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6. Tchana-Sato V, Detry O, Polus M, Thiry A, Detroz B, Maweja S, Hamoir E, Defechereux T, Coimbra C, De Roover A, Meurisse M, Honoré P: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: a consecutive series from 1237 appendectomies. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Nov 7;12(41):6699-701
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: a consecutive series from 1237 appendectomies.
  • AIM: To report the experience of the CHU Sart Tilman, University of Liege, Belgium, in the management of appendiceal carinoid tumor.
  • RESULTS: Among the 1237 appendectomies, 5 appendiceal carcinoid tumors were identified (0.4%) in 4 male and 1 female patients, with a mean age of 29.2 years (range: 6-82 years).
  • All tumors were located at the tip of the appendix with a mean diameter of 0.6 cm (range: 0.3-1.0 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor most often presents as appendicitis.
  • Appendiceal carcinoid tumor can be managed by simple appendectomy and resection of the mesoappendix, if its size is <or=1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17075987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 29
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4125679
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7. Christianakis E, Paschalidis N, Chorti M, Filippou G, Rizos S, Filippou D: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix in children: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):136

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumour of the appendix in children: a case report.
  • Carcinoids are the most common tumours of the appendix.
  • The clinical presentation of the appendiceal carcinoids is similar to that of acute appendicitis, although in many cases the tumour is diagnosed incidentally during an operation.
  • We report a case of a carcinoid tumour in the tip of the appendix of a thirteen year old girl which was diagnosed intraoperatively.

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  • (PMID = 18761734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2546371
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8. You J, Xu L, Zheng GY, Qiu JF: [Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors: analysis of 37 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jul 15;88(27):1909-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors: analysis of 37 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathology, diagnosis,treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 37 patients with primary tumors of the appendix, 16 males and 21 females, aged 56 +/- 13 (35-87) hospitalized Jan.
  • The pathological types included carcinoid tumor (n=12), mucinous tumor (n=17), and adenocarcinoma (n=8).
  • The 1, 3, and 5-year survival rates of the primary appendix carcinoid tumor, mucinous tumor, and adenocarcinoma were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 91.7%, 100.0%, 86.7%, and 71.5%, and 75.0%, 50.0%, and 50.0% respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: A rare disease, appendiceal tumors lack specific clinical features.
  • The prognosis of primary appendix carcinoid tumors is better.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19040005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Paredes Esteban RM, Martínez de Vitoria JM, García Ruiz M: [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix]. Cir Pediatr; 2006 Oct;19(4):250-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso de asociación de mucocele y tumor carcinoide apendicular.
  • The carcinoid tumour of the appendix and the mucocele are entities rather infrequent in children and are normally diagnosed in the course of an appendicectomy that is, in most of the cases, curative.
  • The authors present a case of carcinoid tumour of the appendix associated to mucocele in a male, aged 10 patient, who underwent an appendicectomy by suspicion of an acute appendicitis.
  • The histologic study confirmed the presence of a mucocele of the appendix associated to a carcinoid tumour with a 0,7 cm diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Mucocele / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Appendix / pathology. Appendix / surgery. Child. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17352118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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10. Butte JM, García-Huidobro MA, Torres J, Duarte I, Zúñiga A, Llanos O: [Long-term survival in carcinoid tumour of the appendix. An analysis of 8903 appendectomies]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Oct;32(8):537-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long-term survival in carcinoid tumour of the appendix. An analysis of 8903 appendectomies].
  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación de la sobrevida a largo plazo del carcinoide del apéndice cecal. Un análisis a partir de 8.903 apendicectomías.
  • INTRODUCTION: Appendiceal carcinoids are the most frequent tumors of the appendix and are usually detected as an incidental finding in the final pathology report.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics, surgical treatment and long-term survival in patients with an appendiceal carcinoid tumor.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients treated from 1980 to 2007 with a pathological diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumor.
  • Carcinoid tumor was diagnosed in 40 patients (25 women and 15 men), aged 37+/-18 years old.
  • The tumor was localized in the distal third of the appendix in 24 patients (60%), and the size of the tumor was less than 1cm in 28 (70%).
  • Twenty-nine (72.5%) of these tumors infiltrated the subserosal and/or the serosal layer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor is usually detected incidentally in the pathological analysis in patients undergoing surgery for suspected appendicitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / mortality. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19616872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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11. Azordegan N, Yazdankhah A, Moghadasian MH: A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Feb;279(2):183-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumor is the most common tumor of appendix with overall good prognosis.
  • CASE REPORT: We here report the coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis in a 37-year-old nulliparous woman who came to the emergency room with right lower abdominal pain mimicking acute appendicitis.
  • With preoperative suspicion of acute appendicitis, laparatomy was performed and revealed apparently normal looking appendix, along with a nodule in the terminal ileum.
  • Both the appendix and ileal nodule were removed.
  • Histological examinations revealed carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Many cases of carcinoid tumor of the appendix and ileal endometriosis are diagnosed incidentally.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Endometriosis / complications. Ileal Diseases / complications


12. Fornaro R, Picori E, Stabilini C, Frascio M, Sticchi C, Boccardo C, Ricci B, Giannetta E: [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):233-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?].
  • [Transliterated title] I tumori carcinoidi dell'appendice. Quando l'emicolectomia destra?
  • Three cases of carcinoid tumour of the appendix (about 0,3 % of all performed appendectomies) has induced the Authors to a review of the literature with the aim to underline the most important biological and pathological findings and the current clinic and therapeutic knowledges.
  • The kind of surgical intervention, that is the entity of the surgical demolition, for the treatment of the carcinoid tumours of the appendix is still controversial: appendectomy or right colectomy?
  • It is possible identify, also during the operation for an appendicitis or for other abdominal lesions, criteria that can orient toward a major surgery (size of the neoplasia, subserosal lymphatic invasion, infiltration of the serosa, diffusion in the meso-appendix, location in closeness of the base of the appendix, invasion of the the locoregional lymph nodes, presence of metastases, section ?margins, number of mitoses, cellular pleiomorfism).
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy

