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1. Haapasalo J, Hilvo M, Nordfors K, Haapasalo H, Parkkila S, Hyrskyluoto A, Rantala I, Waheed A, Sly WS, Pastorekova S, Pastorek J, Parkkila AK: Identification of an alternatively spliced isoform of carbonic anhydrase XII in diffusely infiltrating astrocytic gliomas. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Apr;10(2):131-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of an alternatively spliced isoform of carbonic anhydrase XII in diffusely infiltrating astrocytic gliomas.
  • CA XII has been proposed to be involved in acidification of the extracellular milieu, creating an appropriate microenvironment for rapid tumor growth.
  • Because RNA sequence databases have indicated that two isoforms of CA XII might exist in human tissues, and because alternatively spliced protein forms have been linked to aggressive behavior of cancer cells, we designed a study to evaluate the presence of the two forms of CA XII in diffuse astrocytomas, a tumor type known for its aggressive and often noncurable behavior.
  • Reverse transcription PCR of tumor samples surprisingly revealed that CA XII present in diffuse astrocytomas is mainly encoded by a shorter mRNA variant.
  • Of 370 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas, 363 cases (98%) showed immunoreactions for CA XII.
  • From these results, we conclude that CA XII is commonly expressed in diffuse astrocytomas and that it might be used as a biomarker of poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Carbonic Anhydrases / genetics. Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alternative Splicing. Amino Acid Sequence. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Isoenzymes / chemistry. Isoenzymes / genetics. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18322268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA13 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613815
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2. El Andaloussi A, Lesniak MS: An increase in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human glioblastoma multiforme. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Jul;8(3):234-43
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  • [Title] An increase in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human glioblastoma multiforme.
  • These cells play a crucial role in the control of tumor immune response.
  • In this study, we evaluated the distribution of Tr cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human glioblastoma multiforme and examined the difference between the brain and autologous blood with respect to Tr cells.
  • Glioma samples from 10 patients were classified as WHO grade IV astrocytoma.
  • There was a significant difference in the number of FOXP3-expressing CD4+CD25+ T cells within glioma-infiltrating lymphocytes as compared to controls (P < 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / blood. Glioblastoma / blood. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / blood. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD4 / blood. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16723631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871953
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3. Rodriguez FJ, Giannini C, Asmann YW, Sharma MK, Perry A, Tibbetts KM, Jenkins RB, Scheithauer BW, Anant S, Jenkins S, Eberhart CG, Sarkaria JN, Gutmann DH: Gene expression profiling of NF-1-associated and sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma identifies aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) as an underexpressed candidate biomarker in aggressive subtypes. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Dec;67(12):1194-204
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of NF-1-associated and sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma identifies aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member L1 (ALDH1L1) as an underexpressed candidate biomarker in aggressive subtypes.
  • Furthermore, in an additional independent set of tumors, weak to absent ALDH1L1 expression was found in 13 (72%) of 18 clinically aggressive PAs, in 8 (89%) of 9 PAs with pilomyxoid features, in 7 (70%) of 10 PAs with anaplastic transformation, and in 16 (76%) of 21 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas of various grades.

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  • (PMID = 19018242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA108961; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS007494-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07494-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase; EC 1.5.1.6 / ALDH1L1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS87254; NLM/ PMC2730602
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4. Talos IF, Zou KH, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA: Volumetric assessment of tumor infiltration of adjacent white matter based on anatomic MRI and diffusion tensor tractography. Acad Radiol; 2007 Apr;14(4):431-6
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  • [Title] Volumetric assessment of tumor infiltration of adjacent white matter based on anatomic MRI and diffusion tensor tractography.
  • We hypothesized that white matter infiltration may be common among different types of tumor.
  • A second segmentation and volume measurement was performed on the tumor regions intersecting adjacent white matter fiber tracts.
  • Statistical methods included summary statistics to examine the fraction of tumor volume infiltrating adjacent white matter.
  • RESULTS: There were five patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma (WHO Grade II), one with low-grade mixed oligoastrocytoma (WHO Grade II), one with ganglioglioma, two with low-grade astrocytoma (WHO Grade II), and three with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III).
  • We identified white matter tracts infiltrated by tumor in all 12 cases.
  • The median tumor volume (+/- standard deviation) in our patient population was 42.5 +/- 28.9 mL.
  • The median tumor volume (+/- standard deviation) infiltrating white matter fiber tracts was 5.2 +/- 9.9 mL.
  • The median percentage of tumor volume infiltrating white matter fiber tracts was 21.4% +/- 9.7%.
