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1. Barua N, Hilton DA, Mukonoweshuro W, Khalil H, Pobereskin L: Persistent CSF Rhinorrhoea, Pneumocephalus, and Recurrent Meningitis Following Misdiagnosis of Olfactory Neuroblastoma. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Persistent CSF Rhinorrhoea, Pneumocephalus, and Recurrent Meningitis Following Misdiagnosis of Olfactory Neuroblastoma.
  • Histological examination of an endonasal transethmoidal biopsy suggested a diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 20811561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2929619
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2. Cheng C, Long Xb: [Diagnosis and treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2010 Oct;30(10):2402-3, 2405
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma in the nasal cavity and sinuses].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB).
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 7 patients with ENB were analyzed retrospectively, and the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, surgical approaches and prognosis of the disease were discussed.
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of ENB can be difficult.
  • Transnasal-frontal approach with nasal endoscope is effective approach to ENB treatment, and the patients may benefit from postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy to improve the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory. Nose Neoplasms. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20965857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Thompson LD: Olfactory neuroblastoma. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Sep;3(3):252-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Few neoplasms are unique to the sinonasal tract, but sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma are malignant tumors which require unique management.
  • Specifically, olfactory neuroblastoma is a neoplasm that can histologically mimic many tumors within the sinonasal tract, making recognition of this tumor important, as the management frequently requires a bicranial-facial surgical approach, a trephination procedure which can be quite technically difficult and challenging to achieve a good result.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20596981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811627
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4. Yamate J, Izawa T, Ogata K, Kobayashi O, Okajima R, Kuwamura M, Kotani T, Aoki M: Olfactory neuroblastoma in a horse. J Vet Med Sci; 2006 May;68(5):495-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma in a horse.
  • An 11-year-old thoroughbred gelding was euthanatized because of right nasal cavity tumor.
  • Based on these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as an olfactory neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16757894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Sampath P, Park MC, Huang D, Deville C, Cortez S, Chougule P: Esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) with hemorrhage: an unusual presentation. Skull Base; 2006 Aug;16(3):169-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) with hemorrhage: an unusual presentation.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) is an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Patients often present with nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, recurrent epistaxis, hyposmia, or anosmia.
  • However, we report the highly unusual case of a patient with an esthesioneuroblastoma who presented with atypical symptoms of headaches, sinus congestion, and fatigue before acutely losing consciousness.
  • This is the first reported case of an esthesioneuroblastoma presenting with hemorrhage and rapidly declining mental status, an acute neurological manifestation of which clinicians should be aware.

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  • (PMID = 17268590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1586171
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6. Guled M, Myllykangas S, Frierson HF Jr, Mills SE, Knuutila S, Stelow EB: Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of olfactory neuroblastoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Jun;21(6):770-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is an unusual neuroectodermal malignancy, which is thought to arise at the olfactory membrane of the sinonasal tract.
  • The aim of the current study is to identify specific DNA copy number changes in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Our results show that gene copy number profiles of olfactory neuroblastoma samples are complex.
  • Gains were more frequent than losses, and high-stage tumors showed more alterations than low-stage olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • In addition, our results indicate that gains in 20q and 13q may be important in the progression of this cancer, and that these regions possibly harbor genes with functional relevance in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / genetics. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18408657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Wang CC, Chen YL, Hsu YS, Jung SM, Hao SP: Transcranial resection of olfactory neuroblastoma. Skull Base; 2005 Aug;15(3):163-71; discussion 171

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transcranial resection of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • From February 1995 to August 2004 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, eight patients with an olfactory neuroblastoma underwent transcranial resection alone.
  • The transcranial surgical technique consisted of a bicoronal incision, followed by a standard frontal craniotomy with or without a separated orbital bar osteotomy.
  • With thorough knowledge of the basic topographic anatomy of the anterior cranial base, transcranial resection can provide adequate surgical exposure to facilitate oncologically sound resection and to execute reliable skull base reconstruction in selected patients with an olfactory neuroblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16175226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1214702
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8. Sugita Y, Kusano K, Tokunaga O, Mineta T, Abe M, Harada H, Shigemori M: Olfactory neuroepithelioma: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. Neuropathology; 2006 Oct;26(5):400-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Olfactory neuroepithelioma: an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.
  • Three cases of olfactory neuroepithelioma are presented in this report.
  • Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells had the differentiation features of olfactory epithelium.
  • Olfactory neuroepithelioma is a rare occurrence and it can be very difficult to distinguish olfactory neuroepithelioma from small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma and so-called "olfactory neuroblastoma" on the basis of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections alone.
  • In controversial cases, a diagnosis of olfactory neuroepithelioma must be substantiated by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical findings, particularly regarding the detection of Ber-EP4 and LH-RH immunoreactivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Nasal Cavity / ultrastructure. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral / ultrastructure. Nose Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17080716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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9. Iio M, Homma A, Furuta Y, Fukuda S: [Magnetic resonance imaging of olfactory neuroblastoma]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2006 Mar 20;109(3):142-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Magnetic resonance imaging of olfactory neuroblastoma].
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon intranasal tumor originating from olfactory neuroepithelium.
  • Despite the development of electron microscopy and immunohistochemical testing, the pathological diagnosis of this tumor is still difficult because of the wide range of histological features.
  • The purpose of this report was to analyze the MR characteristics of olfactory neuroblastomas.
  • Seventeen patients with olfactory neuroblastoma were treated at Hokkaido University Hospital and a related hospital during the past 25 years.
  • MR images taken in 12 patients and CT images taken in 9 patients with histologically confirmed olfactory neuroblastoma were retrospectively reviewed.
  • In most cases, olfactory neuroblastomas are hypointense on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and show marked homogeneous enhancement with well-demarcated regular margins upon gadolinium enhancement.
  • Although the definite diagnosis is based on histopathology findings and MR features are nonspecific, they may suggest an imaging diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma when seen in the superior nasal cavity.
  • MR is superior to CT both in delineating the extent of the tumor and in making an imaging diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16615428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Parker VJ, Morrison JA, Yaeger MJ: Olfactory neuroblastoma in a cat. J Feline Med Surg; 2010 Nov;12(11):867-71
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  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma in a cat.
  • Physical examination suggested upper airway disease.
  • Computed tomography revealed the presence of a nasopharyngeal mass.
  • Biopsies obtained via rhinoscopy led to a diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • CLINICAL CHALLENGES: Olfactory neuroblastoma (or esthesioneuroblastoma) is a rare malignant neoplasm that arises from olfactory neuroepithelium.
  • Clinical signs are variable, and diagnosis may prove challenging as this tumor, which is a differential for spontaneous intranasal tumors in cats, may be mistaken for poorly differentiated carcinomas or round cell tumors.
  • Given its rarity, treatment options for this neoplasm have not been thoroughly evaluated and there is no standard treatment protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / veterinary. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20974404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2750
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Li LY, Chen L, Wang RG, Han DY, Huang DL, Yang WY: [Investigation of surgical managements of olfactory neuroblastoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;43(2):89-91
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  • [Title] [Investigation of surgical managements of olfactory neuroblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transnasal endoscopic resection and craniofacial resection through an external approach for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB).
  • METHODS: Thirty two patients with ONB treated between 1987 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory neuroblastoma can be safely and effectively excised and reconstructed endoscopically with comparable degrees of tissue removal as with external approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18510210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Yuen AP, Fan YW, Fung CF, Hung KN: Endoscopic-assisted cranionasal resection of olfactory neuroblastoma. Head Neck; 2005 Jun;27(6):488-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic-assisted cranionasal resection of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Cranionasal resection was first described in 1997 for the surgical resection of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • The authors have routinely practiced cranionasal resection since 1996 for resection of all anterior skull base tumors in which the resultant skull base bony defect is limited to the nasal and sinus roof.
  • The aim of this study was to review the results of cranionasal resection for olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • METHODS: The results of cranionasal resection for olfactory neuroblastoma in six patients from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was given only to the patient with Kadesh stage C disease.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy is not necessary after clear resection of Kadesh A and B tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15880390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Nishimura H, Ogino T, Kawashima M, Nihei K, Arahira S, Onozawa M, Katsuta S, Nishio T: Proton-beam therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jul 1;68(3):758-62
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  • [Title] Proton-beam therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the feasibility and efficacy of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) as a definitive treatment, by reviewing our preliminary experience.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease, and a standard treatment strategy has not been established.
  • Radiation therapy for ONB is challenging because of the proximity of ONBs to critical organs.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective review was performed on 14 patients who underwent PBT for ONB as definitive treatment at the National Cancer Center Hospital East (Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan) from November 1999 to February 2005.
  • One patient died from disseminated disease.
  • Liquorrhea was observed in one patient with Kadish's stage C disease (widely destroying the skull base).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results of PBT for ONB achieved excellent local control and survival outcomes without serious adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / radiotherapy. Nasal Cavity. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17398027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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14. Kano S, Furuta Y, Homma A, Oridate N, Higuchi E, Suzuki F, Nagahashi T, Sawamura Y, Fukuda S: [Olfactory neuroblastoma: the Hokkaido University experience]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2006 May;109(5):433-9
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  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma: the Hokkaido University experience].
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is such a rare malignancy that no consensus has been reached on its management.
  • We analyzed 17 patients with olfactory neuroblastoma treated between April 1980 and March 2004--9 men and 8 women, aged 16 to 76 years old(mean: 50.4 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16768158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Fury MG, Sherman E, Stambuk H, Haque S, Lisa D, Shen R, Carlson D, Pfister DG: Phase I study of everolimus (E; RAD001) + low-dose weekly cisplatin (C) for patients with advanced solid tumors: Preliminary results. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14527

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  • METHODS: Patients received E per oral for days 1-21 of a 28 day cycle.
  • At DL1, 3 patients were inevaluable (1 withdrawal of consent prior to treatment, 1 disease progression during cycle 1, 1 recurrent diverticulitis during cycle 1) and were replaced.
  • Minor response seen in pulmonary carcinoid (n = 1); prolonged SD ≥ 6 cycles seen in pulmonary carcinoid (n=2), basal cell carcinoma (n=1), and esthesioneuroblastoma (n=1).

