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1. Rieken S, Gaiser T, Mohr A, Welzel T, Witt O, Kulozik AE, Wick W, Debus J, Combs SE: Outcome and prognostic factors of desmoplastic medulloblastoma treated within a multidisciplinary treatment concept. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:450
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors of desmoplastic medulloblastoma treated within a multidisciplinary treatment concept.
  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplasia in medulloblastoma is often diagnosed in adult patients and was repeatedly associated with improved results.
  • Today, all medulloblastoma patients receive intensive multimodal treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • This study was set up to investigate treatment outcome and prognostic factors after radiation therapy in patients with desmoplastic medulloblastomas.
  • METHODS: Twenty patients treated for desmoplastic medulloblastoma in the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Heidelberg between 1984 and 2007 were included.
  • All patients underwent postsurgical radiotherapy (RT).
  • Five patients died from recurrent medulloblastoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal approaches with surgical resection followed by chemoirradiation achieved high response rates with long OS in desmoplastic medulloblastoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 20731859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2939548
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2. Yoon JW, Gilbertson R, Iannaccone S, Iannaccone P, Walterhouse D: Defining a role for Sonic hedgehog pathway activation in desmoplastic medulloblastoma by identifying GLI1 target genes. Int J Cancer; 2009 Jan 1;124(1):109-19
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  • [Title] Defining a role for Sonic hedgehog pathway activation in desmoplastic medulloblastoma by identifying GLI1 target genes.
  • A subgroup of medulloblastomas shows constitutive activation of the Sonic hedgehog pathway with expression of GLI1.
  • We identified the subset of GLI1 transforming target genes specifically expressed in medulloblastomas by comparing GLI1 targets in RK3E cells transformed by GLI1 with the gene expression profile of Sonic hedgehog signature medulloblastomas.
  • We identified 25 whose expression was altered similarly in medulloblastomas expressing GLI1.
  • We identified upregulation of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor that plays roles in the proliferation and migration of granule cell neuron precursors during development, supporting the concept that reinitiation of developmental programs may contribute to medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.
  • In addition, the targets suggest a pathway through which GLI1 may ultimately affect medulloblastoma cell proliferation, survival and genomic stability by converging on p53, SGK1, MGMT and NTRK2.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Hedgehog Proteins / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18924150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS054850; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P30 NS054850-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129541-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / GLI1 protein, human; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkB; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / serum-glucocorticoid regulated kinase; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS80370; NLM/ PMC3889649
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3. Ahmed N, Bhurgri Y, Sadiq S, Shakoor KA: Pediatric brain tumours at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):399-404
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  • Eighty one cases were included, 58 (71.6%) in males and 23 (28.4%) in females with a male to female ratio of 2.5:1.
  • The mean age for all cases, both genders was 8.8 years (95% CI 7.9; 9.6) with a marginal variation for cases occurring in the cerebrum and cerebellum.
  • The morphological distribution of cases was astrocytoma (28 cases, 34.6%), primitive neuroectodermal tumor or PNET (40 cases; 49.4%), ependymoma (8 cases, 10%), mixed glioma (4 cases; 5%) and a case of oligodendroglioma.
  • PNET with rhabdoid differentiation, oligodendroglioma and pinealoblastoma comprised 1 case (3.7%) each.
  • The morphological categorization of infratentorial tumors was astrocytoma (11 cases; 20.4%), medulloblastoma (38 cases; 70.4%), ependymoma (3 cases; 5.6%) and mixed glioma - astroependymoma (2 cases, 3.7%).
  • The morphological categorization of medulloblastoma was classical medulloblastoma (15 cases; 39.5%), desmoplastic medulloblastoma (8 cases; 21.1%), medulloblastoma with astrocytic differentiation (12 cases; 31.5%), medulloblastoma with neural differentiation (2 cases; 5.3%), and neuroblastic medulloblastoma (1 case; 2.6%).
  • The pediatric brain tumors in Karachi reflect a developing country scenario, with a strong male predisposition and a late presentation with a peak in the 5-9 year age group.
  • There is a predominance of medulloblastoma and a paucity of astrocytomas.

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  • (PMID = 18159977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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4. Anderton JA, Lindsey JC, Lusher ME, Gilbertson RJ, Bailey S, Ellison DW, Clifford SC: Global analysis of the medulloblastoma epigenome identifies disease-subgroup-specific inactivation of COL1A2. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Dec;10(6):981-94
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  • [Title] Global analysis of the medulloblastoma epigenome identifies disease-subgroup-specific inactivation of COL1A2.
