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1. Gu J, Zhang C, Chen R, Pan J, Wang Y, Ming M, Gui W, Wang D: Clinical implications and prognostic value of EMMPRIN/CD147 and MMP2 expression in pediatric gliomas. Eur J Pediatr; 2009 Jun;168(6):705-10
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  • [Title] Clinical implications and prognostic value of EMMPRIN/CD147 and MMP2 expression in pediatric gliomas.
  • Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is present on the surface of tumor cells where it stimulates adjacent fibroblasts to produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • We have analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of EMMPRIN and MMP2 expression in normal brain tissue and pediatric gliomas and evaluated their prognostic value in diagnosing the latter.
  • Immunochemistry analysis revealed EMMPRIN and MMP2 expression in cryo-sections of pediatric gliomas (45 samples) and normal brain tissue (20 samples).
  • Both EMMPRIN and MMP2 were expressed in normal brain and glioma tissues with different levels of malignancy.
  • The intensively positive expression rates of EMMPRIN (22/27) and MMP2 (21/27) in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma tissues were significantly higher than those in normal brain and low-grade astrocytoma tissues (2/28 and (1/2)8, respectively).
  • The positive expression of EMMPRIN and MMP2 was associated with higher grade gliomas.
  • Based on these results, we conclude that EMMPRIN and MMP2 are expressed differently in normal brain and pediatric gliomas.
  • The detection of their co-expression may facilitate the prediction of pediatric gliomas prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18795327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1076
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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2. Prayson RA, Fong J, Najm I: Coexistent pathology in chronic epilepsy patients with neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2010 Aug;23(8):1097-103
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  • Neoplasms are a well-established cause of medically intractable or chronic epilepsy.
  • Certain tumors, including gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, are well known to be associated with cortical dysplasia.
  • Tumor diagnoses included ganglioglioma (n=29), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (n=10), low-grade glial/glioneuronal neoplasm (n=5), low-grade astrocytoma (n=2), angiocentric glioma (n=1), low-grade mixed glioma (n=1), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor/ganglioglioma mixed tumor (n=1), and meningioangiomatosis (n=1).
  • Forty-one (82%) tumors represented WHO grade-I neoplasms.
  • Hamartias were identified in 10 patients (20%), hippocampal sclerosis in four patients (8%), and nodular heterotopia in one patient (2%).
  • The true incidence of coexistent pathology (17.8% in this study) was likely underrepresented, given the limited extent of adjacent non-tumoral tissue sampling in cases of resected tumor.
  • Coexistent pathology may account for the incidence of recurrent or residual epilepsy in patients who undergo tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Epilepsy / pathology. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain / abnormalities. Child. Child, Preschool. Chronic Disease. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Ohio / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20495542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Nejat F, El Khashab M, Rutka JT: Initial management of childhood brain tumors: neurosurgical considerations. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1136-48
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  • The infratentorial compartment will be the primary site for 60% to 70% of these tumors, including astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas.
  • We review current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and outcome for children harboring the most common pediatric brain tumors: astrocytomas (low-grade and high-grade glioma), ependymoma, medulloblastoma, and craniopharyngioma.

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  • (PMID = 18952580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS487102; NLM/ PMC3714852
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4. Valera ET, Lucio-Eterovic AK, Neder L, Scrideli CA, Machado HR, Carlotti-Junior CG, Queiroz RG, Motta FJ, Tone LG: Quantitative PCR analysis of the expression profile of genes related to multiple drug resistance in tumors of the central nervous system. J Neurooncol; 2007 Oct;85(1):1-10
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  • [Title] Quantitative PCR analysis of the expression profile of genes related to multiple drug resistance in tumors of the central nervous system.
  • METHODS: Eighty microdissected brain tumor samples from 79 patients were analyzed by RQ-PCR for the genes MDR1, MRP1, MRP3, LRP and BCRP.
  • Histological diagnoses: 21 astrocytomas I and II, 28 astrocytomas III and glioblastomas, 17 medulloblastomas, 8 ependymomas, and 6 oligodendrogliomas.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas expressed high MDR1 (P = 0.001), MRP3 (P = 0.01) and LRP (P = 0.02) levels.
  • The profile of gene expression of primary pilocytic astrocytomas of the hypothalamus and of the other locations was similar.
  • Increased expression of resistance genes, separately or jointly, was not correlated with shorter overall survival in patients with medulloblastomas/PNET and malignant gliomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Drug resistance genes do not explain the higher sensitivity of gliomas of the hypothalamus/pituitary/optic pathways to chemotherapy.
  • The increased expression of resistance genes had no impact on the overall survival of patients with medulloblastomas/PNET and high grade gliomas.
  • High MDR1, MRP3 and LRP levels may be implicated in the primary resistance of pilocytic astrocytomas to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Calibration. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / genetics. Glioma / mortality. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / mortality. Middle Aged. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17429576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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5. De Falco G, Bellan C, D'Amuri A, Angeloni G, Leucci E, Giordano A, Leoncini L: Cdk9 regulates neural differentiation and its expression correlates with the differentiation grade of neuroblastoma and PNET tumors. Cancer Biol Ther; 2005 Mar;4(3):277-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cdk9 regulates neural differentiation and its expression correlates with the differentiation grade of neuroblastoma and PNET tumors.
  • Cdk9 and Cyclin T1 expression levels were monitored during the differentiation program of neuroblastoma and astrocytoma cell lines.
  • Our results suggest that Cdk9/Cyclin T1 complex may be required for neuron differentiation induced by retinoic acid, because the expression level of the complex varies during differentiation, but no significant changes were observed in its expression in the astrocytoma cell line.
  • In addition, the expression of Cdk9 and Cyclin T1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in samples of neuroblastoma, PNET (Primary Neuroectodermal Tumor) and astrocytoma tumors of different grades, in order to assess whether there was a correlation between Cdk9 expression and tumor grading.
  • Our results show that in neuroblastoma and PNET tumor samples Cdk9 is more expressed the more differentiated the tumor is.
  • Conversely, no significant alteration of Cdk9 expression was observed in astrocytoma tumor samples of different grades, thus confirming the results obtained for the cell lines.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / cytology. Astrocytes / drug effects. Astrocytes / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin T. Cyclins / analysis. Cyclins / genetics. Cyclins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tretinoin / pharmacology


6. Huang H, Hara A, Homma T, Yonekawa Y, Ohgaki H: Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Oct;64(10):891-901
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Altered expression of immune defense genes in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I) is a circumscribed, slowly growing, benign astrocytoma that most frequently develops in the cerebellar hemispheres and in midline structures and occurs predominantly in childhood and adolescence.
  • In contrast to diffusely infiltrating gliomas in adults (e.g. grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas), survival of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma is excellent after surgical intervention.
  • To search for potential molecular mechanisms underlying its benign biologic behavior, we compared gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas (8 cases) with those of normal cerebellum (4 cases), low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II; 15 cases), and oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II; 17 cases) by cDNA array analysis.
  • A number of immune system-related genes such as HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, IgG3, IgGK, FCER1G, A2M, FCRN, IFI-56K, and DAP12 were upregulated in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to normal cerebellum, grade II astrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Genes expressed at higher levels in pilocytic astrocytomas than in grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas include HLA-DRalpha, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, A2M, TIMP1, TIMP2, CDKN1A, and SOCS3 and those expressed at lower levels include EGFR and PDGFRA.
  • Hierarchical clustering analysis using the entire set of 1176 genes distinguished pilocytic astrocytomas from grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • Clustering analysis using selected subgroups of genes based on their molecular functions revealed that immune system-related genes (75 genes) or cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis-related genes (69 genes) showed similar power to the entire gene set for separation of pilocytic astrocytomas from diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that HLA-DRalpha is expressed diffusely in neoplastic cells in pilocytic astrocytomas, whereas in oligodendrogliomas, expression was limited to scattered reactive astrocytes.
  • These results suggest that gene expression profiles of pilocytic astrocytomas differ significantly from those of diffusely infiltrating low-grade gliomas and that their benign biologic behavior may be related to upregulation of immune defense-associated genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Gene Expression. Immunity / genetics


7. Tan G, Sun SQ, Yuan DL: Expression of Kir 4.1 in human astrocytic tumors: correlation with pathologic grade. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2008 Mar 21;367(4):743-7
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  • [Title] Expression of Kir 4.1 in human astrocytic tumors: correlation with pathologic grade.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of Kir 4.1 mRNA and protein in 80 cases of human astrocytic tumors by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • The correlation between Kir 4.1 expression and pathologic grade of astrocytic tumors was further analyzed.
  • The results showed that the expression of Kir 4.1 mRNA and protein, as well as the Kir 4.1 immunoreactivity score (IRS), increased markedly with increasing pathologic grade.
  • Therefore, Kir 4.1 may be a new biomarker for astrocytic tumors.
  • It may also be an attractive therapy target for human astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Statistics as Topic. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18191638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Kcnj10 (channel); 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying
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8. Sanli AM, Turkoglu E, Dolgun H, Sekerci Z: Unusual manifestations of primary Glioblastoma Multiforme: A report of three cases. Surg Neurol Int; 2010;1:87
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  • BACKGROUND: Brain tumors, especially high-grade gliomas, can present with focal or generalized signs due to mass effect, parenchymal infiltration and destruction.
  • Microscopic total tumor excision was done and histopathological analysis revealed that these tumors were glioblastoma multiforme.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should keep brain tumors in mind in the case of patients who present with atypical symptoms such as those reported here.

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  • (PMID = 21206896.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-7806
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3011111
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Astrocytoma / brain tumor / glioblastoma multiforme / presentation / symptom
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9. Zeng Y, Yang Z, Long XD, You C: Inhibition of all-trans retinoic acid on MDM2 gene expression in astrocytoma cell line SHG-44. Neurosci Bull; 2008 Oct;24(5):297-304
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  • [Title] Inhibition of all-trans retinoic acid on MDM2 gene expression in astrocytoma cell line SHG-44.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on MDM2 gene expression in astrocytoma cell line SHG-44, and to provide basic data for further research on the progression mechanism and gene therapy of human astrocytoma.
  • The expressions of MDM2 protein in WHO grade II and grade IV astrocytomas were determined by immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method.
  • Moreover, the percentages of MDM2-positive protein were 24.00% (6/25) and 56.52% (13/23) (chi(2) = 5.298, P = 0.021) in WHO grade II and grade IV astrocytomas, respectively, suggesting that the expression of MDM2 protein may increase along with the elevation of astrocytoma malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: ATRA can inhibit MDM2 gene expression in SHG-44 cells, and MDM2 is related to astrocytoma progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Size / drug effects. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18839023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-7067
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 2.3.2.27 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 2.3.2.27 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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10. Walton NM, Snyder GE, Park D, Kobeissy F, Scheffler B, Steindler DA: Gliotypic neural stem cells transiently adopt tumorigenic properties during normal differentiation. Stem Cells; 2009 Feb;27(2):280-9
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  • An increasing body of evidence suggests that astrocytic gliomas of the central nervous system may be derived from gliotypic neural stem cells.
  • However, when induced to differentiate, neural stem cells give rise to intermediate progenitors that transiently exhibit multiple glioma characteristics, including aneuploidy, loss of growth-contact inhibition, alterations in cell cycle, and growth factor insensitivity.
  • Further examination of progenitor populations revealed a subset of cells defined by the aberrant expression of (the pathological glioma marker) class III beta-tubulin that exhibit intrinsic parental properties of gliomas, including multilineage differentiation and continued proliferation in the absence of a complex cellular regulatory environment.

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  • (PMID = 18988710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4918
  • [Journal-full-title] Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stem Cells
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070143; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD043730; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS055165; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS37556; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32HD043730; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL70143; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS46384; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS037556; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055165; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS046384
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tubulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS686089; NLM/ PMC4425277
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11. Grunwald I, Dillmann K, Roth C, Backens M, Reith W: [Supratentorial tumors]. Radiologe; 2007 Jun;47(6):471-85
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass.
  • Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location.
  • Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysem-bryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamatoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases.
  • The most common sub-forms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented.

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  • (PMID = 17541538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Radiologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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12. Nakase H, Tamura K, Kim YJ, Hirabayashi H, Sakaki T, Hoshida T: Long-term follow-up outcome after surgical treatment for lesional temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurol Res; 2007 Sep;29(6):588-93
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  • Neuropathologic diagnoses were cavernoma in three cases, astrocytoma (grade 2) in two cases, arteriovenous malformation in two cases, gliosis in two cases and ganglioglioma in one case.
  • Patients who had post-operative seizures may also achieve long-term seizure decrease or freedom in three cases: case 5 (E4-E2), case 6 (E4-E2) and case 7 (E3-E1).