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  • (PMID = 27963576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Hameed S, Jamshed A, Hussain R, Ali M, Iqbal H, Majeed U, Shah MA: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or chemoradiation for locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6055

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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or chemoradiation for locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors.
  • : 6055 Background: The treatment of locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors is controversial.
  • The disease is chemosensitive and there is increasing interest in the use of chemotherapy with radiation in this group of patients.
  • Our aim was to determine survival in patients with locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or chemoradiation (RT/CRT).
  • METHODS: Between August 2005 and August 2008, 21 patients with AJCC stage III or IV nasal and paranasal sinus tumors were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by RT/CRT in our institution.
  • Site of disease was nasal cavity 33% (7), ethamoid sinus 43% (9), maxillary antrum 19% (4), and frontal sinus in 5% (1) of patients.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma 43% (9), undifferentiated carcinoma 29% (6), adenocarcinoma 19% (4), esthesioneuroblastoma in 9% (2) of patients.
  • Following RT/CRT 86% (18/21) had complete regression of disease.
  • Disease free and overall survival at 40 months was 52% and 63%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine cisplatin chemotherapy has good activity in nasal and paranasal sinus tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27961932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Woźniak MA, Dobrzyński P, Gutowska A: [Olfactory neuroblastoma in 55 year old woman]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2005 Sep;19(111):440-1
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  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma in 55 year old woman].
  • [Transliterated title] Nerwiak wechowy zarodkowy u 55 letniej kobiety.
  • In this article the authors describe a rare case of olfactory neuroblastoma in a 55-year-old woman surgically treated because of nasal polyposis.
  • Three years earlier she had been operated for nasal polyposis on the same side in another ENT department.
  • In histopathological examination it was confirmed to be olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • The tumor was classified as stage B in Kadish classification of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis and CT scan made after the surgery resulted in necessity of further oncological treatment.
  • The olfactory neuroblastoma is rare, difficult to diagnose, malignant, slowly growing tumor arising from the olfactory epithelium in the upper nasal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory. Nasal Polyps. Nose Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16358902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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18. Kim JW, Kong IG, Lee CH, Kim DY, Rhee CS, Min YG, Kim CW, Chung JH: Expression of Bcl-2 in olfactory neuroblastoma and its association with chemotherapy and survival. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Nov;139(5):708-12
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  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-2 in olfactory neuroblastoma and its association with chemotherapy and survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of tumor markers in olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB).
  • STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Seventeen patients with ONB (23 tumor specimens) were included.
  • All of the ONB specimens were negative for N-myc.
  • CONCLUSION: Bcl-2 expression was commonly found in ONB and the immunoreactivity for bcl-2 might predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / metabolism. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / metabolism. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18984268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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19. Mao L, Xia YP, Zhou YN, Dai RL, Yang X, Wang YJ, Duan SJ, Qiao X, Mei YW, Hu B: Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in olfactory neuroblastoma. Oncology; 2009;77(3-4):231-43
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  • [Title] Activation of sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is associated with tumor development; however, the role of Shh signaling in the development of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is unknown.
  • This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the regulation of Shh signaling and the pathogenesis of ONB.
  • METHODS: The expression of Shh signaling components was characterized by immunohistochemistry in human non-tumor olfactory epithelium and ONB specimens, and by RT-PCR and immunoblotting in human ONB cell lines.
  • The impact of the treatment with cyclopamine (a selective inhibitor of the Shh pathway) and/or exogenous Shh on ONB cell proliferation, cycle and apoptosis was examined by MTT, soft agar colony formation and flow cytometry assays, respectively.
  • RESULTS: The expression of Pacthed1, Gli1 and Gli2 was detected in 70, 70, and 65% of human ONB specimens, respectively, and in proportion of ONB cell lines, but not in non-tumor olfactory epithelium.
  • Treatment with cyclopamine inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of ONB cells, induced ONB cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and down-regulated the expression of Pacthed1, Gli1 and cyclin D1, but up-regulated p21 expression in vitro.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the Shh signaling pathway is crucial for the growth of ONB.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / physiology. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19738389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / GLI2 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / patched receptors
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20. Castelnuovo P, Bignami M, Delù G, Battaglia P, Bignardi M, Dallan I: Endonasal endoscopic resection and radiotherapy in olfactory neuroblastoma: our experience. Head Neck; 2007 Sep;29(9):845-50
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  • [Title] Endonasal endoscopic resection and radiotherapy in olfactory neuroblastoma: our experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a bimodal method of treatment consisting in endoscopic resection followed by radiotherapy in patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ON).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This method of treatment causes minimal injury to the patients, reduces side effects, and improves the quality of life of those with olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / radiotherapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nose Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2007.
  • (PMID = 17427966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Mori R, Sakai H, Kato M, Hida T, Nakajima M, Fukuda T, Fukunaga M, Abe T: [Olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis: case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2007 May;35(5):503-8
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  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis: case report].
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare tumor of the nasal cavity.
  • We report a case of olfactory neuroblastoma with cauda equina metastases.
  • A 49-year old male had undergone surgery twice previously; the first for olfactory neuroblastoma in October, 1990, and the second for its intracranial and orbital metastasis in September, 1999.
  • The mass was partially removed and histologically diagnosed as olfactory neuroblastoma metastasis.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis is rare and only 11 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • A very poor prognosis was observed in the patients of olfactory neuroblastoma with spinal metastasis.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a radiosensitive tumor, and radiotherapy for spinal metastasis was reported to be effective.
  • The patient with olfactory neuroblastoma should be observed carefully even though no local recurrence had been detected over 10 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Cauda Equina. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17491347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Gaba RC, Cousins JP, Basil IS, Shadid H, Valyi-Nagy T, Mafee MF: Metastatic Ewing sarcoma masquerading as olfactory neuroblastoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Oct;263(10):960-2
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  • [Title] Metastatic Ewing sarcoma masquerading as olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Ewing sarcoma is a malignant tumor of bone that rarely spreads to the head and neck.
  • We describe an unusual case of metastatic Ewing sarcoma involving the calvarium mimicking olfactory neuroblastoma, an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor of the anterior skull base.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Fibula / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16802140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Weinreb I, Goldstein D, Irish J, Perez-Ordonez B: Expression patterns of Trk-A, Trk-B, GRP78, and p75NRT in olfactory neuroblastoma. Hum Pathol; 2009 Sep;40(9):1330-5
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  • [Title] Expression patterns of Trk-A, Trk-B, GRP78, and p75NRT in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor of the sinonasal tract.
  • Most olfactory neuroblastoma behave locally aggressive with 30% recurrence rates.
  • Grading of olfactory neuroblastoma involves a combination of factors with low-grade tumors having better survival than high-grade tumors.
  • The grade does not always predict prognosis, however, as metastases can be seen in all grades of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Trk-A, Trk-B, and p75NRT are neurotrophin receptors associated with numerous solid malignancies, particularly pediatric neuroblastoma.
  • Trk-A, p75NRT, and GRP78 overexpression are favorable prognostic factors in pediatric neuroblastoma, whereas Trk-B is associated with a poorer prognosis in these tumors.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is clinically distinct from pediatric neuroblastoma but shares some histological features.
  • Trk-A and p75NRT have been demonstrated in olfactory neuroblastoma previously.
  • Trk-B and GRP78 have not been investigated in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • None of these markers have been correlated with grade or outcome in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • To investigate the role of Trk-A, Trk-B, p75NRT, and GRP78, a series of 20 olfactory neuroblastomas was stained with these antibodies.
  • Trk-A and Trk-B stained most cases of olfactory neuroblastoma (90% and 85%).
  • Neurotrophin receptors do not appear to have a prognostic role; however, Trk's may play an oncogenic role in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / genetics. Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, trkA / genetics. Receptor, trkB / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19386345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / molecular chaperone GRP78; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkB
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24. Li X, Liu HG, Xie XJ, Han YD, Li M: [Clinicopathologic study of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma and its contrast with olfactory neuroblastoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;37(7):458-64
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic study of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma and its contrast with olfactory neuroblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) and olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), and to discuss the histogenesis and possible relationship between SNTCS and ONB.
  • METHODS: Seven cases of SNTCS and 34 cases of ONB were retrieved from the pathological archives together with one case each of malignant teratoma and immature embryonic tissue at 8 weeks were collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital.
  • In addition, carcinoid, and primitive mesenchymal tissue and the ONB component were also seen.
  • The morphological characteristics of SNTCS comprised fetal clear cell squamous epithelium, carcinosarcoma and the ONB component.
  • The ONB component was positive for Syn, NSE, CD99, NF and CgA to different degrees.
  • The 34 cases of ONB, included 18 men and 16 women, the age ranged from 12 to 72 years (mean 42.8 years).
  • The single case of immature malignant teratoma exhibited primitive nerve tissue, but fetal clear cell squamous epithelium was not found.
  • In the immature embryonic tissue, rudimentary organs were formed, with fetal clear cell squamous epithelium lining present on the nasal and oral cavities surface.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SNTCS is a rare and aggressive malignant neoplasm.
  • Most of ONB are low-grade malignant tumors.
  • Morphological differences are the most important basis to make differentiate SNTCS from ONB.
  • As SNTCS may demonstrate a multiplicity of structures and pleomorphism, inadequate sampling at biopsy, therefore, may lead to errors in diagnosis.
  • SNTCS probably arises from primitive totipotential cells of olfactory/sinonasal membrane, and the relationship between SNTCS and ONB needs further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19035117.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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25. Ueno H, Kobayashi Y, Yamada K: Olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage radiotherapy in a dog. Aust Vet J; 2007 Jul;85(7):271-5

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  • [Title] Olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma treated with orthovoltage radiotherapy in a dog.
  • On computed tomography examination, a mass was demonstrated in the nasal cavity.
  • Open biopsy of the mass was performed and a diagnosis of olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma was made on histological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / radiotherapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. X-Rays