  • However, prospective, large population studies are required to definitively clarify this issue, and how infiltration relates to histologic tumor type, tumor size, and location.

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  • (PMID = 17368212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-098542; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM074068; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703-03S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / P41 EB015898; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / R01 LM007861; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR019703-03S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-108434; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-098542; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA067165; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-108434
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS21072; NLM/ PMC2397554
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5. Matsutani T, Nagai Y, Mine S, Murai H, Saeki N, Iwadate Y: Akt/protein kinase B overexpression as an accurate prognostic marker in adult diffuse astrocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Mar;151(3):263-8; discussion 268
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Akt/protein kinase B overexpression as an accurate prognostic marker in adult diffuse astrocytoma.
  • In an attempt to find a novel prognostic marker of diffuse astrocytoma, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of Akt/PKB with regard to patient survival and regrowth patterns.
  • METHODS: Twenty-four adult patients with diffuse astrocytoma were similarly managed without early post-operative radiotherapy and followed up for a median period of 7.5 years.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that Akt/PKB overexpression would be suggestive of malignant progression and invasive regrowth of diffuse astrocytoma, and it can serve as a novel prognostic marker for this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / enzymology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / analysis. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism


6. Haapasalo JA, Nordfors KM, Hilvo M, Rantala IJ, Soini Y, Parkkila AK, Pastoreková S, Pastorek J, Parkkila SM, Haapasalo HK: Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in astrocytic tumors predicts poor prognosis. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;12(2):473-7
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  • [Title] Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX in astrocytic tumors predicts poor prognosis.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We describe CA IX expression in human diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • The CA IX immunoreactivity showed strong association with tumor malignancy grades (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: CA IX expression is common in diffusely infiltrating high-grade astrocytomas.
  • Our results suggest that CA IX is a useful biomarker for predicting poor prognosis of astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / enzymology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16428489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
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7. Cha S, Tihan T, Crawford F, Fischbein NJ, Chang S, Bollen A, Nelson SJ, Prados M, Berger MS, Dillon WP: Differentiation of low-grade oligodendrogliomas from low-grade astrocytomas by using quantitative blood-volume measurements derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2005 Feb;26(2):266-73
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histopathologic evaluation remains the reference standard for diagnosis of glioma and classification of histologic subtypes, but is challenged by subjective criteria, tissue sampling error, and lack of specific tumor markers.
  • The purpose of our study was to investigate dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MR imaging characteristics of the two most common subtypes of low-grade infiltrating glioma: astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma.
  • We hypothesized that tumor blood-volume measurements, derived from DSC MR imaging, would help differentiate the two on the basis of differences in tumor vascularity.
  • METHODS: We studied 25 consecutive patients with treatment-naive, histopathologically confirmed World Health Organization grade II astrocytoma (n = 11) or oligodendroglioma (n = 14).
  • RESULTS: The maximum relative CBV (rCBV(max)) in tumor ranged from 0.48 to 1.34 (0.92 +/- 0.27, median +/- SD) in astrocytomas and from 1.29 to 9.24 (3.68 +/- 2.39) in oligodendrogliomas.
  • The difference in median rCBV(max) between the two tumor types was significant (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSION: The tumor rCBV(max) measurements derived from DSC MR imaging were significantly higher in low-grade oligodendrogliomas than in astrocytomas.
  • Our findings suggest that tumor rCBV(max) derived from DSC MR imaging can be used to distinguish between the two low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Volume. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15709123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K23 NS 45013
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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8. Santosh V, Arivazhagan A, Sreekanthreddy P, Srinivasan H, Thota B, Srividya MR, Vrinda M, Sridevi S, Shailaja BC, Samuel C, Prasanna KV, Thennarasu K, Balasubramaniam A, Chandramouli BA, Hegde AS, Somasundaram K, Kondaiah P, Rao MR: Grade-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins-2, -3, and -5 in astrocytomas: IGFBP-3 emerges as a strong predictor of survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010 Jun;19(6):1399-408
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  • In view of this, we evaluated the expression of IGFBP isoforms (IGFBP-2, -3, and -5) during malignant progression of astrocytoma and their prognostic significance in glioblastoma.
  • METHODS: The expression of IGFBP isoforms was analyzed in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas by real-time quantitative PCR (n = 203) and immunohistochemistry (n = 256).
  • Survival analyses were done on a uniformly treated, prospective cohort of adult patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (n = 136) by using Cox regression models.