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  • (PMID = 16857114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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13. Chetty R, Serra S: Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):401-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid.
  • The so-called clear cell change has been described in neuroendocrine tumors at several locations.
  • However, lipid has not been demonstrated in all cases of clear cell carcinoid tumors.
  • Such variants have not been described in carcinoid tumors of the appendix and cases with a prominent proportion of clear or more correctly, lipid-rich cytoplasm may bear a superficial resemblance to goblet cell carcinoid and/or signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • Seven cases, in 5 females and 2 males ranging in age from 22 to 65 years, were noted to have a population of lipid-rich and vacuolated clear cells accounting for 25% or more of the tumor population.
  • The carcinoid tumors were incidental in all cases with 4 of patients presenting with appendicitis, 2 with concomitant mucinous cystadenocarcinomas of the appendix and 1 with an adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon.
  • Morphologically, the tumors had a nested and trabecular pattern and were composed of an admixture of microvesicular and clear lipid-rich cells.
  • The importance of recognizing this variant of carcinoid tumor in the appendix is to avoid confusion with goblet cell carcinoid tumors with or without a signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • The presence of multi-vacuolated, foamy and clear cells, some resembling signet ring or goblet cells, in otherwise classic carcinoid tumors is rare but should be considered in this context in the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Vacuoles / chemistry. Vacuoles / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20139759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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4. Dall'Igna P, Ferrari A, Luzzatto C, Bisogno G, Casanova M, Alaggio R, Terenziani M, Cecchetto G: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2005 Feb;40(2):216-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although rare, carcinoid tumor of the appendix is the most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents.
  • The experience with 14 cases of carcinoid reported in the appendix is described.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In six patients the tumor measured 1 cm or less; only in one patient did it measure 2 cm.
  • In three patients the tumor measured between 1 and 2 cm and in four the size was not known.
  • All tumors were discovered by chance, and three patients underwent further surgery as a result of suspected involvement of the margins.
  • In our experience, both patients with local invasiveness and the patient with a tumor larger than 2 cm had good outcomes.
  • Ileocolectomy performed in the patient with a 2-cm tumor and in another two patients with smaller tumors did not demonstrate residual disease.
  • Although the need for right hemicolectomy still remains controversial for tumors measuring more than 2 cm, the approach may be nonaggressive in case of tumors invading the serosa and the periappendiceal fat.
  • Nonaggressive treatment has been suggested by some authors in cases of tumors larger than 2 cm; however, larger series need to be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15699700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Nakamura S, Kimura S, Kashima M, Shichijo K, Yoshida S, Harada E, Matsushita T, Oshima Y, Tamaki Y, Horiuchi N, Takeichi T, Fujimoto H, Masuda K, Iwasaka N, Shinomiya S: [A case of peritonitis carcinomatosa from goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix treated by intraperitoneal paclitaxel and systemic S-1 chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Dec;35(13):2425-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of peritonitis carcinomatosa from goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix treated by intraperitoneal paclitaxel and systemic S-1 chemotherapy].
  • Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is a rare neoplasm and clinically tends to take a malignant course.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed massive ascites and slight contrast enhancement of appendix.
  • A tumor was found by colonoscopic examination at the orifice of vermiform and was diagnosed pathologically as goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix.
  • We performed intraperitoneal paclitaxel(PTX)administration at 70 mg/m(2) week without any resection of the tumor.
  • For about one year, her tumor was controlled but became worse thirteen months after diagnosis and died.
  • It is thought that intraabdominal paclitaxel administration and systemic S-1 therapy can be one of appropriate forms of chemotherapy for inoperable peritoneal carcinomatosis from goblet cell carcinoid of appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Peritonitis / drug therapy. Peritonitis / pathology. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19098416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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16. Chetty R, Klimstra DS, Henson DE, Albores-Saavedra J: Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1163-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid has been regarded as a distinctive tumor type, not related to classic carcinoids, and to our knowledge combinations of these 2 tumor types have not been described in detail.
  • In this report, we describe 5 cases of combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumors of the appendix.
  • The tumors (0.6 to 6.0 cm) were located in the mid-portion and the tip of the appendix.
  • All 5 appendiceal tumors had microscopic features of both classical carcinoid and GCC, either intimately admixed or separate but closely apposed.
  • The extent of the 2 components varied, with classical carcinoid representing 60% to 90% of the tumor.
  • Both components stained for the general neuroendocrine markers, however, staining in the classic component was greater.
  • In view of the fact that these combined carcinoid tumors appear to behave more as goblet cell carcinoids, detailed microscopic examination of classical carcinoid tumors of the appendix is suggested and larger series with longer follow-up is required to ascertain the true biologic potential of this unique form of combined carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • The occurrence of both carcinoid types in the same appendices suggests a closer histogenetic relationship than previously believed, although the possibility that the 2 components represent separate, independent primaries ("collision tumors") can also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Goblet Cells / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Aug;35(8):1248-50 [21753706.001]
  • (PMID = 20631606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Pitiakoudis M, Kirmanidis M, Tsaroucha A, Christianakis E, Filippou D, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. A rare case and a review of the literature. J BUON; 2008 Apr-Jun;13(2):271-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. A rare case and a review of the literature.
  • We present a rare case of a carcinoid tumor of the appendix that was diagnosed during pregnancy in a 24-year-old female.
  • Open appendectomy was carried out and at the histological examination carcinoid was found in the surgical specimen.
  • Only few similar cases were found in the literature reporting appendiceal carcinoid tumor during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18555477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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18. Tang LH: Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1612-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix.
  • CONTEXT: The appendix gives rise to an array of epithelial neoplasms showing glandular or neuroendocrine differentiation, and some tumors with elements of both cell types.
  • Although some appendiceal neoplasms resemble their counterparts in the small and large intestines (conventional adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor), the appendix also gives rise to relatively unique entities including mucinous neoplasms and goblet cell carcinoid tumors, which present a challenge in pathologic classification and clinical management.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and diagnostic issues for 3 pathologic types of epithelial neoplasms of the appendix:.
  • (2) goblet cell carcinoid tumor and associated adenocarcinoma; and (3) typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most important issue in pathologic assessment of epithelial tumors of the appendix is to understand the clinical implications inherent in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Korkontzelos I, Papanicolaou S, Tsimoyiannis I, Kitsiou E, Stefos T, Tsanadis G, Antoniou N: Large carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Feb 1;118(2):255-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy.
  • The appendicial carcinoid tumor is a lesion that most frequently is discovered incidentally in the removed organ.
  • We report a rare case of an unruptured acute appendicitis during pregnancy, which proved to be a large carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 15653215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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20. Rossi G, Nannini N, Bertolini F, Mengoli MC, Fano R, Cavazza A: Clear cell carcinoid of the appendix: an uncommon variant of lipid-rich neuroendocrine tumor with a broad differential diagnosis. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):258-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clear cell carcinoid of the appendix: an uncommon variant of lipid-rich neuroendocrine tumor with a broad differential diagnosis.
  • The designation of clear cell/lipid-rich refers to an unusual variant of neuroendocrine tumor ("carcinoid") described in several organs, but only recently observed in the appendix.
  • In this study, we report the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of an incidentally discovered appendiceal clear cell/lipid-rich carcinoid in a 32-year-old man without any evidence of von Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • Differential diagnosis with mimicking neoplastic and non-tumor lesions, epidemiology, and clinical behavior of this exceedingly rare variant of carcinoid of the appendix are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 20814762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Suzuki O, Ono K, Sekishita Y, Fujimori M, Shiono T, Kondo S: Laparoscopic two-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a case and review of the Japanese literature. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2006 Apr;16(2):106-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic two-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a case and review of the Japanese literature.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is a rare clinical entity exhibiting features of both carcinoid and adenocarcinoma.
  • Here, we present the first report of laparoscopic 2-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid with a review of the Japanese literature.
  • A pathologic diagnosis of goblet cell carcinoid, accompanied by the aggressive proliferation, with acute appendicitis was made.
  • Subsequent laparoscopic ileocecal resection was performed, and it was verified that there were neither residual tumor nor lymph node metastases.
  • Because goblet cell carcinoid may be difficult to clinically distinguish from acute appendicitis, pathologic examination is essential.
  • Depending upon the grade of tumor proliferation, additional resection should be considered, and our experience with this case suggests that laparoscopic 2-stage surgery is feasible for the adequate treatment of goblet cell carcinoid without complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16773013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Yang WL, Yan CQ, Wang FJ, Wang HL: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in 64 patients]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;30(7):538-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in 64 patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • METHODS: From 1972 to 2006, 64 patients with carcinoid tumors of the appendix received surgical treatment in our hospitals.
  • The operation modes were determined according to the doctor's judgments based on the age of the patients, the nature, size, location, infiltration depth and lymph node metastasis of the tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix is rare with a high rate of misdiagnosis before operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Diagnostic Errors

