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25. Arulrajah S, Huisman TA: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the spinal cord with cerebrospinal fluid and peritoneal metastasis. Neuropediatrics; 2008 Aug;39(4):243-5
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  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the spinal cord with cerebrospinal fluid and peritoneal metastasis.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently described rare tumor which is a variant of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA).
  • Spinal cord PMA has been reported in two articles in the past and none of the reported case had extraneural metastasis.
  • We report on a female child with cervical cord PMA with diffuse leptomeningeal metastasis involving the brain and spinal cord.
  • Two years later she presented with peritoneal carcinomatoses which was consistent with metastatic tumor via a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Astrocytoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19165714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-304X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Chio CC, Lin JW, Chang MW, Wang CC, Kuo JR, Yang CZ, Chang CP: Therapeutic evaluation of etanercept in a model of traumatic brain injury. J Neurochem; 2010 Nov;115(4):921-9
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  • Antagonism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with etanercept has proved to be effective in the treatment of spinal cord injury and centrally endotoxin-induced brain injury.
  • TBI-induced neuronal apoptosis (e.g., increased numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase αUTP nick-end labeling and neuronal-specific nuclear protein double-positive cells), glial apoptosis (e.g., increased numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase αUTP nick-end labeling and glial fibrillary acidic protein double-positive cells), astrocytic (e.g., increased numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells) and microglial (e.g., increased numbers of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1-positive cells) activation and activated inflammation (e.g., increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6) were all significantly reduced by etanercept treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Brain Injuries / drug therapy. Disease Models, Animal. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods. Etanercept. Hippocampus / metabolism. Hippocampus / pathology. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2010 International Society for Neurochemistry.
  • (PMID = 20796174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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27. Maria BL, Gupta N, Gilg AG, Abdel-Wahab M, Leonard AP, Slomiany M, Wheeler WG, Tolliver LB, Babcock MA, Lucas JT Jr, Toole BP: Targeting hyaluronan interactions in spinal cord astrocytomas and diffuse pontine gliomas. J Child Neurol; 2008 Oct;23(10):1214-20
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  • [Title] Targeting hyaluronan interactions in spinal cord astrocytomas and diffuse pontine gliomas.
  • Although significant advances have been made in treating malignant pediatric central nervous system tumors such as medulloblastoma, no effective therapy exists for diffuse pontine glioma or intramedullary spinal astrocytoma.
  • Biology of these 2 tumors is poorly understood, in part because diffuse pontine gliomas are not treated surgically, and tumor specimens from intramedullary spinal astrocytomas are rare and minuscule.
  • We review the clinical course of pediatric intramedullary spinal astrocytoma and diffuse pontine glioma, and show expression of membrane proteins that interact with hyaluronan: CD44, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Stem Neoplasms / metabolism. Glioma / metabolism. Hyaluronic Acid / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18952588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R13 NS040925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA073839; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 5R13NS040925-09; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06RR015455; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA082867; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073839; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR015455; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA082867
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Hyaluronan Receptors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 136894-56-9 / Basigin; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS463105; NLM/ PMC3641563
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28. Robinson CG, Prayson RA, Hahn JF, Kalfas IH, Whitfield MD, Lee SY, Suh JH: Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Sep 1;63(1):91-100
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  • [Title] Long-term survival and functional status of patients with low-grade astrocytoma of spinal cord.
  • PURPOSE: To determine survival and changes in neurologic function and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) in a series of patients treated for low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord during the past two decades.
  • METHODS: This study consisted of 14 patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord who were treated between 1980 and 2003.
  • Neither overall survival nor progression-free survival was clearly correlated with any patient, tumor, or treatment factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients who undergo gross total resection of their tumor may be followed closely.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16111576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Larson DB, Hedlund GL: Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord. Pediatr Radiol; 2006 Dec;36(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Non-enhancing pilocytic astrocytoma of the spinal cord.
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas are among the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumors in the pediatric age group.
  • The presence of contrast enhancement is a major factor used to distinguish these tumors from other spinal cord lesions.
  • We present a case of histologically proved non-enhancing intramedullary spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma in a 12-year-old girl.