  • Candidate gene investigations have indicated a significant role for epigenetic events in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood.
  • To assess the medulloblastoma epigenome more comprehensively, we undertook a genomewide investigation to identify genes that display evidence of methylation-dependent regulation.
  • Expression microarray analysis of medulloblastoma cell lines following treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor revealed deregulation of multiple transcripts (3%-6% of probes per cell line).
  • Detailed analysis of COL1A2 supports a key role in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis; dense biallelic methylation associated with transcriptional silencing was observed in 46 of 60 cases (77%).
  • Moreover, COL1A2 status distinguished infant medulloblastomas of the desmoplastic histopathological subtype, indicating that distinct molecular pathogenesis may underlie these tumors and their more favorable prognosis.
  • These data reveal a more diverse and expansive medulloblastoma epi genome than previously understood and provide strong evidence that the methylation status of specific genes may contribute to the biological subclassification of medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Collagen / genetics. Gene Silencing. Medulloblastoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18664619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / alpha 2(I) collagen; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2719012
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5. Verma S, Tavaré CJ, Gilles FH: Histologic features and prognosis in pediatric medulloblastoma. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2008 Sep-Oct;11(5):337-43
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  • [Title] Histologic features and prognosis in pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • Because individual histologic features in childhood medulloblastoma alter survival likelihood, the recent 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Brain Tumors recognizes desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity, large cell medulloblastoma, and anaplastic medulloblastoma, in addition to medulloblastoma with no other distinguishing features.
  • To identify features affecting survival likelihood, we investigated 33 histologic features in 556 childhood tumors diagnosed as medulloblastoma in the Childhood Brain Tumor Consortium (CBTC) database; all features have CBTC verified read-reread reliability and those features important in the classification of medulloblastoma and its WHO variants regardless of their measured reliability.
  • Of note, the presence of desmoplasia, currently a defining feature (along with nodules) for desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, had no effect on survival likelihood.
  • We conclude that the presence of nodularity in medulloblastoma is important to improved survival likelihood, particularly when combined with balls and fine fibrillary stroma.
  • Given the "overlap" of desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma and nodular medulloblastoma, we suggest they be combined into a diagnosis of nodular medulloblastoma, with nodules, balls, and fine fibrillary stroma as defining criteria.
  • We also suggest that because of the considerable overlap of anaplastic medulloblastoma and large cell medulloblastoma they be combined into 1 diagnosis of anaplastic/large cell medulloblastoma, with necrosis and prominent nucleoli among the defining criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18201118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Pfister S, Schlaeger C, Mendrzyk F, Wittmann A, Benner A, Kulozik A, Scheurlen W, Radlwimmer B, Lichter P: Array-based profiling of reference-independent methylation status (aPRIMES) identifies frequent promoter methylation and consecutive downregulation of ZIC2 in pediatric medulloblastoma. Nucleic Acids Res; 2007;35(7):e51
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  • [Title] Array-based profiling of reference-independent methylation status (aPRIMES) identifies frequent promoter methylation and consecutive downregulation of ZIC2 in pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • Application of aPRIMES to the DNA from desmoplastic medulloblastomas of monozygotic twins showed strikingly similar methylation profiles.
  • Additional analysis of 18 sporadic medulloblastomas revealed an overall correlation between highly methylated tumors and poor clinical outcome and identified ZIC2 as a frequently methylated gene in pediatric medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17344319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4962
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleic acids research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleic Acids Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / ZIC2 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1874664
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7. Gilhuis HJ, van der Laak JA, Pomp J, Kappelle AC, Gijtenbeek JM, Wesseling P: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes. Angiogenesis; 2006;9(4):201-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes.
  • In the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system, four main histopathological subtypes of medulloblastomas (classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma) as well as of ependymal tumours (low-grade ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma) are recognised.
  • Under the hypothesis that the microvascular architecture of tumours is a reflection of the histopathological subtype, we performed three-dimensional reconstructions of the microvasculature in these subtypes of medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours using computerised image analysis.
  • Three-dimensional reconstructions showed a dense pattern of irregular vessels in classic and large cell medulloblastoma.
  • In desmoplastic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity, the vessels were more unevenly distributed and organised around the nodular areas.
  • Classic medulloblastoma and large cell medulloblastoma had on average the largest vessel area and perimeter.
  • The highest number of vessels was seen in classic medulloblastoma and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity.