  • RESULTS: The mean transcript levels of IGFBP-2 and -3 were significantly higher in glioblastomas (GBM) relative to anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), diffuse astrocytoma (DA), and controls whereas IGFBP-5 mRNA was higher in GBM relative to AA and controls (P < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / biosynthesis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5 / biosynthesis. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20501753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGFBP3 protein, human; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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9. Shimizu H, Mori O, Ohaki Y, Kamoi S, Kobayashi S, Okada S, Maeda S, Naito Z: Cytological interface of diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma and its marginal tissue. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2005;22(2):59-74
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  • [Title] Cytological interface of diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma and its marginal tissue.
  • Cytological differences between infiltrating lesions of the diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma (DIA) and reactive gliosis at its periphery have not yet been established.
  • Third, the cytology of the infiltrating DIA was assessed together with brain parenchymal elements.
  • The cytological findings of this area are important because the surgeon may have to make a rapid diagnosis regarding the existence of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Gliosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytes / ultrastructure. Axons / ultrastructure. Biopsy. Carcinoma / secondary. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Myelin Sheath / ultrastructure. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neurons / ultrastructure. Oligodendroglia / ultrastructure. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 18095107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Wang M, Tihan T, Rojiani AM, Bodhireddy SR, Prayson RA, Iacuone JJ, Alles AJ, Donahue DJ, Hessler RB, Kim JH, Haas M, Rosenblum MK, Burger PC: Monomorphous angiocentric glioma: a distinctive epileptogenic neoplasm with features of infiltrating astrocytoma and ependymoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2005 Oct;64(10):875-81
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  • [Title] Monomorphous angiocentric glioma: a distinctive epileptogenic neoplasm with features of infiltrating astrocytoma and ependymoma.
  • We present 8 examples of a neoplasm with features of both astrocytoma and ependymoma that may represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Epilepsy / etiology. Glioma / complications. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Mucin-1 / metabolism


11. Barbosa KC, Oba-Shinjo SM, Uno M, Carvalho PO, Rosemberg S, Aguiar PH, Carlotti CG, Malheiros SM, Toledo S, Lotufo P, Marie SK: Association of EGFR c.2073A&gt;T polymorphism with decreased risk of diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma in a Brazilian case-control study. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jul-Sep;23(3):140-6
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  • [Title] Association of EGFR c.2073A>T polymorphism with decreased risk of diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma in a Brazilian case-control study.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene overexpression has been implicated in the development of many types of tumors, including glioblastomas, the most frequent diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • This study aimed to examine the association of two EGFR promoter polymorphisms (c.-191C>A and c.-216G>T) and the c.2073A>T polymorphism located in exon 16 with susceptibility to astrocytomas, EGFR gene expression and survival in a case-control study of 193 astrocytoma patients and 200 cancer-free controls.
  • We found that the variant TT genotype of the EGFR c.2073A>T polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of astrocytoma when compared with the AA genotype [sex- and age-adjusted odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.98].
  • Our findings suggest that modulation of the EGFR c.2073A>T polymorphism could play a role in future therapeutic approaches to astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alleles. Brazil. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18949739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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12. Liu X, Chen N, Wang X, He Y, Chen X, Huang Y, Yin W, Zhou Q: Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Sep;65(9):905-13
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  • [Title] Apoptosis and proliferation markers in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas: profiling of 17 molecules.
  • We examined the expression profile of the caspases (CASP3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14), APAF1, SMAC, BCL2, the IAPs (BIRC5/survivin, CIAP1, CIAP2, XIAP, and LIVIN), and the proliferation markers Ki67 and PHH3 in 78 diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and 24 normal brain samples by immunohistochemistry.
  • Expression level of other apoptosis-related proteins was modest or low in astrocytomas and did not correlate significantly with tumor grade or proliferation.
  • This expression profile suggested involvement of apoptosis regulators in astrocytoma tumorigenesis, but tumor progression was more closely associated with proliferative advantages of which BIRC5 nuclear expression appeared to be a manifestation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 16957584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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13. Horger M, Fenchel M, Nägele T, Moehle R, Claussen CD, Beschorner R, Ernemann U: Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Nov;193(5):1384-7
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  • [Title] Water diffusivity: comparison of primary CNS lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphoma and astrocytic tumor infiltrating the corpus callosum can be reliably differentiated with measurement of water diffusivity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR images of 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme, five patients with low-grade astrocytoma, five patients with gliomatosis cerebri, and nine patients with primary lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Regions of interest were drawn on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps inside the callosal tumor.
  • ADCs were normalized by calculation of the ratio between the ADC of the tumor and the ADC of an uninvolved region of corpus callosum.