  • This case represents an exception to the conventional wisdom that pediatric spinal neoplasms enhance with administration of intravenous contrast material.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17021719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. O'Brien M, Curtis C, D'Hemecourt P, Proctor M: Case report: a case of persistent back pain and constipation in a 5-year-old boy. Phys Sportsmed; 2009 Apr;37(1):133-7
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  • Pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors are rare and account for 3% to 6% of all central nervous system tumors.
  • We report a case of an intramedullary spinal cord astrocytoma in a 5-year-old boy with nonspecific mid-back pain for 3 months.
  • An urgent magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary tumor in the mid-thoracic cord, confirmed by surgical excision.
  • Associated findings, including nocturnal pain and neurological symptoms may indicate a more serious underlying pathology such as a tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Back Pain / etiology. Constipation / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20048499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-3847
  • [Journal-full-title] The Physician and sportsmedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Sportsmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Carmen J, Rothstein JD, Kerr DA: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates glutamate transport in the CNS and is a critical determinant of outcome from viral encephalomyelitis. Brain Res; 2009 Mar 31;1263:143-54
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  • [Title] Tumor necrosis factor-alpha modulates glutamate transport in the CNS and is a critical determinant of outcome from viral encephalomyelitis.
  • Neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) is a neuronotropic virus that causes a fulminant encephalomyelitis in susceptible mice due to death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord.
  • We and others have found that uninfected motor neurons die in response to NSV infection, at least in part due to disrupted astrocytic glutamate transport, resulting in excitotoxic motor neuron death.
  • Treatment of organotypic slice cultures with NSV results in viral replication, cell death, altered astrocyte morphology, and the downregulation of the astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1.
  • Furthermore, TNF-alpha deficient mice infected with NSV exhibit neither GLT-1 downregulation nor neuronal death of brainstem and cervical spinal cord motor neurons and have markedly reduced mortality.

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  • (PMID = 19368827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6240
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052179; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS052179-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS033958-09; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS033958; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS052179-05; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS033958-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS135641; NLM/ PMC2952353
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32. Anan M, Inoue R, Ishii K, Abe T, Fujiki M, Kobayashi H, Goya T, Nakazato Y: A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the spinal cord: the first case of a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor originating from the spinal cord. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):898-901
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  • [Title] A rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the spinal cord: the first case of a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor originating from the spinal cord.
  • This report presents the first case of a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors arising from the spinal cord.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass in the cervicothoracic spinal cord that suggested an intramedullary spinal tumor.
  • A total gross resection of the tumor was performed.
  • As is typical of rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle, this spinal cord example manifested neurocytic and astrocytic components.
  • The astrocytic component showed characteristic features of a pilocytic astrocytoma, as is often the case in the fourth ventricle examples.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Rosette Formation

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2009 Oct;40(10):1510; author reply 1510 [19616823.001]
  • (PMID = 19269010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Rovin RA, Winn R: Expression of O6-methylguanine-deoxyribose nucleic acid methyltransferase and temozolomide response in a patient with a malignant spinal cord astrocytoma. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2007 May;6(5):447-50
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  • [Title] Expression of O6-methylguanine-deoxyribose nucleic acid methyltransferase and temozolomide response in a patient with a malignant spinal cord astrocytoma. Case report.
  • The authors report the case of a 28-year-old woman with a high-grade spinal cord astrocytoma.
  • Treatment using surgery, radiation, and temozolomide (TMZ) led to functional recovery and regression of the residual tumor as demonstrated on serial magnetic resonance images.
  • Genetic testing revealed that this tumor did not express the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT).
  • This is the first report in the literature correlating MGMT expression with the clinical response of a high-grade spinal cord astrocytoma treated using TMZ.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17542512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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4. Zhou D, Zhang Y, Liu H, Luo S, Luo L, Dai K: Epidemiology of nervous system tumors in children: a survey of 1,485 cases in Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2001 to 2005. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(2):97-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During a 5-year period, from January 2001 to December 2005, 1,485 primary brain and spinal tumors in children up to 17 years of age were diagnosed histopathologically according to the World Health Organization 2000 nervous system tumor classification.
  • The sex predilection, tumor location, and histological grade in relation to age were investigated, and the epidemiological characteristics of the 5 most common brain tumors are discussed.
  • RESULT: Of the 1,485 cases evaluated, brain and spinal tumors comprised 92.3% (1,371) and 7.7% (114), respectively, with a predominance of low-grade tumors (65.1 and 78.9% for brain and spinal cord, respectively).