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  • (PMID = 17535567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Lichy MP, Bachert P, Hamprecht F, Weber MA, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D, Schlemmer HP, Kauczor HU: [Application of (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging in radiation oncology: choline as a marker for determining the relative probability of tumor progression after radiation of glial brain tumors]. Rofo; 2006 Jun;178(6):627-33
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  • [Title] [Application of (1)H MR spectroscopic imaging in radiation oncology: choline as a marker for determining the relative probability of tumor progression after radiation of glial brain tumors].
  • PURPOSE: To determine the relative signal intensity ratios of choline (Cho), phosphocreatine (CR) and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in MR spectroscopic imaging (proton-MRSI) for differentiating progressive tumors (PT) from non-progressive tumors (nPT) in follow-up and treatment planning of gliomas.
  • Threshold values to indicate the probability of a progressive tumor were also calculated.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with histologically proven gliomas showing a suspicious brain lesion in MRI after stereotactic radiotherapy were evaluated on a 1.5 Tesla unit (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using 2D proton MRSI (repetition time/echo time = 1500/135 msec, PRESS; voxel size 9 x 9 x 15 mm (3)).
  • PT and nPT were differentiated between on the basis of clinical course and follow-up by MRI, CT and positron emission tomography.
  • RESULTS: The Cho parameter and the relative signal intensity ratios of Cr and NAA were most effective in differentiating between PT and nPT.
  • CONCLUSION: (1)H-MRSI has a high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating between therapy-related effects and the relapse of irradiated gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain / radiation effects. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Choline / metabolism. Cranial Irradiation. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Phosphocreatine / metabolism. Stereotaxic Techniques
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reference Values

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. (L)-ASPARTIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 16703499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 020IUV4N33 / Phosphocreatine; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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14. Balss J, Meyer J, Mueller W, Korshunov A, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Analysis of the IDH1 codon 132 mutation in brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2008 Dec;116(6):597-602
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  • We analyzed the genomic region spanning wild type R132 of IDH1 by direct sequencing in 685 brain tumors including 41 pilocytic astrocytomas, 12 subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, 7 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas, 93 diffuse astrocytomas, 120 adult glioblastomas, 14 pediatric glioblastomas, 105 oligodendrogliomas, 83 oligoastrocytomas, 31 ependymomas, 58 medulloblastomas, 9 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 17 schwannomas, 72 meningiomas and 23 pituitary adenomas.
  • A total of 221 somatic IDH1 mutations were detected and the highest frequencies occurred in diffuse astrocytomas (68%), oligodendrogliomas (69%), oligoastrocytomas (78%) and secondary glioblastomas (88%).
  • The very high frequency of IDH1 mutations in WHO grade II astrocytic and oligodendroglial gliomas suggests a role in early tumor development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Gene Frequency. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioma / etiology. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18985363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
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15. Tepel M, Roerig P, Wolter M, Gutmann DH, Perry A, Reifenberger G, Riemenschneider MJ: Frequent promoter hypermethylation and transcriptional downregulation of the NDRG2 gene at 14q11.2 in primary glioblastoma. Int J Cancer; 2008 Nov 1;123(9):2080-6
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  • To further address the role of NDRG2 as a candidate tumor suppressor in human gliomas, we analyzed 67 astrocytic tumors (10 diffuse astrocytomas, 11 anaplastic astrocytomas, 34 primary glioblastomas and 12 secondary glioblastomas) for NDRG2 gene mutation, promoter methylation and expression at the mRNA and protein levels.
  • Using real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis, we found decreased NDRG2 mRNA levels in primary glioblastomas as compared to diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • Mutational analysis of the entire NDRG2 coding sequence did not reveal any tumor-associated DNA sequence alterations.
  • In contrast to primary glioblastomas, NDRG2 promoter hypermethylation was detected in only 1 of 11 anaplastic astrocytomas (9%) and was absent in 10 diffuse astrocytomas and 12 secondary glioblastomas.
  • Taken together, our data support NDRG2 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene that is epigenetically silenced in the majority of primary glioblastomas, but not in lower grade astrocytomas and secondary glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14. DNA Methylation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Down-Regulation. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18709645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NDRG2 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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16. Zarghooni M, Bartels U, Lee E, Buczkowicz P, Morrison A, Huang A, Bouffet E, Hawkins C: Whole-genome profiling of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas highlights platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as potential therapeutic targets. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Mar 10;28(8):1337-44
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  • [Title] Whole-genome profiling of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas highlights platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as potential therapeutic targets.
  • PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the most devastating of pediatric malignancies and one for which no effective therapy exists.
  • A major contributor to the failure of therapeutic trials is the assumption that biologic properties of brainstem tumors in children are identical to cerebral high-grade gliomas of adults.
  • A better understanding of the biology of DIPG itself is needed in order to develop agents targeted more specifically to these children's disease.
  • Herein, we address this lack of knowledge by performing the first high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -based DNA microarray analysis of a series of DIPGs.
  • RESULTS: Analysis of DIPG copy number alterations showed recurrent changes distinct from those of pediatric supratentorial high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Our findings of recurrent involvement of the PDGFR pathway as well as defects in DNA repair pathways coupled with gain of PARP-1 highlight two potential, biologically based, therapeutic targets directed specifically at this devastating disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Autopsy. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Repair / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Gene Dosage. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20142589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP 82727
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.4.2.30 / PARP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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17. Opstad KS, Bell BA, Griffiths JR, Howe FA: An assessment of the effects of sample ischaemia and spinning time on the metabolic profile of brain tumour biopsy specimens as determined by high-resolution magic angle spinning (1)H NMR. NMR Biomed; 2008 Nov;21(10):1138-47
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  • High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) (1)H NMR of biopsy tissue provides a biochemical profile that has potential diagnostic and prognostic value, and can aid interpretation of the lower-resolution (1)H-NMR spectra obtained in vivo.
  • In addition, we have compared biochemical changes that occur in normal rat brain during HRMAS (spun continuously at 5 kHz for 4 h at 4 degrees C as could be required for a two-dimensional acquisition) with those that occur in biopsy samples from low-grade and high-grade adult human astrocytomas, during the same HRMAS procedure.
  • In particular, the 18% total creatine increase observed is unlikely to be de novo synthesis of creatine.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Ischemia / metabolism. Brain Ischemia / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Specimen Handling / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Protons. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spin Labels

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18666093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3480
  • [Journal-full-title] NMR in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] NMR Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1459/A2592
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protons; 0 / Spin Labels
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18. Lacoste-Collin L, d'Aure D, Aziza J, Quintyn ML, Uro-Coste E, Courtade-Saïdi M: Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic findings of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):871-4
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  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid cytologic findings of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm with a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • Characteristic histologic features include pleomorphic tumor cells and lipidized cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), corresponding to a World Health Organization grade 2 tumor.
  • Computed tomography of the central nervous system revealed a supracallous periventricular tumor mass suggestive of either a lymphoma or a metastatic carcinoma.
  • CSF revealed 18 cells/mm3 and contained numerous tumor cells highly pleomorphic in size and shape.
  • Some atypical cells of moderate size were closely packed with well-defined cytoplasmic limits and a vacuolated appearance, suggesting an epithelial proliferation.
  • A primitive glial proliferation was found, and paraffin-embedded tumor tissue obtained by biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic PXA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Matsuda K, Sakurada K, Mouri W, Saino M, Sato S, Saito S, Kayama T, Nakazato Y: [Operative case of isomorphic astrocytoma]. Brain Nerve; 2007 Aug;59(8):881-6
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  • [Title] [Operative case of isomorphic astrocytoma].
  • Diffuse astrocytomas are classified as WHO Grade II tumors.
  • Recently, a subtype presenting with better prognosis has been proposed, and it is known as "isomorphic astrocytoma."
  • A clinical case that we encountered was believed to be categorized as this subtype; it has been presented in this report.
  • The tumor was resected under awake surgery.
  • The pathological diagnosis was diffuse astrocytoma, but this tumor was considered to be the isomorphic subtype.
  • Some parts of the tumor showed a relatively high MIB-1 labeling index (LI) of 9.2%, and additional 50-Gy radiotherapy was performed.
  • Isomorphic astrocytoma is characterized by prolonged epileptic seizures, a low MIB-1 LI, and better prognosis.
  • In our case, since the MIB-1 LI was higher in some parts of the tumor, the appropriate therapy for WHO Grade II tumors was performed.
  • However, this case was considered representative of isomorphic astrocytoma.
  • No reports of this tumor subtype have been previously described in Japan.
  • Therefore, this report is the first case of isomorphic astrocytoma reported to Japanese literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17713125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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20. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Yoshino A, Yachi K, Ohta T, Ogino A, Komine C, Fukushima T: Aberrant hypermethylation of p14ARF and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase genes in astrocytoma progression. Brain Pathol; 2007 Jan;17(1):5-10
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  • [Title] Aberrant hypermethylation of p14ARF and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase genes in astrocytoma progression.
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate genetic alterations that are critically involved in astrocytoma progression.
  • We characterized 27 World Health Organization grade II fibrillary astrocytomas which later underwent recurrence or progression, paying specific attention to the CpG island methylation status of critical growth regulatory genes. p14(ARF) and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) hypermethylation represented frequent events (26% and 63%, respectively), which were mutually exclusive except in one case, with alternate or simultaneous methylation of these two genes occurring in 85% of our tumor series.
  • Methylation of the p21(Waf1/Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p73 genes and homozygous deletion of the p16(INK4a), p15(INK4b) and p14(ARF) genes were not detected in any of the primary low-grade tumors.
  • On analysis of their respective recurrent tumors, five of six patients whose primary low-grade tumors carried p14(ARF) methylation exhibited homozygous co-deletions of the p14(ARF), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes, which were restricted to glioblastoma as the most malignant end point.
  • Our findings suggest that p14(ARF) hypermethylation and MGMT hypermethylation constitute distinct molecular pathways of astrocytoma progression, which could differ in biological behavior and clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CpG Islands / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Methylation. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17493032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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21. Quick Q, Skalli O: Alpha-actinin 1 and alpha-actinin 4: contrasting roles in the survival, motility, and RhoA signaling of astrocytoma cells. Exp Cell Res; 2010 Apr 15;316(7):1137-47
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  • [Title] Alpha-actinin 1 and alpha-actinin 4: contrasting roles in the survival, motility, and RhoA signaling of astrocytoma cells.
  • Here, we have examined whether the two highly homologous non-muscle alpha-actinin isoforms 1 and 4 exhibit functional differences in astrocytoma cells.
  • The protein levels of these isoforms were differentially regulated during the development and progression of astrocytomas, as alpha-actinin 1 was higher in astrocytomas compared to normal brains whereas alpha-actinin 4 was elevated in high-grade astrocytomas compared to normal brains and low grade astrocytomas.
  • RNAi demonstrated contrasted contributions of alpha-actinin 1 and 4 to the malignant behavior of U-373, U-87 and A172 astrocytoma cells.
  • While alpha-actinin 1 appeared to favor the expansion of U-373, U-87 and A172 astrocytoma cell populations, alpha-actinin 4 played this role only for U-373 cells.
  • Finally, in the three astrocytoma cell lines examined, alpha-actinin 1 and 4 had contrasted biochemical properties as alpha-actinin 4 was significantly more abundant in the actin cytoskeleton than alpha-actinin 1.
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha-actinin 1 and 4 are differentially regulated during the development and progression of astrocytomas because each of these isoforms uniquely contributes to distinct malignant properties of astrocytoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Actinin / physiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Movement / genetics. rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival / genetics. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Signal Transduction / genetics. Signal Transduction / physiology. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20156433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2422
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTN1 protein, human; 0 / ACTN4 protein, human; 11003-00-2 / Actinin; EC 3.6.5.2 / rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
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22. Yao Y, Wang X, Jin K, Zhu J, Wang Y, Xiong S, Mao Y, Zhou L: B7-H4 is preferentially expressed in non-dividing brain tumor cells and in a subset of brain tumor stem-like cells. J Neurooncol; 2008 Sep;89(2):121-9
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  • [Title] B7-H4 is preferentially expressed in non-dividing brain tumor cells and in a subset of brain tumor stem-like cells.
  • B7-H4, a newly discovered member of B7 family that negatively regulates T cell-mediated immunity, may facilitate tumor progression by undermining host immunity.
  • Recent studies show that brain tumor stem-like cells (TSCs) contribute to tumorigenesis.
  • In this study, we found that B7-H4 was expressed in cultured tumor cells from human gliomas (n = 5) and medulloblastomas (n = 3).
  • Double immunostaining indicated that B7-H4 was primarily restricted to non-dividing (Ki67(-)) cultured tumor cells.
  • Tumor cells cultured under medium conditions favoring the growth of neural stem cells were able to form primary and secondary spheres, along with expression of neural stem/progenitor cell markers.
  • These cells differentiated into different neural lineages when cultured in differentiation medium, indicating that these cells have TSCs characteristics.
  • Secondary glioma cells derived from CD133(+) or CD133(-) cell xenografts expressed B7-H4 as well.
  • Our data suggest B7-H4 is preferentially expressed in non-dividing brain tumor cells and in a subpopulation of brain TSCs, and CD133(-) tumor cells also have the capacity to initiate brain formation in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD80 / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Animals. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Child. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1

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  • (PMID = 18478183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD80; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / V-Set Domain-Containing T-Cell Activation Inhibitor 1; 0 / VTCN1 protein, human
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23. Daumas-Duport C, Koziak M, Miquel C, Nataf F, Jouvet A, Varlet P: [Reappraisal of the Sainte-Anne Hospital classification of oligodendrogliomas in view of retrospective studies]. Neurochirurgie; 2005 Sep;51(3-4 Pt 2):247-53
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  • [Title] [Reappraisal of the Sainte-Anne Hospital classification of oligodendrogliomas in view of retrospective studies].
  • [Transliterated title] Classification des oligodendrogliomes de l'hôpital Sainte-Anne. Mise au point à l'usage des études rétrospectives.
  • PURPOSE: Definition of homogeneous tumor groups of oligodendrogliomas or oligo-astrocytomas is a basic condition for an adequate evaluation and comparison of the results of treatments in patients from various institutions.
  • The main goal of this study is to assess whether, for retrospective studies, MRI data may serve as a common basis for encompassing asymmetry in diagnosis established according to the WHO or Ste-Anne (SA) classification.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 251 adult patients in whom a SA grade A or B oligodendroglioma or oligo-astrocytoma was newly diagnosed at our institution from 1984 to 2003.
  • Routine histological preparations and post-contrast preoperative MRI/CT-scan were simultaneously reviewed in order to assess the impact on survival of the following features: presence or absence of a polymorphous or gemistocytic astrocytic component, of necrosis and of contrast enhancement (CH); endothelial hyperplasia (EH) assessed as absent, present minor (HE+) or (HE++) when conform to the threshold of HE defined in the SA grading system of oligodendrogliomas.
  • RESULTS: 70.1% of the tumors were classified as "pure" oligodendroglioma, 19.5% as "polymorphous oligo-astroastrocytoma" and 10.3% as "gemistocytic oligo-astrocytoma".
  • In grade A, or B tumors, the presence of a polymorphous or a gemistocytic component had no significant influence on survival; however respectively 53% and 65% of these tumours versus 32% of "pure" oligodendrogliomas were grade B at the time of diagnosis.
  • After regrouping of the histological subtypes and of the tumors with HE+ or absent, the series included 153 oligodendrogliomas grade A and 98 grade B.
  • Survival in patients with grade A versus grade B tumors was respectively 142 versus 52 months (p<0.0001).
  • In grade B tumors, necrosis had no significant influence on survival.
  • On post contrast MRI done in 235 patients, only 7 tumors (3%) were grade A/B (EH++ but no CH).
  • CONCLUSIONS: From these results and our previous observation that, according to the SA classification of gliomas, only oligodendrogliomas or oligo-astrocytomas may not show CE, we propose that for retrospective studies:.
  • 1) tumors diagnosed according to the Ste-Anne classification as oligodendroglioma or oligo-astrocytoma be regrouped in a unique category, 2) independent of their histological type and grade according to the WHO, gliomas that do not show CE be regrouped with SA oligodendrogliomas grade A, 3) concerning gliomas that show CE on MRI: oligodendrogliomas or oligo-astrocytomas WHO grade II or III, as well as WHO secondary glioblastomas or glioblastomas with an oligodendroglial component, be regrouped with SA oligodendrogliomas grade B; however tumors that show ring-like CE surrounding large foci of necrosis and finger-like "peritumoral" edema should be excluded or analysed separately.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Glioma / classification. Oligodendroglioma / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. France. Hospitals. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16292168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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24. Gururangan S, Fisher MJ, Allen JC, Herndon JE 2nd, Quinn JA, Reardon DA, Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Phillips PC, Watral MA, Krauser JM, Friedman AH, Friedman HS: Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):161-8
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  • [Title] Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma.
  • We conducted a phase II study to assess the efficacy of oral temozolomide (TMZ) in children with progressive low-grade glioma.
  • Best responses in the 26 patients (86%) with optic pathway glioma (OPG)/pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) included partial response in 3 patients (11%), minor response in 1 (4%), stable disease in 10 (38%), and progressive disease in 12 (46%).
  • Only one of four patients with fibrillary astrocytoma had stable disease for 29 months after TMZ.
  • The overall disease stabilization rate in patients with OPG/PA was 54%, and disease control was maintained for a median interval of 34 months.
  • Seventeen of 26 patients had progressive disease either on or off therapy, and three have died of disease.
  • Worst toxicity related to TMZ in all 30 patients included grade 2-4 thrombocytopenia in seven patients, grade 2-4 neutropenia in seven, grade 2 skin rash in one, and intratumor hemorrhage in one.
  • TMZ given in this schedule was successful in stabilizing disease in a significant proportion of the patients with OPG/PA, with manageable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17347491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871667
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25. Kikuchi T: [Novel immunotherapeutic approach]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Apr;32(4):453-7
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  • Malignant astrocytoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults.
  • The median survival time of patients with high-grade malignant astrocytoma is about 1 year, despite aggressive treatment with surgical resection, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Immunotherapy is one such novel approach that has been investigated for application with different types of tumors, including brain tumors.
  • The author reviews immunotherapeutic approaches for malignant gliomas and the relevance of recent clinical trials and their outcomes.
  • A number of potentially targetable antigens have been identified in gliomas.
  • DCs have been investigated in several clinical trials in patients with malignant tumors including malignant gliomas.
  • So far, seven papers concerning immunotherapy with DCs against malignant gliomas have been published.
  • These reports demonstrate that immunotherapy with DCs induces immune responses and clinically antitumor effects in some patients with malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Immunotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15853209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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26. Yoshida T, Niwa F, Kimura S, Nakagawa M: Anaplastic astrocytoma presenting as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Neurologist; 2006 Nov;12(6):311-3
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  • [Title] Anaplastic astrocytoma presenting as reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome.
  • We report a 60-year-old man with grade III astrocytoma, who presented with status epilepticus.
  • The initial MRI did not demonstrate typical findings of an astrocytoma but rather showed reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS).
  • A brain tumor should be considered and the patient carefully followed by MRI, even if the MRI white matter lesion pattern suggests RPLS.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Occipital Lobe / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17122727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1074-7931
  • [Journal-full-title] The neurologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Shannon P, Sabha N, Lau N, Kamnasaran D, Gutmann DH, Guha A: Pathological and molecular progression of astrocytomas in a GFAP:12 V-Ha-Ras mouse astrocytoma model. Am J Pathol; 2005 Sep;167(3):859-67
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  • [Title] Pathological and molecular progression of astrocytomas in a GFAP:12 V-Ha-Ras mouse astrocytoma model.
  • We previously characterized a genetically engineered mouse astrocytoma model with embryonic astrocyte-specific, activated (12)V-Ha-RAS (GFAP-RAS) transgenesis.
  • The GFAP-RAS line Ras-B8 appears normal at birth, but 50% of mice die by 4 months from low- and high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We examined the development and progression of astrocytomas in the Ras-B8 genetically engineered mouse.
  • From 3 to 8 weeks the incidence of low-grade astrocytomas progressively increased with 85% of 12-week-old mice harboring low- or high-grade astrocytomas, the latter characterized by increased proliferation, nuclear atypia, and angiogenesis.
  • Tp 53 mutations were detected in both astrocytoma grades, with high-grade astrocytomas expressing elevated levels of epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor, plus decreased levels of PTEN and p16, similar to human astrocytomas.
  • Of interest, many of these acquired alterations occur in human astrocytomas, further validating GFAP-RAS as a useful model for studying astrocytoma development and progression.