  • RESULTS: The mean ADC of glioblastoma multiforme was 1.13 +/- 0.31 (SD) x 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.51 +/- 0.46; of low-grade astrocytoma, 1.14 +/- 0.23 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.54 +/- 0.28; gliomatosis cerebri, 1.01 +/- 0.20 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 1.31 +/- 0.36; and lymphoma, 0.71 +/- 0.13 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s and 0.93 +/- 0.19.
  • The difference between the mean tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio of lymphoma and that of all grades of astrocytoma (1.48 +/- 0.43) was statistically significant (p < 0.001).
  • The optimal ADC threshold for discriminating astrocytic tumor and lymphoma was 0.90 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 89%).
  • The optimal threshold for tumor to corpus callosum ADC ratio was 1.22 (sensitivity, 73%; specificity, 100%).
  • CONCLUSION: The water diffusivity and the ADC ratio of the tumor to normal-appearing corpus callosum of astrocytic tumor differ significantly from those of lymphoma infiltrating the corpus callosum, allowing reliable differentiation of the two types of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Glioblastoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Water / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. ROC Curve. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19843757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water
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14. Momota H, Narita Y, Matsushita Y, Miyakita Y, Shibui S: p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Oct;27(2):95-101
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  • [Title] p53 abnormality and tumor invasion in patients with malignant astrocytoma.
  • Malignant astrocytomas are characterized by diffusely infiltrating nature, and the abnormality of p53 is a cytogenetic hallmark of astrocytic tumors.
  • To elucidate the relationship between p53 abnormality and invasiveness of the tumors, we studied mutation and protein expression of p53 in 48 consecutive patients with malignant astrocytoma (14 anaplastic astrocytomas and 34 glioblastoma multiformes).
  • The tumors were classified into three categories according to the features of magnetic resonance imaging, and 5, 7, and 36 tumors were classified into diffuse, multiple, and single type, respectively.
  • We then examined how these tumor types correlate with MIB-1 staining index, TP53 gene mutation, and p53 protein expression.
  • We found that p53 immunopositivity or TP53 mutation was frequently observed in diffuse and multiple types.
  • Furthermore, diffuse- and multiple-type tumors were significantly correlated with poor progression-free survival, whereas only multiple-type tumors were significantly correlated with poor overall survival.
  • As diffuse and multiple features on imaging modalities represent invasive characteristics of the tumors, p53 abnormalities may affect the invasive and aggressive nature of malignant astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genes, p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Survival Analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21046311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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15. Mott RT, Turner KC, Bigner DD, McLendon RE: Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):330-5
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  • [Title] Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation.
  • OBJECT: Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • Given the important roles for EGFR and PTEN in the malignant progression of astrocytomas, the authors hypothesized that the fraction of tumor cells with aberrations in these genetic loci would correlate with the histological grade.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated 217 consecutive diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas that were graded using the WHO guidelines, including 16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO Grade II), 72 anaplastic astrocytomas ([AAs] WHO Grade III), and 129 glioblastomas multiforme ([GBMs] WHO Grade IV).
  • RESULTS: The population of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus correlated significantly with histological grade.
  • In particular, high-grade astrocytomas (that is, AAs and GBMs) had elevated fractions of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus.
  • The successful model incorporated only the percentage of tumor cells with polysomy of EGFR and monosomy of PTEN, as well as patient age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in this study emphasize the utility of combining histological interpretation and molecular testing in the evaluation of infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Genes, erbB-1 / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aneuploidy. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Disease Progression. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Monosomy / genetics. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18240930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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16. Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Yokoyama T, Watanabe T, Ogino A, Ota T, Komine C, Fukushima T, Kusama K: Therapeutic implications of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 and IRF-2 in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (DIA): response to interferon (IFN)-beta in glioblastoma cells and prognostic value for DIA. J Neurooncol; 2005 Sep;74(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Therapeutic implications of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 and IRF-2 in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (DIA): response to interferon (IFN)-beta in glioblastoma cells and prognostic value for DIA.
  • Furthermore, we attempted to determine whether or not IRF-1 and IRF-2 act as additional prognostic indicators in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas (DIA).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / metabolism. Interferon Regulatory Factor-2 / metabolism. Interferon-beta / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / physiology. Blotting, Western. Caspases / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptors, Interferon / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16187022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-2; 0 / Receptors, Interferon; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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17. Colman H, Giannini C, Huang L, Gonzalez J, Hess K, Bruner J, Fuller G, Langford L, Pelloski C, Aaron J, Burger P, Aldape K: Assessment and prognostic significance of mitotic index using the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 in low and intermediate-grade infiltrating astrocytomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 May;30(5):657-64
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  • [Title] Assessment and prognostic significance of mitotic index using the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 in low and intermediate-grade infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • Distinguishing between grade II and grade III diffuse astrocytomas is important both for prognosis and for treatment decision-making.