  • The 5 most common brain tumors were astrocytic tumors (30.5%), craniopharyngiomas (18.4%), medulloblastomas (14.6%), germ cell tumors (GCTs, 7.9%) and ependymal tumors (5.6%).
  • The most common types of spinal tumors were ependymal tumors (19.3%), neurilemmomas (16.7%) and astrocytomas (14.9%).

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  • (PMID = 18230922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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35. Yoshino M, Morita A, Shibahara J, Kirino T: Radiation-induced spinal cord cavernous malformation. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102(1 Suppl):101-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation-induced spinal cord cavernous malformation. Case report.
  • The authors report a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with progressive gait difficulty 8 years after undergoing spinal radiation therapy for spinal astrocytoma.
  • This is believed to be the third case of de novo formation of an intramedullary cavernous malformation following spinal radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / etiology. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Spinal Cord Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16206743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Koga T, Morita A, Maruyama K, Tanaka M, Ino Y, Shibahara J, Louis DN, Reifenberger G, Itami J, Hara R, Saito N, Todo T: Long-term control of disseminated pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features by means of stereotactic irradiation. Neuro Oncol; 2009 Aug;11(4):446-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic neoplasm of the brain.
  • A 47-year-old woman presented with an epileptic seizure due to a large tumor in the right frontal lobe.
  • The tumor was resected and diagnosed as PXA with anaplastic features.
  • Two years later, the patient developed a tumor nodule in the cervical spinal cord that histologically corresponded to a small-cell glioma with high cellularity and prominent MIB-1 (mindbomb homolog 1) labeling.
  • In the following months, multiple nodular lesions appeared throughout the CNS, and STI was performed six times for eight intracranial lesions using Gamma Knife and twice using a linear accelerator, for three spinal cord lesions in total.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Katoh N, Shirato H, Aoyama H, Onimaru R, Suzuki K, Hida K, Miyasaka K, Iwasaki Y: Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumor. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;78(1):63-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumor.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of post-operative radiotherapy for spinal cord glioma with the emphasis on the hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation as a treatment option for high-grade spinal cord astrocytic tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients with spinal cord glioma received post-operative radiotherapy between 1979 and 2003.
  • There were 12 low-grade astrocytic tumors, 11 high-grade astrocytic tumors, 16 low-grade ependymal tumors and 2 high-grade ependymal tumors.
  • Among 11 patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors, 5 with anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 with glioblastoma received hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation.
  • RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 10 years from the date of the first surgery were 64% for the entire group, 47% for the astrocytic tumors and 84% for the ependymal tumors, respectively (P=0.009).
  • Among 11 patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors, the actuarial survival rate at 10 years was 35%.
  • DISCUSSION: The results for ependymal tumors and low-grade astrocytic tumors were comparable to those reported in the literature.
  • Hypofractionated radiotherapy boost for dose escalation may help to prolong the survival of patients with high-grade astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dose Fractionation. Glioma / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16314938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Cuadrado-Pereira M, Rodriguez-Saenz J, Andujar-Felix J: Spinal cord high grade astrocytoma. Bol Asoc Med P R; 2007 Jan-Mar;99(1):60-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord high grade astrocytoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the medical history, psychosocial aspects and the rehabilitation management of a patient with a high-grade astrocytoma of the spinal cord.
  • To review the literature regarding the epidemiology, classification, treatment, prognosis, and outcomes of astrocytomas involving the spinal cord.
  • To discuss issues and controversies in the rehabilitation management of spinal cord high-grade astrocytomas.
  • SETTING: Inpatient Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Unit of Veterans Affair Medical Center; San Juan, Puerto Rico.
  • RESULTS: Aggressive multimodality treatment including acute inpatient interdisciplinary rehabilitation approach provided excellent results exceeding survival time and functional expectations for a patientwith high-grade astrocytoma.
  • (1) the survival time of more than three years, which exceeded the expected survival time of ten months for a patient diagnosed with spinal cord high grade astrocytoma and (2) for the outcomes achieved through an intensive comprehensive acute inpatient interdisci-plinary rehabilitation program which helped the patient achieve previous premorbid functional goals.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Spinal Cord Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17616049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Boletín de la Asociación Médica de Puerto Rico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bol Asoc Med P R
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Puerto Rico
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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