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  • (PMID = 17615040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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26. Wang SL, Li SH, Chen WT, Chai CY: Absence of Epstein-Barr virus in olfactory neuroblastoma. Pathology; 2007 Dec;39(6):565-6
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  • [Title] Absence of Epstein-Barr virus in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • AIMS: The sinonasal region is a frequent site for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related tumours, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and malignant lymphoma.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare neoplasm, arises from olfactory epithelium, is found in the upper nasal cavity, and may be confused morphologically with the above tumours.
  • Our aim was to determine whether EBV is associated with olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • METHODS: We collected tissue samples for 16 olfactory neuroblastomas over an 11-year period at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital.
  • RESULTS: None of the epithelial cells in the 16 cases of olfactory neuroblastoma was positive for EBV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EBV does not play a major role in the aetiology of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18027259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral
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27. Yao Q, Yue CL, Lü ZC, Han YD, Liu HG: [Olfactory neuroblastoma with unusual structures: a clinical pathologic study]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Mar;38(3):163-8
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  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma with unusual structures: a clinical pathologic study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate unusual pathological features of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) and its correlation with the clinical prognosis.
  • METHODS: Totally 40 cases of ONB were studied using histology and immunohistochemistry techniques.
  • All the cases of ONB were graded according to Hyams Grading system.
  • RESULTS: ONB consisted of small round tumor cells growing in nests or lobules separated by fibrovascular septa.
  • In addition, 3 cases showed an in-situ form with invasion of tumor into olfactory epithelium, and there was exogenous papillary proliferation seen in 2 cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unusual pathological structures including epithelial structures, in-situ invasion of tumor tissue into the involving olfactory epithelium and exogenous papillary proliferation can be found in ONB, suggesting that ONB may originate from the undifferentiated basal cells of olfactory epithelium, through bipotential differentiation.
  • The presence of tumor necrosis in ONB is a poor prognostic indicator while the presence of mucous cells suggests a good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Olfactory Mucosa / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19575850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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28. Kim HJ, Kim J, Yoon JH: Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis from olfactory neuroblastoma: A report of two cases. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2006 Aug;263(8):778-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis from olfactory neuroblastoma: A report of two cases.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare, malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory epithelium.
  • The incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis in olfactory neuroblastoma is variable, and treatment modalities are controversial.
  • Moreover, few reports have been published concerning retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis from olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • We present two cases of olfactory neuroblastoma with retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis.
  • In addition, we provided a review of the current literature regarding olfactory neuroblastoma and retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis from olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16691416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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29. Park KJ, Kang SH, Lee HG, Chung YG: Olfactory neuroblastoma following treatment for pituitary adenoma. J Neurooncol; 2008 Nov;90(2):237-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma following treatment for pituitary adenoma.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is extremely rare as a second neoplasm.
  • We report an unusual case of olfactory neuroblastoma in a 59-year-old woman who had undergone two operations and received 54 Gy of irradiation for pituitary adenoma 20 years ago.
  • At the time of admission, the patient presented with nasal obstruction and frequent epistaxis.
  • Imaging studies showed a large mass in the nasal cavities and ethmoid sinus, extending to the intracranial area, with no evidence of any recurrence of the previous pituitary adenoma.
  • The tumor was completely excised via a trans-cranial and trans-nasal approach.
  • A diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma was established, and the patient was given postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Although relatively uncommon, second neoplasms are an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of patients with new or recurring symptoms after treatment for pituitary adenoma.
  • Furthermore, it is likely that radiation played a critical role in the development of olfactory neuroblastoma in our patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Nose Neoplasms / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nasal Cavity / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 18679581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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30. Pino Rivero V, Trinidad Ruíz G, González Palomino A, Pardo Romero G, Pantoja Hernández CG, Marcos García M, Montero García C, Blasco Huelva A: [Olfactory neuroblastoma in an old patient. Report of a case]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2005;32(5):429-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma in an old patient. Report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Neuroblastoma olfatorio en paciente de edad avanzada. Presentación de un caso.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma or esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare embrionary tumor, much more in old patients, which uses to present as a pollipoid mass with nasal obstruction, epistaxis and anosmia of long evolution.
  • We report the case of a 82-year-old male with such symptoms diagnosed by biopsy as neuroblastoma class III according the histologic Hyams grading.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / radiography. Nasal Cavity / radiography. Nose Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16318085.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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31. Wojtarowicz A, Radkowski AS, Tyralik D, Dobroś W: [Extensive olfactory neuroblastoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(5):442-4
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  • [Title] [Extensive olfactory neuroblastoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses].
  • [Transliterated title] Rozległy nerwiak w chowy zarodkowy jamy nosa i zatok przynosowych.
  • The authors describe a clinical case of extensive olfactory neuroblastoma, comprehensive the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and orbit who was treated in Otolaryngology Department of the Regional Hospital in Tarnów.
  • Diagnostic difficulties in olfactory neuroblastoma recognition and value of the immunohistochemical examinations were emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 20684358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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32. Wang HL, Fan GK, Lin ZH: [Clinical analysis of 10 cases of olfactory neuroblastoma]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2009 Jan;38(1):103-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 10 cases of olfactory neuroblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • METHODS: Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed in 10 cases of olfactory neuroblastoma admitted from 1998 to 2002, including data of transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation in 4 cases.
  • Transmission electron microscope is important for its diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19253437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-9292
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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33. Wang SL, Chen WT, Li SH, Li SW, Yang SF, Chai CY: Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase and cyclin-D1 in olfactory neuroblastoma. APMIS; 2007 Jan;115(1):17-21
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  • [Title] Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase and cyclin-D1 in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • Typically, these tumors are indolent with long-standing symptomatology, but the fact that the lesions are indeed malignant has been proven by the repeated demonstration that they can metastasize to distant organs.
  • In this study, we collected 16 olfactory neuroblastomas from the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital.
  • The aim was to investigate the value of immunoexpression of hTERT and cyclin-D1 in correlation with clinicopathologic features of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • In conclusion, high hTERT expression can be considered a potential indicator of aggressive olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cyclins / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin D. Humans. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17223847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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34. Mahooti S, Wakely PE Jr: Cytopathologic features of olfactory neuroblastoma. Cancer; 2006 Apr 25;108(2):86-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytopathologic features of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an uncommon neoplasm arising from the olfactory mucosa.
  • Because its cytopathology is largely limited to case reports, the goal was to evaluate a series of ONB cases, compare them with previously reported cases, and with a control group of pulmonary and cutaneous small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC).
  • METHODS: Six fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of metastatic ONB and one case with imprint smears of primary ONB were recovered from files.
  • Aspirates from seven FNA cases of metastatic pulmonary small cell NEC and four cases of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma to the head and neck functioned as a control group and were compared with those of ONB.
  • Aspirates were acquired from soft tissues of the neck (three cases), cervical lymph nodes (two cases), parietal scalp (one case), and imprint of a nasal mass (one case).
  • A correct cytologic diagnosis of metastatic ONB (five cases) or malignant small round cell tumor (one case) was made in six cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cytopathology of metastatic ONB is nonspecific unless fibrillar neuropil is identified.
  • Nonetheless, a cytopathologic diagnosis of metastatic ONB can be made with confidence in nearly all patients if a well documented history of ONB exists.
  • Minus such a clinical context, aspirates of metastatic ONB may be mistaken for metastatic pulmonary small cell NEC, cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma, and even small cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16456848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Koo BK, An JH, Jeon KH, Choi SH, Cho YM, Jang HC, Chung JH, Lee CH, Lim S: Two cases of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome with olfactory neuroblastoma and literature review. Endocr J; 2008 Jul;55(3):469-75
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  • [Title] Two cases of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome with olfactory neuroblastoma and literature review.
  • Olfactory neuroblastomas are rare, slow-growing malignant tumors, usually diagnosed at advanced stages.
  • Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome caused by an olfactory neuroblastoma is extremely rare.
  • We reported two Korean women who suffered from ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) caused by olfactory neuroblastomas.
  • The first patient was a 66-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as olfactory neuroblastoma and refused the management two years before and the second patient was a 37-year-old woman on chemotherapy for olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / radiography. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secretion. Nasal Cavity / radiography. Nose Neoplasms / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18469486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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36. Unger F, Haselsberger K, Walch C, Stammberger H, Papaefthymiou G: Combined endoscopic surgery and radiosurgery as treatment modality for olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma). Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Jun;147(6):595-601; discussion 601-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined endoscopic surgery and radiosurgery as treatment modality for olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma).
  • OBJECT: Treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) has been considerably improved by microsurgical techniques.
  • A novel therapeutic approach that combines endoscopic sinus surgery and Gamma Knife radiosurgery is presented here.
  • Taking into account the rarity of the disease the present study comprises a relatively large series of patients treated in a similar manner.
  • This series comprises 12 newly diagnosed esthesioneuroblastomas.
  • Paranasal and nasal endoscopic sinus surgery was performed.
  • All patients complained of nasal discharge and crusts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the favourable results recorded so far, the combination of endoscopic sinus surgery and radiosurgery can be considered a promising treatment option for esthesioneuroblastoma that merits further consideration.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome


37. Xie MQ, Li ZH, Liu X, Li Y, Xu G: [Retrospective analysis of the effect of intranasal endoscopic resection of olfactory neuroblastoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Sep;42(9):669-72
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  • [Title] [Retrospective analysis of the effect of intranasal endoscopic resection of olfactory neuroblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of intranasal endoscopic resection of olfactory neuroblastoma and the significance of assistant radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Six patients (4 men and 2 women) ranging in age from 9-68 years (median age, 48 years) with olfactory neuroblastoma treated endoscopically at the Third Affiliated Hospital of SUN Yat-sen University between August 2001 and September 2005 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With simple approach, excellent visualization, a less operative invasiveness and no scar on face, the endoscopic approach appears to be the method of choice for the treatment of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18051565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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38. Lee JY, Kim HK: Primary olfactory neuroblastoma originating from the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 May-Jun;28(3):196-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary olfactory neuroblastoma originating from the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of the nasal cavity arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium.
  • It usually presents as a polypoid mass high in the nasal vault including the cribriform plate, superior turbinate, and superior portion of nasal septum.
  • An 89-year-old man visited our office with symptoms of occasional left nasal bleeding and obstruction.
  • Biopsy was performed, and the diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma was confirmed by histopathologic examination and immunohistochemical staining.
  • The tumor was resected via medial maxillectomy, and the final pathologic report established that it was primary olfactory neuroblastoma that occurred from the inferior meatus.
  • In this report, a literature review was performed on the pathologic characteristics and prognosis of the tumor, and possible hypotheses that olfactory neuroblastoma has originated from the inferior meatus were discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17499140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Chan LP, Wang LF, Tai CF, Wu CC, Kuo WR: Huge sphenoid sinus olfactory neuroblastoma: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2009 Feb;25(2):87-92
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  • [Title] Huge sphenoid sinus olfactory neuroblastoma: a case report.
  • Intranasal or paranasal sinus olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare malignant neoplasm of olfactory neuroepithelial origin, accounting for approximately 5% of paranasal sinus cancers.
  • Most of the presenting symptoms include nasal obstruction, nasal bleeding, anosmia, rhinorrhea, and headache.
  • In this present report, we describe a 79-year-old man who presented with bilateral nasal congestion for more than 1 year.
  • Nasoendoscopy showed a huge, smooth, mucosal tumor in the nasopharynx with extension to the posterior nasal septum.
  • The tumor was completely resected under endonasal endoscopy and the pathology revealed olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Olfactory neuroblastomas usually arise in the cribriform plate and superior turbinate.
  • However, the origin and isolation of olfactory neuroblastomas to the sphenoid sinus is exceedingly rare.
  • Only four cases of olfactory neuroblastoma isolated in the sphenoid sinus have been described in English literature and the frequency of presenting symptoms with cranial neuropathies and headache.
  • We report a case of primary sphenoid sinus olfactory neuroblastoma with the greatest enlargement reported to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Sphenoid Sinus

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  • (PMID = 19321412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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40. Ghaffar S, Salahuddin I: Olfactory neuroblastoma: a case report and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J; 2005 Mar;84(3):150-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity are rare.
  • We report the case of an elderly woman who consulted us with a 4-year history of progressive nasal obstruction, occasional epistaxis, facial pain, and watering of the eyes.
  • A diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma was established by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Nasal Obstruction / diagnosis. Nasal Obstruction / etiology. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15871582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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41. Kanno K, Morokuma Y, Tateno T, Hirono Y, Taki K, Osamura RY, Hirata Y: Olfactory neuroblastoma causing ectopic ACTH syndrome. Endocr J; 2005 Dec;52(6):675-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma causing ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • Although no pituitary mass was detected by MRI of the brain, inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed a step-up of central to peripheral ACTH levels; these data are consistent with the diagnosis of Cushing's disease.
  • Ten months later, a mass was detected in the ethmoid sinus, which was surgically removed.
  • After resection of the ethmoid sinus tumor, her Cushingoid features and hypercortisolemia disappeared, but recurred after enlargement of a second mass in the maxillary sinus.
  • After resection of the maxillary sinus tumor, her hypercortisolemia subsided.
  • Histologically, the tumor tissues from both the ethmoid and maxillary sinus were identical and consistent with the diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Thus, this is the second rare case with ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by olfactory neuroblastoma thus far reported.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / complications. Nose Neoplasms / complications. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Circadian Rhythm. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Immunohistochemistry. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16410658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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42. Takagi M, Shiraiwa K, Kusuoka O, Tamura K: A Case of Olfactory Neuroblastoma Induced in A Rat by N-Nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine. J Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Jun;23(2):111-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A Case of Olfactory Neuroblastoma Induced in A Rat by N-Nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine.
  • In the present paper, a case of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) induced in a rat by BHP is described.
  • Histologically, the tumor arose in the posterior nasal cavity and consisted of small round cells and elongate cells with scant basophilic cytoplasm.
  • These results indicate that the present tumor is the first case of ONB induced in a rat by BHP treatment.

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  • (PMID = 22272021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-915X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234646
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; BHP / N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine / olfactory neuroblastoma / rat
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43. Ozsahin M, Gruber G, Olszyk O, Karakoyun-Celik O, Pehlivan B, Azria D, Roelandts M, Kaanders JH, Cengiz M, Krengli M, Matzinger O, Zouhair A: Outcome and prognostic factors in olfactory neuroblastoma: a rare cancer network study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 15;78(4):992-7
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors in olfactory neuroblastoma: a rare cancer network study.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the outcome in patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventy-seven patients treated for nonmetastatic ONB between 1971 and 2004 were included.
  • Sixty-eight patients presented with N0 (88%) disease.
  • The 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control, and local control were 64%, 57%, 62%, and 70%, respectively.
  • In univariate analyses, favorable factors were Kadish A or B disease, T1-T3 tumors, no nodal involvement, curative surgery, R0/R1 resection, and RT-dose 54 Gy or higher.
  • CONCLUSION: In this multicenter retrospective study, patients with ONB treated with R0 or R1 surgical resection followed by at least 54-Gy postoperative RT had the best outcome.
  • Novel strategies including concomitant chemotherapy and/or higher dose RT should be prospectively investigated in this rare disease for which local failure remains a problem.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Bellizzi AM, Bourne TD, Mills SE, Stelow EB: The cytologic features of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;129(3):367-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The cytologic features of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor of the superior nasal cavity.
  • Upon examining these lesions, a broad differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated round cell tumors must be considered.
  • The cytologic features of SNUC and ONB have been rarely reported.
  • We searched our cytology files for cases of SNUC and ONB and assessed the following: cellularity, architecture, cytoplasm, cell size, nuclear contours, nucleoli, chromatin, anisonucleosis/anisocytosis, mitotic activity, background, and nuclear crush.
  • The 10 cases of ONB exhibited cellularity, cellular arrangement, and chromatin similar to SNUC.
  • We believe that in the appropriate clinical context, a specific cytologic diagnosis should be possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged


45. Diensthuber M, Potinius M, Rodt T, Stan AC, Welkoborsky HJ, Samii M, Schreyögg J, Lenarz T, Stöver T: Expression of bcl-2 is associated with microvessel density in olfactory neuroblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2008 Sep;89(2):131-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of bcl-2 is associated with microvessel density in olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Activation of the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) by Epo leads to elevated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2, which has recently been shown to promote angiogenesis in malignant tumors.
  • Expression of HIF-1alpha, Epo, EpoR, and bcl-2 was studied by immunohistochemistry in a series of 20 olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) samples.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed robust expression of HIF-1alpha, Epo, EpoR, and bcl-2 in ONB.
  • Expression of HIF-1alpha, Epo, Epo-R, and bcl-2 may play a functional role in ONB pathogenesis.
  • Our data suggest that bcl-2 may act as a stimulator of angiogenesis in ONB, and thus represents a novel target for anti-angiogenic treatment strategies in the therapy of ONB.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / metabolism. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Nose Neoplasms / metabolism. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18431543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Erythropoietin; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
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46. Diaz EM Jr, Johnigan RH 3rd, Pero C, El-Naggar AK, Roberts DB, Barker JL, DeMonte F: Olfactory neuroblastoma: the 22-year experience at one comprehensive cancer center. Head Neck; 2005 Feb;27(2):138-49
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma: the 22-year experience at one comprehensive cancer center.
  • BACKGROUND: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumor arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium.
  • METHODS: Thirty patients treated for ONB at The University of Texas M. D.
  • The diagnosis of ONB was histologically confirmed for each patient.
  • Nine patients whose disease was initially stage C had a recurrence.
  • Anderson Cancer Center approach to ONB is complete surgical resection, usually involving a craniofacial approach, with postoperative radiation therapy.
  • This approach seems to be curative in early-stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Academic Medical Centers. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Texas. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15654688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Kim BJ, Kim DW, Kim SW, Han DH, Kim DY, Rhee CS, Lee CH: Endoscopic versus traditional craniofacial resection for patients with sinonasal tumors involving the anterior skull base. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol; 2008 Sep;1(3):148-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: The number of malignant and benign lesions was 40 and 6 cases respectively.
  • The most common diagnosis was olfactory neuroblastoma occurring in 41% of the cases followed by squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.
  • The overall five-year survival rate for patients with malignant tumors of the anterior skull base was 47.4%.
  • Out of 19 patients with olfactory neuroblastomas, 10 patients had TCFR and six among them died of their disease.
  • Nine patients underwent ECFR, and none of them died of their disease.

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  • [Cites] Am J Rhinol. 2007 Jan-Feb;21(1):89-94 [17283568.001]
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  • (PMID = 19434247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1976-8710
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671747
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Endoscopic craniofacial resection / Nose neoplasms / Skull base
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48. Josephs L, Jones L, Marenette L, McKeever P: Cushing's Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation of Olfactory Neuroblastoma. Skull Base; 2008 Jan;18(1):73-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing's Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation of Olfactory Neuroblastoma.
  • A pituitary MRI was performed, which revealed a normal pituitary; however, a large mass was seen centered in the ethmoid and paranasal sinuses with a significant amount of extension into surrounding structures.
  • A biopsy was performed and pathology of the specimen was consistent with esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • Immunohistochemical staining further defined the tumor as an ACTH-secreting esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • This case demonstrates the successful diagnosis and treatment of a rare neoplasm.
  • Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to esthesioneuroblastoma is extremely uncommon with only five other cases being discussed in the literature.