  • We tested the relationship between pHH3 staining and tumor grade and prognosis in a retrospective series of grade II and III infiltrating astrocytomas from a single institution.
  • The pHH3 index (per 1000 cells), MIB-1 index (per 1000 cells), and number of mitoses per 10 high-power fields were determined for each of 103 cases of grade II and III diffuse astrocytomas from patients with clinical follow-up. pHH3 staining was found to be a simple and reliable method for identifying mitotic figures, allowing a true mitotic index to be determined.
  • Thus, pHH3 staining provides a simple and reliable method for quantifying proliferative potential and for the stratification of patients with diffuse astrocytomas into typical grade II and III groups.
  • These results also suggest that pHH3 staining may be a useful method in other neoplasms in which accurate determination of proliferation potential is relevant to tumor grading or clinical treatment decision-making.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Histones / metabolism. Mitotic Index
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16699322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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18. McGirt MJ, Chaichana KL, Attenello FJ, Weingart JD, Than K, Burger PC, Olivi A, Brem H, Quinoñes-Hinojosa A: Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas. Neurosurgery; 2008 Oct;63(4):700-7; author reply 707-8
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  • [Title] Extent of surgical resection is independently associated with survival in patients with hemispheric infiltrating low-grade gliomas.
  • After GTR, NTR, and STR, median time to tumor progression was 7.0, 4.0, and 3.5 years, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: GTR was associated with a delay in tumor progression and malignant degeneration as well as improved OS independent of age, degree of disability, histological subtype, or revision versus primary resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neurosurgical Procedures. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18981880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Mittelbronn M, Simon P, Löffler C, Capper D, Bunz B, Harter P, Schlaszus H, Schleich A, Tabatabai G, Goeppert B, Meyermann R, Weller M, Wischhusen J: Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells. J Neuroimmunol; 2007 Sep;189(1-2):50-8
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  • [Title] Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells.
  • To investigate HLA-E expression and immune cell infiltration in human astrocytic tumors in vivo, we analyzed normal CNS controls and astrocytomas of all WHO grades by immunohistochemistry.
  • Both, CD8(+) immune cell infiltration and HLA-E expression were significantly higher in astrocytic tumors than in normal brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. HLA Antigens / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17675252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-E antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
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20. Capper D, Weissert S, Balss J, Habel A, Meyer J, Jäger D, Ackermann U, Tessmer C, Korshunov A, Zentgraf H, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Characterization of R132H mutation-specific IDH1 antibody binding in brain tumors. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):245-54
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  • Intriguing is the ability of mIDH1R132H to detect single infiltrating tumor cells.
  • The very high frequency and the distribution of this mutation among specific brain tumor entities allow the highly sensitive and specific discrimination of various tumors by immunohistochemistry, such as anaplastic astrocytoma from primary glioblastoma or diffuse astrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grade II from pilocytic astrocytoma or ependymoma.
  • Noteworthy is the discrimination of the infiltrating edge of tumors with IDH1 mutation from reactive gliosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Protein Biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19903171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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21. El Andaloussi A, Lesniak MS: CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T-cell infiltration and heme oxygenase-1 expression correlate with tumor grade in human gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Jun;83(2):145-52
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  • [Title] CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T-cell infiltration and heme oxygenase-1 expression correlate with tumor grade in human gliomas.
  • In this study, we investigated the correlation between FoxP3 and HO-1 expression in patients with various grades of astrocytoma (WHO grade II-IV).
  • Using qualitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative flow cytometry analyses, we analyzed FoxP3 and HO-1 expression in 19 patients with different grades of astrocytoma.
  • Tumor infiltrating Treg stained positively with anti-HO-1 antibody.
  • This study also suggests that HO-1 mRNA expression is linked to the induction of Foxp3 in CD4+ CD25+ glioma infiltrating Treg.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Glioblastoma / immunology. Heme Oxygenase-1 / metabolism. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD4 / metabolism. Child, Preschool. Female. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / immunology. Humans. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17216339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / FOXP3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1
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22. Utsuki S, Oka H, Sato S, Suzuki S, Shimizu S, Tanaka S, Fujii K: Possibility of using laser spectroscopy for the intraoperative detection of nonfluorescing brain tumors and the boundaries of brain tumor infiltrates. Technical note. J Neurosurg; 2006 Apr;104(4):618-20
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  • [Title] Possibility of using laser spectroscopy for the intraoperative detection of nonfluorescing brain tumors and the boundaries of brain tumor infiltrates. Technical note.