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  • (PMID = 19062724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Debnath D, Rees J, Myint F: Are we missing diagnostic opportunities in cases of carcinoid tumours of the appendix? Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):266-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Are we missing diagnostic opportunities in cases of carcinoid tumours of the appendix?
  • OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumour of appendix is an uncommon condition that can potentially give rise to a variation in management.
  • We aimed to assess the occurrence and mode of presentation of carcinoid tumour of appendix, and any variation of its management.
  • Sixteen (0.82%) patients had carcinoid tumours.
  • The mean age of patients with carcinoid tumour (41.8 years) was significantly higher than those with non-carcinoid pathology (27.7 years) (p = 0.001).
  • The incidence of female patients was higher than the male amongst the carcinoid tumour group (female/male ratio 2.2).
  • None of the carcinoid tumours were identified at operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix remains an incidental diagnosis.
  • Patients with carcinoids were significantly older than non-carcinoid conditions.
  • There was a trend of increased occurrence of carcinoids amongst the females.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18939372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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24. San Vicente B, Bardají C, Rigol S, Obiols P, Melo M, Bella R: [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children]. Cir Pediatr; 2009 Apr;22(2):97-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio retrospectivo del tumor carcinoide apendicular en niños.
  • Carcinoids of the appendix are rare in children.
  • To investigate the significance of the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumors in children, we conducted a retrospective study in our institution.
  • In four patients the diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoid.
  • The median tumor diameter was lower than 1 cm and the appropriate treatment was appendectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendix. Carcinoid Tumor. Cecal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19715134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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25. Hirsch I, Kasper HU, Brabender J, Hölscher AH, Dienes HP: [Adenocarcinoid of the appendix vermiformis]. Pathologe; 2005 May;26(3):231-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoid of the appendix vermiformis].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenokarzinoid der Appendix vermiformis.
  • Adenocarcinoids are rare tumors with histological features of both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma.
  • They show a more aggressive biological behaviour than conventional carcinoids.
  • Due to the positive surgical margin and the tumor expansion a hemicolectomy was performed.
  • It is thought that appendectomy is sufficient in case of small tumors in the tip of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Bucher P, Gervaz P, Ris F, Oulhaci W, Inan I, Morel P: Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid. Surg Endosc; 2006 Jun;20(6):967-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid.
  • BACKGROUND: Since an increasing number of appendectomies are performed via laparoscopy, it is crucial to determine the impact of this approach on appendix carcinoid (AC) outcome.
  • Median carcinoid size was 1.1 cm (range, 0.3-5) and 0.4 cm (range, 0.2-3) in the LAP and OP groups, respectively.
  • Two patients died in the OP group, one due to metastatic carcinoid and the other due to metachronous colorectal cancer.
  • Prognosis of AC appears more dependent on carcinoid malignant potential or associated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16738993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Booij KA, van Eeden S, Ghazi Hosseini E, ten Kate FJ, Aronson DC: [An unusual presentation of a periappendicular infiltrate]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Sep 27;152(39):2133-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Een ongebruikelijke manifestatie van een periappendiculair infiltraat.
  • The clinical aspect, radiological investigations and peroperative aspect of the appendix were not conclusive but nevertheless a neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid tumour) of the appendix was suspected.

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  • (PMID = 18856031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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28. Stinner B, Rothmund M: Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):729-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix.
  • Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the appendix (formerly 'carcinoids') are rare and are usually detected incidentally after appendectomy.
  • They are preferentially located at the tip of the appendix.
  • Treatment for lesions 1-2 cm is controversial and needs further characterization of the tumour (i.e. mesoappendiceal invasion, vascular invasion, mitotic activity, proliferation markers) and careful patient risk evaluation.
  • Goblet-cell carcinoids have features resembling both carcinoid and adenocarcinoma and should be treated by hemicolectomy.
  • Overall prognosis of small appendiceal NET is excellent in all ages.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16253897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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29. Ng SC, Noursadeghi M, von Herbay A, Vaizey C, Pitcher MC, Flanagan KL: Cytomegalovirus ileitis associated with goblet cell carcinoid tumour of the appendix. J Infect; 2007 Mar;54(3):e153-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus ileitis associated with goblet cell carcinoid tumour of the appendix.
  • We report a female patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) terminal ileitis and CMV viraemia, associated with a metastatic goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumour of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cytomegalovirus / isolation & purification. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Ileitis / complications. Ileitis / virology

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  • (PMID = 17049463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2742
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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30. Hadj-Taieb I, Masmoudi A, Ayadi L, Meziou TJ, Khabir A, Charfeddine A, Boujelbène S, Beyrouti MI, Tahri N, Boudawara T, Turki H, Zahaf A: [Appendicular cystadenocarcinoma with cutaneous fistula]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Mar;137(3):198-202