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  • [Cites] Lancet Oncol. 2001 Nov;2(11):683-90 [11902539.001]
  • [Cites] Endocr Pract. 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):119-24 [15256328.001]
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  • (PMID = 18592016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2435464
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cushing's syndrome / Ectopic ACTH syndrome / esthesioneuroblastoma / olfactory Neuroblastoma
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49. Nomoto S, Shioyama Y, Ohga S, Nakamura K, Honda H: Advanced olfactory neuroblastoma treated with combined conventional and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Oct-Dec;6(4):581-4
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  • [Title] Advanced olfactory neuroblastoma treated with combined conventional and hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.
  • Three patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) of the nasal and/or paranasal cavity were treated with a combination of conventional radiotherapy (RT) and hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT).
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / radiotherapy. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 21358109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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50. Bourne TD, Bellizzi AM, Stelow EB, Loy AH, Levine PA, Wick MR, Mills SE: p63 Expression in olfactory neuroblastoma and other small cell tumors of the sinonasal tract. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Aug;130(2):213-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p63 Expression in olfactory neuroblastoma and other small cell tumors of the sinonasal tract.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck region that is included in the differential diagnosis of other sinonasal tract malignancies.
  • We studied the usefulness of using p63 as an aid in the diagnosis of ONB and other tumors of the sinonasal region.
  • The specimens were 14 ONBs; 4 nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs), nonkeratinizing subtype; 2 NPCs, undifferentiated subtype; 10 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (SNUCs); 7 malignant melanomas; and 2 extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas.
  • We observed p63 expression in 5 ONBs (36%), 4 nonkeratinizing NPCs (100%), 1 undifferentiated NPC (50%), 2 SNUCs (20%); 0 malignant melanomas (0%); and 1 extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (50%).
  • While all cases of NPC with positive staining for p63 showed strong and diffuse immunoreactivity, the ONB, SNUC, and lymphoma cases with positive immunoreactivity showed only focal staining for p63.
  • No p63 expression was observed in malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18628089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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51. Kutluhan A, Yilmaz N, Yakut F, Yurttaş V, Uğraş S: [Treatment of olfactory neuroblastoma via subfrontal and midfacial degloving approaches: a case report]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2008;18(1):56-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of olfactory neuroblastoma via subfrontal and midfacial degloving approaches: a case report].
  • A 12-year-old girl presented with complaints of nasal obstruction and a right infraorbital swelling.
  • A biopsy obtained from the right nasal passage revealed olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Female. Humans. Nasal Obstruction / etiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18443406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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52. Mintzer DM, Zheng S, Nagamine M, Newman J, Benito M: Esthesioneuroblastoma (Olfactory Neuroblastoma) with Ectopic ACTH Syndrome: a multidisciplinary case presentation from the Joan Karnell cancer center of Pennsylvania Hospital. Oncologist; 2010;15(1):51-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma (Olfactory Neuroblastoma) with Ectopic ACTH Syndrome: a multidisciplinary case presentation from the Joan Karnell cancer center of Pennsylvania Hospital.
  • The case of a patient with recurrent esthesioneuroblastoma complicated by ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone production is presented, including the workup and management of this uncommon complication of an uncommon disease.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secretion. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / secretion. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Immunohistochemistry. Ketoconazole / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20053760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227887
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53. Murakami M, Kakita K, Kimura S, Hosokawa Y: Subdural extension of recurrent olfactory neuroblastoma. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Nov;45(11):596-9
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  • [Title] Subdural extension of recurrent olfactory neuroblastoma. Case report.
  • A 37-year-old man presented with olfactory neuroblastoma, which apparently recurred as diffuse extension in the subdural space of the cranial vault and spinal column 3 years after initial resection.
  • Histological examination of a biopsy specimen suggested recurrence of the olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Subdural Space / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16308521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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54. Díez-Villalba R, González-Ruiz M, Izquierdo-Vázquez C, Molina-Quirós C, Colmenero-Ruiz M, Ramos-Amador A, Jordano-Luna L, Mora-de-Oñate J, Sanz-Fernández R: [Ophthalmic presentation of two cases of esthesioneuroblastoma]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2008 May;83(5):317-20
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  • [Title] [Ophthalmic presentation of two cases of esthesioneuroblastoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Debut oftalmológico de dos casos de estesioneuroblastoma.
  • PURPOSE/METHOD: To report the ophthalmologic presentation of two cases of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB).
  • A paranasal sinus mass was biopsied in one case and a nasal mass biopsied in the other.
  • ENB is a rare malignant tumour and its presentation with ophthalmologic symptoms and signs is very infrequent.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / complications. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18464181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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55. Nakao K, Watanabe K, Fujishiro Y, Ebihara Y, Asakage T, Goto A, Kawahara N: Olfactory neuroblastoma: long-term clinical outcome at a single institute between 1979 and 2003. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl; 2007 Dec;(559):113-7
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  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma: long-term clinical outcome at a single institute between 1979 and 2003.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The progression of olfactory neuroblastoma showed a biphasic pattern.
  • A high local failure rate suggests that craniofacial resection followed by postoperative radiotherapy should still be the standard treatment for olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with survival and local control of olfactory neuroblastoma in the long run and to estimate treatment strategies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients (seven men and five women) who had undergone initial curative treatment for olfactory neuroblastoma were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Cause-specific 10-year survival was 64.8%, while disease-free 10-year survival remained 28.6%.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / epidemiology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / epidemiology. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18340581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-5237
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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56. Scińska A, Korkosz A, Sienkiewicz-Jarosz H, Kukwa W, Jezewska E, Kukwa A: [Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): etiopatogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2006;60(6):849-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): etiopatogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Neuroblastoma nerwu wechowego (esthesioneuroblastoma): etiopatogeneza, diagnostyka i leczenie.
  • INTRODUCTION: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a malignant tumour arising from the olfactory epithelium located in the upper part of the nasal cavities.
  • Recent clinical and preclinical studies shed more light on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Molecular studies indicate basal progenitor cells of the olfactory epithelium as the origin of esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • Tumour symptoms are related to its location and typically include: epistaxis, nasal obstruction, olfactory and ophtalmic disturbances as well as craniofacial pain.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma should be differentiated from embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and pericytoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumour arising from the olfactory epithelium.
  • Early diagnosis and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is vital in the management of the tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Olfactory Mucosa

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  • (PMID = 17357662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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57. Gil-Carcedo E, Gil-Carcedo LM, Vallejo LA, de Campos JM: [Esthesioneuroblastoma treatment]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2005 Nov;56(9):389-95
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  • [Title] [Esthesioneuroblastoma treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento del estesioneuroblastoma. Revisión de la literatura.
  • INTRODUCTION: Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon malignancy of the olfactory neuroepithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16353783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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58. Suriano M, De Vincentiis M, Colli A, Benfari G, Mascelli A, Gallo A: Endoscopic treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma: a minimally invasive approach combined with radiation therapy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Jan;136(1):104-7
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  • [Title] Endoscopic treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma: a minimally invasive approach combined with radiation therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: In a retrospective analysis we discuss our experience in the treatment of olfactory neuroblastoma (ON), a rare tumor of the sinonasal tract.
  • STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine patients with olfactory neuroblastoma were treated at the Bolognini Hospital of Seriate and at the Department of Otolaryngology of "La Sapienza" University of Rome combining endoscopic surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.
  • RESULTS: All patients, over an average follow-up which ranged from 26 through 60 months, are actually alive with non evidence of disease (NED).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the short follow-up in this small series of patients, we suggest endoscopic surgery combined with postoperative radiation therapy as an alternative to the conventional modalities of treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma in selected cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17210343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Klepin HD, McMullen KP, Lesser GJ: Esthesioneuroblastoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2005 Nov;6(6):509-18
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  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare tumor for which the published literature does not provide an evidence-based consensus treatment approach.
  • Multimodality therapy including a combination of surgery and radiation appears to provide the best disease-free and overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy should not be used as single-modality therapy for initial treatment but may provide additional benefit when used in combination with radiation and surgery, particularly in advanced-stage disease.
  • Combination chemotherapy should be considered as initial therapy for unresectable tumors and metastatic disease, and as salvage therapy in disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16242055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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60. Strek P, Zagólski O, Składzień J, Przeklasa R, Blaschke J, Białas M, Urbanik A: [Olfactory neuroblastoma removed under endoscopic guidance]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2006;60(3):433-6
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  • [Title] [Olfactory neuroblastoma removed under endoscopic guidance].
  • INTRODUCTION: Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare tumour associated with high rates of recurrence and mortality.
  • During surgery, a 5 mm in diameter tumour was identified in the left superior nasal meatus.
  • On histopathological examination the diagnosis of esthesioneuroblastoma was established and confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Endoscopy. Ethmoid Sinusitis / etiology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16989461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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61. Kalala L, Focan C, Schils F, Gilles R, Abraham F, Reginster P, Van Den Berge D: [Esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report and literature review]. Rev Med Liege; 2009 Mar;64(3):119-23
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  • [Title] [Esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Esthésioneuroblastome: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) or olfactive neuroblastoma is a rare cancer arising from the neuroepithelium of the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity.
  • The anatomopathological diagnosis will frequently require immuno-histochemical tests and sometimes electron-microscopy as well as genetic testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19418930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-629X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale de Liège
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Liege
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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62. Vergani F, Pirola E, Fiori L, Pagni F, Parmigiani F, Sganzerla EP: Combined transcranial and endoscopic nasal resection for esthesioneuroblastoma. Technical note. J Neurosurg Sci; 2007 Jun;51(2):99-102
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  • [Title] Combined transcranial and endoscopic nasal resection for esthesioneuroblastoma. Technical note.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity.
  • Huge esthesioneuroblastomas, extending into the ethmoid roof and the cribriform plate, or invading the anterior cranial fossa, have traditionally been treated by craniofacial resection.
  • Because of the invasiveness and potentially disfiguring results of a transfacial approach, a new technique has been proposed, combining endoscopic nasal and anterior craniotomy resection.
  • We describe the case of a young male presenting with a large esthesioneuroblastoma involving the nasal cavity and the anterior cranial fossa, causing a huge skull base destruction.
  • A combined transcranial and endoscopic nasal resection resulted in a macroscopically total removal of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Anterior / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Nose Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Coagulation Disorders. Cranial Sinuses / pathology. Craniotomy / methods. Ethmoid Bone / pathology. Ethmoid Bone / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Nasal Septum / surgery. Nasal Septum / transplantation. Olfactory Mucosa / pathology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / drug therapy. Postoperative Hemorrhage / prevention & control. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17571044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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63. Kiyota N, Tahara M, Fujii S, Kawashima M, Ogino T, Minami H, Hayashi R, Ohtsu A: Nonplatinum-based chemotherapy with irinotecan plus docetaxel for advanced or metastatic olfactory neuroblastoma: a retrospective analysis of 12 cases. Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;112(4):885-91
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  • [Title] Nonplatinum-based chemotherapy with irinotecan plus docetaxel for advanced or metastatic olfactory neuroblastoma: a retrospective analysis of 12 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of chemotherapy with irinotecan plus docetaxel were retrospectively evaluated for olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • METHODS: Twelve patients with histologically proven advanced or metastatic olfactory neuroblastoma were treated with chemotherapy with irinotecan plus docetaxel at the study institution between 2001 and 2005.
  • Of these, 7 patients with locoregional disease and no prior radiotherapy received irinotecan plus docetaxel followed by definitive radiotherapy, 1 with photon radiotherapy and 6 with proton radiotherapy, whereas 3 patients with distant metastases and 2 with locoregional disease who had received prior radiotherapy received irinotecan plus docetaxel only.
  • Of the 7 patients with locoregional disease also receiving definitive radiotherapy, the 2-year survival rate was 100% and 6 patients were alive at the time of last follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy for olfactory neuroblastoma with irinotecan plus docetaxel is safe and manageable.
  • Induction chemotherapy followed by definitive radiotherapy may represent a promising option for patients with locally advanced olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Cancer 2008. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18189294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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64. Zhang LW, Zhang MS, Qi J, Zhang JT, Li GL, Luo L, Wang ZC: Management of intracranial invasive olfactory neuroblastoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2007 Feb 5;120(3):224-7
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  • [Title] Management of intracranial invasive olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumor that often arise from the nasal cavity.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and treatments of intracranial invasive ONB.
  • METHODS: Between July 2001 and August 2005, 5 patients with intracranial invasive ONB were treated in our department.
  • RESULTS: The ONB was resected totally in the 4 patients.
  • In all the patients, nasal obstruction was alleviated without cerebrospinal fluid leakage.
  • CONCLUSION: ONB has no specific symptoms.
  • Intracranial ONB should be resected as far as possible, and treated by radiotherapy after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17355826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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65. Ranger A, Szymczak A: Do intracranial neoplasms differ in Ollier disease and maffucci syndrome? An in-depth analysis of the literature. Neurosurgery; 2009 Dec;65(6):1106-13; discussion 1113-5
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  • [Title] Do intracranial neoplasms differ in Ollier disease and maffucci syndrome? An in-depth analysis of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ollier disease (OD) and Maffucci syndrome are closely related, very rare syndromes, that are both associated with multiple sites of chondrodysplasia.
  • All 18 NSNs in OD were of glial cell origin, but only 5 of 9 NSNs in Maffucci syndrome were glial; other tumors included pituitary adenoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, malignant chordoma, and spindle cell hemangioendothelioma.


