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1. Yang X, Chen E, Jiang H, Muszynski K, Harris RD, Giardina SL, Gromeier M, Mitra G, Soman G: Evaluation of IRES-mediated, cell-type-specific cytotoxicity of poliovirus using a colorimetric cell proliferation assay. J Virol Methods; 2009 Jan;155(1):44-54
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  • PVS-RIPO is a recombinant oncolytic poliovirus designed for clinical application to target CD155 expressing malignant gliomas and other malignant diseases.
  • In this assay, PVS-RIPO inhibited proliferation of U87-MG astrocytoma cells in a dose-dependent manner.

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  • (PMID = 18951922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-0934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol. Methods
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral; 0 / Receptors, Virus; 0 / poliovirus receptor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS88700; NLM/ PMC2650828
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2. Kamnasaran D: Stem cells and models of astrocytomas. Clin Invest Med; 2009;32(2):E166-79
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  • [Title] Stem cells and models of astrocytomas.
  • PURPOSE: To provide a critical assessment of current stem-cell based pre-clinical models of astrocytomas (gliomas).
  • Top articles were selected for critical analyses depending on the qualitative assessment of the citation index, novelty of the findings, reputation of the research group and relevance to stem-cell based pre-clinical models of astrocytomas.
  • RESULTS: The emergence of stem-cell based pre-clinical models of gliomas offers advantages for cellular transformation studies over other current in-vitro cell cultured based models.
  • Cells utilized in these stem-cell based pre-clinical models are easier to transform, with the induced tumours demonstrating very high molecular and pathological recapitulations of astrocytomas that are derived from humans.
  • In the first, synthetic astrocytes can be differentiated from various stem cell sources such as the nervous system and embryos, and utilized in elegant forward genetic strategies to develop novel astrocytoma pre-clinical models.
  • In this model, glioma stem cells exhibit very high pathological recapitulations of the human tumours, and can be very informative to comprehend the basis of radio-chemoresistance among patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The quest to develop robust pre-clinical models of astrocytomas is on an ongoing basis.
  • The models are of clinical importance for the discovery of effective treatment modalities that can considerably improve the health of patients with this deadly disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Stem Cells

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  • (PMID = 19331806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2353
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Invest Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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3. Lymbouridou R, Soufla G, Chatzinikola AM, Vakis A, Spandidos DA: Down-regulation of K-ras and H-ras in human brain gliomas. Eur J Cancer; 2009 May;45(7):1294-303
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of K-ras and H-ras in human brain gliomas.
  • We evaluated the mutational, mRNA and protein expression profile of the ras genes in 21 glioblastomas multiforme (grade IV), four fibrillary astrocytoma (grade II), four anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III) and 15 normal specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, ras. Glioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Blotting, Western / methods. Case-Control Studies. Codon. Female. Gene Expression. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / mortality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / analysis. Oncogene Protein p21(ras) / metabolism. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19179066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; EC 3.6.5.2 / Oncogene Protein p21(ras)
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4. Mott RT, Turner KC, Bigner DD, McLendon RE: Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;108(2):330-5
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  • [Title] Utility of EGFR and PTEN numerical aberrations in the evaluation of diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas. Laboratory investigation.
  • OBJECT: Diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors.
  • Given the important roles for EGFR and PTEN in the malignant progression of astrocytomas, the authors hypothesized that the fraction of tumor cells with aberrations in these genetic loci would correlate with the histological grade.
  • METHODS: The authors evaluated 217 consecutive diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas that were graded using the WHO guidelines, including 16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO Grade II), 72 anaplastic astrocytomas ([AAs] WHO Grade III), and 129 glioblastomas multiforme ([GBMs] WHO Grade IV).
  • RESULTS: The population of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus correlated significantly with histological grade.
  • In particular, high-grade astrocytomas (that is, AAs and GBMs) had elevated fractions of tumor cells with polysomy of chromosome 7 and the EGFR locus and monosomy of chromosome 10 and the PTEN locus.
  • Using these findings, the authors generated a mathematical model capable of subcategorizing high-grade astrocytomas.
  • The successful model incorporated only the percentage of tumor cells with polysomy of EGFR and monosomy of PTEN, as well as patient age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in this study emphasize the utility of combining histological interpretation and molecular testing in the evaluation of infiltrating astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Genes, erbB-1 / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aneuploidy. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Disease Progression. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Monosomy / genetics. Survival Rate


5. Lee CI, Hsu MY, Chou CH, Wang C, Lo YS, Loh JK, Howng SL, Hong YR: CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) mutation is rare in brain tumours but involved as a sporadic event in a brain metastasis. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Sep;151(9):1107-11
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  • METHOD: We used polymerase chain reaction PCR and direct sequencing methods to investigate whether mutations in the CTNNB1 phosphorylation sites S33, S37, S41 and T45 were present in 68 brain tumours, including meningioma, astrocytoma, pituitary adenoma, neuroblastoma, metastasis to the brain, and cell lines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the mutation of exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene in brain tumours may be a rare event and yet may be required for a small subset of human metastatic brain tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / secondary. Catalytic Domain / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Frequency. Genetic Markers. Genetic Testing. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Phosphorylation. Signal Transduction / genetics. Transcriptional Activation / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19582367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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6. Saito H, Yoshida T, Yamazaki H, Suzuki N: Conditional N-rasG12V expression promotes manifestations of neurofibromatosis in a mouse model. Oncogene; 2007 Jul 12;26(32):4714-9
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  • To evaluate the contribution of N-Ras activity to the development of NF, we generated a novel transgenic mouse expressing oncogenic N-ras specifically in central nerve cells, neural crest-derived cells and lens epithelial cells.
  • However, plexiform neurofibroma, schwannoma, astrocytoma and pheochromocytoma were not observed in the mice, suggesting a requirement for signal(s) other than the activated N-Ras pathway to induce these tumors.
  • Thus, the activated N-Ras signal may be a main pathway for the development of the disease phenotypes characteristic of NF.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Genes, ras. Mice / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 1 / genetics. Neurofibromatosis 2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17237809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases
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7. Francesco F, Maurizio I, Stefano C, Marina S, Ugo S, Massimo S: Trigeminal nerve root entry zone pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult: a rare case of an extraparenchymal tumor. J Neurooncol; 2010 Apr;97(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Trigeminal nerve root entry zone pilocytic astrocytoma in an adult: a rare case of an extraparenchymal tumor.
  • Gliomas in the CPA are rare and quite often are the exophytic extension of primary brain stem or cerebellar tumors.
  • We describe a pilocytic astrocytoma of the CPA that was found to arise from the proximal portion of trigeminal nerve without any anatomic continuity with the brain stem and the cerebellum.
  • The proposed origin of this extremely rare tumor is the root entry zone of the involved nerve.
  • The tumor was completely resected via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology

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  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
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8. Vaquero E, Gómez CM, Quintero EA, González-Rosa JJ, Márquez J: Differential prefrontal-like deficit in children after cerebellar astrocytoma and medulloblastoma tumor. Behav Brain Funct; 2008;4:18
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  • [Title] Differential prefrontal-like deficit in children after cerebellar astrocytoma and medulloblastoma tumor.
  • The astrocytoma group (CE, n = 13) did not receive additional treatments.
  • The performances of the clinical groups with respect to controls were compared considering the tumor's localization (vermis or hemisphere) and the affectation (or not) of the dentate nucleus.
  • The Astrocytoma group also showed executive deficits in digits span, semantic fluency (animal category) and moderate to slight deficit in Stroop (word and colour) tests.
  • In the astrocytoma group, the tumor's localization and dentate affectation showed different profile and level of impairment: moderate to slight for vermal and hemispheric patients respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest a differential prefrontal-like deficit due to cerebellar lesions and/or cerebellar-frontal diaschisis, as indicate the results in astrocytoma group (without treatments), that also can be generated and/or increased by treatments in the medulloblastoma group.

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  • (PMID = 18412947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9081
  • [Journal-full-title] Behavioral and brain functions : BBF
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Behav Brain Funct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2362115
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9. Robe PA, Martin D, Albert A, Deprez M, Chariot A, Bours V: A phase 1-2, prospective, double blind, randomized study of the safety and efficacy of Sulfasalazine for the treatment of progressing malignant gliomas: study protocol of [ISRCTN45828668]. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:29
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  • [Title] A phase 1-2, prospective, double blind, randomized study of the safety and efficacy of Sulfasalazine for the treatment of progressing malignant gliomas: study protocol of [ISRCTN45828668].
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients suffering from WHO grade 3 and 4 astrocytic glioma remains poor despite surgery, radiation therapy and the use of current chemotherapy regimen.
  • Indeed, the median survival of glioblastoma multiforme (WHO grade 4) patients is at best 14.6 month with only 26.5 percent of the patients still alive after 2 years and the median survival of anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade 3) is 19.2 month.
  • Recent evidence suggests that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is constitutively expressed in malignant gliomas and that its inhibition by drugs like Sulfasalazine may block the growth of astrocytic tumors in vitro and in experimental models of malignant gliomas.
  • A total of twenty patients with progressive malignant glioma despite surgery, radiation therapy and a first line of chemotherapy will be recruited and assigned to four dosage regimen of Sulfasalazine.
  • Primary endpoints are drug safety in the setting of malignant gliomas and tumor response as measured according to MacDonald's criteria.
  • DISCUSSION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Sulfasalazine as a treatment for recurring malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Brain Neoplasms. Disease Progression. Double-Blind Method. Female. Glioma. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16448552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ISRCTN/ ISRCTN45828668
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 3XC8GUZ6CB / Sulfasalazine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1368982
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10. Pfister S, Hartmann C, Korshunov A: Histology and molecular pathology of pediatric brain tumors. J Child Neurol; 2009 Nov;24(11):1375-86
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  • According to the classification of the World Health Organization, histopathological diagnosis is of paramount importance for clinicians to choose the most appropriate treatment option and tailor treatment intensity to disease risk.
  • However, histopathological assessment is often difficult, and adding molecular information to classic neuropathological analyses may help ensure diagnostic accuracy, improve risk stratification of patients within a given tumor entity, and help in identifying novel therapeutic targets for an individualized treatment approach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Humans. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / metabolism. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Teratoma / metabolism. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19841426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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11. Wallen KE, Hadar EJ, Perry V, Bouldin TW, Loehr J, Blatt J: Posterior fossa neoplasm and PHACES syndrome: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Mar;31(3):203-5
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  • [Title] Posterior fossa neoplasm and PHACES syndrome: a case report.
  • A 4-year-old girl with PHACES syndrome (posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies/coarctation of the aorta, eye abnormalities, and sternal clefting/supraumbilical raphe) developed a cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma 18 months after resolution of her neck, ear, and thoracic hemangiomas.
  • Because cutaneous hemangiomas may have involuted by the time a patient is diagnosed with a central nervous system neoplasm, it seems possible that in other such patients the association may have gone unrecognized.
  • Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma may be a rare manifestation of the posterior fossa malformations of PHACES.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple. Astrocytoma / etiology. Brain / abnormalities. Hemangioma / complications. Infratentorial Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19262249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Chaichana KL, McGirt MJ, Niranjan A, Olivi A, Burger PC, Quinones-Hinojosa A: Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing low-grade gliomas in adults and a review of the literature. Neurol Res; 2009 Nov;31(9):931-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of contrast-enhancing low-grade gliomas in adults and a review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Survival and tumor recurrence for patients with low-grade gliomas is heterogeneous, with reported survival and recurrence times varying by several months to years.
  • The prognostic implications of a contrast-enhancing low-grade glioma remain less well understood.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult patients who underwent a craniotomy for a hemispheric low-grade glioma (WHO grade II) from 1996 to 2006 at a single institution.
  • Furthermore, a review of the literature for all works on low-grade gliomas and contrast enhancement was conducted.
  • RESULTS: One hundred eighty-nine patients (87 fibrillary astrocytomas, 89 oligodendrogliomas and 13 mixed gliomas) were available for analysis, with 64 (34%) and 125 (66%) contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumors, respectively.
  • The majority of these published works had design-related limitations including small population size as well as the inclusion of non-WHO grade II gliomas, pediatric patients and patient undergoing biopsy.
  • DISCUSSION: This study may provide insights into risk stratifying patients with low-grade gliomas and most specifically those that contrast enhance.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media. Glioma / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Craniotomy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oligodendroglioma / epidemiology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19215664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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13. Badisa RB, Darling-Reed SF, Goodman CB: Cocaine induces alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential and dual cell cycle arrest in rat c6 astroglioma cells. Neurochem Res; 2010 Feb;35(2):288-97
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  • [Title] Cocaine induces alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential and dual cell cycle arrest in rat c6 astroglioma cells.
  • The present study was aimed to discern the effect of cocaine on rat astroglioma cells and analyzed qualitatively for morphological features as well as vacuolation by phase contrast microscope, quantitatively for cytotoxicity, mitochondrial membrane potential by rhodamine- 123 fluorometric assay, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry.