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a case of fistular lesions of the buttocks revealing a mixed tumour of the appendix involving mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour.
  • Histological examination of skin biopsy specimens identified infiltration of the dermis by metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma while colonoscopy showed a caecal tumour measuring 4 cm.
  • Histopathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed mixed tumour consisting of perforated mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour of the appendix.
  • DISCUSSION: Cutaneous metastasis of colorectal cancer is an uncommon event that usually occurs after identification of the primary tumour and generally indicates advanced-stage disease and an ominous prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Cecal Neoplasms / pathology. Cutaneous Fistula / etiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20227562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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31. Maes M, Segers K, Cheyns P: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: laparoscopic appendectomy or right hemicolectomy? Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Jul-Aug;108(4):447-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: laparoscopic appendectomy or right hemicolectomy?
  • Goblet cell carcinoids are uncommon tumours with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour.
  • They occur predominantly in the appendix and although the malignant potential remains unclear, adenocarcinoids appear to be more aggressive than conventional carcinoids.
  • In this case report, we present a goblet cell carcinoid with laparoscopic operative treatment in two stages.
  • Macroscopically, a diffusely inflamed appendix was found with no sign of perforation.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a goblet cell carcinoid with characteristics of aggressive behaviour, indicating the need for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy in which, however, neither residual tumour nor metastatic lymph nodes could be found.
  • As they may present the same clinical presentation, pathological diagnosis is required to distinguish goblet cell carcinoid from acute appendicitis.
  • Two-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid is advocated in the literature, but the debate still continues as to whether the goblet cell carcinoid should be treated by appendectomy alone, as for most carcinoids, or by right hemicolectomy, as for the appendiceal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18807600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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32. Louthan O: [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1056-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoid appendixu s pohárkovými bunkami.
  • Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids are mixed tumors including neuroendocrine cells and intestinal type of goblet cells.
  • Compared to typical carcinoids, goblet cell carcinoids are malignant tumors with degree of malignity differing from case to case.
  • Carcinoid syndrom is not present.
  • There is poor prognosis in larger tumors.
  • Appendectomy is a sufficient therapeutical approach in small tumors, hemicolectomy should be performed in larger ones.
  • There is limited experience with chemotherapy in metastasizing tumors and sporadic with somatostatin analogues.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20017437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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33. Kaya M, Kanmaz T, Boleken ME, Yücesan S: Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):418-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case.
  • We report the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom an appendix carcinoid was found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst.
  • Although incidental carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first published case of a choledochal cyst associated with an appendix carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. May A, Nachbar L, Ell C: Push-and-pull enteroscopy using a single-balloon technique for difficult colonoscopy. Endoscopy; 2006 Apr;38(4):395-8
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  • The original ileocolonoscopy had been performed to investigate colon polyps (n = 6), an obscure inflammatory process in the ileocecal region (n = 6), or iron deficiency anemia with a positive fecal occult stool test (n = 2).
  • Multiple polyps were found in six patients; a colon cancer was found in one patient; appendicitis combined with a carcinoid tumour of the appendix was diagnosed in one patient; ileocolitis was observed in two patients; one patient with Crohn's disease had stenoses in the region of an anastomosis; and in three patients no relevant pathological finding was seen.

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  • (PMID = 16680641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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35. Coursey CA, Nelson RC, Moreno RD, Dodd LG, Patel MB, Vaslef S: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT? Am Surg; 2010 Mar;76(3):273-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT?
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if carcinoid tumors of the appendix were identified prospectively on preoperative CT at our institution during the last decade.
  • A surgical database search performed using the Current Procedural Terminology codes for appendectomy and colectomy yielded 2108 patients who underwent appendectomy or colectomy with removal of the appendix from January 1998 through September 2007.
  • Pathology reports were reviewed to identify patients in whom an appendiceal carcinoid tumor was identified.
  • Twenty-three carcinoid tumors (1.1%; 15 women [65.2%], eight men [34.8%]; average age 54 years [range, 23 to 86 years]) were identified.
  • No tumors were identified prospectively on CT.
  • Average reported tumor size was 6.1 mm (range, 1.5 to 15 mm; n = 18).
  • A tip or distal location was reported for all tumors for which a location was given (n = 15).
  • Carcinoid tumors occurred in 1.1 per cent of appendix specimens.
  • These tumors were all less than or 1.5 cm in size.
  • Likely as a result of their small size, none of these tumors was identified prospectively on preoperative CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20349655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Mukensnabl P, Michal M, Hadravská S: [Carcinoids of the appendix]. Rozhl Chir; 2005 Apr;84(4):197-200
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  • [Title] [Carcinoids of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoidy apendixu.
  • The appendical carcinoids represent a heterogeneous group of tumors of different morphology, biological features and treatment.
  • Our study aims to inform clinical practitioners, mainly surgeons and oncologists, about individual types of the appendical carcinoids, which are considered the most frequent carcinoid tumors the clinical practitioners come into contact with at all levels of the hospital care.
  • Our work describes the types of the appendical tumors from the histological point of view, as well as from the prognostic and therapeutical points of view.
  • At the end of the study report, a brief table summarizing the most important features of the individual histological types of the appendical carcinoids, is attached.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15984148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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37. van Eeden S, Offerhaus GJ, Hart AA, Boerrigter L, Nederlof PM, Porter E, van Velthuysen ML: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):763-73
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Goblet cell carcinoid is a poorly understood tumour of the appendix.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether it should be regarded as a separate entity or as a variant of classical carcinoid.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression pattern of 21 markers and the mutation status of KRas codon 12 were determined in 16 goblet cell carcinoids and compared with 14 classical carcinoids, 19 colonic adenocarcinomas and 10 appendiceal mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas.
  • Goblet cell carcinoids were significantly different from the control groups.
  • The most important markers for discriminating between the groups were CEA (classical carcinoid versus all others), KRas mutation (present in all mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas), beta-catenin (goblet cell carcinoid versus left sided colonic adenocarcinoma) and chromogranin (goblet cell carcinoid versus right sided colonic adenocarcinoma).
  • Expression of Math1 and HD5 was similar in goblet cell carcinoid and colonic adenocarcinoma but absent in classical carcinoid.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that goblet cell carcinoids should be regarded as a separate entity.
  • The formerly used term 'crypt cell carcinoma' may be more appropriate because it reflects the more aggressive clinical behaviour of these tumours as well as their greater similarity to adenocarcinomas rather than to carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2008 May;52(6):770-1 [18439158.001]
  • (PMID = 18042066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 1P20 MD001824
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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38. Yong Jiang, Huawei Liu, Hu Long, Yingying Yang, Dianying Liao, Xiuhui Zhang: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases from southwest china. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;18(6):488-92
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases from southwest china.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the appendix is characterized by a dual differentiation of both endocrine and gland.
  • Follow-up data showed that 1 patient died from peritoneal metastasis and that the other 17 cases survived free of the tumor.
  • The authors characterize GCC as a special low-grade malignant carcinoma with a primary epithelial differentiation and little neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. China. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Schistosomiasis / complications