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  • (PMID = 16127163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS041097; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS41097
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1698742
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28. Sun J, Wang Z, Li Z, Liu B: Microsurgical treatment and functional outcomes of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors. J Clin Neurosci; 2009 May;16(5):666-71
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  • We aimed to prospectively analyze correlations between clinical features and histological classification of multi-segment intramedullary spinal cord tumors (MSICTs), and the extent of microsurgical resection and functional outcomes.
  • Fifty-six patients with MSICTs underwent microsurgery for tumor removal using a posterior approach.
  • The tumor was exposed through a dorsal myelotomy.
  • Pre-operative and post-operative nervous function was scored using the Improved Japanese Orthopaedic Association (IJOA) grading system.
  • Correlation analyses were performed between functional outcome (IJOA score) and histological features, age, tumor location, and the longitudinal extent of spinal cord involvement.
  • Ependymoma was the most frequent MSICT type, seen in 22 of 56 patients (39%), followed by low grade astrocytoma (17 patients, 30%) and glioblastoma multiforme (3 patients, 5%).
  • Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 33 cases (58%), subtotal resection in 4 (7%), and partial resection in 16 (28%).
  • The histological classification of the tumor was the most important factor influencing the extent of surgical removal (chi2=22.17, p=0.00).
  • Thus, MSICTs were most commonly seen in the medullo cervical and cervicothoracic regions, with ependymoma and low grade astrocytoma the most common tumour types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neurologic Examination / methods. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19303302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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29. Gibson SE, Zeng WF, Weil RJ, Prayson RA: Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 May;16(3):274-8
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  • Overexpression of Aurora B kinase, which regulates cell progression through mitosis and cytokinesis, has been shown to be associated with higher-grade tumors and shortened survival in astrocytomas.
  • The association between Aurora B expression and World Health Organization grade II/III tumors was statistically significant (P<0.0001).
  • Aurora B expression was not associated with patient age, sex, tumor location, tumor recurrence, or death from tumor.
  • In contrast to astrocytomas, elevated Aurora B expression in higher-grade ependymomas does not seem to correlate with clinical course, although it may be a potential target of Aurora kinase inhibitors.

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  • (PMID = 18301241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKB protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase B; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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30. Shuangshoti S, Thorner PS, Ruangvejvorachai P, Saha B, Groshen S, Taylor CR, Malhotra S, Imam SA: J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):521-7
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  • [Title] J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas.
  • J1-31 is one of the astrocytic proteins, the expression of which has not been evaluated in astrocytomas.
  • In the present study, we studied the expression of J1-31 protein in astrocytes and astrocytomas in comparison with GFAP, p53 and Ki-67.
  • Materials consisted of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that included five cases of normal brain, 17 of gliosis, 15 of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I), 26 of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), four of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and eight of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The antibody showed reactivity with tumor cells in 12/15 (80%) cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, although intensity of staining was generally weaker and more focal than observed in reactive gliosis.
  • J1-31-positive tumor cells were detected in only 9/26 (35%) cases of the low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and none of the cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
  • Increasing Ki-67 indices paralleled advancing tumor grades. p53 protein was expressed more commonly in infiltrating astrocytomas compared to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In conclusion, down-regulation of J1-31 expression correlates with advancing grade of astrocytomas.
  • The anti-J1-31 antibody may help further our understanding of astrocytes in disease and may be useful as an aid in the pathologic diagnosis of astrocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / J1-31 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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31. Kubicek GJ, Werner-Wasik M, Machtay M, Mallon G, Myers T, Ramirez M, Andrews D, Curran WJ Jr, Dicker AP: Phase I trial using proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jun 1;74(2):433-9
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  • [Title] Phase I trial using proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity and response rate of bortezomib with concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide in the treatment of patients with central nervous system malignancies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This open-label, dose-escalation, Phase I clinical study evaluated the safety of three dose levels of intravenously administered bortezomib (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m(2)/dose) on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle, in addition to concurrent radiotherapy and temozolomide at a daily dose of 75 mg/m(2) starting on Day 1.
  • The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity, defined as any Grade 4-5 toxicity or Grade 3 toxicity directly attributable to protocol treatment, requiring hospitalization and/or radiotherapy interruption.
  • RESULTS: A total of 27 patients were enrolled, 23 of whom had high-grade glioma (10 recurrent and 13 newly diagnosed).
  • The most frequent toxicities were Grade 1 and 2 stomatitis, erythema, and alopecia.
  • At a median follow-up of 15.0 months, 9 patients were still alive, with a median survival of 17.4 months for all patients and 15.0 months for patients with high-grade glioma.
  • CONCLUSION: Bortezomib administered at its typical "systemic" dose (1.3 mg/m(2)) is well tolerated and safe combined with temozolomide and radiotherapy when used in the treatment of central nervous system malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 19084346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA056036-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA056036-08
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS117014; NLM/ PMC2697394
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32. Blauwblomme T, Varlet P, Goodden JR, Cuny ML, Piana H, Roujeau T, Dirocco F, Grill J, Kieffer V, Boddaert N, Sainte-Rose C, Puget S: Forniceal glioma in children. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Sep;4(3):249-53
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  • [Title] Forniceal glioma in children. Clinical article.
  • The aim of this study was to review the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features as well as the feasibility of surgical excision and the outcomes in these patients.
  • METHODS: From a retrospective analysis of 250 cases of supratentorial pediatric glioma, the records of 8 children presenting with forniceal lesions were selected and reviewed.
  • On histological review, the tumors were confirmed as pilocytic astrocytoma (4 lesions), WHO Grade II astrocytoma (3), and ganglioglioma (1).
  • Additional treatment was required for 5 patients for tumor progression, with a median interval of 19 months from surgery.
  • At a median follow-up duration of 4.9 years, all patients had stable disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series, forniceal gliomas were found to be low-grade gliomas.
  • Due to the high rate of progression of residual disease, adjuvant therapy is recommended for infiltrative tumors, and it yielded excellent results.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Fornix, Brain. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19772409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Heimberger AB, Abou-Ghazal M, Reina-Ortiz C, Yang DS, Sun W, Qiao W, Hiraoka N, Fuller GN: Incidence and prognostic impact of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in human gliomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;14(16):5166-72
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  • [Title] Incidence and prognostic impact of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in human gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of regulatory T cells (Treg) in intrinsic central nervous system malignancies is unknown.
  • Immunotherapeutic approaches that inhibit the Treg population may be limited to a subset of patients with gliomas.
  • Our hypothesis is that only the most malignant gliomas have a prominent glioma-infiltrating Treg population that contributes to the immunosuppressive biology and that the presence of Tregs is a negative prognostic variable.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured the incidence of Tregs in 135 glial tumors (including all pathologic types) in a glioma microarray using immunohistochemical analysis.
  • RESULTS: Tregs were not present in normal brain tissue and were very rarely found in low-grade gliomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • We observed significant differences in the prevalence of Tregs between astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors, between tumors of different grades, and between different pathologic types of tumors.
  • We identified Tregs most frequently in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) but very rarely in low-grade astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treg infiltration differed significantly in the tumors according to lineage, pathology, and grade.
  • Tregs seemed to have the highest predilection for tumors of the astrocytic lineage and specifically in the high-grade gliomas, such as GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Glioma / immunology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18698034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA120813-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors
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34. Robert M, Wastie M: Glioblastoma multiforme: a rare manifestation of extensive liver and bone metastases. Biomed Imaging Interv J; 2008 Jan;4(1):e3
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  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of primary brain tumours known collectively as gliomas.
  • Gliomas are graded by their microscopic appearance.
  • As a rule, their behaviour can be predicted from histology: Grade I (pilocytic astrocytomas) and Grade II (benign astrocytomas) tumours are of low grade and grow slowly over many years.
  • Grade IV tumours (GBM) are the most aggressive and, unfortunately, also the most common in humans, growing rapidly, invading and altering brain function.
  • Most patients with GBM die of their disease in less than a year and none have long term survival.Extracranial metastases from GBM are extremely rare, with a reported frequency of only 0.44% because of the absence of lymphatics in the brain and the difficulty of tumours to penetrate blood vessels.

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  • (PMID = 21614314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1823-5530
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical imaging and intervention journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Imaging Interv J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3097703
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35. de Groot JF, Piao Y, Lu L, Fuller GN, Yung WK: Knockdown of GluR1 expression by RNA interference inhibits glioma proliferation. J Neurooncol; 2008 Jun;88(2):121-33
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  • [Title] Knockdown of GluR1 expression by RNA interference inhibits glioma proliferation.
  • High-grade gliomas release excitotoxic concentrations of glutamate which contributes to their malignant phenotype.
  • To improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which glutamate enhances tumor growth and invasion, we examined alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-mediated signaling in glioma cell lines. shRNA was used to stably knockdown GluR1, the most abundant AMPA receptor subunit in glioma, to evaluate its role in tumor signaling, proliferation and tumorigenicity.
  • In a tissue array, there was a statistically significant increase in GluR1 expression in glioblastoma samples compared to anaplastic astrocytoma and low-grade tumors.
  • Retroviral delivery of GluR1 shRNA in U251 and U87 glioma cells reduced GluR1 protein expression, inhibited AMPA-mediated increases in MAPK phosphorylation, and decreased glioma proliferation in vitro.
  • These results suggest that AMPA receptors are abundantly expressed in high-grade gliomas and gene silencing of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit results in abrogation of AMPA-mediated signaling and tumor growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Glioma / prevention & control. RNA Interference / physiology. RNA, Small Interfering / therapeutic use. Receptors, AMPA / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. Microarray Analysis / methods. RNA, Double-Stranded / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18317690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Double-Stranded; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 1
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36. Ladha J, Donakonda S, Agrawal S, Thota B, Srividya MR, Sridevi S, Arivazhagan A, Thennarasu K, Balasubramaniam A, Chandramouli BA, Hegde AS, Kondaiah P, Somasundaram K, Santosh V, Rao SM: Glioblastoma-specific protein interaction network identifies PP1A and CSK21 as connecting molecules between cell cycle-associated genes. Cancer Res; 2010 Aug 15;70(16):6437-47
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  • Glioblastoma (GBM; grade IV astrocytoma) is a very aggressive form of brain cancer with a poor survival and few qualified predictive markers.
  • A system level analysis was used to construct GBM-specific network.
  • Computation of topological parameters of networks showed scale-free pattern and hierarchical organization.
  • Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed CSK21 to be moderately upregulated and PP1A to be overexpressed by 20-fold in GBM tumor samples.


37. Palani M, Arunkumar R, Janardhanam VA: Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of brain tissues in different grades of glioma patients. Ann Neurosci; 2010 Jul;17(3):120-5
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  • [Title] Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of brain tissues in different grades of glioma patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Glioma, a neoplasm of neuroglial cells, is the most common type of brain tumor, constituting more than 50% of all brain tumors.
  • PURPOSE: This report summarizes the current knowledge regarding the clinical utility of biochemical enzyme markers for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in different grades of glioma.
  • METHODS: Sixty patients with different grades of glioma include glioblastoma multiforme (n=20), Anaplastic astrocytoma (n=10).
  • Ependymoma (n=10), Pilocytic astrocytoma (n=10) and patients with benign lesions (n=5) served as controls.
  • CK, Na-K(+) ATPases, 5'-Nucleotidases showed marked increase in grade IV.
  • Similarly, Mg2-ATPase, Ca2+ATPases showed significant increase in grade III.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical importance for classification and treatment of glioma is governed by biochemical enzyme markers.
  • The study of enzymes supported by related chromosomal changes is anticipated to provide better appreciation of biological properties in different grades of glioma.