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  • (PMID = 19757036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-6903
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurochemical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochem. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003020-255372; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM08111; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003020; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR003020-255372; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003020-25; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / S06 GM008111; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR003020-25; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003020-255370; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR003020-255370; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03020; United States / PHS HHS / / SD34HP04018
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] I5Y540LHVR / Cocaine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS204547; NLM/ PMC2885962
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14. Ahn BH, Park MH, Lee YH, Kwon TK, Min do S: Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia is mediated by phospholipase D isozymes in human astroglioma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2007 Dec;1773(12):1721-31
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  • [Title] Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia is mediated by phospholipase D isozymes in human astroglioma cells.
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an isoform of prostaglandin H synthase induced by hypoxia and has been implicated in the growth and progression of a variety of human cancers.
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of phospholipase D (PLD) isozymes in cobalt chloride (CoCl(2))-induced hypoxia-driven COX-2 expression in U87 MG human astroglioma cells.
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that PLD1 and PLD2 isozymes enhance CoCl(2)-induced COX-2 expression through differential signaling pathways in astroglioma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / enzymology. Astrocytoma / genetics. Cobalt / pharmacology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Phospholipase D / metabolism. Up-Regulation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17640750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 3G0H8C9362 / Cobalt; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.31 / Pertussis Toxin; EC 3.1.1.4 / Phospholipases A2; EC 3.1.4.- / Type C Phospholipases; EC 3.1.4.4 / Phospholipase D; EVS87XF13W / cobaltous chloride; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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15. Flannery T, Cawley D, Zulfiger A, Alderazi Y, Heffernan J, Brett F, Farrell M, O'Brien DF: Familial occurrence of oligodendroglial tumours. Br J Neurosurg; 2008 Jun;22(3):436-8
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  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Family. Oligodendroglioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18568735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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16. Deshmukh H, Yeh TH, Yu J, Sharma MK, Perry A, Leonard JR, Watson MA, Gutmann DH, Nagarajan R: High-resolution, dual-platform aCGH analysis reveals frequent HIPK2 amplification and increased expression in pilocytic astrocytomas. Oncogene; 2008 Aug 7;27(34):4745-51
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  • [Title] High-resolution, dual-platform aCGH analysis reveals frequent HIPK2 amplification and increased expression in pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs, WHO grade I) are the most common brain tumors in the pediatric and adolescent population, accounting for approximately one-fifth of central nervous system tumors.
  • Because few consistent molecular alterations have been identified in PAs compared to higher grade gliomas, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization using two independent commercial array platforms.
  • Copy-number gain was confirmed in an independent tumor sample set by quantitative PCR, and this amplification was correlated to both increased mRNA and protein expression of HIPK2, a homeobox-interacting protein kinase associated with malignancy, contained within this locus.
  • Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type HIPK2, but not a kinase-inactive mutant, in a glioma cell line conferred a growth advantage in vitro.
  • Collectively, these results illustrate the power and necessity of implementing high-resolution, multiple-platform genomic analyses to discover small and subtle, but functionally significant, genomic alterations associated with low-grade tumor formation and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Cluster Analysis. DNA Mutational Analysis / instrumentation. DNA Mutational Analysis / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Frequency. Humans. Male. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • (PMID = 18408760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / HIPK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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17. Salhia B, Hwang JH, Smith CA, Nakada M, Rutka F, Symons M, Rutka JT: Role of myosin II activity and the regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in astrocytomas. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton; 2008 Jan;65(1):12-24
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  • [Title] Role of myosin II activity and the regulation of myosin light chain phosphorylation in astrocytomas.
  • Accordingly, in this study we examined the effects of ROCK and Rac1 inhibition on MLC phosphorylation in astrocytoma cells.
  • We also observed that astrocytoma migration is stimulated by low concentrations of the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin.
  • Taken together, our data show that modulation of myosin II activity is important in determining optimal astrocytoma migration.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Myosin Light Chains / metabolism. Myosin Type II / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Humans. Phosphorylation. rac1 GTP-Binding Protein / physiology. rho-Associated Kinases / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17896341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-1544
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell motility and the cytoskeleton
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA87567
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myosin Light Chains; 0 / RAC1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / rho-Associated Kinases; EC 3.6.1.- / Myosin Type II; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
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18. Kikuchi T: [Novel immunotherapeutic approach]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Apr;32(4):453-7
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  • Malignant astrocytoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults.
  • The median survival time of patients with high-grade malignant astrocytoma is about 1 year, despite aggressive treatment with surgical resection, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • The author reviews immunotherapeutic approaches for malignant gliomas and the relevance of recent clinical trials and their outcomes.
  • A number of potentially targetable antigens have been identified in gliomas.
  • DCs have been investigated in several clinical trials in patients with malignant tumors including malignant gliomas.
  • So far, seven papers concerning immunotherapy with DCs against malignant gliomas have been published.
  • These reports demonstrate that immunotherapy with DCs induces immune responses and clinically antitumor effects in some patients with malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Immunotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15853209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-13; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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19. Da Fonseca CO, Silva JT, Lins IR, Simão M, Arnobio A, Futuro D, Quirico-Santos T: Correlation of tumor topography and peritumoral edema of recurrent malignant gliomas with therapeutic response to intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol. Invest New Drugs; 2009 Dec;27(6):557-64
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  • [Title] Correlation of tumor topography and peritumoral edema of recurrent malignant gliomas with therapeutic response to intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish a correlation of tumor topography and peritumoral brain edema with the therapeutic response to intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol (POH) in a cohort of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • METHODS: The retrospective study reviewed clinical and neuroradiological data from patients with recurrent malignant gliomas who received intranasal daily administration of POH 440 mg.
  • The following parameters were assessed: demographic characteristics, initial symptoms, overall survival, tumor topography and tumor size, presence of midline shift and extent of peritumoral edema.
  • RESULTS: A cohort of 67 patients included 52 (78%) with glioblastoma (GBM), ten (15%) with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and five (7%) with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO).
  • Accordingly to tumor topography lobar localization was present in all (5/5) AO; eight (8/10) and 41 GBM patients whereas in the basal ganglia two AA and 11 GBM patients.
  • It was also observed a relation between the tumor size and area of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE).
  • Patients with good therapeutic response showed reduction of tumor size and PTBE area, but poor prognosis was associated with lack of response to treatment and persistence of high PTBE.
  • Patients with tumor in the basal ganglia survived significantly longer than those with lobar gliomas (log rank test, p = 0.0003).
  • (1) patients with recurrent gliomas with localization in the basal ganglia survive significantly longer than those with tumors at lobar localization;.
  • (2) presence of PTBE contributes to symptoms, likely to be implicated in the morbidity and invading potential of malignant gliomas.
  • These findings support the theory that interaction between glioma cells at distinct brain microenvironment can influence the oncobiological behavior of glioma cells and ultimately to the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Edema / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / pathology. Monoterpenes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intranasal. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19139816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-0646
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Monoterpenes; 319R5C7293 / perillyl alcohol
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20. Scheithauer BW, Erdogan S, Rodriguez FJ, Burger PC, Woodruff JM, Kros JM, Gokden M, Spinner RJ: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of cranial nerves and intracranial contents: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):325-38
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  • In addition, 1 tumor involved the optic chiasm (n=1).
  • Only 1 tumor arose in brain parenchyma of (frontal lobe).
  • One patient with a vestibular tumor and presumed NF2 had previously undergone resection of a contralateral vestibular cellular schwannoma.
  • One posterior fossa tumor was a malignant melanotic schwannoma.
  • Four patients had postirradiation malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 2 having been treated for optic chiasm glioma, both being NF1 affected.
  • One patient was irradiated for hypothalamic pilocytic astrocytoma and another for cervical Hodgkin disease.

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  • (PMID = 19065105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Bisdas S, Kirkpatrick M, Giglio P, Welsh C, Spampinato MV, Rumboldt Z: Cerebral blood volume measurements by perfusion-weighted MR imaging in gliomas: ready for prime time in predicting short-term outcome and recurrent disease? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Apr;30(4):681-8
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  • [Title] Cerebral blood volume measurements by perfusion-weighted MR imaging in gliomas: ready for prime time in predicting short-term outcome and recurrent disease?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current classification and grading of primary brain tumors has significant limitations.
  • Our aim was to determine whether the relative cerebral volume (rCBV) measurements in gliomas may serve as an adjunct to histopathologic grading, with a hypothesis that rCBV values are more accurate in predicting 1-year survival and recurrence.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with gliomas (WHO grade I-IV, 27 astrocytomas, 7 tumors with oligodendroglial components) underwent contrast-enhanced MR rCBV measurements before treatment.
  • The rCBV(mean) and rCBV(max) in the astrocytomas were 3.5 +/- 2.9 and 3.7 +/- 2.7.
  • The combined CBV-WHO grade classification enhanced the predictive value for recurrence/progression (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: rCBV values in astrocytomas but not tumors with oligodendroglial components are predictive for recurrence and 1-year survival and may be more accurate than histopathologic grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Blood Volume. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Oligodendroglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19179427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Liu WC, Feldman SC, Schulder M, Kalnin AJ, Holodny AI, Zimmerman A, Sinensky R, Rao S: The effect of tumour type and distance on activation in the motor cortex. Neuroradiology; 2005 Nov;47(11):813-9
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  • The intra-axial groups consisted of patients with astrocytomas, glioblastomas and metastatic tumours of mixed histology; all the extra-axial tumours were meningiomas.