  • We conclude that our three-dimensional reconstructions shed unprecedented light on the tumour vasculature in medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours and expect that such reconstructions are helpful tools for further studies on tumour angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / blood supply. Ependymoma / blood supply. Medulloblastoma / blood supply. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 17109194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-6970
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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8. Figols-Ladrón de Guevara J, Lafuente-Sánchez JV: [The medulloblastoma]. Rev Neurol; 2006 Aug 16-31;43(4):213-7
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  • [Title] [The medulloblastoma].
  • [Transliterated title] El meduloblastoma.
  • INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT: Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar small cell tumor, whose ancestor cell has not been yet identified in the human normal embriology: its exact origin is, in fact, still unknown.
  • Nevertheless, one of the most acceptable possibilities facing the origin of the tumor is the remaining rests of cerebellar outer granular sheet.
  • In this publication of the WHO, medulloblastomas have been subclassified into: classic, desmoplastic, medulloblastomas with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell medulloblastomas.
  • Real differences dealing with survival and prognosis amidst these subvarieties have been noted in extensive series.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Medulloblastoma

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  • (PMID = 16883510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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9. Rutkowski S, von Hoff K, Emser A, Zwiener I, Pietsch T, Figarella-Branger D, Giangaspero F, Ellison DW, Garre ML, Biassoni V, Grundy RG, Finlay JL, Dhall G, Raquin MA, Grill J: Survival and prognostic factors of early childhood medulloblastoma: an international meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4961-8
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  • [Title] Survival and prognostic factors of early childhood medulloblastoma: an international meta-analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the prognostic role of clinical parameters and histology in early childhood medulloblastoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical and histologic data from 270 children younger than age 5 years diagnosed with medulloblastoma between March 1987 and July 2004 and treated within prospective trials of five national study groups were centrally analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred sixty children with medulloblastoma and specified histologic subtype were eligible for analysis (median age, 1.89 years; median follow-up, 8.0 years).
  • Rates for 8-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 55% and 76%, respectively, in 108 children with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) or medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN); 27% and 42%, respectively, in 145 children with classic medulloblastoma (CMB); and 14% and 14%, respectively, in seven children with large-cell/anaplastic (LC/A) medulloblastoma (P < .001).
  • Histology (DNMB/MBEN: hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.64; LC/A medulloblastoma: HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 0.95 to 5.54; P < .001 compared with CMB), incomplete resection and metastases (M0R1: HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.80; M+: HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.50 to 3.46; P < .001 compared with M0R0), and national group were independent prognostic factors for EFS, and OS.
  • The HRs for OS ranged from 0.14 for localized M0 and DNMB/MBEN to 13.67 for metastatic LC/A medulloblastoma in different national groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the high frequency of desmoplastic variants of medulloblastomas in early childhood and histopathology as a strong independent prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Medulloblastoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20940197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Robbins PD, Burger PC, Hessler RB, Perry A, Abell-Aleff PC, Mierau GW: Ependymomas with neuronal differentiation: a morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):313-24
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  • [Title] Ependymomas with neuronal differentiation: a morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum.
  • We encountered five ependymomas with neuronal differentiation seen in two by histology, in two by immunohistochemistry alone, and in one by electron microscopy.
  • Cases 1 and 2 were anaplastic and showed clearly defined neuropil islands or pale islands as in nodular desmoplastic medulloblastoma, respectively.
  • The tumors affected a 16-year-old male and a 5-year-old female and involved the right frontoparietal lobe and fourth ventricle, respectively.
  • Cases 3-5, as well as 7 of the 33 screened ependymomas, showed a suggestion of neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemistry alone, including immunoreactivity for Neu-N (n = 8), synaptophysin (n = 4), neurofilament protein (n = 4), and chromogranin (n = 2).
  • Electron microscopy performed on the two cases with neuronal islands demonstrated microtubule bundles and dense core granules (case 1) and poorly differentiated cells with high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios, with intermediate filament accumulation and rare cilia (case 2).
  • Neuronal differentiation occurs in ependymomas but is less frequently definitive (histologic, ultrastructural) than merely a limited immunohistochemical finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neurons / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17061076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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11. McManamy CS, Pears J, Weston CL, Hanzely Z, Ironside JW, Taylor RE, Grundy RG, Clifford SC, Ellison DW, Clinical Brain Tumour Group: Nodule formation and desmoplasia in medulloblastomas-defining the nodular/desmoplastic variant and its biological behavior. Brain Pathol; 2007 Apr;17(2):151-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nodule formation and desmoplasia in medulloblastomas-defining the nodular/desmoplastic variant and its biological behavior.