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  • (PMID = 25205887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-7531
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4116979
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Antioxidants / Biochemical profile in glioma / Chromosomal aberrations / Enzymes / Glioma
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38. Abel TJ, Chowdhary A, Thapa M, Rutledge JC, Geyer JR, Ojemann J, Avellino AM: Spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination to the brain. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105(6 Suppl):508-14
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  • [Title] Spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination to the brain. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade spinal cord gliomas is an uncommon event.
  • The authors report a unique case of leptomeningeal dissemination of a spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma (PCA) to the intracranial cerebral subarachnoid spaces in a child.
  • An intradural intramedullary spinal cord tumor was identified, and the lesion was subtotally resected and diagnosed by the pathology department to be a PCA.
  • Subsequently, the patient had recurrences of the intradural intramedullary tumor at 6 months and 2 years after his original presentation.
  • He underwent a repeated resection of the recurrent tumor and fenestration of an associated syrinx on both occasions.
  • The pathological characteristics of the reresected tumor remained consistent with those of a PCA.
  • Postoperative imaging after his last surgery revealed diffuse intracranial leptomeningeal dissemination into the cisternal space surrounding the midbrain, the suprasellar region, and the internal auditory canal, as well as nodular subarachnoid disease in the upper cervical region.
  • The patient then underwent chemotherapy, and total spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 2 months later demonstrated stability in the size of the spinal cord tumor and a decrease in the associated syrinx.
  • However, an MR image of the head demonstrated two new areas of supratentorial subarachnoid leptomeningeal spread of the primary spinal cord tumor at the 2-month follow-up examination.
  • At the 6-month follow-up examination, MR imaging of the head and spine demonstrated stable metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery


39. Katoh N, Shirato H, Aoyama H, Onimaru R, Suzuki K, Hida K, Miyasaka K, Iwasaki Y: Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumor. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;78(1):63-9
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  • [Title] Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumor.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of post-operative radiotherapy for spinal cord glioma with the emphasis on the hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with spinal cord glioma received post-operative radiotherapy between 1979 and 2003.
  • There were 12 low-grade astrocytic tumors, 11 high-grade astrocytic tumors, 16 low-grade ependymal tumors and 2 high-grade ependymal tumors.
  • Among 11 patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors, 5 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 with glioblastoma received hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation.
  • RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 10 years from the date of the first surgery were 64% for the entire group, 47% for the astrocytic tumors and 84% for the ependymal tumors, respectively (P=0.009).
  • Among 11 patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors, the actuarial survival rate at 10 years was 35%.
  • The actuarial survival rates at 10 years were 67% for those who received hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation, and 20% for those who did not (P=0.47).
  • DISCUSSION: The results for ependymal tumors and low-grade astrocytic tumors were comparable to those reported in the literature.
  • Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation may help to prolong the survival of patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dose Fractionation. Glioma / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16314938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Tay A, Scheithauer BW, Cameron JD, Myhre MJ, Boerner MJ: Retinal ependymoma: an immunohistologic and ultrastructural study. Hum Pathol; 2009 Apr;40(4):578-83
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  • Most are syndrome associated and include pilocytic astrocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Acquired, more conventional, diffuse astrocytomas are less frequent.
  • The tumor was sporadic in occurrence and unilateral, low grade, and of cellular type.
  • The literature regarding retinal glial neoplasia including ependymoma as well as the so-called massive retinal gliosis is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 18835620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Kurian KM, Summers DM, Statham PF, Smith C, Bell JE, Ironside JW: Third ventricular chordoid glioma: clinicopathological study of two cases with evidence for a poor clinical outcome despite low grade histological features. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Aug;31(4):354-61
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  • [Title] Third ventricular chordoid glioma: clinicopathological study of two cases with evidence for a poor clinical outcome despite low grade histological features.
  • Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle is a rare glial tumour whose precise histogenesis remains uncertain.
  • The neoplasm tends to occur in women and its clinical presentation is variable, resulting from acute hydrocephalus or impingement upon local structures.
  • The main differentials for histological diagnosis include chordoid meningiomas, pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / physiopathology. Third Ventricle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16008819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Zhang JG, Kruse CA, Driggers L, Hoa N, Wisoff J, Allen JC, Zagzag D, Newcomb EW, Jadus MR: Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;88(1):65-76
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  • [Title] Tumor antigen precursor protein profiles of adult and pediatric brain tumors identify potential targets for immunotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated and compared tumor antigen precursor protein (TAPP) profiles in adult and pediatric brain tumors of 31 genes related to tumor associated antigens (TAA) for possible use in immunotherapy.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven brain tumor specimens from 11 adult and 26 pediatric patients were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the relative expression of 31 TAPP mRNAs.
  • Histological diagnoses consisted of 16 glioblastomas, 4 low grade astrocytomas, 10 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, and 7 ependymomas.
  • RESULTS: The adult gliomas expressed 94% (29 of 31) of the TAPP mRNAs evaluated compared with pediatric brain tumors that expressed 55-74% of the TAPP mRNAs, dependent on tumor histological subtype.
  • The pediatric brain tumors lacked expression of some genes associated with engendering tumor survival, such as hTert and Survivin.

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  • (PMID = 18259692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 046463; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 121258; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS057829; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 054093; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS056300; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS046463; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS 057829
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS572988; NLM/ PMC4005736
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43. Stark AM, Fritsch MJ, Claviez A, Dörner L, Mehdorn HM: Management of tectal glioma in childhood. Pediatr Neurol; 2005 Jul;33(1):33-8
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  • [Title] Management of tectal glioma in childhood.
  • Tectal glioma is a topographical diagnosis including tumors of different histology, mainly low-grade astrocytomas.
  • This report discusses the management of this rare tumor in children.
  • Clinical charts of 12 children with tectal glioma treated in our department between 1976 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The duration between first symptoms and the diagnosis of tectal glioma was in the range of 2 days to 9 years.
  • Ten patients presented with symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure, one patient presented with ataxia, and in one case tectal glioma was an incidental finding.
  • First-line therapy was endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 5 cases (42%), ventriculoperitoneal shunting in 6 cases (50%), and combined partial tumor resection and shunting in one case.
  • Histology was obtained in 5 cases (low-grade astrocytoma, n = 4; ependymoma, n = 1).
  • Tectal glioma represents a distinct subgroup of brainstem tumors associated with a good (or favorable) prognosis.
  • Effective treatment for hydrocephalus is essential; the tumor should be monitored by regular clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Biopsy is warranted in cases with tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Superior Colliculi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15876519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Mamelak AN, Rosenfeld S, Bucholz R, Raubitschek A, Nabors LB, Fiveash JB, Shen S, Khazaeli MB, Colcher D, Liu A, Osman M, Guthrie B, Schade-Bijur S, Hablitz DM, Alvarez VL, Gonda MA: Phase I single-dose study of intracavitary-administered iodine-131-TM-601 in adults with recurrent high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Aug 1;24(22):3644-50
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  • [Title] Phase I single-dose study of intracavitary-administered iodine-131-TM-601 in adults with recurrent high-grade glioma.
  • PURPOSE: TM-601 binds to malignant brain tumor cells with high affinity and does not seem to bind to normal brain tissue.
  • Preclinical studies suggest that iodine-131 (131I) -TM-601 may be an effective targeted therapy for the treatment of glioma.
  • We evaluated the safety, biodistribution, and dosimetry of intracavitary-administered 131I-TM-601 in patients with recurrent glioma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult patients (17 with glioblastoma multiforme and one with anaplastic astrocytoma) with histologically documented recurrent glioma and a Karnofsky performance status of > or = 60% who were eligible for cytoreductive craniotomy were enrolled.
  • An intracavitary catheter with subcutaneous reservoir was placed in the tumor cavity during surgery.
  • Two weeks after surgery, patients received a single dose of 131I-TM-601 from one of three dosing panels (0.25, 0.50, or 1.0 mg of TM-601), each labeled with 10 mCi of 131I.
  • RESULTS: Intracavitary administration was well tolerated, with no dose-limiting toxicities observed.
  • 131I-TM-601 bound to the tumor periphery and demonstrated long-term retention at the tumor with minimal uptake in any other organ system.
  • At day 180, four patients had radiographic stable disease, and one had a partial response.
  • Two of these patients further improved and were without evidence of disease for more than 30 months.
  • CONCLUSION: A single dose of 10 mCi 131I-TM-601 was well tolerated for 0.25 to 1.0 mg TM-601 and may have an antitumoral effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiography. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Scorpion Venoms / administration & dosage. Scorpion Venoms / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiometry. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage. Radiopharmaceuticals / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16877732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorotoxin; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Scorpion Venoms
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45. Yang Z, Wang Y, Fang J, Chen F, Liu J, Wu J, Wang Y: Expression and aberrant promoter methylation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in human astrocytomas. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2010;29:26
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  • [Title] Expression and aberrant promoter methylation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in human astrocytomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Wnt inhibitory factor-1(WIF-1) acts as a Wnt-antagonists and tumor suppressor, but hypermethylation of WIF-1 gene promoter and low expression activate Wnt signaling aberrantly and induce the development of various human tumors.
  • With this work we intended to investigate the expression and promoter methylation status of WIF-1 gene in human astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: The tissue samples consisted of 53 astrocytomas and 6 normal brain tissues.
  • RESULTS: The average expression levels of WIF-1 protein and mRNA in astrocytomas were decreased significantly compared with normal control tissues.
  • The protein and mRNA expression of WIF-1 gene in astrocytomas was decreased with the increase of pathological grade.
  • Furthermore, WIF-1 promoter methylation was observed by MS-PCR in astrocytomas which showed significant reduction of WIF-1 expression.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that the WIF-1 gene is frequently down-regulated or silenced in astrocytomas by aberrant promoter methylation.
  • This may be an important mechanism in astrocytoma carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Methylation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Repressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20334650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / WIF1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851677
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46. Watanabe T, Katayama Y, Yoshino A, Fukaya C, Yamamoto T: Human interferon beta, nimustine hydrochloride, and radiation therapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Human interferon beta, nimustine hydrochloride, and radiation therapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas.
  • Previous investigators have reported encouraging results for malignant gliomas treated using a combination of human interferon beta (IFN-beta) with nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) and radiation therapy (termed IAR therapy).
  • This study was undertaken to examine further the efficacy of the IAR regimen followed by maintenance therapy with IFN-beta and ACNU in patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytomas.
  • Of 33 patients assessable for a response, 11 responded (33%), with 4 complete responses.
  • The estimated median overall survival (OS) was 16 months, with values of 58 and 13 months for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and glioblastoma (GB) patients, respectively.
  • The IAR therapy was safe and well tolerated.
  • Based on a statistical analysis of the factors that affected the PFS and OS, histologic grade, postoperative Karnofsky performance scale (KPS), and extent of surgery were identified as independent predictors.
  • In addition, they emphasize the importance of a preserved KPS after cytoreductive surgery, which could produce a potential benefit for adjuvant therapy and could ultimately lead to a prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15803376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta
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47. Zhi F, Chen X, Wang S, Xia X, Shi Y, Guan W, Shao N, Qu H, Yang C, Zhang Y, Wang Q, Wang R, Zen K, Zhang CY, Zhang J, Yang Y: The use of hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-181b and hsa-miR-106a as prognostic indicators of astrocytoma. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jun;46(9):1640-9
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  • [Title] The use of hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-181b and hsa-miR-106a as prognostic indicators of astrocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with a variety of diseases including cancers.
  • In the present study, the miRNA expression profile was examined in astrocytoma, a malignant and prevalent intracranial tumour in adults.
  • METHODS: We screened the expression profile of 200 miRNAs in a training sample set consisting of 84 astrocytoma samples and 20 normal adjacent tissue (NAT) samples using the method of stem-loop quantitative RT-PCR.
  • The significantly altered miRNAs were validated in another independent sample set consisting of 40 astrocytoma samples and 40 NAT samples.
  • The correlation of the miRNA levels with survival in astrocytoma samples was estimated by performing Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and univariate/multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: After a two-phase selection and validation process, seven miRNAs were found to have a significantly different expression profile in astrocytoma samples upon comparison to the NAT samples.
  • Unsupervised clustering analysis further revealed the great potential of the 7-miRNA profile to differentiate between tumours and normal brain tissues.
  • The down-regulation of hsa-miR-137 in astrocytomas was shown to be associated with advanced clinical stages of this disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a great potential for the use of miRNA profiling as a powerful diagnostic and prognostic marker in defining the signature of astrocytomas and in predicting the post-surgical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. MicroRNAs / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20219352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MIRN106 microRNA, human; 0 / MIRN21 microRNA, human; 0 / MIrn181 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs
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48. Jang FF, Wei W, De WM: Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression positively correlates with angiogenesis and peritumoural brain oedema in astrocytoma. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2008 Apr-Jun;20(2):105-9
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  • [Title] Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression positively correlates with angiogenesis and peritumoural brain oedema in astrocytoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Astrocytoma is the most malignant intracranial neoplasm and is characterized by high neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema.
  • METHODS: The expression of two angiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were investigated using immunohistochemistry for astrocytoma from 82 patients and 11 normal human tissues.
  • RESULTS: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor positively correlate with the pathological grade of astrocytoma, microvessel density numbers and brain oedema, which may be responsible for the increased tumour neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema.
  • CONCLUSION: The results support the idea that inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are useful for the treatment of human astrocytoma and to improve patient's clinical outcomes and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / biosynthesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19385471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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49. Mamedova L, Capra V, Accomazzo MR, Gao ZG, Ferrario S, Fumagalli M, Abbracchio MP, Rovati GE, Jacobson KA: CysLT1 leukotriene receptor antagonists inhibit the effects of nucleotides acting at P2Y receptors. Biochem Pharmacol; 2005 Dec 19;71(1-2):115-25
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  • Montelukast and pranlukast were found to inhibit nucleotide-induced calcium mobilization in a human monocyte-macrophage like cell line, DMSO-differentiated U937 (dU937).
  • Therefore, these antagonists were studied functionally in a heterologous expression system for the human P2Y receptors.
  • In 1321N1 astrocytoma cells stably expressing human P2Y(1,2,4,6) receptors, CysLT1 antagonists inhibited both the P2Y agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization.
  • In control astrocytoma cells expressing an endogenous M3 muscarinic receptor, 10 microM montelukast had no effect on the carbachol-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+.

