flanders AE, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1322-36
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  • Tumor growth patterns were assigned to expansive or mixed/infiltrative classes as described in the companion article (24).
  • Infiltrating tumors were WHO Grade IV astrocytomas and all expansive tumors were either WHO Grade III astrocytomas or WHO Grade II astrocytomas.
  • DTI-based white matter tractography was conducted and the DTI data were fused with anatomical images using an in-house software package we developed to enhance the visualization of the tumor/fiber interface.
  • RESULTS: Out of the 19 tumor patients studied, 11 had infiltrative tumors and the other 8 had expansive tumors.
  • While less clear with 2D axial diffusion color maps, visually enhanced 3D reconstructions of the tumor/fiber interface successfully corroborated distinctive growth patterns.
  • This was particularly evident when viewed in 3D video loops of each tumor/fiber interface.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed software that visually enhances the anatomic details of the tumor/fiber interface in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • These data support the existence of a subgroup of patients within the WHO Grade III classification with expansive tumors and a significantly better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Blumenthal DT, Rankin C, Eyre HJ, Livingston RB, Spence AM, Stelzer KJ, Rushing EJ, Berger MS, Rivkin SE, Cohn AL, Petersdorf SH: External beam irradiation and the combination of cisplatin and carmustine followed by carmustine alone for the treatment of high-grade glioma: a phase 2 Southwest Oncology Group trial. Cancer; 2008 Aug 1;113(3):559-65
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  • [Title] External beam irradiation and the combination of cisplatin and carmustine followed by carmustine alone for the treatment of high-grade glioma: a phase 2 Southwest Oncology Group trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The poor prognosis reported for patients with high-grade glial neoplasms indicates a need for the development of multimodality therapeutic approaches.
  • METHODS: SWOG 9016 study included 59 eligible patients with grade III or IV astrocytoma who received radiotherapy concurrently with carmustine/cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carmustine / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Southwestern United States. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 18521920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA038926
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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84. Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Yokoyama T, Watanabe T, Ogino A, Ota T, Komine C, Fukushima T, Kusama K: Therapeutic implications of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 and IRF-2 in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (DIA): response to interferon (IFN)-beta in glioblastoma cells and prognostic value for DIA. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Therapeutic implications of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 and IRF-2 in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (DIA): response to interferon (IFN)-beta in glioblastoma cells and prognostic value for DIA.
  • To gain a better insight into these mechanisms, we investigated the signaling pathways focusing particularly on interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and IRF-2 in glioblastoma cell lines.
  • Furthermore, we assessed the expression of type I IFN receptor, IRF-1, and IRF-2 using immunohistochemical techniques in 63 DIA (15 of WHO grade II, 18 of grade III, and 30 of grade IV), and analyzed their impact on prognosis.
  • On the other hand, the IRF-1 LI and IRF-1/IRF-2 LI ratio were greater in low-grade DAI, and were negatively correlated with the histopathological grade in DIA (P=0.017 and P=0.001, respectively).
  • However, the relation was not statistically significant when only patients with high-grade DIA were assessed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / metabolism. Interferon Regulatory Factor-2 / metabolism. Interferon-beta / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / physiology. Blotting, Western. Caspases / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, Interferon / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16187022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-2; 0 / Receptors, Interferon; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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85. Salvati M, D'Elia A, Melone GA, Brogna C, Frati A, Raco A, Delfini R: Radio-induced gliomas: 20-year experience and critical review of the pathology. J Neurooncol; 2008 Sep;89(2):169-77
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  • There were 14 cases of glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) and 2 cases of astrocytoma (grade II WHO), with a mean latency time of 17 years (range: 6-26 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Glioma / etiology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18566750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Vital AL, Tabernero MD, Castrillo A, Rebelo O, Tão H, Gomes F, Nieto AB, Resende Oliveira C, Lopes MC, Orfao A: Gene expression profiles of human glioblastomas are associated with both tumor cytogenetics and histopathology. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Sep;12(9):991-1003
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiles of human glioblastomas are associated with both tumor cytogenetics and histopathology.
  • Here, we analyzed the GEP (U133Plus2.0 chip) of 40 gliomas (35 astrocytic tumors, 3 oligodendrogliomas, and 2 mixed tumors) and their association with tumor cytogenetics and histopathology.
  • Unsupervised and supervised analyses showed significantly different GEP in low- vs high-grade gliomas, the most discriminating genes including genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, and signal transduction.
  • In turn, among glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 3 subgroups of tumors were identified according to their GEP, which were closely associated with the cytogenetic profile of their ancestral tumor cell clones: (i) EGFR amplification, (ii) isolated trisomy 7, and (iii) more complex karyotypes.
  • In summary, our results show a clear association between the GEP of gliomas and tumor histopathology; additionally, among grade IV astrocytoma, GEP are significantly associated with the cytogenetic profile of the ancestral tumor cell clone.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Profiling. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cluster Analysis. Cytogenetics. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20484145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940695
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87. Giannopoulou E, Ravazoula P, Kalofonos H, Makatsoris T, Kardamakis D: Expression of HIF-1alpha and iNOS in astrocytic gliomas: a clinicopathological study. In Vivo; 2006 May-Jun;20(3):421-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of HIF-1alpha and iNOS in astrocytic gliomas: a clinicopathological study.
  • BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-inducible-factor-1 (HIF-1) is present at high levels in human tumors and plays a crucial role in tumor promotion by up-regulating several target genes.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-three human astrocytic gliomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for HIF-1alpha and iNOS using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material.
  • RESULTS: HIF-1alpha was detected only in astrocytic gliomas grades III and IV, both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm.
  • The iNOS expression was increased in astrocytic gliomas grades I, II and III and was statistically significantly decreased in astrocytic gliomas grade IV. iNOS was localized round the capillary vessels as well.
  • CONCLUSION: We believe that HIF-1alpha and iNOS expressions merit further investigations in order to understand the biology of astrocytic gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Enzyme Induction. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16724682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
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88. Zhang JP, Shi HL, Sai K, Yue WY, Mu YG, Zhang XH, Chen ZP: [Individualized chemotherapy based on drug sensitivity and resistance assay and MGMT protein expression for patients with malignant glioma--analysis of 42 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Dec;25(12):1533-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The fresh tumor tissues obtained during operation were immediately sent for CSRAs using MTT assay.
  • Hematologic toxicities were the main adverse events observed in this study, included grade IV anemia (1%), grade III-IV leukopenia (28%), and grade III-IV thrombocytopenia (8%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Glioma / drug therapy. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Young Adult