  • Among the variants of medulloblastoma in the current WHO classification of nervous system tumors, the desmoplastic variant, which has been reported to constitute 5%-25% of pediatric medulloblastomas, is defined by its nodular collections of neurocytic cells bounded by desmoplastic internodular zones.
  • We have studied the frequency, morphological features and biological behavior of medulloblastomas in two contemporaneous SIOP/UKCCSG trial cohorts of children with medulloblastomas, CNS9102 (n = 315) and CNS9204 (n = 35), focusing on tumors with nodular and desmoplastic phenotypes.
  • In children aged 3-16 years (CNS9102), the nodular/desmoplastic medulloblastoma represented 5% of all tumors, while in infants aged <3 years (CNS9204) this variant represented 57% of medulloblastomas.
  • Using iFISH to detect molecular cytogenetic abnormalities in medulloblastomas with a nodular architecture, we demonstrated distinct genetic profiles in desmoplastic and non-desmoplastic (classic and anaplastic) tumors; in particular, abnormalities of chromosome 17 occurred in the latter, but not the former.
  • Significantly different outcomes were demonstrated for classic, nodular/desmoplastic and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastomas in both cohorts.
  • In conclusion, the nodular/desmoplastic medulloblastoma appears to have clinical, genetic and biological characteristics that set it apart from other variants of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17388946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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12. Grundy RG, Wilne SH, Robinson KJ, Ironside JW, Cox T, Chong WK, Michalski A, Campbell RH, Bailey CC, Thorp N, Pizer B, Punt J, Walker DA, Ellison DW, Machin D, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (formerly UKCCSG) Brain Tumour Committee: Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jan;46(1):120-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant treatment for brain tumours arising in very young children, but it has the potential to damage the child's developing nervous system at a crucial time - with a resultant reduction in IQ leading to cognitive impairment, associated endocrinopathy and risk of second malignancy.
  • METHODS: Ninety-seven children were enrolled between March 1993 and July 2003 and, following diagnostic review, comprised: medulloblastoma (n=31), astrocytoma (26), choroid plexus carcinoma [CPC] (15), CNS PNET (11), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours [AT/RT] (6) and ineligible (6).
  • Patients with medulloblastoma presented as a high-risk group, 83.9% having residual disease and/or metastases at diagnosis.
  • The 5-year OS for desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma was 52.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 27.6-73.0) and for classic medulloblastoma 33.3% (CI: 4.6-67.6); the 5-year EFS were 35.3% (CI: 14.5-57.0) and 33.3% (CI: 4.6-67.6), respectively.
  • All children with large cell or anaplastic variants of medulloblastoma died within 2 years of diagnosis.
  • For CPC the 5-year OS was 26.67% (CI: 8.3-49.6) without RT.
  • This treatment strategy was less effective for AT/RT with 3-year OS of 16.7% (CI: 0.8-51.7) and CNS PNET with 1-year OS of 9.1% (CI: 0.5-33.3).
  • Desmoplastic/nodular sub-type of medulloblastoma has a better prognosis than classic histology, despite traditional adverse clinical features of metastatic disease and incomplete surgical resection.
  • A subgroup with HGG and CPC are long-term survivors without RT.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Child, Preschool. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / surgery. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Survival Analysis. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / radiotherapy. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19818598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Riazmontazer N, Daneshbod Y: Cytology of desmoplastic medulloblastoma in imprint smears: a report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):97-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytology of desmoplastic medulloblastoma in imprint smears: a report of 2 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Desmoplastic medulloblastoma is a rare subtype of medulloblastoma with astroglial differentiation.
  • The cytomorphologic features in intraoperative imprint smears from 2 cases of desmoplastic medulloblastoma are described.
  • CASE REPORTS: A 22-year-old man and 27-year-old woman with a cerebellar tumor underwent craniotomy and tumor resection.
  • The imprint cytologic smears contained cellular zones and nodular hypocellular areas containing astroglial and oligodendrogliallike elements.