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  • (PMID = 16280122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK031116-21
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Chromones; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Quinolines; 0 / Receptors, Leukotriene; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / leukotriene D4 receptor; 0 / pranlukast; MHM278SD3E / montelukast; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium; UT0S826Z60 / Uridine Triphosphate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS31385; NLM/ PMC4967539
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50. Benesch M, Eder HG, Sovinz P, Raith J, Lackner H, Moser A, Urban C: Residual or recurrent cerebellar low-grade glioma in children after tumor resection: is re-treatment needed? A single center experience from 1983 to 2003. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(3):159-64
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  • [Title] Residual or recurrent cerebellar low-grade glioma in children after tumor resection: is re-treatment needed? A single center experience from 1983 to 2003.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report on children with cerebellar low-grade glioma (LGG), who were found to have progressive or nonprogresssive residual tumors or tumor recurrence after tumor resection.
  • RESULTS: Of 289 patients with CNS tumors referred between 1983 and 2003, 28 (9.7%) (15 male, 13 female; median age at diagnosis: 71 months) had cerebellar LGG (pilocytic astrocytoma grade I: n = 21; fibrillary astrocytoma grade II: n = 5; mixed hamartoma/pilocytic astrocytoma: n = 1; radiographic diagnosis: n = 1).
  • One patient underwent biopsy.
  • Only 1 additional patient had to undergo second surgery due to disease progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A 'wait and see' strategy is justified in patients with nonprogressive recurrent or residual cerebellar LGG after primary tumor resection.
  • However, long-term follow-up with repeated MRI is mandatory in these patients to detect disease progression.
  • Second surgery is indicated only in patients with unequivocal disease progression, as documented by MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16636617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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51. Prayson RA: The utility of MIB-1/Ki-67 immunostaining in the evaluation of central nervous system neoplasms. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 May;12(3):144-8
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  • [Title] The utility of MIB-1/Ki-67 immunostaining in the evaluation of central nervous system neoplasms.
  • The diagnosis and assignment of grade in neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS), for the most part, are morphologically based and predicated on the interpretation of descriptions of what the phenotypic findings are for a particular tumor type.
  • Since assignment of grade and tumor type is the basis upon which therapeutic intervention is grounded, investigators have been searching for ancillary means by which morphologically based systems can be improved.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antinuclear / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / immunology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Glioma / immunology. Glioma / pathology. Gliosis / immunology. Gliosis / pathology. Humans. Meningioma / pathology. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 15900115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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52. Szeliga M, Sidoryk M, Matyja E, Kowalczyk P, Albrecht J: Lack of expression of the liver-type glutaminase (LGA) mRNA in human malignant gliomas. Neurosci Lett; 2005 Feb 21;374(3):171-3
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  • [Title] Lack of expression of the liver-type glutaminase (LGA) mRNA in human malignant gliomas.
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), liver-type glutaminase (LGA) shows a unique nuclear localization suggesting its role in the regulation of transcription rather than in the cellular glutamine metabolism.
  • RT-PCR analysis of RNA derived from postoperative tissue samples revealed the absence or only traces of LGA mRNA in all (9) cases of malignant gliomas (astrocytoma anaplasticum, AA, WHO grade III; glioblastoma multiforme, WHO grade IV) examined.
  • The lack of LGA may be thus considered as a useful negative diagnostic marker of highly malignant gliomas in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / metabolism. Glutaminase / deficiency. Liver / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15663956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.5.1.2 / Glutaminase
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53. Korones DN, Smith A, Foreman N, Bouffet E: Temozolomide and oral VP-16 for children and young adults with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):37-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Temozolomide and oral VP-16 for children and young adults with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Children and young adults with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas have limited responses to temozolomide or oral VP-16 when either is administered as a single agent.
  • We postulated that a combination of these two drugs for patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas might result in better and more prolonged responses.
  • PROCEDURE: Eleven patients with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas were treated with varying combinations of temozolomide (150-210 mg/m2/d for 5 days) and oral VP-16 (50 mg/m2/d for 4-12 days).
  • Diagnoses included recurrent brain stem glioma (2), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (2), and glioblastoma (7) (3 treatment-induced, 2 malignant transformations of lower grade tumors, 1 recurrence, and 1 second tumor arising 10 months after diagnosis of medulloblastoma).
  • All 11 patients had received radiotherapy (including 4 who received craniospinal radiation), and 7 had prior chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a complete response (CR), six had partial responses (PR), and four had progressive disease (PD).
  • There was one grade 4 neutropenia, but no other grade 3 or 4 toxicities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest there is activity of temozolomide in combination with oral VP-16 for children and young adults with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16047359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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54. Tews B, Felsberg J, Hartmann C, Kunitz A, Hahn M, Toedt G, Neben K, Hummerich L, von Deimling A, Reifenberger G, Lichter P: Identification of novel oligodendroglioma-associated candidate tumor suppressor genes in 1p36 and 19q13 using microarray-based expression profiling. Int J Cancer; 2006 Aug 15;119(4):792-800
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  • [Title] Identification of novel oligodendroglioma-associated candidate tumor suppressor genes in 1p36 and 19q13 using microarray-based expression profiling.
  • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q is the most common genetic alteration in oligodendroglial tumors and associated with response to radio- and chemotherapy as well as favorable prognosis.
  • Using microsatellite analysis, we previously identified the chromosomal regions 1p36.22-p36.31 and 19q13.3, as candidate tumor suppressor gene regions being commonly deleted in these tumors.
  • To identify genes within these regions that are downregulated in oligodendroglial tumors with LOH 1p/19q, we performed cDNA microarray-based RNA expression profiling of 35 gliomas with known allelic status on 1p and 19q, including 7 oligodendrogliomas and 8 diffuse astrocytomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, as well as 14 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas of WHO grade III.
  • Microarray analysis identified 8 genes from these regions (MGC4399, SRM, ICMT, RPL18, FTL, ZIN, FLJ10781 and DBP), which all showed significantly lower expression in 1p/19q-deleted gliomas when compared to gliomas without 1p/19q losses.
  • In addition, we found that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4C) gene at 19q13.3 demonstrated significantly lower expression in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade III) when compared to well-differentiated oligodendrogliomas (WHO grade II).
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16550607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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55. Znidaric MT, Pucer A, Fatur T, Filipic M, Scancar J, Falnoga I: Metal binding of metallothioneins in human astrocytomas (U87 MG, IPDDC-2A). Biometals; 2007 Oct;20(5):781-92
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  • [Title] Metal binding of metallothioneins in human astrocytomas (U87 MG, IPDDC-2A).
  • Astroglia cells structurally and nutritionally support neurons in the central nervous system.
  • They play an important role in guiding the construction of the nervous system and controlling the chemical and ionic environment of neurons.
  • Our aim was to establish the inducibility and metal binding of MTs in two human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 MG (astrocytoma-glioblastoma, grade IV) and IPDDC-2A (astrocytoma, grade II), on exposure to cadmium chloride (1 microM).
  • We showed that MTs are constitutively expressed in both human astrocytoma cell lines.
  • In accordance with the higher malignancy grade of U87 MG, the amount of MTs was higher in U87 MG than in IPDDC-2A cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Metallothionein / metabolism. Metals / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadmium Chloride / metabolism. Cadmium Chloride / pharmacology. Cadmium Chloride / toxicity. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Protein Binding / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17115260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0844
  • [Journal-full-title] Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biometals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; J6K4F9V3BA / Cadmium Chloride
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56. Raco A, Piccirilli M, Landi A, Lenzi J, Delfini R, Cantore G: High-grade intramedullary astrocytomas: 30 years' experience at the Neurosurgery Department of the University of Rome "Sapienza". J Neurosurg Spine; 2010 Feb;12(2):144-53
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  • [Title] High-grade intramedullary astrocytomas: 30 years' experience at the Neurosurgery Department of the University of Rome "Sapienza".
  • OBJECT: The goal in this study was to review a series of patients who underwent surgical removal of intramedullary high-grade gliomas, focusing on the functional outcome, recurrence rates, and technical problems continually debated in neurosurgical practice.
  • METHODS: Between December 1976 and December 2006, 22 patients underwent removal of intramedullary high-grade gliomas.
  • RESULTS: Histological examinations showed 10 Grade III astrocytomas and 12 glioblastomas.
  • Only 2 of the 22 high-grade astrocytomas could be completely removed.
  • In this series, multimodality treatment of intramedullary high-grade astrocytomas has been shown to increase length of survival without improving the neurological status.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality. Rome. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Neurosurg Spine. 2010 Feb;12(2):141-2; discussion 142-3 [20121347.001]
  • (PMID = 20121348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Fellows GA, Wright AJ, Sibtain NA, Rich P, Opstad KS, McIntyre DJ, Bell BA, Griffiths JR, Howe FA: Combined use of neuroradiology and 1H-MR spectroscopy may provide an intervention limiting diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2010 Nov;32(5):1038-44
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  • GBM is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, with mean survival under a year.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-nine patients had clinical computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging and 1.5T SV SE (1)H-MRS with PRESS localization for neuroradiological diagnosis and tumor classification with spectroscopic and automated pattern recognition analysis (TE 30 ms, TR 2000 ms, spectral width 2500 Hz and 2048 data points, 128-256 signal averages were acquired, depending on voxel size (8 cm(3) to 4 cm(3)).
  • RESULTS: The 18 stereotactic biopsies revealed 14 GBM, 2 grade II astrocytomas, 1 lymphoma, and 1 anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • We do not advocate the replacement of biopsy in all patients; instead our data suggest a specific intervention limiting role for the use of (1)H-MRS in brain tumor diagnosis.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21031506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2586
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C12A/A1209; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C8807/A3870
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Yang Z, Wang Y, Fang J, Chen F, Liu J, Wu J, Wang Y, Song T, Zeng F, Rao Y: Downregulation of WIF-1 by hypermethylation in astrocytomas. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai); 2010 Jun 15;42(6):418-25
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  • [Title] Downregulation of WIF-1 by hypermethylation in astrocytomas.
  • Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) acts as a Wnt antagonist and tumor suppressor, but hypermethylation of WIF-1 gene promoter and low expression of WIF-1 activate Wnt signaling aberrantly and induce the development of several human tumors.
  • By using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific PCR, we analyzed the expression and methylation of WIF-1 in 4 normal brain tissues, 35 freshly resected astrocytoma tissues and 4 glioblastoma-derived cell lines.
  • Significant downregulation of WIF-1 mRNA and protein expression levels was observed in astrocytoma tissues compared with normal brain tissues.
  • Significant association between WIF-1 downregulation and pathological grade of astrocytomas was found.
  • WIF-1 gene aberrant methylation was observed in 19 of 35 (54.29%) tumor samples.
  • Our results suggested that the WIF-1 gene is frequently silenced in astrocytoma by aberrant promoter methylation.
  • This may be an important mechanism in astrocytoma carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics. Astrocytoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Azacitidine / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Wnt Proteins / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20539942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7270
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / WIF1 protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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59. Ellert-Miklaszewska A, Grajkowska W, Gabrusiewicz K, Kaminska B, Konarska L: Distinctive pattern of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) expression in adult and pediatric brain tumors. Brain Res; 2007 Mar 16;1137(1):161-9
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  • The efficacy of cannabinoids against high-grade glioma in animal models, mediated by two specific receptors, CB1 and CB2, raised promises for targeted treatment of the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumors.
  • Most glioblastomas expressed very high levels of CB2 receptors and the expression correlated with tumor grade.
  • Interestingly, some benign pediatric astrocytic tumors, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), which may occasionally cause mortality owing to progressive growth, also displayed high CB2 immunoreactivity.
  • Our results suggest that the CB2 receptor expression depends primarily on the histopathological origin of the brain tumor cells and differentiation state, reflecting the tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 17239827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens; 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2
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60. Somasundaram K, Reddy SP, Vinnakota K, Britto R, Subbarayan M, Nambiar S, Hebbar A, Samuel C, Shetty M, Sreepathi HK, Santosh V, Hegde AS, Hegde S, Kondaiah P, Rao MR: Upregulation of ASCL1 and inhibition of Notch signaling pathway characterize progressive astrocytoma. Oncogene; 2005 Oct 27;24(47):7073-83
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  • [Title] Upregulation of ASCL1 and inhibition of Notch signaling pathway characterize progressive astrocytoma.
  • Astrocytoma is the most common type of brain cancer constituting more than half of all brain tumors.
  • With an aim to identify markers describing astrocytoma progression, we have carried out microarray analysis of astrocytoma samples of different grades using cDNA microarray containing 1152 cancer-specific genes.
  • Data analysis identified several differentially regulated genes between normal brain tissue and astrocytoma as well as between grades II/III astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; grade IV).
  • As ASCL has been implicated in neuroendocrine, medullary thyroid and small-cell lung cancers, we chose to examine the role of ASCL1 in the astrocytoma development.
  • Our data revealed that ASCL1 is overexpressed in progressive astrocytoma as evidenced by increased levels of ASCL1 transcripts in 85.71% (6/7) of grade II diffuse astrocytoma (DA), 90% (9/10) of grade III anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 87.5% (7/8) of secondary GBMs, while the majority of primary de novo GBMs expressed similar to or less than normal brain levels (66.67%; 8/12).
  • ASCL1 upregulation in progressive astrocytoma is accompanied by inhibition of Notch signaling as seen by uninduced levels of HES1, a transcriptional target of Notch1, increased levels of HES6, a dominant-negative inhibitor of HES1-mediated repression of ASCL1, and increased levels of Notch ligand Delta1, which is capable of inhibiting Notch signaling by forming intracellular Notch ligand autonomous complexes.
  • Our results imply that inhibition of Notch signaling may be an important early event in the development of grade II DA and subsequent progression to grade III AA and secondary GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / genetics. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Profiling. Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Receptors, Notch. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16103883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASCL1 protein, human; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Transcription Factors
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61. Pöpperl G, Kreth FW, Herms J, Koch W, Mehrkens JH, Gildehaus FJ, Kretzschmar HA, Tonn JC, Tatsch K: Analysis of 18F-FET PET for grading of recurrent gliomas: is evaluation of uptake kinetics superior to standard methods? J Nucl Med; 2006 Mar;47(3):393-403
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of 18F-FET PET for grading of recurrent gliomas: is evaluation of uptake kinetics superior to standard methods?
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether extended analyses of O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) uptake kinetics provide results superior to those of standard tumor-to-background ratios in predicting tumor grade in patients with pretreated gliomas.
  • METHODS: Dynamic 18F-FET PET studies (0-40 min after injection of 180 MBq of 18F-FET) were performed on 45 glioma patients with suspected tumor recurrence after multimodal treatment.
  • For the standard method, tumoral maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and the ratio to the background were derived from a summed image 20-40 min after injection.
  • Results were correlated with the histopathologic findings of MRI/PET-guided stereotactic biopsies and were evaluated with respect to their discriminatory power to separate low- from high-grade tumors using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses.
  • RESULTS: The parameters taking into account the individual time course of 18F-FET uptake were able to differentiate low-grade from high-grade recurrent astrocytomas with high diagnostic accuracy, reaching the best differentiation with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.94.
  • Time-activity curves (5-40 min after injection) slightly and steadily increased in tumor-free patients and in low-grade tumors, whereas high-grade tumors showed an early peak around 10-15 min after injection followed by a decrease.
  • CONCLUSION: This study has shown differences in the dynamics of 18F-FET uptake between recurrent low- and high-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives