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  • (PMID = 16142482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Marrufo M, Politsky J, Mehta S, Morgan JC, Sethi KD: Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Segmental Myoclonus due to a spinal cord glioma. Mov Disord; 2007 Sep 15;22(12):1801-3
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  • [Title] Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Segmental Myoclonus due to a spinal cord glioma.
  • He was subsequently diagnosed with a cervical cord anaplastic astrocytoma on MRI.
  • We could not identify previous reports of paroxysmal myoclonus secondary to a spinal cord neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / complications. Myoclonus / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.
  • (PMID = 17595044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3185
  • [Journal-full-title] Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mov. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Collins VP: Mechanisms of disease: genetic predictors of response to treatment in brain tumors. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Jun;4(6):362-74
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of disease: genetic predictors of response to treatment in brain tumors.
  • The most common types in adults are astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas or mixed tumors, which almost invariably lead to death.
  • An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the malignant phenotype of gliomas also provides the possibility of rational design of molecularly targeted therapies.
  • This approach has proved successful in other areas of oncology.
  • As many tumors have the same types of molecular abnormalities, molecular targeted therapies developed for nonbrain tumor types might be adapted for the treatment of brain tumors.
  • The genetic predictors of response to conventional therapies, the genes and cellular mechanisms involved in glioma development, and potential therapeutic targets are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / therapy. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / therapy. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17534392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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25. Berhouma M: Management of subependymal giant cell tumors in tuberous sclerosis complex: the neurosurgeon's perspective. World J Pediatr; 2010 May;6(2):103-10
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  • BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, can lead to the development of hamartomas in various organs, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, skin and brain.
  • The data were collected after a bibliography made using PubMed/Medline with these terms: subependymal, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell tumor, and tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An earlier diagnosis of SGCT in neurologically asymptomatic children with TSC may allow a precocious surgical removal of the tumor before the installation of increased intracranial pressure signs, an attitude that is being progressively adopted to lessen the morbimortality rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Child. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Mutation. Neurosurgical Procedures. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20490765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-0687
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of pediatrics : WJP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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26. Watanabe T, Nobusawa S, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Am J Pathol; 2009 Apr;174(4):1149-53
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  • [Title] IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • We assessed IDH1 mutations in 321 gliomas of various histological types and biological behaviors.
  • IDH1 mutations were frequent in low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (88%) and in secondary glioblastomas that developed through progression from low-grade diffuse or anaplastic astrocytoma (82%).
  • IDH1 mutations were co-present with TP53 mutations in 63% of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and with loss of heterozygosity 1p/19q in 64% of oligodendrogliomas; they were rare in pilocytic astrocytomas (10%) and primary glioblastomas (5%) and absent in ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19246647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671348
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27. da Fonseca CO, Linden R, Futuro D, Gattass CR, Quirico-Santos T: Ras pathway activation in gliomas: a strategic target for intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz); 2008 Jul-Aug;56(4):267-76
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  • [Title] Ras pathway activation in gliomas: a strategic target for intranasal administration of perillyl alcohol.
  • Malignant gliomas commonly overexpress the oncogenes EGFR and PDGFR and contain mutations and deletions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and TP53.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Applying this method, a phase I/II clinical trial of POH was performed in patients with relapsed malignant gliomas after standard treatment: surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • The cohort consisted of 37 patients, including 29 with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 5 with grade III astrocytoma (AA), and 3 with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO).
  • Neurological examination and suitable image analysis (computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) established disease progression.
  • Complete response was defined as neurological stability or improvement of conditions, disappearance of CT/MRI tumor image, and corticosteroid withdraw; partial response (PR) as > or =50 reduction of CT/MRI tumor image, neurological stability, or improvement of conditions and corticosteroid requirement; progressive course (PC) as > or =25 increase in CT/MRI tumor image or the appearance of a new lesion; and stable disease as a lack of any changes in the CT/MR tumor image or neurological status.
  • RESULTS: After six months of treatment, PR was observed in 3.4% (n=1) of the patients with GBM and 33.3% (n=1) with AO; stable disease in 44.8% (n=13) with GBM, 60% (n=3) with AA, and 33.3% (n=1) with AO; and PC in 51.7% (n=15) with GBM, 40% (n=2), with AA and 33.3% (n=1) AO.
  • PFS (sum of PRs and stable disease) was 48.2% for GBM, 60% for AA, and 66.6% for AO patients.
  • There were no toxicity events and the regression of tumor size in some patients is suggestive of antitumor activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / metabolism. Monoterpenes / therapeutic use. ras Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intranasal. Adult. Aged. Apoptosis / drug effects. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects


28. Kim SH, Kim TS: Squash smear findings of eosinophilic granular bodies in pilocytic astrocytoma. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jan-Feb;49(1):112-4
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  • [Title] Squash smear findings of eosinophilic granular bodies in pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cytoplasmic Granules / pathology. Eosinophils / pathology. Specimen Handling / methods

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  • (PMID = 15717769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Carstensen H, Juhler M, Bøgeskov L, Laursen H: A report of nine newborns with congenital brain tumours. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Nov;22(11):1427-31
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  • Most studies on congenital neoplastic disease deal with several types of neoplasms and are dominated by leukaemias, retinoblastomas and systemic solid tumours.
  • We present nine newborns (four boys and five girls) who were diagnosed with congenital brain tumours during the 8-year period 1 January 1992-31 December 1999 at our institution, which covers all paediatric neuro-oncology cases for Eastern Denmark.
  • CLINICAL FEATURES: In five of the cases, brain abnormality was suspected antenatally.
  • The histological diagnoses were teratoma in four cases, GBM in two cases, anaplastic astrocytoma in two cases and, finally, haemangioma capillare in one case.
  • OUTCOME: Four of the patients (44%) are still alive, including two patients with totally resected combined orbital/intracranial teratomas, one patient with a totally resected haemangioma and one patient with anaplastic astrocytoma who did not receive any treatment apart from supportive care.

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  • [CommentIn] Childs Nerv Syst. 2006 Nov;22(11):1433 [16804714.001]
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  • (PMID = 16804715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Paleologos NA: Chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S21-4
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas.
  • Low-grade gliomas pose a difficult problem for the neuro-oncologist.
  • Most agree that physicians should recommend treatment in symptomatic cases or in instances of radiologic tumor progression.
  • This review discusses some of the recent advances with respect to chemotherapy for low-grade gliomas, with a special emphasis on low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / therapy. Expert Testimony. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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31. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Abe H, Onishi H, Ohmura T, Iwaasa M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T: Quantitative assessment of gliomas by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6A):3757-63
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  • [Title] Quantitative assessment of gliomas by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in preoperative quantitative assessment of intracranial gliomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients with histologically verified gliomas, comprising 2 cases with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade 4), 5 cases with anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO, grade 3; high-grade glioma), and 1 case with fibrillary astrocytoma (FA, grade 2; low-grade glioma) were evaluated using the 1H-MRS protocol following conventional MR imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) preoperatively.
  • RESULTS: High-grade gliomas tended to demonstrate signal hyperintensity by DWI and higher relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) by PWI.
  • Increased ratios of choline (Cho) to N-acetylaspartate (NAA) (Cho/NAA) and Cho to creatine (Cr) (Cho/Cr) correlated highly with tumor malignancy.
  • The presence of lactate and lipid was predominately detected in patients with high-grade glioma.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of multiple MR parameters, based on DWI, PWI and 1H-MRS, appears valuable for preoperatively predicting the degree of malignancy in glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 17970039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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32. Lim SC, Hong R, Kim YS, Jang SJ: Large cystic cavernous angioma of the cerebellum mimicking pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Sep;79(2):169-70
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  • [Title] Large cystic cavernous angioma of the cerebellum mimicking pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • We present a case of a cavernous angioma with the unusual MRI findings of a large cyst and a small mural nodule.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient was a 48-year-old man who complained of a history of dizziness for several weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Cysts / diagnosis. Cerebellum / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16821089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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33. Pareés I, Alonso J, Rovira A, Martínez E, Montalban X: [Diffuse astrocytoma presenting as an optic-spinal syndrome]. Rev Neurol; 2009 Apr 1-15;48(7):354-6
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  • [Title] [Diffuse astrocytoma presenting as an optic-spinal syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome opticomedular como forma de presentación de un astrocitoma difuso.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord involvement is a rare presentation of grade II astrocytomas.
  • Nevertheless, differentiation from inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system can be challenging in some clinical situations.
  • A patient with an optic-spinal syndrome due to a fibrillary astrocytoma is described.
  • CASE REPORT: A 32 years-old man was admitted to the hospital because of a subacute spinal cord syndrome.
  • A new MRI with spectroscopy revealed an infiltrative lesion involving the right frontal lobe, optic chiasm, internal capsule, brainstem and cervical spinal cord, which was suggestive of low-grade astrocytoma.
  • Brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • Brain biopsy is often necessary for a definite diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Demyelinating Diseases. Optic Neuritis. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19319816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oligoclonal Bands
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34. Liu Y, Shete S, Hosking FJ, Robertson LB, Bondy ML, Houlston RS: New insights into susceptibility to glioma. Arch Neurol; 2010 Mar;67(3):275-8
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  • [Title] New insights into susceptibility to glioma.
  • As the allelic architecture of these tumors is unraveled, research attention is turning to other rare cancers such as glioma, which are also likely to have a major genetic component as the basis of their development.
  • In this brief review we discuss emerging data on glioma whole genome-association searches to identify risk loci.
  • Two glioma genome-wide association studies have so far been reported.
  • Our group identified 5 risk loci for glioma susceptibility (TERT rs2736100, CCDC26 rs4295627, CDKN2A/CDKN2B rs4977756, RTEL1 rs6010620, and PHLDB1 rs498872).
  • Wrensch and colleagues provided further evidence to 2 risk loci (CDKN2B rs1412829 and RTEL1 rs6010620) for GBM and anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Although these data provide the strongest evidence to date for the role of common low-risk variants in the etiology of glioma, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified alone are unlikely to be candidates for causality.
  • Finally, we hope that a greater understanding of the biological basis of the disease will lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Glioma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20212223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA070917; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA119215; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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35. Saraswathy A, Jayasree RS, Baiju KV, Gupta AK, Pillai VP: Optimum wavelength for the differentiation of brain tumor tissue using autofluorescence spectroscopy. Photomed Laser Surg; 2009 Jun;27(3):425-33
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  • [Title] Optimum wavelength for the differentiation of brain tumor tissue using autofluorescence spectroscopy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study involves in-vitro autofluorescence monitoring of different human brain tumor samples to assess their spectroscopic properties.
  • The autofluorescence measurement at four different excitation wavelengths 320, 370, 410, and 470 nm, were carried out for five different brain tumor types: glioma, astrocytoma, meningioma, pituitary adenoma, and schwannoma.
  • RESULTS: The fluorescence spectra of tumor tissues showed significant differences, both in intensity and in spectral profile, from those of adjacent normal brain tissues at all four excitation wavelengths.
  • Of the four excitation wavelengths being considered, 470 nm appeared to be the optimal wavelength for detecting tissue fluorescence of brain tumor tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the spectroscopic luminescence measurements carried out in this study revealed significant differences between tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue of human brains for all the tumor types tested, except for pituitary adenoma.
  • From the results of this study we conclude that excitation wavelengths ranging from 410-470 nm are most suitable for the detection of brain tumor tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Astrocytoma / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Discriminant Analysis. Female. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Meningioma / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19025404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8550
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Xu Y, Li WL, Fu L, Gu F, Ma YJ: Slit2/Robo1 signaling in glioma migration and invasion. Neurosci Bull; 2010 Dec;26(6):474-8
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  • [Title] Slit2/Robo1 signaling in glioma migration and invasion.
  • Slit2 and its transmembrane receptor Robo1 have different distribution patterns in gliomas.
  • The expression of Slit2 is at very low levels in pilocytic astrocytoma, fibrillary astrocytoma and glioblastoma, while Robo1 is highly expressed in different grades of gliomas at both mRNA and protein levels.
  • Acquisition of insidious invasiveness by malignant glioma cells involves multiple genetic alterations in signaling pathways.
  • Although the specific mechanisms of tumor-suppressive effect of Slit2/Robo1 have not been elucidated, it has been proved that Slit2/Robo1 signaling inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion by inactivation of Cdc42-GTP.
  • With the research development on the molecular mechanisms of Slit2/Robo1 signaling in glioma invasion and migration, Slit2/Robo1 signaling may become a potential target for glioma prevention and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / pathology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, Immunologic / metabolism. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21113198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1995-8218
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Slit homolog 2 protein; 0 / roundabout protein; EC 3.6.5.2 / cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein
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37. Mursch K, Halatsch ME, Markakis E, Behnke-Mursch J: Intrinsic brainstem tumours in adults: results of microneurosurgical treatment of 16 consecutive patients. Br J Neurosurg; 2005 Apr;19(2):128-36
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  • Eight patients had from WHO grade II astrocytoma and a similar course as patients with higher-grade gliomas (n = 4).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Microsurgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16120515.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Crespo Pérez L, Moreira Vicente V, Cano Ruiz A, Gobernado Serrano JM, Cobo Ibañez N, Milicua Salamero JM: [Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: an entity to be remembered]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Dec;32(10):687-92
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de hipersensibilidad a anticomiciales: una entidad para recordar.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Hemolytic / chemically induced. Anticonvulsants / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Epilepsy, Complex Partial / drug therapy. Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe / drug therapy. Lymphatic Diseases / chemically induced. Phenytoin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Amines / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Carbamazepine / administration & dosage. Carbamazepine / therapeutic use. Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids / therapeutic use. Diagnostic Errors. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Ganglioneuroma / diagnosis. Humans. Parahippocampal Gyrus / surgery. Radiosurgery. gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19732994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids; 33CM23913M / Carbamazepine; 56-12-2 / gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; 6158TKW0C5 / Phenytoin; 6CW7F3G59X / gabapentin
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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39. Weller M: [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients]. Nervenarzt; 2008 Feb;79(2):231-41
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  • The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease.
  • Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas.
  • Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Topotecan / adverse effects. Topotecan / therapeutic use. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18253773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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40. Sandri A, Sardi N, Genitori L, Giordano F, Peretta P, Basso ME, Bertin D, Mastrodicasa L, Todisco L, Mussa F, Forni M, Ricardi U, Cordero di Montezemolo L, Madon E: Diffuse and focal brain stem tumors in childhood: prognostic factors and surgical outcome. Experience in a single institution. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Sep;22(9):1127-35
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  • OBJECTIVE: Brainstem tumors (BSTs) are usually gliomas and are divided into diffuse BSTs (DBSTs) and focal BSTs (FBSTs).
  • The responses to treatment were ten cases of partial response, three of stable disease, and one of progressive disease.
  • Eight out of 17 patients had adjuvant chemo- and/or radiotherapy after progression: 6/8 are without neurological symptoms and 2/8 have died due to tumor progression.
  • The 4-year overall and disease-free survival rates are 87.4 (SE 8.4) and 58.8% (SE 11.9), respectively, the extent of resection being the most important prognostic factor (p=0.012).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Ganglioglioma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16568342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Cai Y, Liu Y, Zhang X: Induction of transcription factor Egr-1 gene expression in astrocytoma cells by Murine coronavirus infection. Virology; 2006 Nov 25;355(2):152-63
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  • [Title] Induction of transcription factor Egr-1 gene expression in astrocytoma cells by Murine coronavirus infection.
  • Here we characterized the activation of an immediate-early transcription factor Egr-1 by MHV infection in an astrocytoma cell line.
  • This finding may provide an explanation for our previously observed down-regulation of BNip3 by MHV infection in astrocytoma cells (Cai, Liu, Yu, and Zhang, Virology 316:104-115, 2003).