66. Torres Muros B, Pérez Arcos JA, Alvarex Rey I, Lazarich Valdés A, Verge González J, Rodríguez Baró JG: [Esthesioneuroblastoma. Description of a case and review of the literature]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2006;33(5):513-20
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  • [Title] [Esthesioneuroblastoma. Description of a case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Estesioneuroblastoma. Presentación de un caso clínico y revisión de la bibliografía.
  • The esthesioneuroblastoma is a malignant and rare type of the nasal cavity.
  • Affected patients usually present with a progressive nasal obstruction, rhinorrea and epistaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17091865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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67. Kim HJ, Cho HJ, Kim KS, Lee HS, Kim HJ, Jung E, Yoon JH: Results of salvage therapy after failure of initial treatment for advanced olfactory neuroblastoma. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2008 Jan;36(1):47-52
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  • [Title] Results of salvage therapy after failure of initial treatment for advanced olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Olfactory neuroblastoma is a very aggressive tumour with high rates of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis.
  • In this study, we present our experience and treatment outcomes for salvage therapy in patients with recurrent olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 17 patients treated for advanced olfactory neuroblastoma during the last 15 years.
  • RESULTS: The disease-free 5-year survival rate was 48% in all patients and 42% in the 17 patients with recurrence or distant metastasis.
  • In 15% of patients with a clinical stage N0 at initial diagnosis, nodal recurrence developed and was successfully treated with salvage therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Complete surgical resection, including craniofacial resection and postoperative radiotherapy without elective neck dissection, is the preferred approach in the treatment of advanced olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18312791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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68. Faragalla H, Weinreb I: Olfactory neuroblastoma: a review and update. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Sep;16(5):322-31
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  • [Title] Olfactory neuroblastoma: a review and update.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a malignant neuroectodermal tumor that typically occurs in the superior nasal cavity.
  • In addition, problems in sampling, preservation, and clinical localization may make the diagnosis more challenging.
  • A large group of tumors may show morphologic overlap with ONB, with some mimicking low-grade tumors, whereas others mimic high-grade tumors.
  • This differential diagnosis has important treatment and prognostic implications.
  • Further complicating the issue is that many of the mimics themselves may show great morphologic and immunophenotypic variability.
  • This manuscript will review the typical clinical and pathologic features of ONB, address the great variability of ONB in our experience, will focus on the differential diagnosis and report on recent findings in these tumors including molecular genetics where applicable.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19700942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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69. Kim HJ, Kim CH, Lee BJ, Chung YS, Kim JK, Choi YS, Yoon JH: Surgical treatment versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy as an initial treatment modality in advanced olfactory neuroblastoma. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Dec;34(4):493-8
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy as an initial treatment modality in advanced olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Olfactory neuroblastomas are very aggressive tumors with a high locoregional recurrence rate and distant metastasis.
  • We present our experiences regarding the treatment outcome of patients with advanced olfactory neuroblastoma undergoing surgical treatment and concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 16 patients treated for advanced olfactory neuroblastoma within the past 10 years.
  • RESULTS: The disease-free 5-year survival rate of the patients (n = 10) who underwent surgical treatment was 68%.
  • CONCLUSION: Complete surgical resection, including craniofacial resection (CFR), and post-operative radiotherapy seem to be essential in the treatment of advanced olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / drug therapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / radiotherapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retreatment. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 17499464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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70. Papadogeorgakis N, Petsinis V, Eleftheriades E, Dimtsas S, Protopappa D, Alexandridis C: Large olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) surgically treated with an Altemir technique modification: a case report. Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Sep;13(3):171-5
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  • [Title] Large olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) surgically treated with an Altemir technique modification: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Olfactory neuroblastomas are rare malignant tumors that usually occur in the upper nasal cavity.
  • The purpose of this paper is to present a case of a large olfactory neuroblastoma filling the entire nasal cavity, treated with an Altemir technique modification.
  • METHODS: A 39-year-old woman presented with a large tumor of the nasal cavity.
  • After the laboratory examinations, the tumor was classified as a Kadish stage A olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • RESULTS: Histopathology revealed a Hyams grade III olfactory neuroblastoma completely removed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Large olfactory neuroblastomas filling the entire nasal cavity extending back to the postnasal space can be completely removed using a transfacial approach as the Altemir technique modification is.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19506925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-1550
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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71. Lee A, Goldstein DP, Irish J, Gentili F, Perez-Ordonez B: Noncontiguous bilateral esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report. Skull Base; 2007 Nov;17(6):405-7

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  • [Title] Noncontiguous bilateral esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory epithelium.
  • This tumor has a tendency to originate from one side of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses with frequent extension into the contralateral nasal cavity through direct invasion.
  • A review of the literature reveals numerous case reports describing esthesioneuroblastoma with unilateral or bilateral involvement; however, there have been no known reports of bilateral noncontiguous (multifocal) esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • We present a unique case of a patient diagnosed with two separate primary esthesioneuroblastomas who was managed with preoperative radiation followed by surgical resection of the tumor.
  • This case illustrates that esthesioneuroblastoma must remain as part of the differential diagnosis for a multifocal, noncontiguous intranasal and paranasal sinus mass.

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  • [Cites] Laryngoscope. 2001 Mar;111(3):488-93 [11224781.001]
  • [Cites] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Apr;11(2):112-8 [14515089.001]
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  • (PMID = 18449333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2111137
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Esthesioneuroblastoma / noncontiguous sinus mass / olfactory neuroblastoma
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72. Shukla RC, Singh PK, Senthil S, Pathak R: Esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report. Nepal Med Coll J; 2010 Jun;12(2):128-32
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  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma: a case report.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactory neuroblastoma) is an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Patients often present with nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, recurrent epistaxis, hyposmia, or anosmia.
  • We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma involving bilateral nasal cavity leading to bilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and proptosis of the right eye associated with decreased visual acquity on that eye and loss of smell.
  • A diffuse nontender, 6x6 cms swelling with illdefined margins was seen over the nasal bridge, extending superiorly to glabella and laterally to right maxillary region.
  • X-ray PNS showed soft tissue mass in the nasal cavity with destruction of nasal septum, intense periosteal reaction with destruction of right maxillary wall and extension to right orbit.
  • CT scan of paranasal sinuses showed 8.5 x 4.9 x 7.8 cms irregularly marginated heterogeneous iso- to hyper dense soft tissue mass lesion with extensive adjacent bony destruction and spiculated periosteal reaction involving bilateral nasal cavity and anterior cranial fossa.
  • Biopsy from right nasal mass showed neuroblastoma.
  • The modified Kadish staging system, lymph node status, treatment modality, and age are useful predictors of survival in patients who present with esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • Excellent outcomes for esthesioneuroblastoma are achievable.
  • Long-term follow-up is necessary because of the extended interval for recurrent disease; unlike most sinonasal malignancies, surgical salvage is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Nasal Obstruction / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 21222414.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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73. Mrad K, Mansouri D, Driss M, Sassi S, Abbes I, Ben Ayed F, Ben Romdhane K: Esthesioneuroblastoma metastatic to the breast in a young woman. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):427-30
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  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma metastatic to the breast in a young woman.
  • We report an unusual breast metastasis originating in an olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • CASE: A breast metastasis from esthesioneuroblastoma occurred in a 20-year-old woman 2 years after the onset of the disease.
  • Because we were unaware of the past history at the time of the cytologic analysis, a definitive diagnosis was made only after pathologic study.
  • CONCLUSION: Esthesioneuroblastoma metastatic to the breast must be considered in the differential diagnosis of breast metastases.
  • Fine needle aspiration, in conjunction with clinical information, can be effective in the diagnosis of esthesioneuroblastoma metastatic to the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis