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  • (PMID = 20732910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Paklina OV, Setdikova GR, Nikitin PN, Petropavlovskiĭ AI: [Goblet-cell carcinoid of the colon]. Arkh Patol; 2008 Mar-Apr;70(2):45-7
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  • [Title] [Goblet-cell carcinoid of the colon].
  • The authors describe a case of goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix subject to additional immunohistological study.
  • Goblet-cell carcinoid is a rare colonic tumor comprises the morphological signs of adenocarcinoma and carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18540443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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40. Gramann T, Matter L, Pfofe D, Flury R, Jaeger P: [Metastazation into the seminal vesicles due to primary goblet cell carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. An unusual diagnostic procedure of a seminal vesicle tumor]. Urologe A; 2009 Nov;48(11):1352-5
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  • [Title] [Metastazation into the seminal vesicles due to primary goblet cell carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. An unusual diagnostic procedure of a seminal vesicle tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Samenblasenmetastase bei primärem Becherzellkarzinoid der Appendix vermiformis. Ein aussergewöhnlicher Abklärungsgang eines Samenblasentumors.
  • A goblet cell carcinoid of the vermiform appendix was identified as the primary tumor.
  • The tumor valency, diagnostic work up, therapy and further differential diagnoses are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Seminal Vesicles / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendectomy. Appendix / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Digital Rectal Examination. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Palliative Care. Patient Care Team. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2006 Jun;30(6):694-704 [16723846.001]
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  • (PMID = 19705095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Synaptophysin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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41. Cunningham JL, Janson ET, Agarwal S, Grimelius L, Stridsberg M: Tachykinins in endocrine tumors and the carcinoid syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;159(3):275-82
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  • [Title] Tachykinins in endocrine tumors and the carcinoid syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: A new antibody, active against the common tachykinin (TK) C-terminal, was used to study TK expression in patients with endocrine tumors and a possible association between plasma-TK levels and symptoms of diarrhea and flush in patients with metastasizing ileocecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumors (MSPCs).
  • METHOD: TK, serotonin and chromogranin A (CgA) immunoreactivity (IR) was studied by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from 33 midgut carcinoids and 72 other endocrine tumors.
  • Circulating TK (P-TK) and urinary-5 hydroxyindoleacetic acid (U-5HIAA) concentrations were measured in 42 patients with MSPCs before treatment and related to symptoms in patients with the carcinoid syndrome.
  • TK-IR was also seen in all serotonin-producing lung and appendix carcinoids.
  • None of the other tumors examined contained TK-IR cells.
  • CONCLUSION: We found that TK synthesis occurs in serotonin-IR tumors and that P-TK levels are significantly correlated with symptoms of flush and diarrhea in patients with MSPCs.
  • This is, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating an independent correlation of P-TKs with carcinoid diarrhea, a symptom that is customarily regarded as serotonin mediated.

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  • (PMID = 18524798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tachykinins
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42. O'Donnell ME, Carson J, Garstin WI: Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;61(3):431-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix.
  • Since their first description in 1882, malignant neoplasms of the appendix still remain rare.
  • Malignant carcinoid tumours are the most common accounting for 85% of all appendiceal neoplasms.
  • A retrospective review of all malignant carcinoid tumours diagnosed in our hospital between April 1994 and December 2003 was performed.
  • Nine patients were identified with classical carcinoid tumours (CCT); (M = 3 and F = 6, mean age: 43, range 14-81) and two patients with goblet-cell morphology (F = 2, age 46 and 76).
  • Other appendiceal pathologies were identified following hemicolectomy and oophorectomy.
  • From our experience and subsequent review of the literature, we recommend right hemicolectomy as the treatment of choice for malignant carcinoid tumours.
  • However, small CCTs less than 2 cm in diameter at the tip of the appendix, with a low proliferative index, without angiolymphatic or mesoappendiceal extension can be treated by appendicectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16911574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Chetty R: Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 21;15(27):3431-3
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  • [Title] Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid is an uncommon primary tumor of the vermiform appendix, characterized by dual endocrine and glandular differentiation.
  • Whether goblet cell carcinoid represents a morphological variant of appendiceal classical carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is a matter of conjecture.
  • Rare cases of goblet cell carcinoid with other concomitant appendiceal epithelial neoplasms have been documented.
  • In this report, we describe a rare case of combined appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma, and discuss the possible histopathogenesis of this combination.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19610147.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712907
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44. Fornaro R, Frascio M, Sticchi C, De Salvo L, Stabilini C, Mandolfino F, Ricci B, Gianetta E: Appendectomy or right hemicolectomy in the treatment of appendiceal carcinoid tumors? Tumori; 2007 Nov-Dec;93(6):587-90
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  • [Title] Appendectomy or right hemicolectomy in the treatment of appendiceal carcinoid tumors?
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Carcinoids of the appendix continue to be of interest, despite their low incidence.
  • There is still considerable controversy surrounding these tumors, especially with regard to the role of right hemicolectomy in the surgical management.
  • The clinical data were reviewed for demographic details, tumor size, localization in the appendix, histological patterns and surgical procedures.
  • RESULTS: Seven patients (0.9% of all appendectomies) were reported to have carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • None suffered from the carcinoid syndrome.
  • The site of the tumor was the apex of the appendix in 4 cases, the body in 2 cases and the base in 1 case.
  • Mean tumor diameter was 8 mm (range, 5-29 mm); in 6 patients it was <2 cm.
  • Treatment was appendectomy in all cases; additional right hemicolectomy was necessary in one case because of a tumor of more than 2 cm with invasion of the mesoappendix and lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to current guidelines, an appendectomy may be performed for small carcinoid tumors (<1 cm).
  • Reasons for more extensive surgery than appendectomy are tumor size >2 cm, lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, spread to the mesoappendix, tumor-positive resection margins, and cellular pleomorphism with a high mitotic index.
  • Tumor size is still considered the most important prognostic factor, with a presumed increase in the risk of metastasis for tumors greater than 2.0 cm.
  • The accepted treatment of such tumors is a right hemicolectomy.
  • However, there is no evidence demonstrating a survival benefit for right hemicolectomy over simple appendectomy in patients with carcinoids greater than 2.0 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy

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  • (PMID = 18338494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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45. Encinas JL, Avila LF, García-Cabeza MA, Luis A, Hernández F, Martínez L, Fernández A, Olivares P, Tovar JA: [Bronchial and appendiceal carcinoid tumors]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2006 May;64(5):474-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Bronchial and appendiceal carcinoid tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor carcinoide bronquial y apendicular.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumor (CT) is an unusual neoplasm observed in several locations and associated with the production of vasoactive substances and occasionally with carcinoid syndrome (flushing, diarrhea, wheezing).
  • Eight had CT of the appendix, of which 4 showed the typical clinical presentation of acute appendicitis.
  • Seven of these tumors were localized at the tip of the appendix and measured 2 cm or less.
  • In one patient, the tumor was located at the cecum and measured 3.5 cm.
  • In this patient, reoperation with ileocecal resection was performed.
  • None of the patients showed symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Typical symptoms of acute appendicitis were not observed in half of patients with CT of the appendix.
  • CT associated with carcinoid syndrome is exceptional in pediatric patients.
  • In most CT of the appendix, simple appendicectomy was associated with an excellent prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16756890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-4033
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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46. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Schmitt A, Perren A, Chetty R: Cytokeratins 7 and 20 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell and classical carcinoids of appendix. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):16-22
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  • [Title] Cytokeratins 7 and 20 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell and classical carcinoids of appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the vermiform appendix is an uncommon neoplasm and its histogenesis is controversial.
  • Whether GCC represents a morphological variant of classical appendiceal carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is still conjectural.
  • Little is known about the immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20) in appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In this study, we compared the expression of CK7 and CK20 in 17 cases of appendiceal GCC and 25 cases of classical carcinoid.
  • The tumors were also evaluated for Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic activity, tumor necrosis, extracellular pools of mucin, obvious intestinal type adenocarcinomatous foci, angiolymphatic permeation, perineural/neural infiltration, and the depth of invasion of the appendix wall.
  • Immunohistochemically, all 17 (100%) of GCC exhibited strong and diffuse immunopositivity for CK20, whereas expression of CK7 was present in 12 cases (70.5%), ranging from 5 to 50% of tumor cells being labeled.
  • On the other hand, 25 cases of classical carcinoid tumors were consistently negative for CK7; however, 4 cases (16%) showed immunolabeling for CK20 in 25-50% of the tumor cells.
  • The Ki-67 labeling index in classical carcinoids ranged from 0 to 5%.
  • This study shows that in addition to the morphological differences, GCC (CK7/CK20-positive) and classical carcinoid (CK7/CK20-negative) differ in their expression of CK7 and CK20.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid should be regarded as a crypt cell or an amphicrine carcinoma rather than a variant of carcinoid tumor, a lesion that has benign connotations.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Goblet Cells / metabolism. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17652796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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47. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Annapoorni S, Senthilkumar R, Anand NV: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a rare case and literature survey. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2008 Jun;18(3):417-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a rare case and literature survey.
  • Tumors of the appendix are rare entities, and the majority of them are discovered accidentally during an investigation for other conditions.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for appendiceal goblet-cell carcinoid (GCC) has only been reported once before.
  • Our patient was incidentally discovered to have an appendiceal tumor and was referred to us for laparoscopy.
  • The tumor involved the body of the appendix and was adherent to the cecum.
  • Histopathology confirmed an appendiceal goblet-cell carcinoid.
  • Immunohistochemistry was negative for the neuroendocrine markers, CK20 and CK7.
  • GCC is a rare tumor of the appendix.
  • Hemicolectomy is indicated in specific situations, such as local involvement or tumor size >2 cm.
  • In our patient, the tumor was adherent to the cecum and tumor size was 5 cm.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for appendiceal tumors is safe, feasible, and even may be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male