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  • (PMID = 16908043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI047188; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS047499; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI47188; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS47499
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BNip3 protein, mouse; 0 / Early Growth Response Protein 1; 0 / Egr1 protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS18961; NLM/ PMC1851928
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42. Di Maio S, Gul SM, Cochrane DD, Hendson G, Sargent MA, Steinbok P: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic features and outcome following surgery for cervicomedullary gliomas in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Nov;25(11):1401-10
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  • [Title] Clinical, radiologic and pathologic features and outcome following surgery for cervicomedullary gliomas in children.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of MRI findings, histopathology, extent, and morbidity of resection in cervicomedullary gliomas undergoing resection during 1985-2008.
  • RESULTS: Of 78 brainstem tumors, nine cervicomedullary tumors undergoing resection were identified: two pilocytic astrocytomas, two gangliogliomas, and five grade II astrocytomas.
  • Additionally, bulbar worsening occurred in five of five patients with a poorly defined tumor/brainstem interface and abnormal low T1 signal extending beyond obvious tumor into the brainstem versus one of four with a well-defined tumor margin (P = 0.008).
  • Following chemo- or radiotherapy, the definition of the brainstem/tumor interface improved.
  • CONCLUSION: A less aggressive initial surgical approach, supplemented by postoperative chemotherapy, designed to preserve brainstem function, is proposed for patients with interposed non-enhancing tissue continuous with normal cervical cord or medulla and/or a poorly defined ventral tumor/brainstem interface with abnormal low T1 signal extending beyond obvious tumor into the brainstem.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19636567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Misra A, Chattopadhyay P, Chosdol K, Sarkar C, Mahapatra AK, Sinha S: Clonal mutations in primary human glial tumors: evidence in support of the mutator hypothesis. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:190
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  • BACKGROUND: A verifiable consequence of the mutator hypothesis is that even low grade neoplasms would accumulate a large number of mutations that do not influence the tumor phenotype (clonal mutations).
  • In this study, we have attempted to quantify the number of clonal mutations in primary human gliomas of astrocytic cell origin.
  • These alterations were identified in tumor tissue, microscopically confirmed to have over 70% neoplastic cells.
  • METHODS: Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed using a set of fifteen 10-mer primers of arbitrary but definite sequences in 17 WHO grade II astrocytomas (low grade diffuse astrocytoma or DA) and 16 WHO grade IV astrocytomas (Glioblastoma Multiforme or GBM).
  • The RAPD profile of the tumor tissue was compared with that of the leucocyte DNA of the same patient and alteration(s) scored.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the presence of extensive clonal mutations in gliomas, more in lower grade.
  • This is consistent with our earlier work demonstrating that technique like RAPD analysis, unbiased for locus, is able to demonstrate more intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity in lower grade gliomas compared to higher grade.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cloning, Molecular. DNA / metabolism. DNA Primers / chemistry. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Glioma / genetics. Humans. Leukocytes / metabolism. Models, Genetic. Models, Theoretical. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17925012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 9007-49-2 / DNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2190769
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44. Owen CM, Linskey ME: Frame-based stereotaxy in a frameless era: current capabilities, relative role, and the positive- and negative predictive values of blood through the needle. J Neurooncol; 2009 May;93(1):139-49
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  • Of 18 lesions involving the corpus callosum, 13 (72.2%) were GBM 2 were anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 each were found to be anaplastic oligodendroglioma, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and tumescent MS.
  • Of 25 multifocal lesions, malignant primary brain tumor was diagnosed in 17 (68%) (11 GBM, 3 PCNSL, 2 anaplastic ologodendroglioma, and 1 anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / surgery. Neuronavigation

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  • (PMID = 19430891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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45. Richard HT, Harrison JF, Abel TW, Maertens P, Martino AM, Sosnowski JS: Pediatric gliomatosis cerebri mimicking acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Pediatrics; 2010 Aug;126(2):e479-82
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  • Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a diffuse infiltrating glial neoplasm of astrocytic origin.


46. Chen FX, Qian YR, Duan YH, Ren WW, Yang Y, Zhang CC, Qiu YM, Ji YH: Down-regulation of 67LR reduces the migratory activity of human glioma cells in vitro. Brain Res Bull; 2009 Aug 14;79(6):402-8
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of 67LR reduces the migratory activity of human glioma cells in vitro.
  • OBJECTIVES: Glioma is the most common brain tumor in central nervous system.
  • Traditional therapies are not effective to cure this disease.
  • Experimental evidence indicates that the 67 kDa elastin-laminin receptor (67LR) subunit is a high-affinity non-integrin laminin-binding protein that is over-expressed on the tumor cell surface in a variety of human carcinomas, and directly correlates with a higher proliferation rate of malignant cells and tendency to metastasize.
  • However, little is known of the expression and function of 67LR in glioma cells.
  • METHODS: In this study, we estimated whether 67LR was constitutively over-expressed in high-grade astrocytomas by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting, and investigated the role of a low level of 67LR expression in glioma cell line-U251 by constructing an interfering RNA expression plasmid.
  • RESULTS: The results showed that the 67LR had an enhanced over-expression in high-grade astrocytomas against normal brain tissues samples, and that the migratory activity of glioma cells was reduced after the down-regulation of the 67LR gene by RNAi.
  • DISCUSSION: It was hypothesized that a low level of 67LR expression could reduce migratory activity of glioma cells, which further proved that 67LR played an important role in glioma invasion by mediating tumor cell functions leading to sarcomata.
  • This study provided a new alternative to gene therapy for glioma treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cell Movement / physiology. Glioma / physiopathology. Receptors, Laminin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Brain / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Down-Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Photomicrography. RNA Interference. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19446013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2747
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Laminin
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47. Grajkowska W, Kotulska K, Jurkiewicz E, Matyja E: Brain lesions in tuberous sclerosis complex. Review. Folia Neuropathol; 2010;48(3):139-49
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disease characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas and benign or rarely malignant neoplasms distributed at various sites throughout the body, especially in the brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart, and lungs.
  • Brain lesions in TSC include: cortical/subcortical glioneuronal tubers, subependymal glial nodules (SENs), and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs).
  • SENs are typically covered by a layer of ependyma and can grow over time and develop into subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
  • SEGAs consist of a mixed cell population of large ganglioid-like cells, spindle and giant cells with nuclear pleomorphism.
  • Oral rapamycin therapy may induce regression of astrocytomas associated with TSC.