  • The cytology was misinterpreted as glial tumors, while the final histologic diagnosis in both cases were desmoplastic medulloblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Desmoplastic medulloblastoma shows distinctive cytology in intraoperative smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16514849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ehrbrecht A, Müller U, Wolter M, Hoischen A, Koch A, Radlwimmer B, Actor B, Mincheva A, Pietsch T, Lichter P, Reifenberger G, Weber RG: Comprehensive genomic analysis of desmoplastic medulloblastomas: identification of novel amplified genes and separate evaluation of the different histological components. J Pathol; 2006 Mar;208(4):554-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comprehensive genomic analysis of desmoplastic medulloblastomas: identification of novel amplified genes and separate evaluation of the different histological components.
  • Desmoplastic medulloblastoma (DMB) is a malignant cerebellar tumour composed of two distinct tissue components, pale islands and desmoplastic areas.
  • Among the 17q23 genes, RPS6KB1 showed markedly elevated transcript levels as compared to normal cerebellum in five of six DMBs and four of five classic medulloblastomas investigated.
  • Finally, CGH analysis of microdissected pale islands and desmoplastic areas showed common chromosomal imbalances in five of six informative tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16400626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; EC 2.7.11.1 / ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kD, polypeptide 1
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15. Smucker PS, Smith JL: Multifocal desmoplastic medulloblastoma in an african-american child with nevoid basal cell carcinoma (gorlin) syndrome. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2006 Oct;105(4 Suppl):315-20
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  • [Title] Multifocal desmoplastic medulloblastoma in an african-american child with nevoid basal cell carcinoma (gorlin) syndrome. Case report.
  • The authors present the case of a 2.5-year-old African-American boy with desmoplastic medulloblastoma (MB) and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from mutations in the patched (PTCH) gene that predisposes to neoplasias (including basal cell carcinomas [BCCs] and MB) and to widespread congenital malformations.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis


16. Manor E, Bodner L, Kachko P, Kapelushnik J: Derivative (22)t(3;22)(q12;p11.1) in desmoplastic medulloblastoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Jan 15;196(2):175-8
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  • [Title] Derivative (22)t(3;22)(q12;p11.1) in desmoplastic medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastoma is a malignant invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum, representing 15-30% of pediatric brain tumors.
  • An i(17q) abnormality appears in 40% of medulloblastomas, and usually not as a sole aberration; however, cytogenetic data for medulloblastoma are limited.
  • In the present case, cytogenetic analysis of a medulloblastoma revealed an unbalanced karyotype in all cells analyzed: 46,XY,der(22)t(3;22)(q12;p11.1).
  • The significance of this finding and its role in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma need further clarification.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20082855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Grange DK, Clericuzio CL, Bayliss SJ, Berk DR, Heideman RL, Higginson JK, Julian S, Lind A: Two new patients with Curry-Jones syndrome with trichoblastoma and medulloblastoma suggest an etiologic role of the sonic hedgehog-patched-GLI pathway. Am J Med Genet A; 2008 Oct 15;146A(20):2589-97
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  • [Title] Two new patients with Curry-Jones syndrome with trichoblastoma and medulloblastoma suggest an etiologic role of the sonic hedgehog-patched-GLI pathway.
  • The second patient was born with occipital meningoceles and developed a desmoplastic medulloblastoma.
  • In view of the association of trichoblastoma with basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic medulloblastoma with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) and PTCH mutations, we hypothesize that Curry-Jones syndrome is caused by malfunction of an element in the sonic hedgehog pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple. Medulloblastoma. Skin Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18798318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GLI3 protein, human; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / patched receptors
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18. Ng D, Stavrou T, Liu L, Taylor MD, Gold B, Dean M, Kelley MJ, Dubovsky EC, Vezina G, Nicholson HS, Byrne J, Rutka JT, Hogg D, Reaman GH, Goldstein AM: Retrospective family study of childhood medulloblastoma. Am J Med Genet A; 2005 May 1;134(4):399-403
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  • [Title] Retrospective family study of childhood medulloblastoma.
  • Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor of childhood and can occur sporadically or in association with inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes such as the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS).
  • To determine whether an association existed between the risk of developing medulloblastoma and undiagnosed syndromes, we retrospectively reviewed clinical data on 33 patients with medulloblastoma from a single institution and compared them with their unaffected relatives (n = 46).
  • Six patients had tumors showing desmoplastic histology.
  • Two patients with isolated desmoplastic medulloblastoma had an insertion and splice site mutation, respectively, in suppressor of fused (SUFU).
  • All patients with nondesmoplastic medulloblastoma histology received molecular testing for SUFU.
  • We performed a clinical evaluation for Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) in four medulloblastoma families, who exhibited macrocephaly as the only finding consistent with the diagnosis of GCPS.