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  • [ErratumIn] J Nucl Med. 2006 May;47(5):806
  • (PMID = 16513607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / O-(2-fluoroethyl)tyrosine; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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62. Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, Forshew T, Hindley GF, Ellison DW, Sheer D: MAPK pathway activation and the origins of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas. J Cell Physiol; 2010 Mar;222(3):509-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MAPK pathway activation and the origins of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas (LGAs) are the most common type of brain tumor in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19937730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4652
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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63. Ferletta M, Uhrbom L, Olofsson T, Pontén F, Westermark B: Sox10 has a broad expression pattern in gliomas and enhances platelet-derived growth factor-B--induced gliomagenesis. Mol Cancer Res; 2007 Sep;5(9):891-7
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  • [Title] Sox10 has a broad expression pattern in gliomas and enhances platelet-derived growth factor-B--induced gliomagenesis.
  • In a previously published insertional mutagenesis screen for candidate brain tumor genes in the mouse using a Moloney mouse leukemia virus encoding platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B, the Sox10 gene was tagged in five independent tumors.
  • All Moloney murine leukemia virus/PDGFB tumors had a high protein expression of Sox10 independently of malignant grade or tumor type.
  • Infection with RCAS-SOX10 alone did not induce any gliomas.
  • Combined infection of RCAS-SOX10 and RCAS-PDGFB in wild-type Ntv-a mice yielded a tumor frequency of 12%, and in Ntv-a Arf-/- mice the tumor frequency was 30%.
  • This indicates that Sox10 alone is not sufficient to induce gliomagenesis but acts synergistically with PDGFB in glioma development.
  • We investigated the expression of Sox10 in other human tumors and in a number of gliomas.
  • The Sox10 expression was restricted to gliomas and melanomas.
  • All glioma types expressed Sox10, and tumors of low-grade glioma had a much broader distribution of Sox10 compared with high-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioma / genetics. Glioma / pathology. High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / physiology. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / genetics. Chickens. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics. Melanoma / genetics. Mice. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nestin. Promoter Regions, Genetic. SOXE Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17855658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / High Mobility Group Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / SOX10 protein, human; 0 / SOXE Transcription Factors; 0 / Sox10 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors
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64. Jacques TS, Eldridge C, Patel A, Saleem NM, Powell M, Kitchen ND, Thom M, Revesz T: Mixed glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle with prominent rosette formation. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2006 Apr;32(2):217-20
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  • Our cases demonstrate the morphological features of the 'rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of the fourth ventricle', a recently identified tumour characterised by its unique location, neurocytic pseudo-rosette formation and the presence of a low grade astrocytoma component.
  • However, the clinical data available including the cases presented here, along with the histological features, suggest that these are low grade tumours with a good prognosis after surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurocytoma / metabolism. Neurocytoma / pathology. Neurocytoma / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16599951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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65. Combs SE, Schulz-Ertner D, Thilmann C, Edler L, Debus J: Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy in the management of primary oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jul 1;62(3):797-802
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  • RESULTS: Fractionated stereotactic RT was well tolerated in all patients, without side effects.
  • With regard to histology, overall survival rates in the World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II group were 89% and 74% at 5 and 10 years, respectively.
  • In patients with WHO Grade III tumors, overall survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 69% and 46%, respectively.
  • In FSRT, the tumor volume can be irradiated with high doses, sparing volume of normal brain tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Stereotaxic Techniques. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15936562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Quon H, Abdulkarim B: Adjuvant treatment of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2008;(2):CD007104
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  • Also, the value of chromosome 1p and 19q deletions as prognostic and predictive markers is only beginning to be defined.
  • To investigate the prognostic and predictive value of loss of heterozygosity of chromosomes 1p and 19q.
  • Outcomes analyzed include overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and treatment toxicity greater than or equal to grade 3.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 4,2006), MEDLINE (1966 to 2006) and EMBASE (1988 to 2006) were searched.
  • The predictive value of 1p and 19q co-deletions is less clear with one study observing a longer PFS with chemotherapy, while the other study did not.
  • Tumors with 1p and 19q co-deletions are associated with better OS and may indicate a more chemo-responsive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;5:CD007104 [24833028.001]
  • (PMID = 18425979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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67. Saunders DE, Phipps KP, Wade AM, Hayward RD: Surveillance imaging strategies following surgery and/or radiotherapy for childhood cerebellar low-grade astrocytoma. J Neurosurg; 2005 Mar;102(2 Suppl):172-8
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  • [Title] Surveillance imaging strategies following surgery and/or radiotherapy for childhood cerebellar low-grade astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: The authors sought to evaluate surveillance strategies for the detection and monitoring of residual and recurrent disease in children with cerebellar low-grade astrocytomas (CLGAs) treated surgically or with radiotherapy.
  • (2) those with residual disease with no immediate adjuvant therapy; and (3) those who received radiotherapy for residual/recurrent disease.
  • METHODS: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies and clinical data obtained in children with CLGA who presented between January 1988 and September 1998 were reviewed.
  • Eighty-four children were followed for a mean period of 73 months (range 2-159 months).
  • One child died.
  • Following an incomplete resection, radiologically detected tumor progression leading to further treatment was detected at 7, 9, 12, 13, and 20 months, respectively, and an additional six tumors regressed or stablized.
  • For follow up of residual tumor, 6-month interval imaging for at least 3 years, yearly images for another 2 years, and subsequent 2-year imaging is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / radiography. Cerebellum / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Remission, Spontaneous. Time Factors


68. Donato G, Iofrida G, Lavano A, Volpentesta G, Signorelli F, Pallante PL, Berlingieri MT, Pierantoni MG, Palmieri D, Conforti F, Maltese L, Tucci L, Amorosi A, Fusco A: Analysis of UbcH10 expression represents a useful tool for the diagnosis and therapy of astrocytic tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 Jul-Aug;27(4):219-23
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  • [Title] Analysis of UbcH10 expression represents a useful tool for the diagnosis and therapy of astrocytic tumors.
  • Previous studies suggest the expression of UbcH10 gene, that codes for a protein belonging to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family, as a valid indicator of the proliferative and aggressive status of tumors of different origin.
  • Therefore, to look for possible tools to be used as diagnostic markers in astrocytic neoplasias, we investigated UbcH10 expression in normal brain, gliosis and low-grade and high-grade astrocytic tumors by immunohistochemistry.
  • UbcH10 expression was observed in low-grade astrocytoma and in glioblastoma.
  • Our data indicate a clear correlation between UbcH10 expression and the histological grade of the astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18666437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 6.3.2.19 / UBE2C protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
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69. Chamberlain MC, Johnston S: Bevacizumab for recurrent alkylator-refractory anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Cancer; 2009 Apr 15;115(8):1734-43
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  • Bevacizumab-related toxicity included fatigue (14 patients; 4 grade 3), leukopenia (9; 1 grade 3), anemia (5; 0 grade 3), hypertension (5; 1 grade 3), deep vein thrombosis (4; 1 grade 3), and wound dehiscence (2; 1 grade 3).
  • Fifteen (68%) patients demonstrated a partial radiographic response, 1 (5.0%) demonstrated stable disease, and 6 (27%) demonstrated progressive disease after 2 cycles of bevacizumab.
  • Time to tumor progression ranged from 1 to 18 months (median, 6.75 months).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Bevacizumab. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19197992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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70. Sankar T, Kuznetsov YE, Ryan RW, Caramanos Z, Antel SB, Arnold DL, Preul MC: The metabolic epicenter of supratentorial gliomas: a 1H-MRSI study. Can J Neurol Sci; 2009 Nov;36(6):696-706
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  • [Title] The metabolic epicenter of supratentorial gliomas: a 1H-MRSI study.
  • BACKGROUND: Assessing the impact of glioma location on prognosis remains elusive.
  • We approached the problem using multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) to define a tumor "metabolic epicenter", and examined the relationship of metabolic epicenter location to survival and histopathological grade.
  • METHODS: We studied 54 consecutive patients with a supratentorial glioma (astrocytoma or oligodendroglioma, WHO grades II-IV).
  • The metabolic epicenter in each tumor was defined as the 1H-MRSI voxel containing maximum intra-tumoral choline on preoperative imaging.
  • Tumor location was considered the X-Y-Z coordinate position, in a standardized stereotactic space, of the metabolic epicenter.
  • Correlation between epicenter location and survival or grade was assessed.
  • RESULTS: Metabolic epicenter location correlated significantly with patient survival for all tumors (r2 = 0.30, p = 0.0002) and astrocytomas alone (r2 = 0.32, p = 0.005).
  • A predictive model based on both metabolic epicenter location and histopathological grade accounted for 70% of the variability in survival, substantially improving on histology alone to predict survival.
  • Location also correlated significantly with grade (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.001): higher grade tumors had a metabolic epicenter closer to the midpoint of the brain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The concept of the metabolic epicenter eliminates several problems related to existing methods of classifying glioma location.
  • The location of the metabolic epicenter is strongly correlated with overall survival and histopathological grade, suggesting that it reflects biological factors underlying glioma growth and malignant dedifferentiation.
  • These findings may be clinically relevant to predicting patterns of local glioma recurrence, and in planning resective surgery or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Supratentorial Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19960747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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71. Combs SE, Thilmann C, Edler L, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Efficacy of fractionated stereotactic reirradiation in recurrent gliomas: long-term results in 172 patients treated in a single institution. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8863-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of fractionated stereotactic reirradiation in recurrent gliomas: long-term results in 172 patients treated in a single institution.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) performed as reirradiation in 172 patients with recurrent low- and high-grade gliomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2004, 172 patients with recurrent gliomas were treated with FSRT as reirradiation in a single institution.
  • Seventy-one patients suffered from WHO grade 2 gliomas.
  • WHO grade 3 gliomas were diagnosed in 42 patients, and 59 patients were diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • The median time between primary radiotherapy and reirradiation was 10 months for GBM, 32 months for WHO grade 3 tumors, and 48 months for grade 2 astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: Median overall survival after primary diagnosis was 21 months for patients with GBM, 50 months for patients with WHO grade 3 gliomas, and 111 months for patients with WHO grade 2 gliomas.
  • Median survival after reirradiation was 8 months for patients with GBM, 16 months for patients with grade 3 tumors, and 22 months for patients with low-grade gliomas.
  • Progression-free survival after FSRT was 5 months for GBM, 8 months for WHO grade 3 tumors, and 12 months for low-grade gliomas.
  • CONCLUSION: FSRT is well tolerated and may be effective in patients with recurrent gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / classification. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16314646.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Gabilondo AM, Hostalot C, Garibi JM, Meana JJ, Callado LF: Monoamine oxidase B activity is increased in human gliomas. Neurochem Int; 2008 Jan;52(1-2):230-4
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  • [Title] Monoamine oxidase B activity is increased in human gliomas.
  • Glial tumours are the most common type of brain neoplasm in humans.
  • Tumour classification and grading represent key factors for patient management.
  • There were no significant differences in MAO-B activity between glioblastoma multiformes (n=11) and low-grade astrocytomas (n=3) or anaplastic astrocytomas (n=6).
  • In conclusion, the present results demonstrate a significant and selective increase in MAO-B activity in human gliomas when compared with meningiomas or non-tumoural tissue.
  • These results suggest that the quantification of MAO-B activity may be a useful diagnostic tool for differentiating glial tumours from other types of brain tumours or surrounding normal brain tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Glioma / enzymology. Monoamine Oxidase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17624626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0197-0186
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurochemistry international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochem. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.4.3.4 / Monoamine Oxidase
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73. Khwaja FW, Reed MS, Olson JJ, Schmotzer BJ, Gillespie GY, Guha A, Groves MD, Kesari S, Pohl J, Van Meir EG: Proteomic identification of biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of astrocytoma patients. J Proteome Res; 2007 Feb;6(2):559-70
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  • [Title] Proteomic identification of biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of astrocytoma patients.
  • The monitoring of changes in the protein composition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be used as a sensitive indicator of central nervous system (CNS) pathology, yet its systematic application to analysis of CNS neoplasia has been limited.
  • There is a pressing need for both a better understanding of gliomagenesis and the development of reliable biomarkers of the disease.
  • In this report, we used two proteomic techniques, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and cleavable Isotope-Coded Affinity Tag (cICAT) to compare CSF proteomes to identify tumor- and grade-specific biomarkers in patients bearing brain tumors of differing histologies and grades.
  • Retrospective analyses were performed on 60 samples derived from astrocytomas WHO grade II, III, and IV, schwannomas, metastastic brain tumors, inflammatory samples, and non-neoplastic controls.
  • We identified 103 potential tumor-specific markers of which 20 were high-grade astrocytoma-specific.
  • These investigations allowed us to identify a spectrum of signature proteins that could be used to distinguish CSF derived from control patients versus those with low- (AII) or high-grade (AIV) astrocytoma.
  • These proteins may represent new diagnostic, prognostic, and disease follow-up markers when used alone or in combination.
  • These candidate biomarkers may also have functional properties that play a critical role in the development and malignant progression of human astrocytomas, thus possibly representing novel therapeutic targets for this highly lethal disease.