48. Ardeshiry Lajimi A, Rezaie-Tavirani M, Mortazavi SA, Barzegar M, Moghadamnia SH, Rezaee MB: Study of Anti Cancer Property of Scrophularia striata Extract on the Human Astrocytoma Cell Line (1321). Iran J Pharm Res; 2010;9(4):403-10
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  • [Title] Study of Anti Cancer Property of Scrophularia striata Extract on the Human Astrocytoma Cell Line (1321).

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  • (PMID = 24381605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-0328
  • [Journal-full-title] Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iran J Pharm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3870064
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 1321 cell line / Anticancer effect / Astrocytoma / Flow cytometry / Scrophularia striata extract
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49. Zhang JP, Shi HL, Sai K, Yue WY, Mu YG, Zhang XH, Chen ZP: [Individualized chemotherapy based on drug sensitivity and resistance assay and MGMT protein expression for patients with malignant glioma--analysis of 42 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Dec;25(12):1533-7
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  • [Title] [Individualized chemotherapy based on drug sensitivity and resistance assay and MGMT protein expression for patients with malignant glioma--analysis of 42 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Malignant glioma cells are resistant to most chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Nitrosourea and temozolomide (TMZ) are main agents for treating malignant glioma.
  • Resistance of malignant glioma to these agents is frequently associated with high levels of DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT).
  • This study was to evaluate the efficacy of individualized chemotherapy, according to chemotherapy sensitivity and resistance assays (CSRAs) and MGMT expression pattern, on malignant glioma, and observe the adverse events.
  • METHODS: The pathologically confirmed malignant glioma patients, treated by operation at Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Dec.
  • The fresh tumor tissues obtained during operation were immediately sent for CSRAs using MTT assay.
  • Of the 49 cases, 6 (12%) achieved complete remission (CR), 10 (20%) achieved partial remission (PR), 20 (41%) had stable disease (SD), and 13 (27%) had progressive disease (PD).
  • The objective response rate (CR and PR) was 33%, and the disease control rate (CR, PR, and SD) was 73%.
  • CONCLUSION: Individualized chemotherapy based on in vitro CSRAs and MGMT expression for patients with malignant glioma could improve overall response rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Glioma / drug therapy. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17166381.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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50. Shuangshoti S, Thorner PS, Ruangvejvorachai P, Saha B, Groshen S, Taylor CR, Malhotra S, Imam SA: J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Oct;29(5):521-7
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  • [Title] J1-31 protein expression in astrocytes and astrocytomas.
  • J1-31 is one of the astrocytic proteins, the expression of which has not been evaluated in astrocytomas.
  • In the present study, we studied the expression of J1-31 protein in astrocytes and astrocytomas in comparison with GFAP, p53 and Ki-67.
  • Materials consisted of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens that included five cases of normal brain, 17 of gliosis, 15 of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I), 26 of low-grade diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), four of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), and eight of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV).
  • The antibody showed reactivity with tumor cells in 12/15 (80%) cases of pilocytic astrocytoma, although intensity of staining was generally weaker and more focal than observed in reactive gliosis.
  • J1-31-positive tumor cells were detected in only 9/26 (35%) cases of the low-grade diffuse astrocytoma and none of the cases of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma.
  • Increasing Ki-67 indices paralleled advancing tumor grades. p53 protein was expressed more commonly in infiltrating astrocytomas compared to pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • In conclusion, down-regulation of J1-31 expression correlates with advancing grade of astrocytomas.
  • The anti-J1-31 antibody may help further our understanding of astrocytes in disease and may be useful as an aid in the pathologic diagnosis of astrocytic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytoplasm / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Gliosis / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19019178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / J1-31 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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51. Larouche V, Huang A, Bartels U, Bouffet E: Tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7 Suppl):1074-82
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  • Among 1,289 infants identified from this literature review, the most common histological diagnoses are astrocytoma (30.5%), medulloblastoma (12.2%), ependymoma (11.1%), and choroid plexus tumors (11%).
  • Significant differences are noted for some tumor types by comparison with older children, for example in the aggressive behavior of low grade gliomas and the chemosensitivity of some high grade gliomas.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17943961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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52. Lo HW: Targeting Ras-RAF-ERK and its interactive pathways as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2010 Dec;10(8):840-8
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  • [Title] Targeting Ras-RAF-ERK and its interactive pathways as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.
  • Malignant gliomas are the most common and the deadliest brain malignancies in adults.
  • Despite the lack of a complete understanding of the biology of these tumors, significant advances have been made in the past decades.
  • One of the key discoveries made in the area of malignant gliomas is that these tumors can be induced and maintained by aberrant signaling networks.
  • Although somatic oncogenic mutations of Ras genes are frequent in several cancer types, early investigations on gliomas revealed disappointing facts that the Ras mutations are nearly absent in malignant gliomas and that the BRAF mutations are present in a very small percentage of gliomas.
  • Therefore, the observed deregulation of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway in gliomas is attributed to its upstream positive regulators, including, EGFR and PDGFR known to be highly active in the majority of malignant gliomas.
  • In contrast to the initial negative results on the somatic mutations of H-Ras, K-Ras and BRAF, recent breakthrough studies on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas uncovered genetic alterations of the BRAF gene involving copy number gains and rearrangements.
  • In light of the earlier findings and recent breakthroughs, this review summarizes our current understanding of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway in gliomas and the outcome of preclinical and clinical studies that evaluated the efficacy of Ras-targeted therapy in malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / metabolism. raf Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. ras Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 20718706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P50 NS020023; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA118423; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5K01-CA118423; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA118423-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 2P50-NS020023-26
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS357377; NLM/ PMC3615246
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53. Rychlý B, Sidlová H, Daniś D: [The 2007 World Health Organisation classification of tumours of the central nervous system, comparison with 2000 classification]. Cesk Patol; 2008 Apr;44(2):35-6
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  • [Title] [The 2007 World Health Organisation classification of tumours of the central nervous system, comparison with 2000 classification].
  • WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System from the 2007 is distinguished from the previous 2000 classification by a few conceptual modifications, changes in the terminology and seven newly codified tumour entities.
  • The newly codified entities are: angiocentric glioma, pilomyxoid astrocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumor, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the 4th ventricle, papillary tumour of the pineal region, spindle cell oncocytoma and pituicytoma.
  • The complexity and diversity of tumours of the nervous system is enormous, and, not surprisingly, some problematic questions of classification and grading remain unresolved.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 18819324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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54. Maramattom BV, Giannini C, Manno EM, Wijdicks EF, Campeau NG: Gliomatosis cerebri angiographically mimicking central nervous system angiitis: case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Jun;58(6):E1209; discussion E1209
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  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We present a case of gliomatosis cerebri with demonstrated angiographic changes suggestive of a central nervous system vasculitis.
  • A four-vessel angiogram revealed diffuse arterial beading with stenoses of a right frontal middle cerebral artery branch and the distal posterior cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery branches, bilaterally.
  • The biopsy revealed a Grade 2 fibrillary astrocytoma consistent with gliomatosis cerebri.
  • Perivascular infiltration by tumor cells may be responsible for these changes.

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  • (PMID = 16723870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Chatley A, Jaiswal AK, Jain M, Behari S: Congenital irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation associated with cervical intramedullary astrocytoma causing progressive spastic quadriparesis. Neurol India; 2008 Oct-Dec;56(4):477-9
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  • [Title] Congenital irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation associated with cervical intramedullary astrocytoma causing progressive spastic quadriparesis.
  • Simultaneous presence of congenital irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and cervical intramedullary astrocytoma has not been previously described and may cause disabling myelopathy.
  • Lateral radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed irreducible AAD, occipitalized atlas, C2-3 fusion, and,an intramedullary tumor from C2-5 level iso-to-hypointense, non-enhancing, except in a small segment in the dorsal C2 level.
  • A suboccipital craniectomy with C2-5 laminectomy revealed a greyish-white tenacious tumor.
  • The tumor was decompressed using a C2-5 midline myelotomy and duroplasty.
  • Histopathology revealed a low-grade astrocytoma.
  • Thus, the suboccipital craniectomy and laminectomy with midline myelotomy and duroplasty facilitated space for progressively expanding intramedullary astrocytoma with irreducible AAD; the lateral mass fixation provided stability at the craniovertebral junction.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Atlanto-Axial Joint. Dislocations / complications. Dislocations / congenital. Quadriplegia / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19127046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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56. Selbekk T, Bang J, Unsgaard G: Strain processing of intraoperative ultrasound images of brain tumours: initial results. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2005 Jan;31(1):45-51
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  • During surgery of a low-grade astrocytoma and a metastasis, we acquired ultrasound (US) radiofrequency (RF) data with a hand-held probe at the dura mater.
  • An important finding was that the tissue motion caused by arterial pulsation is sufficient for generating elastograms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Astrocytoma / surgery. Astrocytoma / ultrasonography. Dura Mater. Elasticity. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Pulsatile Flow. Stress, Mechanical

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  • (PMID = 15653230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-5629
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Röhrl N, Iglesias-Rozas JR, Weidl G: A modern reproducible method for the histologic grading of astrocytomas with statistical classification tools. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Feb;30(1):33-8
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  • [Title] A modern reproducible method for the histologic grading of astrocytomas with statistical classification tools.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether statistical classification tools can infer the correct World Health Organization (WHO) grade from standardized histologic features in astrocytomas and how these tools compare with GRADO-IGL, an earlier computer-assisted method.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 794 human brain astrocytomas were studied between January 1976 and June 2005.
  • We tested the prediction performance of several statistical classification tools (learning vector quantization [LVQ], supervised relevance neural gas [SRNG], support vector machines [SVM], and generalized regression neural network [GRNN]) for this data set.
  • CONCLUSION: A standardized report, based the 50 histologic features, can be used in conjunction with modern classification tools as an objective and reproducible method for histologic grading of astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18459585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Haris M, Husain N, Singh A, Husain M, Srivastava S, Srivastava C, Behari S, Rathore RK, Saksena S, Gupta RK: Dynamic contrast-enhanced derived cerebral blood volume correlates better with leak correction than with no correction for vascular endothelial growth factor, microvascular density, and grading of astrocytoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Nov-Dec;32(6):955-65
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  • [Title] Dynamic contrast-enhanced derived cerebral blood volume correlates better with leak correction than with no correction for vascular endothelial growth factor, microvascular density, and grading of astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To look for the impact of leak correction on correlation of perfusion indices with microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 64 patients with varying grades of astrocytoma.
  • MVD and VEGF-expressing cells were quantified from the excised tumor tissues and were correlated with perfusion metrics.
  • RESULTS: Perfusion indices showed significant difference among the astrocytoma grades.
  • The corrected rCBV correlated (r = 0.853, P = <0.001) strongly, whereas the uncorrected rCBV (r = 0.592, P = <0.001) and k(trans) (r = 0.498, P = 0.001) correlated moderately with tumor grade.
  • The corrected rCBV discriminated 100% low-grade from high-grade astrocytoma, while uncorrected rCBV did this in 95.5% low-grade and 71.4% high-grade astrocytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Corrected rCBV better correlates with grade and is more accurate in discriminating low-grade from high-grade astrocytoma compared with uncorrected rCBV.
  • [MeSH-major] Artifacts. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Gadolinium DTPA. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19204461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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59. Jain D, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Deb P, Gupta D, Mahapatra AK: Correlation of diagnostic yield of stereotactic brain biopsy with number of biopsy bits and site of the lesion. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Oct;23(2):71-5
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  • Astrocytic lesions, the most common, include 10 pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), 29 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 11 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 7 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

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  • (PMID = 18095122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS); YKM8PY2Z55 / Hematoxylin
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60. Morgan RJ, Synold T, Mamelak A, Lim D, Al-Kadhimi Z, Twardowski P, Leong L, Chow W, Margolin K, Shibata S, Somlo G, Yen Y, Frankel P, Doroshow JH: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of topotecan in a phase I trial of topotecan, tamoxifen, and carboplatin, in the treatment of recurrent or refractory brain or spinal cord tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Oct;66(5):927-33
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  • The tumors included glioblastoma (6), anaplastic astrocytoma (2), metastatic non-small cell (3), small cell lung (2), and one each with medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and metastatic breast or colon carcinoma.
  • 4/8 pts with high-grade gliomas had stable disease (median: 3 cycles (range 2-5)).