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  • (PMID = 18503377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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48. Greenbaum D, Friedel D: Unanticipated findings at bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis; 2005 Jan-Feb;1(1):22-4
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  • In only three cases (one case each of carcinoid of the appendix, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary, and serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary) would there have been a significant difference in the patient's prognosis had the problem been left undiagnosed.

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  • (PMID = 16925197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-7289
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Obes Relat Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Perren A, Hsieh E, Chetty R: CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):252-7
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  • [Title] CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix.
  • The immunoexpression of CK19 recently has been identified as a marker of poor prognosis in pancreatic endocrine tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to explore CK19 and CD99 immunostaining in mucin-producing neuroendocrine (goblet cell) and classical carcinoids of the appendix.
  • Eighteen goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) and 20 classic carcinoids were stained with CK19, CD99, and Ki-67, and these results were correlated with known pathological features of aggression: extent of invasion, mitoses, necrosis, and histological pattern.
  • All 18 GCCs were CK19 strongly positive, whereas 16/20 classic carcinoids were also CK19 positive.
  • Fourteen of 18 GCCs and 14/20 classic carcinoids were CD99 positive.
  • CK19/CD99 immunoexpression did not correlate with extent of tumor invasion and mesoappendiceal extension, mitotic activity, Ki-67 labeling index, presence of extracellular mucinous pools dissecting muscle, and angiolymphatic and perineural/neural invasion.
  • There is no difference in the immunostaining for CK19 and CD99 between GCCs and classic carcinoids, and both types of neuroendocrine tumor show the same extent of expression of both markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Keratin-19 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17652531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Keratin-19
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50. Louthan O: [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1051-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix].
  • According to WHO, neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix (appendiceal carcinoids) are defined as 1. well-differentiated endocrine tumors with benign or uncertain behavior, 2. well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma and 3. goblet cell carcinoma.
  • These tumors are usually diagnosed incidentally during appendectomy.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is rare in appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Tumor size greater than 2 cm is the most important parameter for prognosis.
  • Most patients are cured by appendectomy (appendiceal tumors < or = 2 cm), tumors with a diameter > 2 cm should be managed by right hemicolectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors

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  • (PMID = 20017436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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51. Toumpanakis C, Standish RA, Baishnab E, Winslet MC, Caplin ME: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors (adenocarcinoid) of the appendix. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Mar;50(3):315-22
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid tumors (adenocarcinoid) of the appendix.
  • PURPOSE: Goblet cell appendiceal carcinoids represent rare tumors that exhibit histologic features of both adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Ki67 index was greater than 20 percent in all of them, while in only one with local tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic value of chromogranin-A, urinary 5-hydroxy-indol-acetic acid, and (111)Indium-labeled octreotide scintigraphy seems to be limited in these tumors.
  • Ki67 index appears to predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Colectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Streptozocin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17195086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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52. Roy P, Chetty R: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Jun 15;2(6):251-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid is an enigmatic and rare tumor involving the appendix almost exclusively.
  • Various other names have been used for this entity such as adenocarcinoid, mucinous carcinoid, crypt cell carcinoma, and mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor, although none have been found to be completely satisfactory or universally accepted.
  • The tumor is thought to arise from pluripotent intestinal epithelial crypt-base stem cells by dual neuroendocrine and mucinous differentiation.
  • The histologic hallmark of this entity is the presence of clusters of goblet cells in the lamina propria or submucosa stain for various neuroendocrine markers, though the intensity is often patchy.
  • Recently molecular studies have shown these tumors to lack the signatures of adenocarcinoma but they have some changes similar to that of ileal carcinoids (allelic loss of chromosome 11q, 16q and 18q).
  • The natural history of GCC is intermediate between carcinoids and adenocarcinomas of the appendix.
  • There is some debate about the surgical approach for these tumors, and a summary of published series and recommendations are provided.