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  • (PMID = 17269713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 02878; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA086335; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA086335-05; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000039; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 12878; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00039; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 13948; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86335
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Affinity Labels; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS61862; NLM/ PMC2566942
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74. Schwer AL, Damek DM, Kavanagh BD, Gaspar LE, Lillehei K, Stuhr K, Chen C: A phase I dose-escalation study of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in combination with gefitinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Mar 15;70(4):993-1001
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  • [Title] A phase I dose-escalation study of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery in combination with gefitinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with gefitinib in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • Eligible patients had pathologically proved recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma.
  • Patients started gefitinib (250 mg/day) 7 days before SRS and continued for 1 year or until disease progression.
  • Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was any Grade 3 toxicity.
  • Grade 1-2 gefitinib-related dermatitis and diarrhea were common (10 and 7 patients, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Fractionated SRS to a dose of 36 Gy in three fractions is well tolerated with gefitinib at daily dose of 250 mg.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Radiosurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Astrocytoma / therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Mental Status Schedule. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17967517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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75. Arjona D, Rey JA, Taylor SM: Early genetic changes involved in low-grade astrocytic tumor development. Curr Mol Med; 2006 Sep;6(6):645-50
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  • [Title] Early genetic changes involved in low-grade astrocytic tumor development.
  • Astrocytomas represent the most common form of glial tumors.
  • The most malignant grade of these tumors, glioblastoma multiforme, may arise as a malignant progression from low-grade astrocytoma through anaplastic astrocytoma to secondary GBM, or else it may arise "de novo" as primary GBM.
  • Since malignant transformation is a multistep process, we summarize in this review the earliest genetic changes that seem to be involved in the appearance and development of low-grade astrocytic tumors, where early detection and treatment could be possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Models, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17022734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1566-5240
  • [Journal-full-title] Current molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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76. Kaderali Z, Lamberti-Pasculli M, Rutka JT: The changing epidemiology of paediatric brain tumours: a review from the Hospital for Sick Children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jul;25(7):787-93
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  • METHODS: We classified 1,866 surgical pathology cases of brain tumours in children under the age of 19 according to the World Health Organization 2007 consensus and analysed them by gender, histological tumour type, age distribution and decade.
  • The main histological tumour types were low-grade (I/II) astrocytomas (26.4%), medulloblastoma (10.6%), anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma multiforme (7.1%) and ependymoma (7.0%).
  • Over three decades, an increasing proportion of certain tumour types, including pilocytic astrocytoma, atypical teratoma/rhabdoid tumours and neuronal/mixed neuronal-glial tumours was seen.
  • Any changes in the epidemiology of childhood central nervous system tumours over the past three decades may be attributed in part to changing classification systems, improved imaging technologies and developments in epilepsy surgery; however, continued surveillance remains important.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Canada / epidemiology. Child. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / epidemiology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Teratoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19082611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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77. Hulleman E, Helin K: Molecular mechanisms in gliomagenesis. Adv Cancer Res; 2005;94:1-27
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  • Glioma, and in particular high-grade astrocytoma termed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most common primary tumor of the brain.
  • Modeling of astrocytomas by genetic manipulation of mice suggests that deregulation of the pathways that control gliogenesis during normal brain development, such as the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into astrocytes, might contribute to GBM formation.
  • Use of novel techniques including large-scale genomics and proteomics in combination with relevant mouse models will most likely provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying glioma formation and will hopefully lead to development of treatment modalities for GBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glioma / classification. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16095998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 155
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78. Gil-Benso R, Lopez-Gines C, Benito R, López-Guerrero JA, Callaghan RC, Pellín A, Roldán P, Cerdá-Nicolas M: Concurrent EGFR amplification and TP-53 mutation in glioblastomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2007 Sep-Oct;26(5):224-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A genetic alteration that is significantly more frequent in primary than in secondary glioblastomas, the latter arising from preceding low-grade gliomas, is epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) amplification, whereas TP-53 mutations are significantly more frequent in low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas derived there- from.
  • We report the histological and genetic study of two glioblastomas, one case arising de novo and the other case arising 3 years after a previously diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma, with concurrent EGFR amplification and TP-53 mutation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation


79. Eoli M, Bissola L, Bruzzone MG, Pollo B, Maccagnano C, De Simone T, Valletta L, Silvani A, Bianchessi D, Broggi G, Boiardi A, Finocchiaro G: Reclassification of oligoastrocytomas by loss of heterozygosity studies. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jul 1;119(1):84-90
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  • Oligoastrocytomas (OAs) are WHO grade II or III tumors composed of a mixture of 2 neoplastic cell types morphologically resembling the cells in oligodendrogliomas and diffuse astrocytomas.
  • Investigations on the genetic profile of OAs may yield important information for their classification and help for their clinical management.
  • We have studied, in 94 OAs (46 WHO grade II and 48 WHO grade III), the patterns of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 4 genomic regions: 1p, 19q, 17p and 10q.
  • OAs without LOH on 1p behave like WHO grade II or III diffuse astrocytomas: they have shorter survival, MRI characteristics implying malignancy and genetic alterations associated with tumor progression.
  • OAs with LOH on 1p, on the other hand, behave like WHO grade II or III oligodendrogliomas with 1p loss: they are associated with longer survival and do not have MRI or genetic alterations associated with malignancy.
  • These findings suggest that the definition of OAs or mixed gliomas could be reshaped in agreement with the genetic information.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / classification. Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / classification. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis


80. Combs SE, Gutwein S, Thilmann C, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Reirradiation of recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Dec;181(12):768-73
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  • [Title] Reirradiation of recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas using fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT).
  • PURPOSE: To assess the effect of reirradiation in recurrent WHO grade III astrocytomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1995 to July 2003, 40 patients with grade III gliomas were treated with fractionated stereotactic reirradiation at the time point of recurrence.
  • RESULTS: Radiotherapy was well tolerated by all patients.
  • No toxicities > CTC grade 2 developed.
  • CONCLUSION: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with recurrent grade III astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiosurgery / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose Fractionation. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Assessment / methods. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16362786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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81. Nishikawa R, Shibui S, Maruno M, Sugiyama K, Sato S, Fujimaki T, Takahashi H, Wakabayashi T, Takahashi J, Kochi M, Nakamura H, Sawamura Y, Ikeda J, Hori T, Aoki T, Matsutani M: [Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with temozolomide in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma at first relapse--a phase II clinical study]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Sep;33(9):1279-85
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  • [Title] [Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with temozolomide in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma at first relapse--a phase II clinical study].
  • The efficacy and safety of temozolomide were evaluated in 32 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma at first relapse.
  • Temozolomide was administered orally once daily for the first five days of a 28-day cycle, at a dose of 150 or 200 mg/m(2)/day.
  • The response rate determined by independent central review of MRI was 34% (95% confidence interval: 18.6%-53.2%), with 3 complete response and 8 partial response.
  • The incidence of constipation (50%) and nausea (25%) was high,but these events were all mild or moderate in severity except in one subject with constipation,and could be managed with standard laxatives and antiemetics.
  • The main laboratory test abnormalities (total incidence and incidence of grade 3/4 change) were lymphocytopenia (50%, 25%), neutropenia (47%, 6%), leukopenia (38%, 3%), thrombocytopenia (31%, 9%), and increased GPT (25%, 3%).
  • Temozolomide was shown to have good efficacy and tolerability in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma at first relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anorexia / chemically induced. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16969025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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82. Beetz C, Brodoehl S, Patt S, Kalff R, Deufel T: Low expression but infrequent genomic loss of the putative tumour suppressor DBCCR1 in astrocytoma. Oncol Rep; 2005 Feb;13(2):335-40
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  • [Title] Low expression but infrequent genomic loss of the putative tumour suppressor DBCCR1 in astrocytoma.
  • The present study addressed expression of DBCCR1 in gliomas, specifically in astrocytomas, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR on 25 tumours of different malignancy grade and on 5 control brain tissue samples.
  • Genomic deletion of the DBCCR1 locus at 9q32-33 was also investigated, together with the CDKN2A locus at 9p21, by loss of heterozygosity analysis in a second series of 26 astrocytic tumours.
  • We found that DBCCR1 mRNA expression is markedly reduced in the majority of tumour samples compared to controls, and that this reduction significantly correlates with tumour grade.
  • Genomic loss of the DBCCR1 region was found in only 5 of 24 (21%) informative samples, with no obvious correlation to tumour grade, while loss of the CDKN2A locus was observed in 13 of 21 (62%) informative samples with high-grade tumours being affected more often.
  • In contrast to the situation in bladder cancer, the prevalent inactivation of DBCCR1 seen at the expression level in astrocytomas is not primarily caused by genomic loss of the gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15643521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DBC1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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83. Marcorelles P, Fallet-Bianco C, Oury JF, van Wallenghem E, Parent P, Labadie G, Lagarde N, Laquerrière A: Fetal aqueductal glioneuronal hamartoma: a clinicopathological and physiopathological study of three cases. Clin Neuropathol; 2005 Jul-Aug;24(4):155-62
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  • Histological examination evidenced a nodular, well-demarcated mass producing into the aqueductal lumen, and containing numerous immature proliferating glioneuronal cells.
  • Immunohistochemical analyses did not suggest a developmental abnormality of the subcommissural organ but rather a hamartomatous malformative process.
  • Post-natal cases have been described in the cerebello-pontine angle or in the quadrigeminal plate, and have always been diagnosed as pilocytic or low-grade astrocytomas.
  • In our cases, the lesions could be related to so-called pencil glioma, sometimes associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis and, to our knowledge, have never been described prior to birth.
  • The occurrence during fetal life and the progressive maturation of the nodules are more likely in favor of a hamartomatous process.
  • CONCLUSION: Even though they could sporadically occur, an accurate genetic counseling should be required in order to ensure that there is no familial history of Recklinghausen disease, and to provide a more precise evaluation of recurrence risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Aqueduct / pathology. Fetal Diseases / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Induced. Adult. Brain Diseases / pathology. Brain Diseases / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / pathology. Hydrocephalus / ultrasonography. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / pathology. Pregnancy. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 16033131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Edwards LA, Thiessen B, Dragowska WH, Daynard T, Bally MB, Dedhar S: Inhibition of ILK in PTEN-mutant human glioblastomas inhibits PKB/Akt activation, induces apoptosis, and delays tumor growth. Oncogene; 2005 May 19;24(22):3596-605
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  • [Title] Inhibition of ILK in PTEN-mutant human glioblastomas inhibits PKB/Akt activation, induces apoptosis, and delays tumor growth.
  • The tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) regulates the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas when mutational inactivation or loss of the PTEN gene occurs.
  • 5 mg/kg), exhibited stable disease with < or =7% increase in tumor volume over the 3-week course of treatment.
  • In contrast, animals treated with an oligonucleotide control or saline exhibited a >100% increase in tumor volume over the same time period.
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases. Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


85. Hu CH, Fang XM, Hu XY, Cui L: Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas. Clin Imaging; 2009 Nov-Dec;33(6):417-23
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  • [Title] Analysis of the mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV maps in cerebral astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the mismatched manifestation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) of astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Both conventional and perfusion CT were performed on 29 patients with pathologically confirmed astrocytomas (15 cases in Grades I-II, 14 cases in Grades III-IV).
  • RESULTS: Twelve low-grade astrocytomas showed low or medium values of both rCBF (46.95+/-22.92 ml 100 g(-1) mm(-1)) and rCBV (5.74+/-3.61 ml 100 g(-1)); 12 high-grade astrocytomas showed high values of both rCBF (95.44+/-42.58 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1)) and rCBV (9.24+/-5.32 ml 100g(-1)).
  • However, the remaining five astrocytomas were mismatched, showing reduced rCBF value and increased rCBV value in the same ROI.
  • The discrepancy may mislead to an inaccuracy of perfusion CT in grading gliomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mismatched manifestation between rCBF and rCBV occasionally exists in some areas of astrocytomas.
  • Hence, attention should be paid to assessments in preoperative grading of astrocytomas and in monitoring therapeutic effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19857800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Cao Y, Tsien CI, Nagesh V, Junck L, Ten Haken R, Ross BD, Chenevert TL, Lawrence TS: Survival prediction in high-grade gliomas by MRI perfusion before and during early stage of RT [corrected]. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Mar 01;64(3):876-85
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  • [Title] Survival prediction in high-grade gliomas by MRI perfusion before and during early stage of RT [corrected].
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow can predict the response of high-grade gliomas to radiotherapy (RT) by taking into account spatial heterogeneity and temporal changes in perfusion.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-three patients with high-grade gliomas underwent conformal RT, with magnetic resonance imaging perfusion before and at Weeks 1-2 and 3-4 during RT.
  • Tumor perfusion was classified as high, medium, or low.
  • The prognostic values of pre-RT perfusion and the changes during RT for early prediction of tumor response to RT were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The fractional high-CBV tumor volume before RT and the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging tumor volume were identified as predictors for survival (p = 0.01).
  • Changes in tumor CBV during the early treatment course also predicted for survival.
  • Better survival was predicted by a decrease in the fractional low-CBV tumor volume at Week 1 of RT vs. before RT, a decrease in the fractional high-CBV tumor volume at Week 3 vs. Week 1 of RT, and a smaller pre-RT fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging tumor volume (p = 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Early temporal changes during RT in heterogeneous regions of high and low perfusion in gliomas might predict for different physiologic responses to RT.
  • This might also open the opportunity to identify tumor subvolumes that are radioresistant and might benefit from intensified RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / blood supply. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Jul 1;65(3):960
  • (PMID = 16298499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113699; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA11369901; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA85878; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 PO1 CA59827
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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87. Petridis AK, Wedderkopp H, Hugo HH, Maximilian Mehdorn H: Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):601-3; discussion 603-4
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  • [Title] Polysialic acid overexpression in malignant astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Intra-operatively collected biopsies from 30 patients with different astrocytoma grades were immuno-histochemically examined to identify expression of PSA.
  • RESULTS: Astrocytoma grade I and II had 4% PSA expressing cells whereas in grade III and IV the number of PSA expressing cells was 45%.
  • CONCLUSION: In this short communication we show that highly malignant astrocytomas express significantly more PSA compared to less malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Sialic Acids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19387537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / UCC1 protein, human; 0 / polysialic acid
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88. Wolff JE, Berrak S, Koontz Webb SE, Zhang M: Nitrosourea efficacy in high-grade glioma: a survival gain analysis summarizing 504 cohorts with 24193 patients. J Neurooncol; 2008 May;88(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Nitrosourea efficacy in high-grade glioma: a survival gain analysis summarizing 504 cohorts with 24193 patients.
  • Even though past studies have suggested efficacy of nitrosourea drugs in patients with high-grade glioma and temozolomide has recently been shown significantly to be beneficial, no conclusive comparisons between these agents have been published.
  • We performed a survival gain analysis of 364 studies describing 24,193 patients with high-grade glioma treated in 504 cohorts, and compared the effects of drugs.
  • The most frequent diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (72%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (22%).
  • The outcome was influenced by several of the known prognostic factors including the histological grade, if the tumors were newly diagnosed or recurrent, the completeness of resection, patients' age, and gender.
  • This information allowed the calculation of a predicted mOS for each cohort based on their prognostic factors independent of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / pathology. Carmustine / adverse effects. Carmustine / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cohort Studies. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Databases, Factual. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Lomustine / adverse effects. Lomustine / therapeutic use. Male. Nimustine / adverse effects. Nimustine / therapeutic use. Reproducibility of Results. Selection Bias. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18253699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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89. Pirotte B, Goldman S, Van Bogaert P, David P, Wikler D, Rorive S, Brotchi J, Levivier M: Integration of [11C]methionine-positron emission tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging for image-guided surgical resection of infiltrative low-grade brain tumors in children. Neurosurgery; 2005 Jul;57(1 Suppl):128-39; discussion 128-39
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  • [Title] Integration of [11C]methionine-positron emission tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging for image-guided surgical resection of infiltrative low-grade brain tumors in children.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the interest of integrating positron emission tomography (PET) images with the radiolabeled tracer [(11)C]methionine (Met) into the image-guided navigation planning of infiltrative low-grade brain tumors (LGBTs) in children.
  • METHODS: Twenty-two children underwent combined Met-PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in the planning of a navigation procedure.
  • These children presented an LGBT (astrocytomas, 10; oligodendrogliomas, 4; ependymomas, 4; gangliogliomas, 4) located close to functional areas.
  • Tumor boundaries were ill-defined on MRI (including T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery scans) and could not be clearly identified for allowing a complete, or at least a large, image-guided resection.
  • The PET tracer Met was chosen because of its higher sensitivity and specificity than MRI to detect tumor tissue.
  • The quality of tumor resection was assessed by an early postoperative MRI and Met-PET workup.
  • RESULTS: In 20 of the 22 children with ill-defined LGBTs, PET improved tumor delineation and contributed to define a final target contour different from that obtained with MRI alone.
  • Met-PET guidance allowed a total resection of Met uptake in 17 cases that were considered total tumor resections because the operative margin left in place contained nontumor tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggested that Met-PET guidance could help to improve the number of total resections and the amount of tumor removed in infiltrative LGBTs in children.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiopharmaceuticals. Subtraction Technique. Systems Integration