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  • (PMID = 20107803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA033572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA033572-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 33572
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS335377; NLM/ PMC3265324
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61. Chang SM, Nelson S, Vandenberg S, Cha S, Prados M, Butowski N, McDermott M, Parsa AT, Aghi M, Clarke J, Berger M: Integration of preoperative anatomic and metabolic physiologic imaging of newly diagnosed glioma. J Neurooncol; 2009 May;92(3):401-15
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  • [Title] Integration of preoperative anatomic and metabolic physiologic imaging of newly diagnosed glioma.
  • PURPOSE: To integrate standard anatomic magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with uniformly acquired physiologic imaging biomarkers of untreated glioma with different histological grades with the goal of generating an algorithm that can be applied for patient management.
  • METHODS: A total of 143 patients with previously untreated glioma were scanned immediately before surgical resection using conventional anatomical MR imaging, and with uniform acquisition of perfusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and proton MR spectroscopic imaging.
  • Regions of interest corresponding to anatomic and metabolic lesions were identified to assess tumor burden.
  • MR parameters that had been found to be predictive of survival in patients with grade IV glioma were evaluated as a function of tumor grade and histological sub-type.
  • Based on these finding both anatomic and physiologic imaging parameters were then integrated to generate an algorithm for management of patients with newly diagnosed presumed glioma.
  • RESULTS: Histological analysis indicated that the population comprised 56 patients with grade II, 31 with grade III, and 56 with grade IV glioma.
  • Based on standard anatomic imaging, the presence of hypointense necrotic regions in post-Gadolinium T1-weighted images and the percentage of the T2 hyperintense lesion that was either enhancing or necrotic were effective in identifying patients with grade IV glioma.
  • The individual parameters of diffusion and perfusion parameters were significantly different for patients with grade II astrocytoma versus oligodendroglioma sub-types.
  • Lactate was higher for grade III and grade IV glioma and lipid was significantly elevated for grade IV glioma.
  • These results were integrated into a proposed management algorithm for newly diagnosed glioma that will need to be prospectively tested in future studies.
  • CONCLUSION: Metabolic and physiologic imaging characteristics provide information about tumor heterogeneity that may be important for assisting the surgeon to ensure acquisition of representative histology.

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  • (PMID = 19357966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA118816; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116041; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA97257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097257-080002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 118816; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA059880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257-080002
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS177631; NLM/ PMC2834319
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62. Perry J, Chambers A, Spithoff K, Laperriere N: Gliadel wafers in the treatment of malignant glioma: a systematic review. Curr Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(5):189-94
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  • [Title] Gliadel wafers in the treatment of malignant glioma: a systematic review.
  • QUESTION: What is the safety and efficacy of interstitial chemotherapy with carmustine-loaded polymers (Gliadel wafers: MGI Pharma, Bloomington, MN, U.S.A.) in the treatment of newly diagnosed or recurrent malignant glioma (that is, glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma)?
  • PERSPECTIVES: Malignant glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumour in adults.
  • Because several randomized controlled trials (RCTS) investigating the safety and efficacy of Gliadel are available, the Neuro-oncology Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care decided that a systematic review of the evidence was necessary.
  • RESULTS: Two RCTS that compared Gliadel to placebo in patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma were obtained.
  • One RCT and one prospective cohort study were obtained that examined the role of Gliadel in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gliadel is an option for selected patients with newly diagnosed malignant glioma where a near gross total resection is possible.
  • Gliadel is also an option for patients with surgically resectable recurrent malignant glioma.

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  • (PMID = 17938702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-0052
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2002480
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Gliadel / carmustine / glioblastoma / interstitial chemotherapy / malignant glioma / systematic review
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63. Mittal S, Oni-Orisan A, Stenz J, Shah AK: Temporal neocortical origin of pilomotor seizures in association with an infiltrating glioma: a case confirmed by intracranial electroencephalography monitoring. J Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;113(2):388-93
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  • [Title] Temporal neocortical origin of pilomotor seizures in association with an infiltrating glioma: a case confirmed by intracranial electroencephalography monitoring.
  • The authors present the first case in which intracranial electroencephalography monitoring was used to confirm pilomotor seizures of temporal neocortical origin in association with an infiltrating tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Electroencephalography. Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe. Piloerection

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  • (PMID = 20345219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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64. Hamir AN, Picton R, Blythe LL, Heidel JR: Diagnostic exercise: astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol; 2008 Nov;45(6):949-51
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  • [Title] Diagnostic exercise: astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord, and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor).
  • Described are clinical signs and pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in an adult female raccoon (Procyon lotor) with an astrocytoma that involved medulla, cervical spinal cord, and roots of the cervical spinal nerves.
  • This appears to be the only reported case of astrocytoma that involved multiple anatomic sites in the central nervous system of this raccoon.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / veterinary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / veterinary. Medulla Oblongata / pathology. Raccoons. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Nerves / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18984803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Kantor G, Laprie A, Huchet A, Loiseau H, Dejean C, Mazeron JJ: [Radiation therapy for glial tumors: technical aspects and clinical indications]. Cancer Radiother; 2008 Nov;12(6-7):687-94
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  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiography. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 18926759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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66. Habek M, Brinar VV, Rados M, Zadro I, Zarković K: Brain MRI abnormalities in ataxia-telangiectasia. Neurologist; 2008 May;14(3):192-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, initially characterized by normal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Ataxia Telangiectasia / pathology. Brain / abnormalities. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Atrophy / pathology. Atrophy / physiopathology. Cerebellar Diseases / etiology. Cerebellar Diseases / pathology. Cerebellar Diseases / physiopathology. Cerebral Arteries / pathology. Cerebral Arteries / physiopathology. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Telangiectasis / genetics. Telangiectasis / pathology. Telangiectasis / physiopathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


67. Dube S, El-Saden S, Cloughesy TF, Sinha U: Content based image retrieval for MR image studies of brain tumors. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc; 2006;1:3337-40
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  • The highest accuracy in classification of tumor grade (GBM or other Grade 3) was 77% and was achieved by SVM coupled with the PCA features.
  • The proposed algorithm intent is to be integrated into an automated decision support system for MR brain tumor studies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Artificial Intelligence. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Biomedical Engineering. Databases, Factual. Diagnosis, Differential. Discriminant Analysis. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Principal Component Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17946561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Gonçalves MI, Radzinsky TC, da Silva NS, Chiari BM, Consonni D: Speech-language and hearing complaints of children and adolescents with brain tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):706-8
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  • This report describes the incidence of speech-language and hearing complaints and disorders in children and adolescents with CNS tumor under treatment at one of the most important Brazilian reference center for pediatric cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / drug therapy. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Ependymoma / complications. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / complications. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy


69. Lehmann MH, Masanetz S, Kramer S, Erfle V: HIV-1 Nef upregulates CCL2/MCP-1 expression in astrocytes in a myristoylation- and calmodulin-dependent manner. J Cell Sci; 2006 Nov 1;119(Pt 21):4520-30
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  • We demonstrated that monocytes responded with chemotaxis when subjected to cell culture supernatants of nef-expressing astrocytic U251MG cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Calmodulin / metabolism. Chemokine CCL2 / metabolism. Gene Products, nef / physiology. Myristic Acid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Chemotaxis. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Monocytes / metabolism. Plasmids. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 17046994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cell science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calmodulin; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Gene Products, nef; 0I3V7S25AW / Myristic Acid
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70. Khalil AA: Biomarker discovery: a proteomic approach for brain cancer profiling. Cancer Sci; 2007 Feb;98(2):201-13
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  • Gliomas in the form of astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas are the most common brain tumors in humans.
  • Proteomics promises the discovery of biomarkers and tumor markers for early detection and diagnosis.
  • In the current study, a differential gel electrophoresis technology coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy was used to investigate tumor-specific changes in the proteome of human brain cancer.
  • Fifty human brain tissues comprising varying diagnostic groups (non-tumor, grade I, grade II, grade III and grade IV) were run in duplicate together with an internal pool sample on each gel.
  • Alb protein, peroxiredoxin 4 and SH3 domain-binding glutamic acid-rich-like protein 3 were upregulated in glioblastoma multiform versus non-tumor tissues.
  • However, aldolase C fructose-biphosphate, creatine kinase, B chain dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, enolase 2, fumarate hydratase, HSP60, lactoylglutathione lyase, lucine aminopeptidase, Mu-crystallin homolog, NADH-UO 24, neurofilament triplet L protein, septin 2, stathmin and vacuolar ATP synthase subunit E were downregulated in glioblastoma multiform compared with non-tumor tissues.
  • These differentially expressed proteins provided novel information on the differences existing between normal brain and gliomas, and thus might prove to be useful molecular indicators of diagnostic or prognostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Glioma / metabolism. Humans. Mass Spectrometry. Nerve Degeneration / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Proteomics