  • There was a paucity of clinical findings among the majority of medulloblastoma patients in this study group to suggest a definable cancer genetic syndrome.
  • We conclude that clinically recognizable syndromes are uncommon among patients with medulloblastoma, however, PTCH1 and SUFU mutations are present at a low but significant frequency.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Jul 15;136(2):226
  • (PMID = 15759260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4825
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GLI3 protein, human; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / SUFU protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / patched receptors; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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19. Pipp I, Wagner L, Rössler K, Budka H, Preusser M: Secretagogin expression in tumours of the human brain and its coverings. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):319-26
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  • We found focal or widespread secretagogin expression in tumour cells in 1/18 oligoastrocytomas, 1/19 oligodendrogliomas, 2/20 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 2/9 ependymomas, 2/11 anaplastic ependymomas, 2/10 glioblastomas, 3/11 gangliogliomas and 1/2 anaplastic gangliogliomas, 10/10 central neurocytomas, 5/10 classic medulloblastomas, 4/5 desmoplastic medulloblastomas, 3/5 large cell/anaplastic medulloblastomas, 3/5 neuroblastomas, 3/10 meningiomas, 2/10 haemangioblastomas, and 13/19 pituitary adenomas.
  • We detected no secretagogin expression in fibrillary astrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, DNT, pineocytoma, pineoblastoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (AT/RT), or primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).
  • We conclude that secretagogin is differentially expressed in human neuronal, glial, and embryonal brain tumours, meningial neoplasms and pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 17504298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins
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20. Etzell JE, Keet C, McDonald W, Banerjee A: Medulloblastoma simulating acute myeloid leukemia: case report with a review of "myeloid antigen" expression in nonhematopoietic tissues and tumors. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Nov;28(11):703-10
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  • [Title] Medulloblastoma simulating acute myeloid leukemia: case report with a review of "myeloid antigen" expression in nonhematopoietic tissues and tumors.
  • Medulloblastoma is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the posterior fossa usually in the first decade of life.
  • We report a rare case of medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman who presented with headache, leukopenia, and anemia.
  • The presence of myeloid antigens and CD34 suggested acute myeloid leukemia; however, the bone marrow core biopsy architecture and tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid were more compatible with a nonhematopoietic tumor.
  • Further workup revealed a cerebellar mass, and a diagnosis of desmoplastic medulloblastoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007 May;29(5):347-8 [17483718.001]
  • (PMID = 17114955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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21. Faria C, Miguéns J, Antunes JL, Salgado D, Nunes S, Barroso C, Martins Mdo C, Nunes VM, Roque L: Pediatric brain tumors: genetics and clinical outcome. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Mar;5(3):263-70
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  • High-level amplifications of DNA were detected in 3 cases, namely in a desmoplastic medulloblastoma where a c-Myc amplification was found.
  • The patient with c-Myc amplification died of progressive disease.
  • The authors corroborate that c-Myc amplification is a marker of poor prognosis in medulloblastomas.
  • In this study, they were able to verify that a 1q gain correlates with a poor clinical outcome, independent of tumor grade and histological type.

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  • (PMID = 20192643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Ueba T, Kadota E, Kano H, Yamashita K, Kageyama N: MATH-1 production by an adult medulloblastoma suggestive of a cerebellar external granule cell precursor origin. J Clin Neurosci; 2008 Jan;15(1):84-7
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  • [Title] MATH-1 production by an adult medulloblastoma suggestive of a cerebellar external granule cell precursor origin.
  • Radiological, histological and molecular findings in an uncommon adult case of cerebellar medulloblastoma suggested an external granular cell precursor origin.
  • Neuroimaging studies demonstrated a homogeneously enhanced well-circumscribed mass lesion in the right cerebellar hemisphere and she underwent surgery.
  • Postoperative neuronal imaging studies showed that the tumor located in the cerebellar folia had been removed totally.
  • Pathological examination identified it as a desmoplastic medulloblastoma with subpial and subarachnoid infiltration and some infiltration into the molecular and granular layer via the perivascular space.
  • Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical findings revealed the presence of MATH-1, expressed in cerebellar external granule cell precursors during fetal development, in the tumor cells.