  • The response of nonfluorescing infiltrating tumors that had been exposed to 5-aminolevulinic acid and irradiated using a laser at a wavelength of 405 nm was analyzed intraoperatively using spectroscopy.
  • The authors conclude that the intraoperative use of laser spectroscopy can allow the diagnosis of infiltrating tumor and the detection of boundaries of the infiltrate when standard fluorescence techniques fail.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Lasers. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Photosensitizing Agents. Point-of-Care Systems. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16619668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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23. Takaya S, Hashikawa K, Turkheimer FE, Mottram N, Deprez M, Ishizu K, Kawashima H, Akiyama H, Fukuyama H, Banati RB, Roncaroli F: The lack of expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor characterises microglial response in anaplastic astrocytomas. J Neurooncol; 2007 Oct;85(1):95-103
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  • This molecule is commonly up-regulated in inflammatory, degenerative, infective and ischaemic lesions of the central nervous system but it has never been reported in glioma-infiltrating microglia.
  • Glioma-infiltrating microglia were characterised for molecules involved in antigen presentation and cytotoxic activity.
  • Pathological investigation revealed that glioma-infiltrating microglia failed to express PBR and cytotoxic molecules although some cells still expressed antigen presenting molecules.
  • Our results demonstrated PBR suppression in glioma-infiltrating microglia and suggested that PBR may have a relevant role in modulating the anti-tumour inflammatory response in astrocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Microglia / metabolism. Microglia / pathology. Receptors, GABA-A / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Isoquinolines. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Sclerosis / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Parkinson Disease / pathology. Peripheral Nerves / metabolism. Positron-Emission Tomography. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17520179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U120085814
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, GABA-A; YNF83VN1RL / PK 11195
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24. Li G, Hu YS, Li XG, Zhang QL, Wang DH, Gong SF: Expression and switching of TH1/TH2 type cytokines gene in human gliomas. Chin Med Sci J; 2005 Dec;20(4):268-72
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  • The gene expressions of Thl/Th2 cytokines in human glioma cells, glioma infiltrating lymphocytes, and glioma cell lines were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • The total positive rates of Th1 and Th2 type cytokines gene in glioma infiltrating lymphocytes were 22.73% and 68.17%.
  • There was obviously predominant expression of Th2 type cytokines in human glioma tissues, glioma infiltrating lymphocytes, and glioma cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 16422258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukin-6; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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25. Di Costanzo A, Pollice S, Trojsi F, Giannatempo GM, Popolizio T, Canalis L, Armillotta M, Maggialetti A, Carriero A, Tedeschi G, Scarabino T: Role of perfusion-weighted imaging at 3 Tesla in the assessment of malignancy of cerebral gliomas. Radiol Med; 2008 Feb;113(1):134-43
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  • CONCLUSIONS: Three-Tesla PWI helps to distinguish necrosis from tumour mass, infiltrating tumour from oedema and high-grade from low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Blood Volume / physiology. Brain Edema / diagnosis. Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Echo-Planar Imaging / methods. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18338133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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26. Yu JM, Jun ES, Jung JS, Suh SY, Han JY, Kim JY, Kim KW, Jung JS: Role of Wnt5a in the proliferation of human glioblastoma cells. Cancer Lett; 2007 Nov 18;257(2):172-81
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  • Wnt5a operates as either a tumor suppressor or a tumor stimulator, according to tumor type.
  • The results of immunohistochemical analyses have revealed that Wnt5a expression was higher in human GBM than in normal brain tissue and low-grade astrocytoma.
  • GBM-05 cells formed infiltrating brain tumors after being intracerebrally transplanted into nude mice, and xenotransplanted GBM-05 cells were observed to differentiate into neuronal and astrocyte lineages.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Karyotyping. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Nestin. Transfection. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 17709179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, mouse; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / WNT5A protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins
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27. Levidou G, El-Habr E, Saetta AA, Bamias C, Katsouyanni K, Patsouris E, Korkolopoulou P: P53 immunoexpression as a prognostic marker for human astrocytomas: a meta-analysis and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2010 Dec;100(3):363-71
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  • During the past few decades, researchers have been looking for parameters with an impact on the prognosis of patients with astrocytic tumors. p53 is one of the most widely investigated molecules in human gliomas.
  • We aimed to comprehensively review the evidence for the prognostic usefulness of p53 immunohistochemical expression in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • A meta-analysis was performed on the studies that applied Cox models and had adjusted the hazard ratio of p53 expression with tumor grade and patients' age.