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  • (PMID = 21160637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2998842
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Appendiceal neoplasm / Goblet cell carcinoid / Mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor of appendix
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53. Robertson RG, Geiger WJ, Davis NB: Carcinoid tumors. Am Fam Physician; 2006 Aug 1;74(3):429-34
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that often are indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there has been metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome.
  • Recent evidence has revealed that the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors has been steadily increasing, and although the disease was thought to be relatively benign, it is now considered one of increasing malignancy.
  • Carcinoid tumors derive from different embryonic divisions of the gut: foregut carcinoid tumors commonly originate in the lungs, bronchi, or stomach; midgut carcinoid tumors in the small intestine, appendix, or proximal large bowel; and hindgut carcinoid tumors in the distal colon or rectum.
  • Carcinoid syndrome, although rare, is most associated with midgut carcinoid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor often is coincidental with surgery performed for another reason.
  • Treatment and prognosis are dependent on the location of the primary tumor and the degree and extent of metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / etiology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16913162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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54. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Kontzoglou K, Stamoulis J, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Lygidakis NJ: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):123-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are thought to be the most common type of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although the vast majority of appendiceal carcinoids behave in a benign fashion, they are considered malignant because they all have the potential for invasion, metastasis and production of physiologically active substances.
  • Also, patients with tumor size more than 1cm underwent a Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (Octreoscan).
  • RESULTS: The most common site for the tumors was the tip of the appendix (18/22).
  • In sixteen patients the tumor size was less than 1cm, in seven patients the tumor diameter was measured to be 1 to 2cm and in one patient the tumor was 3cm.
  • Most of our patients (16/22) underwent only an appendicectomy, while in the rest of them (in the patients with tumor size between 1-2cm and in the patient with invasion of mesoappendix) a right hemicolectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix, in most cases, are found incidentally during appendicectomies, especially in young females and usually are less than 1cm in size, which is probably the reason of the absence of metastases in all cases.
  • Histological examination and size of the tumor are important factors that contribute to the selection of the surgical treatment and both must be estimated by the surgeons to make the final choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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55. McGory ML, Maggard MA, Kang H, O'Connell JB, Ko CY: Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Dec;48(12):2264-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports.
  • PURPOSE: A comprehensive analysis was performed for five histologic types of appendiceal tumors to compare incidence, clinicopathologic features, survival, and appropriateness of surgery.
  • METHODS: All patients diagnosed with mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 951), adenocarcinoma (n = 646), carcinoid (n = 435), goblet (n = 369), and signet-ring cell (n = 113) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2001) were analyzed.
  • The appropriateness of the operative procedure (i.e. , appendectomy vs. colectomy) was examined by tumor type and size.
  • RESULTS: Tumor incidence, patient demographics, survival outcomes, and appropriateness of surgery varied significantly among the different appendiceal tumor histologies.
  • The most common appendiceal tumors were mucinous.
  • With regard to patient demographics, carcinoids presented at an earlier mean age of 41 years and 71 percent were female (P < 0.001 for both).
  • Overall five-year survival was highest for carcinoid (83 percent) and lowest for signet ring (18 percent).
  • Although current guidelines specify that a right hemicolectomy (rather than an appendectomy) be performed for all noncarcinoid tumors and carcinoid tumors >2 cm, we found that 30 percent of noncarcinoids underwent appendectomy.
  • Similarly, 28 percent of carcinoids >2 cm under-went appendectomy, which is a lesser resection than is indicated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a population-based analysis of epidemiology, tumor characteristics, survival, and quality of care for appendiceal carcinomas.
  • This characterization provides a novel description of the presentation and outcomes for malignancies of the appendix and highlights that a substantial number of patients with appendiceal tumors may not be receiving appropriate surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Hervás Benito I, Bello Arques P, Loaiza JL, Vercher JL, Velasco RP, Rivas Sánchez A, Ruiz Llorca C, Martí Vidal JF, Mateo Navarro A: [Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in pediatric bronchial carcinoid tumor]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2010 Jan-Feb;29(1):25-8
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in pediatric bronchial carcinoid tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Gammagrafía con análogos de la somatostatina en el diagnóstico y el seguimiento del carcinoide bronquial pediátrico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid tumor is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm with different locations, the most frequent ones during the pediatric age being the appendix and lung.
  • Scintigraphy with (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(1)-octreotide has led to an importance advance in the diagnosis of extension in carcinoid tumor patients.
  • We present three pediatric patients with bronchial carcinoid studied with somatostatin analogue scintigraphy (SSRS).
  • CLINICAL CASES: The first patient (9 years) was studied using the SSRS after surgery due to carcinoid tumor in the right lower lobe in which tumor remains was observed (this being clearer in the tomography study).
  • The second patient (10 years) presented due to endobronchial tumor in the left lower lobe together with atelectasis of the LUL and emphysema of the LLL.
  • Radiology imaging techniques suggested the differential diagnosis between the endobronchial carcinoid tumor or plasma cells or foreign body gramuloma.
  • The SSRS showed an abnormal deposit of activity in the left hemithorax consisted with carcinoid tumor.
  • The third patient (12 years) came after a lobectomy (RUL) due to bronchial carcinoid.
  • In the subsequent control (3 months), a deposit of activity was observed in the middle third of the right hemithorax, after which a lobectomy was performed (RLL and ML) that showed small remains of neuroendocrine carcinoid.
  • CONCLUSION: The SSRS has demonstrated great utility in the diagnosis, follow-up and staging of pediatric patients, carriers of neuroendocrine carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bronchial Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19819594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / indium-111-octreotide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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57. Knigge U, Hansen CP: [Appendiceal carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoids]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2010 May 31;172(22):1678-81
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  • [Title] [Appendiceal carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoids].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoide tumorer og gobletcelle-karcinoide tumorer i appendix.
  • Appendiceial carcinoid tumors (CAT) and goblet cell carcinoids (GCCAT) are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Goblet Cells

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  • (PMID = 20525467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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58. Guraya SY, Khairy GA, Ghallab A, Al-Saigh A: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Our experience in a university hospital. Saudi Med J; 2005 Mar;26(3):434-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Our experience in a university hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of carcinoid tumors of the appendix managed at a university teaching hospital.
  • The data of patients identified to have histological evidence of carcinoid tumors of the appendix were further reviewed for the demographic details, indications for surgery, surgical procedure, tumor localization in the appendix and size; concomitant appendicitis and further surgical procedures were considered.
  • RESULTS: During the study period, 1547 appendectomies were performed and, out of these, 9 (0.6%) cases were reported to have carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • Six carcinoid tumors were encountered at the appendiceal apex, 2 at the midportion, and one at the base with a mean diameter of 9.5 mm (range, 4-19 mm).
  • One patient had histologically confirmed residual tumor, which necessitated a right hemicolectomy 3 weeks later.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are extremely rare and invariably remain asymptomatic.
  • Simple appendectomy offers adequate relief while the need for further extensive surgery depends on tumor characteristics and dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / statistics & numerical data. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15806214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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59. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Kapran Y, Yanik BT, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient. West Indian Med J; 2007 Mar;56(2):187-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient.
  • Carcinoid tumours have been reported in a wide range of organs but most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Many of these carcinoid tumours are associated with metachronous and synchronous lesions of another histological type.
  • Primary carcinoid tumours of the different organ in the same patient is rare.
  • In this paper, the authors present a case with synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cecal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17910153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3144
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Indian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Indian Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Jamaica
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60. Huang B, Di MJ, Liu HS, Qiu LL, Sun LJ, Xu JP: [Primary malignant tumor of the appendix: clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2009 Mar;38(2):194-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary malignant tumor of the appendix: clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary malignant tumor of the appendix.
  • METHODS: The clinical data were reviewed; and histopathological and immunohistochemical features were analyzed in 22 cases with primary malignant tumor of the appendix.
  • RESULT: In 22 cases of primary malignant tumor of the appendix, 19 cases were carcinoid and 3 were adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the carcinoid was positively reacted to the neuroendocrine markers, and the adenocarcinoma was negatively reacted to the neuroendocrine markers.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry is useful in diagnosis of primary malignant tumor of the appendix, a rare type of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19363829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-9292
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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61. Deschamps L, Couvelard A: Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jun;134(6):871-5