  • These findings suggest that the tumor arose from external granule cell precursors of the cerebellum and that it was therefore of neuronal lineage.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / metabolism. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neurons / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18032051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATOH1 protein, human; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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23. Kalifa C, Grill J: The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status? J Neurooncol; 2005 Dec;75(3):279-85
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  • Genetic predisposition to infantile malignant brain tumors are known in Gorlin syndrome for example who present with desmoplastic medulloblastoma in about 5% of the affected patients.
  • At the end of the 80s, pilot studies were performed using postoperative chemotherapy in young medulloblastoma patients.
  • Van Eys treated 12 selected children with medulloblastoma with MOPP regimen and without irradiation; 8 of them were reported to be long term survivors [4].
  • [MeSH-minor] Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Newborn, Diseases. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Prognosis. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16195802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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24. Gulino A, Arcella A, Giangaspero F: Pathological and molecular heterogeneity of medulloblastoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Nov;20(6):668-75
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  • [Title] Pathological and molecular heterogeneity of medulloblastoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The outcome of medulloblastoma patients and the quality of life of survivors can be improved by both novel therapies and a better tumor classification.
  • This review will focus on the pathology and molecular biology of medulloblastoma and its potential to influence risk assignment and future therapy.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: A risk stratification system of pediatric medulloblastoma based on a combination of histopathological evaluation and targeted molecular analysis can be outlined.
  • Among the four variants recognized by the 2007 WHO classification, the desmoplastic medulloblastoma and the medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity have significantly better survival with respect to classic medulloblastoma, whereas the large-cell and anaplastic have a worse prognosis.
  • Moreover, 17p loss, MYC amplification/expression, and 1q gain are associated with poor prognosis; in contrast, monosomy 6, mutation of CTNNB1, and trkC expression identify tumors with a favorable outcome.
  • Emerging evidence indicates that the different precursor cell populations that form the cerebellum are susceptible to mutations in signal pathways that regulate their functions; these mutations alter normal development programmes and may result in the formation of distinct variants of medulloblastoma.
  • SUMMARY: Better understanding of the growth control mechanisms involved in the development and progression of medulloblastoma will allow improved therapeutic stratification of patients using existing adjuvant therapy as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18841049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / Wnt Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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25. Pizem J, Cör A, Zadravec Zaletel L, Popovic M: Prognostic significance of apoptosis in medulloblastoma. Neurosci Lett; 2005 Jun 10-17;381(1-2):69-73
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of apoptosis in medulloblastoma.
  • Since apoptosis is a major contributor to cell loss in medulloblastoma, either spontaneous or induced by radiation and chemotherapy, the apoptotic rate in resection specimens could have prognostic significance.
  • We analysed the apoptotic rate in 58 medulloblastoma resection specimens using an antibody against cleaved caspase 3, a specific marker of apoptotic cell death, and tested its possible prognostic significance.
  • The apoptotic rate varied considerably among medulloblastomas (0.1-25.9%, median 1.1%).
  • The apoptotic rate was higher in medulloblastomas with CSF dissemination, tended to be higher in desmoplastic medulloblastomas, but there was no association with age group and sex.
  • The variation in apoptotic rate among medulloblastomas is very likely predominantly associated with variations in tumour microenvironment, as supported by apoptotic cell clustering and rimming around necrotic areas.
  • The apoptotic rate in medulloblastoma resection specimens does not seem to be of prognostic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / classification. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / classification. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 15882792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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26. Holthouse DJ, Dallas PB, Ford J, Fabian V, Murch AR, Watson M, Wong G, Bertram C, Egli S, Baker DL, Kees UR: Classic and desmoplastic medulloblastoma: complete case reports and characterizations of two new cell lines. Neuropathology; 2009 Aug;29(4):398-409
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  • [Title] Classic and desmoplastic medulloblastoma: complete case reports and characterizations of two new cell lines.
  • Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common type of brain tumor affecting children.
  • Here we present the case reports of two children diagnosed with classic and desmoplastic MB, and describe the characteristics of two new MB cell lines derived from these individuals.
  • A number of genes encoding components of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) and WNT pathways were up-regulated in the desmoplastic relative to the classic MB cell line consistent with aberrant activation of these pathways in desmoplastic MB.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / genetics. Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / genetics. Medulloblastoma / pathology


27. Kamide T, Nakada M, Hayashi Y, Suzuki T, Hayashi Y, Uchiyama N, Kijima T, Hamada J: Radiation-induced cerebellar high-grade glioma accompanied by meningioma and cavernoma 29 years after the treatment of medulloblastoma: a case report. J Neurooncol; 2010 Nov;100(2):299-303
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  • [Title] Radiation-induced cerebellar high-grade glioma accompanied by meningioma and cavernoma 29 years after the treatment of medulloblastoma: a case report.