  • After almost 20 years of research, published evidence does not substantiate the usefulness of p53 immunohistochemical expression as a prognostic marker in patients with astrocytic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Linear Models. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • [ErratumIn] J Neurooncol. 2010 Dec;100(3):373. Katsougiannis, Klea [corrected to Katsouyanni, Klea]
  • (PMID = 20461443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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28. Guan X, Lai S, Lackey J, Shi J, Techavipoo U, Moulding HD, Flanders AE, Andrews DW: Revisiting anaplastic astrocytomas II: further characterization of an expansive growth pattern with visually enhanced diffusion tensor imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1322-36
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  • Tumor growth patterns were assigned to expansive or mixed/infiltrative classes as described in the companion article (24).
  • Infiltrating tumors were WHO Grade IV astrocytomas and all expansive tumors were either WHO Grade III astrocytomas or WHO Grade II astrocytomas.
  • DTI-based white matter tractography was conducted and the DTI data were fused with anatomical images using an in-house software package we developed to enhance the visualization of the tumor/fiber interface.
  • RESULTS: Out of the 19 tumor patients studied, 11 had infiltrative tumors and the other 8 had expansive tumors.
  • While less clear with 2D axial diffusion color maps, visually enhanced 3D reconstructions of the tumor/fiber interface successfully corroborated distinctive growth patterns.
  • This was particularly evident when viewed in 3D video loops of each tumor/fiber interface.
  • CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed software that visually enhances the anatomic details of the tumor/fiber interface in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19025901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Seiz M, Tuettenberg J, Meyer J, Essig M, Schmieder K, Mawrin C, von Deimling A, Hartmann C: Detection of IDH1 mutations in gliomatosis cerebri, but only in tumors with additional solid component: evidence for molecular subtypes. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Aug;120(2):261-7
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  • The current WHO classification of brain tumors defines gliomatosis cerebri (GC) as an extensively infiltrating astrocytic glioma involving at least three cerebral lobes.
  • The relation of GC to diffuse astrocytomas and glioblastoma is uncertain.
  • Recent reports showed IDH1 mutations in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors WHO grades II and III and in secondary glioblastomas with a frequency of up to 90%, whereas IDH1 mutations occurred in only 5% of primary glioblastomas.
  • We identified IDH1 mutations in 10/24 (42%) cases, which also included a solid tumor portion (type 2 GC), but not in 11 "classical" cases without solid tumor mass (type 1 GC).
  • Our data suggest that GC consists of two histological/molecular subtypes, type 1 being clearly distinct from diffuse astrocytoma, and type 2 sharing features with diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Arginine / genetics. Astrocytoma / secondary. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Histidine / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / secondary. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


30. Moenninghoff C, Maderwald S, Theysohn JM, Kraff O, Ladd ME, El Hindy N, van de Nes J, Forsting M, Wanke I: Imaging of adult astrocytic brain tumours with 7 T MRI: preliminary results. Eur Radiol; 2010 Mar;20(3):704-13
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  • [Title] Imaging of adult astrocytic brain tumours with 7 T MRI: preliminary results.
  • Two diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas, four anaplastic astrocytomas and nine glioblastomas were included.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19763581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Hida K, Iwasaki Y, Seki T, Yano S: two-stage operation for resection of spinal cord astrocytomas: technical case report of three cases. Neurosurgery; 2006 Apr;58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-E373; discussion ONS-E373

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In particular, infiltrating astrocytomas without a clear cleavage between the tumor and normal spinal cord parenchyma are difficult to remove totally without producing additional neurological impairment.
  • Two or 3 weeks after surgery, a second surgery was performed to remove the now exophytic tumor.
  • RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans showed exophytic extrusion of the tumor in all three cases before the second operation.
  • All three patients remain neurologically stable without evidence of tumor recurrence more than 3 years after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Laminectomy / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Reoperation / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16575295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Kitai R, Horita R, Sato K, Yoshida K, Arishima H, Higashino Y, Hashimoto N, Takeuchi H, Kubota T, Kikuta K: Nestin expression in astrocytic tumors delineates tumor infiltration. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Apr;27(1):17-21
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  • [Title] Nestin expression in astrocytic tumors delineates tumor infiltration.
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in undifferentiated cells during central nervous system development, and glioma is known to be a highly infiltrative tumor.
  • We determined whether nestin was expressed in astrocytic tumors and could identify infiltrating tumor cells.
  • We screened 65 archival, paraffin-embedded adult astrocytic tumors using immunohistochemical staining and computerized overlaid photographs.