90. Dixit VD, Weeraratna AT, Yang H, Bertak D, Cooper-Jenkins A, Riggins GJ, Eberhart CG, Taub DD: Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility. J Biol Chem; 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16681-90
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  • [Title] Ghrelin and the growth hormone secretagogue receptor constitute a novel autocrine pathway in astrocytoma motility.
  • Originally thought of as a stomach-derived endocrine peptide acting via its receptors in the central nervous system to stimulate food intake and growth hormone expression, ghrelin and its receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)) are widely expressed in a number of organ systems, including cancer cells.
  • However, the direct functional role of ghrelin and its receptor in tumors of central nervous system origin remains to be defined.
  • Here, we demonstrate that the human astrocytoma cell lines U-118, U-87, CCF-STTG1, and SW1088 express 6-, 11-, 15-, and 29-fold higher levels of GHS-R compared with primary normal human astrocytes.
  • The ligation of GHS-R by ghrelin on these cells resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium mobilization, protein kinase C activation, actin polymerization, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, and astrocytoma motility.
  • In addition, ghrelin led to actin polymerization and membrane ruffling on cells, with the specific co-localization of the small GTPase Rac1 with GHS-R on the leading edge of the astrocytoma cells and imparting the tumor cells with a motile phenotype.
  • Disruption of the endogenous ghrelin/GHS-R pathway by RNA interference resulted in diminished motility, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and Rac expression, whereas tumor cells stably overexpressing GHS-R exhibited increased cell motility.
  • The relevance of ghrelin and GHS-R expression was verified in clinically relevant tissues from 20 patients with oligodendrogliomas and grade II-IV astrocytomas.
  • Analysis of a central nervous system tumor tissue microarray revealed that strong GHS-R and ghrelin expression was significantly more common in high grade tumors compared with low grade ones.
  • Together, these findings suggest a novel role for the ghrelin/GHS-R axis in astrocytoma cell migration and invasiveness of cancers of central nervous system origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Peptide Hormones / physiology. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Central Nervous System / metabolism. Ghrelin. Humans. Models, Biological. Peptides. RNA Interference. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Receptors, Ghrelin

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  • (PMID = 16527811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AG000758-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS41150; NLM/ PMC2271047
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91. Kessler R, Bleichert F, Warnke JP, Eschrich K: 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB3) is up-regulated in high-grade astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2008 Feb;86(3):257-64
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  • [Title] 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB3) is up-regulated in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • We investigated the PFKFB3 expression in 40 human astrocytic gliomas and 20 non-neoplastic brain tissue specimens.
  • The PFKFB3 protein levels were markedly elevated in high-grade astrocytomas relative to low-grade astrocytomas and corresponding non-neoplastic brain tissue, whereas no significant increase of PFKFB3 mRNA was observed in high-grade astrocytomas when compared with control tissue.
  • The findings demonstrate that PFKFB3 up-regulation is a hallmark of high-grade astrocytomas offering an explanation for high glycolytic flux and lactate production in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Phosphofructokinase-2 / metabolism. Up-Regulation / physiology


92. Paolillo M, Barbieri A, Zanassi P, Schinelli S: Expression of endothelins and their receptors in glioblastoma cell lines. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):1-7
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  • In this study we have investigated the expression and the amounts of preproET-1, preproET-2, ETA and ETB receptors mRNA by classical RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR in one human low grade astrocytoma cell line and eight human glioblastoma cell lines.
  • Although the majority of glioblastoma cell lines in culture express ET isoforms and ET receptors, we conclude that ET-1 and the ETB receptors are likely to mediate the effects of the ET system in glioblastoma cell lines.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Phosphorylation. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16557350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Endothelin; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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93. MacDonald TJ, Pollack IF, Okada H, Bhattacharya S, Lyons-Weiler J: Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis. Methods Mol Biol; 2007;377:203-22
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  • [Title] Progression-associated genes in astrocytoma identified by novel microarray gene expression data reanalysis.
  • Astrocytoma is graded as pilocytic (WHO grade I), diffuse (WHO grade II), anaplastic (WHO grade III), and glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade IV).
  • The progression from low- to high-grade astrocytoma is associated with distinct molecular changes that vary with patient age, yet the prognosis of high-grade tumors in children and adults is equally dismal.
  • Whether specific gene expression changes are consistently associated with all high-grade astrocytomas, independent of patient age, is not known.
  • To address this question, we reanalyzed the microarray datasets comprising astrocytomas from children and adults, respectively.
  • We identified nine genes consistently dysregulated in high-grade tumors, using four novel tests for identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • Four genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPS2, RPS8, RPS18, RPL37A) were upregulated, and five genes (APOD, SORL1, SPOCK2, PRSS11, ID3) were downregulated in high-grade by all tests.
  • Expression results were validated using a third astrocytoma dataset.
  • APOD, the most differentially expressed gene, has been shown to inhibit tumor cell and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.
  • This suggests that dysregulation of APOD may be critical for malignant astrocytoma formation, and thus a possible novel universal target for therapeutic intervention.
  • Further investigation is needed to evaluate the role of APOD, as well as the other genes identified, in malignant astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Chromosomes, Human. Cluster Analysis. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Models, Genetic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17634619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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94. Zhang W, Zhao J, Guo D, Zhong W, Shu J, Luo Y: [Application of susceptibility weighted imaging in revealing intratumoral blood products and grading gliomas]. J Radiol; 2010 Apr;91(4):485-90
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  • [Title] [Application of susceptibility weighted imaging in revealing intratumoral blood products and grading gliomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Rôle de l'IRM de susceptibilité magnétique dans la mise en évidence de produits de dégradation de l'hémoglobine intratumoraux et dans la classification des gliomes.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate the application of SWI for revealing inratumoral blood products and diagnosing high-grade gliomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Conventional MR sequences and SWI were performed in 32 patients, 10 low-grade gliomas (1 grade I and 9 grade II) and 22 high-grade gliomas (8 grade III and 14 grade IV).
  • Logistic regression and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to evaluate the diagnostic value of SWI for high-grade gliomas.
  • No statistical difference was found in detection rate of blood products between low-grade and high-grade group.
  • According to the result of logistic regression, the frequency of blood products and the diameter of maximum blood products were significant determinants of high-grade gliomas.
  • The result of ROC analysis indicated that with an optimal cut-off point (0.67), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosing high-grade gliomas with blood products detected by SWI were 81.8%, 80.0%, 90.0%, and 66.6%, respectively.
  • With a high-grade gliomas risk estimation model based on two variables, satisfied sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were obtained.
  • Thus, SWI could be a useful adjunct sequence in glioma grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Proteins / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / pathology. Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20514004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins
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95. Bodey B, Kaiser HE, Siegel SE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in childhood brain tumors. In Vivo; 2005 Sep-Oct;19(5):931-41
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  • The results demonstrated the presence of c-erbB-2 (HER-2) and c-erbB-4 (HER-4) in 10 to 50% of the neoplastic cells of high-grade glial tumors with high immunoreactivity, while c-erbB-3 (HER-3) was only detected in less than 10% of the neoplastically-transformed cells.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor that occurs during childhood.
  • Multimodality treatment regimens have substantially improved survival in this disease; however, the tumor is incurable in about one-third of patients with medulloblastoma, and the current treatment has a detrimental effect on long-term survivors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Antigens / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-3 / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-4


96. Nabika S, Kiya K, Satoh H, Mizoue T, Kondo H, Katagiri M, Nishisaka T, Sugiyama K, Kurisu K: Prognostic significance of expression patterns of EGFR family, p21 and p27 in high-grade astrocytoma. Hiroshima J Med Sci; 2010 Dec;59(4):65-70
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of expression patterns of EGFR family, p21 and p27 in high-grade astrocytoma.
  • The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship among immunohistochemical expression of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) family proteins, p21, p27 and prognosis in patients with high-grade astrocytoma.
  • Expression of EGFR family proteins (c-erbB-1, c-erbB-2, c-erbB-3, c-erbB-4), p21 and p27 and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were studied in 59 samples of high-grade astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis

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  • (PMID = 21361082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-2052
  • [Journal-full-title] Hiroshima journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hiroshima J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
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97. Schittenhelm J, Psaras T: Glioblastoma with granular cell astrocytoma features: a case report and literature review. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Sep-Oct;29(5):323-9
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  • [Title] Glioblastoma with granular cell astrocytoma features: a case report and literature review.
  • We present the case of a 69-year old patient with a contrast enhancing, partially cystic lesion of the right temporal lobe, involving the ventricle and extending into the occipital lobe.
  • The resected tumor showed histological features of a glioblastoma with granular cell astrocytoma features, lacking amplification of the EGFR gene region and IDH1R132H mutation.
  • Literature review of 59 cases showed a 12-month overall survival of 11.7% for high-grade and 40% for low-grade granular cell astrocytomas.
  • In 35% more than one cerebral lobe was affected.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology


98. Nowak S, Zukiel R, Barciszewska AM, Barciszewski J: The diagnosis and therapy of brain tumours. Folia Neuropathol; 2005;43(3):193-6
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  • The clinical outcome, especially the survival rates of the patients with brain tumours depend on tumour grade expressing its malignancy.
  • A prognosis for glioblastomas (WHO IV) is very poor, but for astrocytomas (WHO I and II) it is relatively favourable.
  • There is evidence that oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial in the etiology and progression of a number of human diseases, including neoplasms.
  • In addition to all four basic nucleotides: adenosine (A), guanosine (G), tymidine (T) and cytosine (C), 5-methylcytosine (m5C) is a rare but normal component of cellular DNA and occurs mainly within a sequence of a structural gene or in regulatory regions.
  • Because thymine is a normal DNA base, therefore the product of spontaneous deamination of m5C is not so easily detected by cell's DNA repair system.
  • Thus, 5-methylcytosine residue constitutes a mutational hotspot and DNA methylation pattern in patients might be useful as a primary diagnostic tool or as a marker for early detection of relapse of the disease.
  • The high sequence-specificity of RNAi makes it a new, promising tool in a gene-function analysis as well as in potential therapeutics development.

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  • (PMID = 16245217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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99. Mawrin C, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Mawrin A, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Mawrin A, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Mawrin A, Kirches E, Schneider-Stock R, Boltze C, Vorwerk CK, von Deimling A, Stoltenburg-Didinge G, Bornemann A, Romeike B, Sellhaus B, Dietzmann K: Alterations of cell cycle regulators in gliomatosis cerebri. J Neurooncol; 2005 Apr;72(2):115-22
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  • Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is regarded as a rare glial neoplasm of unknown origin, and a detailed analysis of molecular alterations underlying this disease has started only recently.
  • However, because GC characteristically affects large parts of the brain and spinal cord, the distribution of genetic alterations may be highly variable between different tumor areas.
  • Additionally, tumor areas with varying degrees of differentiation may be present, raising the possibility to model the genetic events associated with astrocytoma progression.
  • Here we analyzed various tumor regions with features of low-grade and high-grade astrocytomas from 9 autopsy-proven GC cases for the immunoexpression of the cell cycle-controlling proteins mdm2, p21, p27/kip1, p16, and Rb.
  • Furthermore, allelic losses of the CDKN2A gene and of a PTEN flanking region of chromosome 10 were determined.
  • We detected tumor regions with immunoexpression of p21 only rarely in our series, without association to the tumor grade.
  • The expression of p27(kip1) showed a clear reduction with increasing astrocytoma malignancy in 7 cases.
  • Allelic loss of the CDKN2A gene occurred in 5 patients but was not related to the tumor grading, nor to the intensity of p16 immunoexpression.
  • EGFR amplification was also absent in our series, but one case demonstrated EGFR expression only in the high-grade tumor area.
  • Allelic losses on chromosome 10 were found in one out of six informative cases.
  • However, marked differences in the immunoexpression, as well as in the distribution of genetic aberrations were seen between different tumor samples within a given case.
  • The distribution of the alterations suggests that these molecular genetic changes represent secondary events, which may develop within tumor clones derived from a common founder tumor clone characterized by extraordinary spreading through the brain.
  • Moreover, the detected aberrations in gliomatosis cerebri can reflect the tumor progression associated with secondary malignant astrocytoma formation even within a single case.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / genetics. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology


100. Essig M, Giesel F, Stieltjes B, Weber MA: [Functional imaging for brain tumors (perfusion, DTI and MR spectroscopy)]. Radiologe; 2007 Jun;47(6):513-9
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  • In cases of brain tumor, PWI aids in grading and better differentiation in diagnostics as well as for pre-therapeutic planning.
  • In addition, the course of treatment, both after chemo- as well as radiotherapy in combination with surgical treatment, can be optimized.
  • PWI allows better estimates of biological activity and aggressiveness in low grade brain tumors, and in the case of WHO grade II astrocytoma showing anaplasically transformed tumor areas, allows more rapid visu-alization and a better prediction of the course of the disease than conventional MRI diagnostics.
  • Diffusion MRI, due to the directional dependence of the diffusion, can illustrate the course and direction of the nerve fibers, as well as reconstructing the nerve tracts in the cerebrum, pons and cerebellum 3-dimensionally.
  • Diffusion imaging can be used for describing brain tumors, for evaluating contralateral involvement and the course of the nerve fibers near the tumor.
  • DWI can also not differentiate accurately between cystic and necrotic brain tumors, or between metastases and brain abscesses.
  • Diagnostic problems such as the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, grading cerebral glioma and distinguishing between primary brain tumors and metastases can be resolved.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods

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