74. Zeng M, Cui Y, Wu C: [Expression of SSTR2 and P-STAT3 in human olfactory neuroblastoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;24(15):690-2
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  • [Title] [Expression of SSTR2 and P-STAT3 in human olfactory neuroblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression and relationship between somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) and phosphorylated STAT3 (P-STAT3) in human olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) and adjacent normal olfactory nerve tissue.
  • METHOD: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used to detect the expression of SSTR2 and P-STAT3 in tumor and adjacent normal olfactory nerve tissue from 11 ONB patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Lower expression of SSTR2 and activation of STAT3 in ONB cells might contribute to the development of ONB.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / metabolism. Nose Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20942237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2
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75. Castelnuovo PG, Delù G, Sberze F, Pistochini A, Cambria C, Battaglia P, Bignami M: Esthesioneuroblastoma: endonasal endoscopic treatment. Skull Base; 2006 Feb;16(1):25-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma: endonasal endoscopic treatment.
  • OBJECTIVES: To illustrate endoscopic techniques used in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma and to advocate this method of management followed by radiation therapy in selected cases.
  • METHODS: A retrospective case series of 10 patients with esthesioneuroblastomas treated between 1999 and 2004 at a tertiary referral center using endonasal techniques.

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  • [Cites] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1999;53(3):199-205 [10635393.001]
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  • (PMID = 16880898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5010
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1408078
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76. Lin JH, Tsai DH, Chiang YH: A primary sellar esthesioneuroblastomas with unusual presentations: a case report and reviews of literatures. Pituitary; 2009;12(1):70-5

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  • [Title] A primary sellar esthesioneuroblastomas with unusual presentations: a case report and reviews of literatures.
  • The development of an esthesioneuroblastoma outside to the region in which olfactory epithelium exists is extremely rare.
  • The author presents a 40 years-old man with ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma in sella turcica.
  • Moreover, differential diagnosis and the origin of the ectopic esthsioneuroblastoma would be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18176843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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77. Casiraghi O, Lefèvre M: [Undifferentiated malignant round cell tumors of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Sep;29(4):296-312

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  • [Title] [Undifferentiated malignant round cell tumors of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs malignes indifférenciées à cellules rondes des cavités naso-sinusiennes et du nasopharynx.
  • Undifferentiated malignant round cell tumors of the sinonasal tract and nasopharynx comprise of aggressive malignant neoplasms with overlapping morphologic features, which yet are very different and can be identified as carcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, melanoma or olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • The use of a panel of immunohistochemical markers and the identification, in some cases, of specific chromosomal translocations are most often required.
  • We describe clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features as well as therapeutic management and prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermic tumor (EWS/PNET), nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma, undifferentiated subtype (UCNT), olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), small cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine type (SCCNET), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) and mucosal melanoma.
  • The most important features of diagnosis will be summarized in two tables.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / pathology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Nasal Cavity. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19900635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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78. Wang J, Wang R, Han D, Yang W: [Esthesioneuroblastoma in children]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;20(11):491-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Esthesioneuroblastoma in children].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical characterization of esthesioneuroblastoma in children and adolescence.
  • METHOD: The esthesioneuroblastoma in children treated in our hospital from 1993 to 2004 were retrospectively evaluated, and thorough literature review of patients with esthesioneuroblastoma was performed by searching for the key word "esthesioneuroblastoma" in CHKD and in Pub Med between 1994-2004, also looking for its reference.
  • The main symptoms were nasal occlusion, proptosis, epistaxis, headache and the main location of disease were the intranasal, ethmoid sinus, orbital, anterior cranial fossa.
  • CONCLUSION: Esthesioneuroblastoma in children is very rare and combined surgery and radiotherapy should be selected.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory. Nose Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16929827.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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79. Freeman SR, Mitra S, Malik TH, Flanagan P, Selby P: Expression of somatostatin receptors in arginine vasopressin hormone-secreting olfactory neuroblastoma--report of two cases. Rhinology; 2005 Mar;43(1):61-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of somatostatin receptors in arginine vasopressin hormone-secreting olfactory neuroblastoma--report of two cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Arginine vasopressin hormone-secreting olfactory neuroblastomas are extremely rare, with fewer than twenty cases reported in the literature.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrates the potential use of somatastatin analogues in the investigation, follow-up and treatment of patients with olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginine Vasopressin / secretion. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / metabolism. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secretion. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / metabolism. Nose Neoplasms / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15844504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0729
  • [Journal-full-title] Rhinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rhinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 113-79-1 / Arginine Vasopressin
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80. Sajko T, Rumboldt Z, Talan-Hranilovic J, Radic I, Gnjidic Z: Primary sellar esthesioneuroblastoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Apr;147(4):447-8; discussion 448
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  • [Title] Primary sellar esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • We describe an extremely rare case of a primary intrasellar esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory. Pituitary Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15711771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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81. Reichel O, Ihrler S, Born F, Andratschke M, Rasp G, Hagedorn H: [Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. A rare and aggressive neoplasm of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses]. HNO; 2006 May;54(5):394-6, 398-9
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  • [Title] [Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. A rare and aggressive neoplasm of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses].
  • [Transliterated title] Das sinunasale undifferenzierte Karzinom. Ein seltener und aggressiver Tumor der Nasenhaupt- und Nasennebenhöhlen.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is a rare tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses first described in 1986.
  • Olfactory neuroblastoma and SNUC may appear quite similar on histological examination.
  • Due to the fact that olfactory neuroblastoma has a much better prognosis, a distinction with SNUC has to be drawn.
  • We report a case of SNUC and describe the role of immunohistochemistry in making an accurate histological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sphenoid Sinus
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skull Base / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16034634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6192
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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82. Yako K, Morita A, Ueki K, Kirino T: Subfrontal schwannoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Jun;147(6):655-7; discussion 657-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Subfrontal schwannoma is a rare disease, which can be mis-diagnosed as an olfactory meningioma or a neuroblastoma, because of similar clinical symptoms and signs and neuroradiological features.
  • Especially for young subjects, olfactory neuroblastoma should be carefully differentiated, since the management strategies for those lesions are significantly different.
  • The craniofacial approach is often needed for the resection of a neuroblastoma.
  • We report a case of 14-year old boy in which olfactory neuroblastoma was suspected prior to surgery, but turned out to be a schwannoma histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Frontal Lobe / radiography. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15824881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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83. Wei YX, Han DM: [Management of nasal skull-base neoplasms with endoscopic minimally invasive technique: a report of 36 cases]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Dec;43(12):915-8
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  • [Title] [Management of nasal skull-base neoplasms with endoscopic minimally invasive technique: a report of 36 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the indication, efficacy and safety of endoscopic minimally invasive surgery technique in the management of nasal skull-base neoplasms.
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients with nasal skull base neoplasms were treated from January 2000 to Jun 2004 under nasal endoscopy, including 16 nasopharyngeal fibroangioma, 8 sinus osteofibroma, 8 pituitary adenoma, 4 olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • All olfactory neuroblastoma and 2 pituitary adenoma received radiotherapy after operation.
  • RESULTS: Total or most of nasopharyngeal fibroangioma, sinus osteofibroma, olfactory neuroblastoma and pituitary adenoma were excised.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When the indications are selected appropriately, nasal skull-base neoplasms, including benign and malignant, can be well treated with nasal endoscopic minimally invasive surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Fibroma, Ossifying / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Nose / surgery. Olfactory Nerve / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19141243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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84. Prasad KC, Kumar A, Prasad SC, Jain D: Endoscopic-assisted excision of esthesioneuroblastoma. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Sep;18(5):1034-8
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  • [Title] Endoscopic-assisted excision of esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • The purpose of this article is to report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma involving the bilateral paranasal sinuses, which was excised using an endoscopic-assisted transfacial approach.
  • A patient presented with nasal swelling and left-sided nasal obstruction, epistaxis, and diplopia.
  • Examination revealed broadening of the nasal dorsum with a fleshy pink mass in both nasal cavities.
  • Computed tomographic scan showed a mass involving the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses on both sides.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as group C esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • On Waroff staining, Hispathology slides suggested esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • The patient was asymptomatic for 1 year, following which he developed infection of the nasal cavity for which he had no form of treatment.
  • He subsequently developed maggots in the nasal cavity after which he died.
  • An endoscopic resection of the cribriform plate from the nasal cavity without a formal craniofacial resection can be safely performed with oncologic safety.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17912077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Laforest C, Selva D, Crompton J, Leibovitch I: Orbital invasion by esthesioneuroblastoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 Nov;21(6):435-40
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  • [Title] Orbital invasion by esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignancy arising from the olfactory mucosa in the nasal fossa, which can invade the orbit producing ophthalmic symptoms and signs.
  • The purpose of this study was to present a case series and review the literature to assess the characteristics of orbital involvement by esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective case series of all patients treated for biopsy-proven esthesioneuroblastoma at the Royal Adelaide Hospital between 1992 and 2004.
  • Mean time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 17 months (range, 2 to 24 months).
  • All patients who had or went on to have development of orbital invasion had advanced disease at diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Orbital invasion by esthesioneuroblastoma is not uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Orbit / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16304521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Kassam AB, Zanation A, Prevedello D, Gardner P, Mintz A: Endoscopic skull base surgery: principles of endonasal oncological surgery. J Surg Oncol; 2008 Jun 15;97(8):658-64
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  • Endoscopic endonasal surgery can be applied to the management of benign and malignant sinonasal neoplasms with good results.
  • Preliminary experience with completely endoscopic excision of olfactory neuroblastomas indicates good local control and few complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Skull Base / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18493946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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87. Tselis N, Heyd R, Baghi M, Zamboglou N: Interstitial high-dose-rate-brachytherapy in advanced esthesioneuroblastoma. Laryngoscope; 2008 Nov;118(11):2006-10
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  • [Title] Interstitial high-dose-rate-brachytherapy in advanced esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare neuroectodermal tumor of the nasal vault with an aggressive biological behavior that is characterized by local recurrence, atypical distant metastasis, and poor long-term prognosis.
  • We report two cases of primary metastatic and locally recurrent disease, which were treated with computed tomography-guided interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy in palliative and curative intent, respectively.
  • Computed tomography-guided interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy should be considered as a feasible treatment option for advanced esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / radiotherapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18641524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Bachar G, Goldstein DP, Shah M, Tandon A, Ringash J, Pond G, Gullane PJ, Perez-Ordonez B, Gilbert RW, Brown DH, Gentili F, O'Sullivan B, Irish JC: Esthesioneuroblastoma: The Princess Margaret Hospital experience. Head Neck; 2008 Dec;30(12):1607-14
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  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma: The Princess Margaret Hospital experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Esthesioneuroblastoma is rare.
  • Local disease control was 82.6% at 5 years.
  • Recurrence was seen in 33% with local and regional disease recurrence at 15% and 18%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals, University. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18798301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. García-Santana SM, Rodríguez JA, Serrano L, Hedges TR 3rd: Esthesioneuroblastoma presenting with complete external ophthalmoplegia. Semin Ophthalmol; 2009 Nov-Dec;24(6):245-6
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  • [Title] Esthesioneuroblastoma presenting with complete external ophthalmoplegia.
  • Neuroimaging revealed a mass involving the medial wall of the left cavernous sinus, without orbital involvement.
  • Biopsy of the mass provided a pathologic diagnosis of esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Ophthalmoplegia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19954376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5205
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Sharma S, Lasheen W, Walsh D: Paraneoplastic refractory hypercalcemia due to advanced metastatic esthesioneuroblastoma. Rhinology; 2008 Jun;46(2):153-5
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic refractory hypercalcemia due to advanced metastatic esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium.
  • ENB has no distinctive clinical picture, but often presents as chronic unilateral nasal obstruction or epistaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18575019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0729
  • [Journal-full-title] Rhinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rhinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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91. Zhao LJ, Gao L, Xu GZ, Li SY, Xiao GL: [Prognostic factors and outcome of esthesioneuroblastoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):561-4
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  • [Title] [Prognostic factors and outcome of esthesioneuroblastoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical feature, prognostic factors and the appropriate treatment modality of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB).
  • In this series, 3 patients had modified Kadish stage A disease, 15 stage B, 22 stage C, and 9 stage D lesion.
  • Overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method.
  • The 5-year OS of patients with modified Kadish stage A or B disease and those with stage C or D was 78.4% and 49.7% (chi(2) = 2.10, P = 0.15), and the 5-year DFS was 47.1% and 38.4% (chi(2) = 0.08, P = 0.78), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Esthesioneuroblastoma is more prevalent in the young male adults than female, usually with locally advanced stage lesion when first diagnosed.
  • Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / radiotherapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nose Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16438858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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92. Koch M, Constantinidis J, Dimmler A, Strauss C, Iro H: [Long-term experiences in the therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2006 Oct;85(10):723-30
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  • [Title] [Long-term experiences in the therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Langzeit-Erfahrungen in der Therapie des Asthesioneuroblastoms.
  • BACKGROUND: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare and clinically variable tumor of nasal sinus and skull base and challenging for modern multidisciplinary therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1975 and 2001 26 patients were treated after the diagnosis of esthesioneuroblastoma was established.
  • Disease specific 10- and 15-year-survival according to the estimation of Kaplan-Meier was 76.2 %.
  • Salvage therapy was performed in 5 cases (71.4 %) with a success rate and a 15-year survival each of 60 %.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma is challenging because of rarity and biologic variability of the tumor and and because of lack of a standard therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16673299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; VAIA protocol
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93. Chen YF, Yang AK, Zhang Q, Ouyang D, Chen WK, Chen FJ: [Clinical analysis of 53 cases of esthesioneuroblastoma]. Ai Zheng; 2009 Mar;28(3):308-11
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 53 cases of esthesioneuroblastoma].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) patients is poor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ENB is a malignant tumor with high rates of locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19619448.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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94. Chou S, Varikatt W, Dexter M, Ng T: Extraventricular neurocytoma with atypical features and ganglionic differentiation. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Jul;17(7):920-2