  • Here, we report the case of a patient with cerebellar high-grade glioma that developed after the patient underwent treatment for medulloblastoma.
  • Magnetic resonance image showed a cerebellar tumor with multiple cavernomas and two lesions that were suspected to be meningiomas.
  • The cerebellar tumor was surgically removed.
  • In the past, he had received radiotherapy at the age of 5, after which he was operated for desmoplastic medulloblastoma in his right cerebellar hemisphere.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / etiology. Glioma / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / etiology. Meningioma / etiology. Meningioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Humans. Male. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / genetics. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20354758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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28. Omodei D, Acampora D, Russo F, De Filippi R, Severino V, Di Francia R, Frigeri F, Mancuso P, De Chiara A, Pinto A, Casola S, Simeone A: Expression of the brain transcription factor OTX1 occurs in a subset of normal germinal-center B cells and in aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Am J Pathol; 2009 Dec;175(6):2609-17
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Previous studies have shown the association between OTX2 and OTX1 with anaplastic and desmoplastic medulloblastomas, respectively.
  • A combination of semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses was used to measure OTX1 and OTX2 levels in normal lymphoid tissues and in 184 tumor specimens representative of various forms of NHL and multiple myeloma.
  • Furthermore, OTX1 expression in a subset of normal GC B cells carrying plasma cell markers suggests its possible contribution to terminal B-cell differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 19893048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / OTX1 protein, human; 0 / OTX2 protein, human; 0 / Otx Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2789631
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29. Jain A, Jalali R, Nadkarni TD, Sharma S: Primary intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervical spinal cord. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2006 Jun;4(6):497-502

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Multiple biopsy specimens were obtained, and a partial excision was performed.
  • Histological examination revealed nodular growth and neuronal differentiation, with a striking resemblance to desmoplastic medulloblastoma.
  • Postoperatively, the patient was given craniospinal radiotherapy with a radiation boost to the tumor bed.

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  • (PMID = 16776362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Englund C, Alvord EC Jr, Folkerth RD, Silbergeld D, Born DE, Small R, Hevner RF: NeuN expression correlates with reduced mitotic index of neoplastic cells in central neurocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Aug;31(4):429-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the developing brain, neuronal differentiation is associated with permanent exit from the mitotic cycle.
  • This raises the possibility that neuronal differentiation may suppress proliferative activity, even in neoplastic cells.
  • As a first step towards understanding the relation between neuronal differentiation and mitotic cycling in brain tumours, we studied the expression of NeuN (a neuronal marker) and Ki-67 (a mitotic marker) by double-labelling immuno-fluorescence in 16 brain tumours with neuronal differentiation.
  • In the other tumours (one extraventricular neurocytoma, one desmoplastic medulloblastoma, one olfactory neuroblastoma, one ganglioglioma and one anaplastic ganglioglioma), the Ki-67 labelling index was always at least fourfold lower in NeuN(+) cells than in NeuN(-) cells.
  • These results indicate that neuronal differentiation is associated with a substantial decrease of proliferative activity in neoplastic cells of central neurocytomas, and suggest that the same may be true across diverse types of brain tumours.
  • However, tumours with extensive neuronal differentiation may nevertheless have a high overall Ki-67 labelling index, if the mitotic activity of NeuN(-) cells is high.
  • The correlation between NeuN expression and reduced mitotic activity in neurocytoma cells is consistent with the hypothesis that neuronal differentiation suppresses proliferation, but further studies will be necessary to determine causality and investigate underlying mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16008827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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31. Jaremko JL, Jans LB, Coleman LT, Ditchfield MR: Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Oct;31(9):1613-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In 3 years, medulloblastoma and JPA were differentiated by DWI alone in 23/26 cases (88%).
  • Ependymoma (n = 5) could not be reliably differentiated from medulloblastoma or JPA.
  • The overlap in ADC between tumor types appeared partly due to technical factors (in small, heterogeneous, calcific, or hemorrhagic tumors) but also likely reflected true histologic variability, given that our 3 overlap cases included a desmoplastic medulloblastoma, an anaplastic ependymoma, and a JPA with restricted diffusion in its nodule.

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  • [CommentIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct;31(9):1617-8 [20581070.001]
  • [ErratumIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov;31(10):E90
  • (PMID = 20538820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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