71. Facoetti A, Nano R, Zelini P, Morbini P, Benericetti E, Ceroni M, Campoli M, Ferrone S: Human leukocyte antigen and antigen processing machinery component defects in astrocytic tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 01;11(23):8304-11
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  • [Title] Human leukocyte antigen and antigen processing machinery component defects in astrocytic tumors.
  • This information may contribute to our understanding of the immune escape mechanisms used by malignant brain tumors because HLA antigens mediate interactions of tumor cells with the host's immune system.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eighty-eight surgically removed malignant astrocytic tumors, classified according to the WHO criteria, were stained in immunoperoxidase reactions with monoclonal antibody recognizing monomorphic, locus-specific, and allospecific determinants of HLA class I antigens, beta2-microglobulin, APM components (LMP2, LMP7, TAP1, TAP2, calnexin, calreticulin, and tapasin), and HLA class II antigens.
  • RESULTS: HLA class I antigens were lost in approximately 50% of the 47 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) lesions and in approximately 20% of the 18 grade 2 astrocytoma lesions stained.
  • Selective HLA-A2 antigen loss was observed in approximately 80% of the 24 GBM lesions and in approximately 50% of the 12 grade 2 astrocytoma lesions stained.
  • HLA class I antigen loss was significantly (P < 0.025) correlated with tumor grade.
  • Among the APM components investigated, tapasin expression was down-regulated in approximately 20% of the GBM lesions analyzed; it was associated, although not significantly, with HLA class I antigen down-regulation and tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiporters / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. HLA-A2 Antigen / metabolism. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Immunoglobulins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigen Presentation. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calnexin / metabolism. Calreticulin / metabolism. Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Humans. Membrane Transport Proteins. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex. beta 2-Microglobulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16322289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA67108; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA85183
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antiporters; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calreticulin; 0 / HLA-A2 Antigen; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / TAP1 protein, human; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 0 / tapasin; 139873-08-8 / Calnexin; 144416-78-4 / LMP-2 protein; 145892-13-3 / TAP2 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.25.1 / LMP7 protein; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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72. Nathoo N, Prayson RA, Bondar J, Vargo L, Arrigain S, Mascha EJ, Suh JH, Barnett GH, Golubic M: Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2006 Feb;58(2):347-54; discussion 347-54
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  • [Title] Increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase in high-grade astrocytomas.
  • In this study, we investigated whether 5-LO is expressed in human astrocytomas and what effect its expression may have on patient outcome.
  • METHODS: Increased 5-LO messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and antibody-based approaches, respectively, in surgical astrocytoma specimens and established glioblastoma multiforme cell lines compared with primary cell culture from the human white matter.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominantly nuclear 5-LO staining in 44 of 49 glioblastoma multiforme samples (90%), 8 of 10 (80%) anaplastic astrocytomas samples, and 3 of 13 (23%) low-grade astrocytoma samples analyzed.
  • Double-staining experiments with anti-CD-68 (macrophage/microglial marker) and anti-5-LO antibodies suggest that both CD-68-positive and CD-68-negative tumor cells express 5-LO protein.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that 5-LO is overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas and supports the idea that eicosanoids may play a role in tumorigenesis of these brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase / biosynthesis. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / cytology. Brain / enzymology. Cells, Cultured. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16462489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 107277
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.13.11.34 / Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
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73. Lemire J, Mailloux R, Puiseux-Dao S, Appanna VD: Aluminum-induced defective mitochondrial metabolism perturbs cytoskeletal dynamics in human astrocytoma cells. J Neurosci Res; 2009 May 1;87(6):1474-83
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  • [Title] Aluminum-induced defective mitochondrial metabolism perturbs cytoskeletal dynamics in human astrocytoma cells.
  • Whereas the control cells had well-defined structures, the Al-exposed astrocytoma cells appeared as globular structures.
  • Creatine kinase (CK) and profilin-2, two critical modulators of cellular morphology, were markedly diminished in the astrocytoma cells treated with Al.
  • Taken together, these data reveal an intricate link between ATP metabolism and astrocytic dysfunction and provide molecular insights into the pathogenesis of Al-induced neurological diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcysteine / administration & dosage. Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Antioxidants / administration & dosage. Cell Line, Tumor. Creatine Kinase / metabolism. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Humans. Immunoblotting. Ketoglutaric Acids / administration & dosage. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Profilins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19084901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4547
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Ketoglutaric Acids; 0 / Profilins; 328-50-7 / alpha-ketoglutaric acid; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; CPD4NFA903 / Aluminum; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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74. Baurand A, Eckly A, Hechler B, Kauffenstein G, Galzi JL, Cazenave JP, Léon C, Gachet C: Differential regulation and relocalization of the platelet P2Y receptors after activation: a way to avoid loss of hemostatic properties? Mol Pharmacol; 2005 Mar;67(3):721-33
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  • In the present study, we investigated the desensitization and trafficking of the P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors after agonist-induced stimulation of platelets or astrocytoma cells transfected with the P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors fused to green fluorescent protein.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Diphosphate / pharmacology. Amino Acid Sequence. Astrocytoma. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / physiology. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal. Molecular Sequence Data. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1. Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15602005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-895X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / P2RY1 protein, human; 0 / P2RY12 protein, human; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 61D2G4IYVH / Adenosine Diphosphate; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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75. Aoyama T, Hida K, Ishii N, Seki T, Ikeda J, Iwasaki Y: Intramedullary spinal cord germinoma--2 case reports. Surg Neurol; 2007 Feb;67(2):177-83; discussion 183
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  • Astrocytic tumor was initially suspected, and partial removal was performed.
  • Because the lesion did not respond to steroid pulse therapy, spinal cord tumor was suspected and biopsy was performed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paraparesis / etiology. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. Urination Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17254883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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76. Papuashvili GSh, Gagua RO, Ninua NG: [Temozolomide--a new antitumor preparation in the treatment of central nervous system malignant tumors]. Georgian Med News; 2006 May;(134):31-4
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  • On the basis of the detailed analysis of both retrospective and prospective materials it has been shown that histological type of the tumor is of great importance for the remote treatment results.
  • Of all malignant tumors of central nervous system temozolomide is more effective in the treatment of astrocytomas in comparison with the tumors of other histological types.

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  • (PMID = 16783060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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77. Witte HT, Jeibmann A, Klämbt C, Paulus W: Modeling glioma growth and invasion in Drosophila melanogaster. Neoplasia; 2009 Sep;11(9):882-8
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  • [Title] Modeling glioma growth and invasion in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant intrinsic human brain tumor, characterized by extensive invasion and proliferation of glial (astrocytic) tumor cells, frequent activation of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways, relative resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and poor prognosis.
  • Using the Gal4-UAS system, we have produced glioma models in Drosophila by overexpressing homologs of human tyrosine kinase receptors under control of the glia-specific promoter reversed polarity (repo).
  • Glial overexpression of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) resulted in enhanced proliferation and migration of larval glial cells with increased numbers in the eye imaginal disc, diffuse tumor-like enlargement of the optic stalk, and marked ectopic invasion of glial cells along the optic nerve.
  • We suggest that Drosophila models will be useful for deciphering signaling cascades underlying abnormal behavior of glioma cells for genetic screens to reveal interacting genes involved in gliomagenesis and for experimental therapy approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Drosophila melanogaster / metabolism. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eye / cytology. Eye / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19724682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2735809
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78. Kumar R, Kalra SK: Pediatric brain stem lesions: introduction of a scoring system for clinical evaluation and their treatment analysis. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Apr;24(4):467-75
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  • [Title] Pediatric brain stem lesions: introduction of a scoring system for clinical evaluation and their treatment analysis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Brainstem lesions in pediatric age group include mainly gliomas.
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Twenty-seven had gliomas, and in nonglioma group, seven had brainstem tuberculosis (BSTB).
  • Most gliomas were pilocytic astrocytomas (n = 21).
  • CONCLUSION: Gliomas form majority of pediatric brainstem lesions, with high occurrence of BSTB in nongliomatous group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Child. Child, Preschool. Decompression / methods. Female. Glioma / complications. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17978821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
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79. Stoevring B, Vang O, Christiansen M: (alpha)B-crystallin in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. Clin Chim Acta; 2005 Jun;356(1-2):95-101
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  • Possibly posttranslationally modified aggregates of (alpha)B-crystallin were found in human astroglioma U373 cells.
  • Furthermore, (alpha)B-crystallin in CSF and human astroglioma cell line U373 is found in aggregates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Chickens. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15878466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-8981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Crystallin B Chain
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80. Dubuc AM, Northcott PA, Mack S, Witt H, Pfister S, Taylor MD: The genetics of pediatric brain tumors. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2010 May;10(3):215-23
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  • Medulloblastoma, ependymoma, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and pilocytic astrocytoma are the most prevalent types, all of which are clinically, histologically, and genetically heterogeneous.
  • Despite an incomplete molecular understanding of these tumors, we have made significant headway in the past 5 years in identifying and classifying important genetic alterations and pathways central to the disease process.

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  • (PMID = 20425037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6293
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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81. Khan MA, Hashmi S: Low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial scalloping. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(2):155-7
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  • [Title] Low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial scalloping.
  • Gliomas are tumors of the white matter.
  • Only 1 case of low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial erosion has been reported in the literature of the CT era.
  • We report the first case of a low-grade astrocytoma causing calvarial erosion in an adolescent.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Osteolysis / pathology. Osteolysis / surgery. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Skull / pathology. Skull / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17337932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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82. Yoshida Y, Nakada M, Sugimoto N, Harada T, Hayashi Y, Kita D, Uchiyama N, Hayashi Y, Yachie A, Takuwa Y, Hamada J: Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 regulates glioma cell proliferation and correlates with patient survival. Int J Cancer; 2010 May 15;126(10):2341-52
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  • [Title] Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 regulates glioma cell proliferation and correlates with patient survival.
  • We investigated the expression and role of S1P receptors in glioma.
  • Human glioma expressed S1P(1), S1P(2), S1P(3), and S1P(5) by quantitative real-time PCR analysis.
  • Expression of the S1P(1) was significantly lower in glioblastoma than in the normal brain (p < 0.01) and diffuse astrocytoma (p < 0.05).
  • S1P(1) small interfering RNA promoted cell proliferation in high-expressor glioma cell lines (T98G, G112).
  • Forced expression of the S1P(1) in low-expressor cell lines (U87, U251) resulted in decreased cell growth and led to suppressed tumor growth in transplanted gliomas in vivo.
  • Furthermore, we found a significant association between the S1P(1) expression and early growth response-1, a transcriptional factor that exhibits tumor suppression in glioblastoma cells (p < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Glioma / metabolism. Glioma / mortality. Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / mortality. Blotting, Western. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Down-Regulation. GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Pertussis Toxin / pharmacology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19810093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Lysosphingolipid; EC 2.4.2.31 / Pertussis Toxin; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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83. Rousseau A, Nutt CL, Betensky RA, Iafrate AJ, Han M, Ligon KL, Rowitch DH, Louis DN: Expression of oligodendroglial and astrocytic lineage markers in diffuse gliomas: use of YKL-40, ApoE, ASCL1, and NKX2-2. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol; 2006 Dec;65(12):1149-56
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  • [Title] Expression of oligodendroglial and astrocytic lineage markers in diffuse gliomas: use of YKL-40, ApoE, ASCL1, and NKX2-2.
  • The phenotypic heterogeneity of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumor cells complicates establishing accurate diagnostic criteria, and lineage-specific markers would facilitate diagnosis of glioma subtypes.
  • Based on data from the literature and from expression microarrays, we selected molecules relevant to gliogenesis and glial lineage specificity and then used immunohistochemistry to assess expression of these molecules in 55 diffuse gliomas, including 8 biphasic oligoastrocytomas, 21 oligodendrogliomas (all with 1p/19qloss), 21 astrocytomas, and 5 glioblastomas.
  • For the astrocytic lineage markers (GFAP, YKL-40, and ApoE), GFAP expression was significantly higher in the astrocytic component of oligoastrocytomas compared with the oligodendroglial part; similar patterns were detected for YKL-40 and ApoE, although the differences were not significant.
  • GFAP, YKL-40, and ApoE reliably distinguished grade II-III oligodendrogliomas from grade II-IV astrocytomas (p < 0.0001, p = 0.002, and p < 0.0001, respectively).
  • Among the oligodendroglial lineage markers (Olig2, Sox10, ASCL1, and NKX2-2), ASCL1 and NKX2-2 displayed significantly different immunostaining between oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas (p = 0.017 and 0.004, respectively), but none clearly differentiated between the 2 glial populations of oligoastrocytomas.
  • In addition to GFAP, therefore, YKL-40, ApoE, ASCL1, and NKX2-2 represent promising tumor cell markers to distinguish oligodendrogliomas from astrocytomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cell Lineage / genetics. Glioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipokines. Apolipoproteins E / analysis. Apolipoproteins E / metabolism. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / analysis. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Glycoproteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lectins. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / metabolism. Predictive Value of Tests. Transcription Factors / analysis. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17146289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3069
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 57683; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 95616
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ASCL1 protein, human; 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Nkx-2.2 homedomain protein; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / apolipoprotein E1
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84. Kalluri SR, Illes Z, Srivastava R, Cree B, Menge T, Bennett JL, Berthele A, Hemmer B: Quantification and functional characterization of antibodies to native aquaporin 4 in neuromyelitis optica. Arch Neurol; 2010 Oct;67(10):1201-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting membrane proteins play an important role in various autoimmune diseases of the nervous system.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We developed a novel bioassay for quantification and characterization of human anti-AQP4 antibodies based on high-level expression of native AQP4 (nAQP4) protein on the surface of human astroglioma cells.
  • The test was validated in 2 independent cohorts of patients with NMO spectrum disease.
  • RESULTS: We detected anti-nAQP4-IgG with a sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 100% in patients with NMO spectrum diseases, suggesting that our bioassay is at least as sensitive and specific as the gold-standard NMO-IgG assay.
  • Our findings demonstrate the potential of bioassays to characterize biologically relevant antibodies in human autoimmune diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biological Assay / methods. Cell Line, Tumor. Cohort Studies. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic / methods. Female. Flow Cytometry / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Transfection / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20937947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP4 protein, human; 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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85. Michalowski MB, de Fraipont F, Michelland S, Entz-Werle N, Grill J, Pasquier B, Favrot MC, Plantaz D: Methylation of RASSF1A and TRAIL pathway-related genes is frequent in childhood intracranial ependymomas and benign choroid plexus papilloma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Apr 1;166(1):74-81
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  • Ependymomas (EP) represent the third most frequent type of central nervous system (CNS) tumor of childhood, after astrocytomas and medulloblastomas.
  • The present objective was, for a sample of 27 children with intracranial EP and 7 with CPP, to describe and compare the methylation status of 19 genes (with current HUGO symbol, if any): p15INK4a (CDKN2B), p16INK4a and p14ARF (both CDKN2A), APC, RB1, RASSF1A (RASSF1), BLU (ZMYND10) FHIT, RARB, MGMT, DAPK (DAPK1), ECAD (CDH1), CASP8, TNFRSF10C, TNFRSF10D, FLIP (CFLAR), INI1 (SMARCB1), TIMP3, and NF2.
  • Although we did not observe a statistical relationship between methylation and clinical outcome, the methylation pattern does not appear to be randomly distributed in ependymoma and may represent a mechanism of tumor development and evolution.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Ependymoma / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