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  • We report an EVN arising from the right frontal lobe near the olfactory tract in a 34-year-old male with worsening chronic epilepsy.
  • Our patient's tumour exhibited many uncommon features including ganglionic differentiation, increased mitotic activity and a high proliferative index.
  • We discuss the important differential diagnoses given the site of the tumour as well as the differentiating features from olfactory neuroblastoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic ganglioglioma and supra-tentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Ganglia / pathology. Neurocytoma / pathology. Olfactory Pathways / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20399667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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95. Das S, Kirsch CF: Imaging of lumps and bumps in the nose: a review of sinonasal tumours. Cancer Imaging; 2005;5:167-77

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sinonasal disease is one of the most common clinical head and neck pathologies.
  • Although sinus tumours are rare, they portend a poor prognosis, often due to advanced disease at diagnosis.
  • Like most neoplasms, early detection improves prognosis, therefore clinicians and radiologists should be aware of features separating tumours from inflammatory sinus disease.
  • Benign neoplasms reviewed include osteoma, inverting papilloma, and juvenile nasal angiofibroma.
  • Malignant neoplasms reviewed include squamous cell carcinoma, the minor salivary gland tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] International Cancer Imaging Society.
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  • (PMID = 16361146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 73
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1665243
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96. Kodama S, Kawano T, Suzuki M: Endoscopic transnasal resection of ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma in the pterygopalatine fossa: technical case report. Neurosurgery; 2009 Dec;65(6 Suppl):E112-3; discussion E113
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  • [Title] Endoscopic transnasal resection of ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma in the pterygopalatine fossa: technical case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare, malignant neoplasm arising from the olfactory neuroepithelium in the upper nasal cavity.
  • Even more rare is ectopic esthesioneuroblastoma developing from the region outside the olfactory epithelium.
  • In addition, tumors occurring in the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) are uncommon, and the endoscopic transnasal approach for the resection of malignant tumors in this region is also uncommon.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We describe an esthesioneuroblastoma arising from the left maxillary sinus and PPF.
  • TECHNIQUE: The endoscopic transnasal approach could be successfully used for the complete removal of malignant tumors in the PPF.
  • The endoscopic transnasal approach might become the treatment of choice for malignant tumors in the PPF.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Pterygopalatine Fossa / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Maxillary Sinus / pathology. Maxillary Sinus / physiopathology. Maxillary Sinus / surgery. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / physiopathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / instrumentation. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / instrumentation. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Radiotherapy. Skull / anatomy & histology. Skull / surgery. Sphenoid Bone / anatomy & histology. Sphenoid Bone / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19935009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Porter AB, Bernold DM, Giannini C, Foote RL, Link MJ, Olsen KD, Moynihan TJ, Buckner JC: Retrospective review of adjuvant chemotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma. J Neurooncol; 2008 Nov;90(2):201-4
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  • [Title] Retrospective review of adjuvant chemotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor arising from the olfactory epithelium in the upper nasal cavity.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 76 patients treated at the Mayo Clinic for esthesioneuroblastoma from 1976 to 2003 was performed to evaluate adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in these patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This small retrospective series suggests that adjuvant therapy for patients with high grade, Stage C esthesioneuroblastoma is of benefit following complete resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / drug therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18633576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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98. McLean JN, Nunley SR, Klass C, Moore C, Müller S, Johnstone PA: Combined modality therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Jun;136(6):998-1002
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined modality therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor of the olfactory epithelium.
  • The 5-year crude disease-free survival rate was 59% and the 5-year actuarial disease-free survival rate was 62% (CI, 28 and 83, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Olfactory Mucosa / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17547995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 5P60-MD000525
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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99. Zhang M, Zhou L, Wang DH, Huang WT, Wang SY: Diagnosis and management of esthesioneuroblastoma. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2010;72(2):113-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • AIMS: Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnosis and combined modality treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma treated at 1 institution.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical information regarding presentation, immunohistochemical results, treatment and outcome was performed on 21 patients with esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • RESULTS: Two patients had Kadish A, 12 had Kadish B and 7 had Kadish C disease.
  • Generally, the patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (Kadish A and Kadish B) and preoperative chemoradiotherapy (Kadish C) after the initial biopsy, followed by surgery.
  • Surgical approaches (n = 21) consisted of 12 lateral rhinotomies, 5 craniofacial resections, 3 endoscopic sinus surgeries and 1 midfacial degloving approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor.
  • Thorough histological evaluation is the key to correct diagnosis and differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20453548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0275
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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100. Holland H, Koschny R, Krupp W, Meixensberger J, Bauer M, Kirsten H, Ahnert P: Comprehensive cytogenetic characterization of an esthesioneuroblastoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2007 Mar;173(2):89-96
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  • [Title] Comprehensive cytogenetic characterization of an esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma is a malignant neuroectodermal tumor originating from olfactory epithelial cells in the nasal vault.
  • Therefore, we performed comprehensive cytogenetic analyses of an esthesioneuroblastoma, Hyam's grade III-IV, using trypsin-Giemsa staining (GTG banding), multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), and locus-specific FISH complemented by molecular karyotyping using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
  • Interestingly, we found two novel, so far not described deletions, del(2)(q37) and del(21)(q22).
  • Applying SNP array karyotyping, we confirmed the chromosomal aberrations del(2)(q37.3), del(3)(q27.2), del(10)(q26.11), chromosomal imbalance on 17q, del(21)(q22), and revealed a number of so far unknown aberrations (gain of 2q14.3, 13q33.3, and 13q34).
  • While the cytogenetically revealed low frequency mosaic del(6)(q22q24) was not visible using SNP array karyotyping, some of the smaller imbalances (SNP array data) could not have been detected by classic cytogenetic analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytogenetic Analysis. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / genetics. Nasal Cavity / metabolism. Nose Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17321323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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