  • The intensity of nestin expression corresponded to the tumor grade.
  • All 33 glioblastoma cases showed positive and extensive staining, which was less positive in diffuse astrocytoma.
  • Overlaid images showed that nestin immunostaining delineated tumor invasion into adjacent gray and white matter.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / physiology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nestin. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20425043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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33. Agrawal R: Synchronous dual malignancy: successfully treated cases. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Jul-Sep;3(3):153-6
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  • HPE mastectomy specimen showed infiltrating duct carcinoma and stage II.
  • HPE brain tissue showed astrocytoma grade II and HPE parotid tumour showed low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome


34. Rodriguez FJ, Perry A, Gutmann DH, O'Neill BP, Leonard J, Bryant S, Giannini C: Gliomas in neurofibromatosis type 1: a clinicopathologic study of 100 patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Mar;67(3):240-9
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  • The median age at tumor diagnosis was 13 years (range, 4 months to 68 years).
  • Most tumors were typical pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) (49%) or diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma (DA) (27%) that included World Health Organization Grades II (5%), III (15%), and IV (7%); others were designated as low-grade astrocytoma, subtype indeterminate (LGSI; 17%).
  • The tumors in 24 cases arose in the optic pathways and included PA (n = 14), LGSI (n = 4), DA (n = 4), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n = 1), and ganglioglioma (n = 1).
  • The prognoses of the PA and LGSI gliomas overall were generally favorable; there were no survival differences between PA and LGSI groups based on site, tumor size, mitotic activity, or MIB-1 labeling index.

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  • (PMID = 18344915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS007494; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / T32 NS07494-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS396162; NLM/ PMC3417064
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35. Iuchi T, Hatano K, Narita Y, Kodama T, Yamaki T, Osato K: Hypofractionated high-dose irradiation for the treatment of malignant astrocytomas using simultaneous integrated boost technique by IMRT. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Apr 1;64(5):1317-24
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  • CONCLUSIONS: Our regimen of IMRT contributed to the control of both the regional and infiltrating tumors, resulting in better survival of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16580493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Lehman NL: Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2008 Sep;67(9):900-10

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  • They also form other glioma secondary structures including perineuronal tumor cell satellitosis and subpial tumor cell mounds.
  • Because ependymal tumors generally have a significantly better prognosis than other infiltrating gliomas, recognition of their capacity to infiltrate adjacent cortex and white matter is important to prevent the misdiagnosis of oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, or infiltrating glioma, not otherwise specified.

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  • (PMID = 18716554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS045077-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K08 NS45077
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS131630; NLM/ PMC2805172
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37. Barbashina V, Salazar P, Ladanyi M, Rosenblum MK, Edgar MA: Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI): a report of 8 cases with chromosome 1p/19q deletion analysis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Aug;31(8):1196-202
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  • [Title] Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI): a report of 8 cases with chromosome 1p/19q deletion analysis.
  • Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands (GTNI) is a rare neoplasm harboring circumscribed loci of neuronal differentiation and diffusely infiltrating astroglial and oligodendrocytelike components.
  • One primary tumor displayed frankly malignant histology with frequent mitoses, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis.
  • This tumor progressed within months of the initial resection.
  • One tumor demonstrated small interstitial deletions at 1p36 (at D1S1612 and D1S513, but not at D1S548 or D1S1592) and a small interstitial deletion at 19q13 (at D19S219 and D19S412, but not at PLA2G4C).
  • The lack of large, whole-arm 1p/19q losses (such as those found in oligodendroglial tumors), aberrant p53 expression, and the predominance of astroglial components may indicate a biologic relationship of the GTNI to diffuse astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17667543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Synaptophysin
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38. Hall WA, Liu H, Truwit CL: Functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided resection of low-grade gliomas. Surg Neurol; 2005 Jul;64(1):20-7; discussion 27
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  • Functional imaging was used to identify and coregister eloquent cortices pertinent to motor (10), speech (3), motor and speech (2), and short-term memory and speech (1) activation with respect to the tumor using a 1.5-T interventional MRI system.
  • RESULTS: Tumors included 10 oligodendrogliomas, 4 astrocytomas, 1 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, and 1 pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.
  • Only one patient with an astrocytoma in the motor strip received postoperative radiation therapy.
  • To date, radiographic tumor progression has not been seen in any patient with either a partial or a complete resection with a median follow-up of 25 months (range, 12-87 months).
  • Radiation therapy was reserved for infiltrating astrocytomas that were not completely resectable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15993174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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