86. Kondyli M, Gatzounis G, Kyritsis A, Varakis J, Assimakopoulou M: Immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated JAK-2 and STAT-5 proteins and correlation with erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) expression status in human brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2010 Nov;100(2):157-64
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  • Using specific antibodies and immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded semi-serial tissue sections a total of 87 human brain tumors and samples from normal brain tissue were studied. pJAK-2/pSTAT-5 nuclear co-expression was detected in 39% of astrocytomas, 43% of oligodendrogliomas, 50% of ependymomas, and in all (100%) of the medulloblastomas examined.
  • EpoR/pJAK-2/pSTAT-5 co-expression was detected in a small percentage of astrocytomas (18%) and ependymomas (33%).
  • Tumor vessels exhibited EpoR, pJAK-2, and pSTAT-5 immunoreactivity.

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  • (PMID = 20336349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2
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87. Edwards LA, Thiessen B, Dragowska WH, Daynard T, Bally MB, Dedhar S: Inhibition of ILK in PTEN-mutant human glioblastomas inhibits PKB/Akt activation, induces apoptosis, and delays tumor growth. Oncogene; 2005 May 19;24(22):3596-605
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  • [Title] Inhibition of ILK in PTEN-mutant human glioblastomas inhibits PKB/Akt activation, induces apoptosis, and delays tumor growth.
  • The tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) regulates the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in high-grade astrocytomas when mutational inactivation or loss of the PTEN gene occurs.
  • 5 mg/kg), exhibited stable disease with < or =7% increase in tumor volume over the 3-week course of treatment.
  • In contrast, animals treated with an oligonucleotide control or saline exhibited a >100% increase in tumor volume over the same time period.
  • [MeSH-minor] 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases. Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / physiology. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics


88. Aryan HE, Meltzer HS, Lu DC, Ozgur BM, Levy ML, Bruce DA: Management of pilocytic astrocytoma with diffuse leptomeningeal spread: two cases and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Jun;21(6):477-81
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  • [Title] Management of pilocytic astrocytoma with diffuse leptomeningeal spread: two cases and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Leptomeningeal dissemination of juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is a rare event.
  • We report two children with disseminated JPAs treated with a chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide, after progression of the disease despite surgery, traditional chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.
  • CASE REPORTS: Patient 1 presented with hydrocephalus and progressive lower extremity weakness, and was found to have a suprasellar mass as well as extensive spinal disease.
  • Ventriculoperitoneal shunting, decompressive laminectomy with spinal tumor debulking, and chemotherapy with carboplatin and vincristine were initially employed.
  • However, disease progressed and craniospinal irradiation and temozolomide were used.
  • Imaging revealed a cystic lesion in the hypothalamic region with extensive subarachnoid metastatic disease to the spine.
  • Due to the continued progression of the disease, cytoreductive surgery was performed and her chemotherapeutic regimen was switched to temozolomide.
  • Two years after initial presentation patient 2 is clinically much improved with stable residual disease.
  • DISCUSSION: We review the literature and discuss treatment strategies for this challenging disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Arachnoid Cysts / therapy. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15378329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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89. Liu L, Bäcklund LM, Nilsson BR, Grandér D, Ichimura K, Goike HM, Collins VP: Clinical significance of EGFR amplification and the aberrant EGFRvIII transcript in conventionally treated astrocytic gliomas. J Mol Med (Berl); 2005 Nov;83(11):917-26
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of EGFR amplification and the aberrant EGFRvIII transcript in conventionally treated astrocytic gliomas.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of assessing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification and the common 5' rearrangement of EGFR resulting in the EGFRvIII transcript in astrocytic gliomas.
  • Amplification of EGFR was found in 41% (65/160) of glioblastomas (GBs) and 10% (4/41) of anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs).
  • There were no abnormalities of the EFGR or its transcript in grade II astrocytoma (AII).
  • We noted a tendency towards decreased survival with any EGFR abnormality in the 41 patients with AAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Amplification. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioma / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16133418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-2716
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6618
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / epidermal growth factor receptor VIII; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815848; NLM/ UKMS2690
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90. Hsieh JC, Lesniak MS: Surgical management of high-grade gliomas. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S33-9
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  • [Title] Surgical management of high-grade gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas, in particular anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme, represent two of the most devastating forms of brain cancer.
  • In spite of the poor prognosis, new treatments and emerging therapies are making an impact on this disease.
  • This review discusses the role of the surgical management of high-grade gliomas and provides an overview of the currently available therapies which depend on surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy / methods. Craniotomy / methods. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Disease Progression. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Drug Therapy / methods. Expert Testimony. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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91. Harris JE, Friedland JS: l-Glutamate in Middlebrook 7H9 culture medium upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion from human astrocytoma cells. J Neurosci Methods; 2008 Aug 30;173(2):291-4
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  • [Title] l-Glutamate in Middlebrook 7H9 culture medium upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion from human astrocytoma cells.
  • Whilst investigating the secretion of MMP-2 from human U373-MG astrocytoma cells, we observed elevated MMP-2 secretion in response to Middlebrook 7H9 media but not to Mycobacterium tuberculosis itself.
  • Middlebrook 7H9 media did not stimulate MMP-1 or MMP-9 secretion from astrocytoma cells.
  • The excitatory neurotransmitter l-glutamate, at concentrations found in Middlebrook 7H9 media, induced significant astrocytoma MMP-2 secretion (p<0.05).
  • l-Glutamate-induced MMP-2 activity may contribute to neuropathology in various CNS diseases and may generate misleading data in pathogen studies where Middlebrook 7H9 is the culture medium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma. Cell Culture Techniques / standards. Cell Line, Tumor. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Extracellular Matrix / drug effects. Extracellular Matrix / enzymology. Extracellular Matrix / microbiology. Humans. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / drug effects. Mycobacterium tuberculosis / enzymology. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic / standards. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18611410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-0270
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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92. Ferguson MR, Rojo DR, Somasunderam A, Thiviyanathan V, Ridley BD, Yang X, Gorenstein DG: Delivery of double-stranded DNA thioaptamers into HIV-1 infected cells for antiviral activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Jun 9;344(3):792-7
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  • [Title] Delivery of double-stranded DNA thioaptamers into HIV-1 infected cells for antiviral activity.
  • Oligonucleotide agents (ODN) are emerging as attractive alternatives to chemical drugs.
  • However, the clinical use of ODNs as therapeutics has been hindered by their susceptibility to degradation by cellular enzymes and their limited ability to penetrate intact cells.
  • We have used various liposome-mediated transfection agents, for the in vitro delivery of DNA thioaptamers into U373-MAGI-CCR5 cells.
  • Our lead thioaptamer, R12-2, targets the RNase H domain of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and inhibits viral infection in U373-MAGI-CCR5 cells.
  • R12-2, a 62-base-pair, double-stranded DNA molecule with a monothio-phosphate modified backbone, was selected through a novel combinatorial selection method.
  • We studied the use of oligofectamine (OF), TFX-20, Transmessenger (TM), and Gene Jammer (GJ) for transfection of the thio-modified DNA aptamers.
  • OF-transfected U373-MAGI-CCR5 cells resulted in 68% inhibition of HIV infection in the treated cells compared to the untreated control.
  • Inhibition was observed in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 83%.
  • In this report, we demonstrate that monothioate-modified DNA duplex oligonucleotides can be efficiently delivered into cells by liposome-based transfection agents to inhibit HIV replication.

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  • (PMID = 16631118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI058194-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI058194; United States / PHS HHS / / A127744; United States / PHS HHS / / U01-A1054827; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI058194-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES06676; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI058194-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Aptamers, Nucleotide; EC 3.1.26.4 / Ribonuclease H
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93. Rivera-Luna R, Zapata-Tarrés M, Medina-Sansón A, López-Aguilar E, Niembro-Zúñiga A, Amador Zarco J, Marhx-Bracho A, Rueda-Franco F, Bornstein-Quevedo L: Long-term survival in children under 3 years of age with low-grade astrocytoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 May;23(5):543-7
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  • [Source] The source of thi