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  • [Title] Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review.
  • CONTEXT: Although rare, appendiceal endocrine tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide recent data that focus on the pathology of endocrine tumors of the appendix including classifications and guidelines for patient management.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Appendiceal endocrine tumors are separated into 2 main groups: classic endocrine tumors and goblet cell carcinoids.
  • Evaluation of their prognoses and risks of malignancy, according to these classifications, depends on several parameters including tumor size, proliferation rate, and infiltration of appendiceal wall and mesoappendix.
  • Most patients with classic endocrine tumors of the appendix have a favorable prognosis.
  • Indications for postappendectomy, complementary surgery, which are still controversial, especially for tumors between 1 and 2 cm, are presented and discussed.
  • In contrast, in patients presenting with a goblet cell carcinoid, a right hemicolectomy after the initial appendectomy is considered the standard surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colectomy. Humans. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 20524865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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62. Kucuk C, Artis T, Baskol M, Akgun H, Sozuer E: Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of carcinoid tumour of the ampulla of Vater: long-term follow-up of a case. Acta Chir Belg; 2005 May-Jun;105(3):313-5
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  • [Title] Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of carcinoid tumour of the ampulla of Vater: long-term follow-up of a case.
  • Carcinoid tumours of the gastrointestinal tract are most commonly localized in the appendix, followed by the small intestine and the rectum.
  • Carcinoid tumours of the ampulla of Vater are extremely rare.
  • In this report, we present a long-term follow-up of a new case with carcinoid tumour of the ampulla of Vater.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16018528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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63. La Rosa S, Finzi G, Puppa G, Capella C: Lipid-rich variant of appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine tumor (carcinoid). Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 May;133(5):809-14
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  • [Title] Lipid-rich variant of appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine tumor (carcinoid).
  • Well-differentiated endocrine tumors (WDETs) of the appendix show characteristic morphologic features, including proliferation of cells with finely granulated eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • We studied 13 appendiceal WDETs composed of clear cells, which showed an immunophenotype identical to that of conventional appendiceal WDETs.
  • Patient survival was excellent and equal to that of conventional appendiceal WDETs.
  • These neoplasms, which represent a lipid-rich variant of appendiceal WDETs, do not have different relevant clinical implications compared with conventional WDETs, but it is important to know of their existence for the differential diagnosis with more aggressive neoplasms, including goblet cell carcinoids and appendiceal metastases from clear cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Child. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20395531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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64. Morelli U, Coccetta M, Cirocchi R, La Mura F, Napolitano V, Galanou I, Giustozzi G, Sciannameo F: An unusual case of rectal carcinoid removed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Minerva Chir; 2008 Aug;63(4):311-4
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  • [Title] An unusual case of rectal carcinoid removed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery.
  • The name ''carcinoid'' was invented by Oberndorfer in 1907, when the nature of those histological entities was little understood.
  • Usually, they were found in various locations in the gastrointestinal (GI) apparatus (67%), most of them in the small intestine (25%), appendix (12%), and rectum (14%).The techniques used for their removal are various.
  • The authors present here a case of rectal carcinoid removed using the transanal endoscopic microsurgery technique, and referred to the diagnosis and treatment of this uncommon tumor.
  • Complete blood count (CBC) and laboratory data as tumor markers and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed no abnormalities, while urinary vanilmandelic acid level was elevate (18 mg/24 h).
  • Histochemically the tumor cells were cytocheratins +/-, chromogranin positive, synaptophysine positive, CD56 positive and Growth Index MIB1-Ki67 which was almost zero.
  • The use of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) as a safe and feasible technique for exciding rectal tumors can be easily understood, for the excellent view and precise dissection.
  • A full diagnostic course and an immunohistochemistry are mandatory for precise diagnosis of rectal carcinoid.
  • Careful attention must be paid to these tumors because of their unexpected behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Microsurgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18607329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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65. Chargui R, Bouzid T, Khomsi F, Damak T, Ben Hassouna J, Mtaallah M, Dhieb T, Gamoudi A, Boussen H, Hechiche M, Rahal K: [Primary carcinoid tumors of the ovary. Report of three cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jul;85(7):604-6
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  • [Title] [Primary carcinoid tumors of the ovary. Report of three cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Les carcinoïdes primitifs de l'ovaire. A propos de trois cas.
  • CASE REPORT: We report 3 observations of ovarian carcinoid tumours in patients aged 50, 23 and 28 years.
  • All our patients were operated in emergency for twisting of appendix in two patients and for acute peritonitis in the third one.
  • The diagnosis of carcinoid tumour was retained on to the definitive histological exam then the patients were re operated to complete the resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18064996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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66. Bolanowski M, Jarzab B, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jeziorski A, Kos-Kudła B, Zajecki W, oraz Pozostali Uczestnicy Konferencji Okragłego Stołu: [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jan-Feb;59(1):87-96
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)].
  • Polish recommendations regarding management of patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix are presented.
  • Small intestine, especially ileum represent most common origin of these tumors.
  • In 4-10% of patients typical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome are present.
  • The treatment of choice in the neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix is radical or palliative surgery, if possible using endoscopy.
  • The crucial in biotherapy is somatostatin analogs application, possible in symptomatic treatment of hormonally functioning tumors.
  • This is treatment of choice in carcinoid crisis.
  • Interferon alfa could be applied because of the same indications as somatostatin analogs, except for carcinoid crisis.
  • Chemotherapy is less successful in disseminated or locally advanced intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, so radioisotope therapy should be considered in each case of unresectable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Competence. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Humans. Intestine, Small. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Poland. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18335403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Investigator] Bar-Andziak E; Cwikła J; de Herder W; Dzielicki J; Falconi M; Foltyn W; Gaciong Z; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A; Kowalska A; Krolicki L; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska B; Kryszałowicz B; Kvols L; Nasierowska-Guttmejer A; O'Toole D; Kunikowska J; Lampe P; Matyja V; Mełen-Mucha G; Milewicz A; Nowak A; Nowakowska-Duława E; Omyła-Staszewska J; Pajak J; Rudzki S; Rydzewska G; Sowinski J; Starzynska T; Strzelczyk J; Sworczak K; Syrenicz A; Szawlowski A; Tomaszewska RA; Wasko-Czopnik D; Wronski M; Zemczak A; Zgliczynski W
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67. Uchikov A, Genova S, Peshev Zh, Dimov R, Dimitrov I, Murdzhev K: [Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract--frequency, organ localization, clinical course, treatment (a presentation of 10 cases)]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2005;(4-5):20-2
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  • [Title] [Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract--frequency, organ localization, clinical course, treatment (a presentation of 10 cases)].
  • Carcinoid tumors originate from the argentofile cells found at the bottom of the crypt of Lieberkuhn.
  • In spite of their slow growth and comparatively better prognosis, the carcinoid are malignant tumors, which effective treatment is their surgical resection.
  • We present 10 patients with carcinoid of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)--3 from small intestine, 3 from large intestine, 2 from appendix, I from rectum and 1 from stomach, operated at our clinic for a 6 year period of time.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18693512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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68. Cadden I, Johnston BT, Turner G, McCance D, Ardill J, McGinty A: An evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 as a prognostic biomarker in mid-gut carcinoid tumours. Neuroendocrinology; 2007;86(2):104-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 as a prognostic biomarker in mid-gut carcinoid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mid-gut carcinoids (MGC) are the most common of the gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.
  • Cox-2 and Bcl-2 were evaluated as prognostic biomarkers in a cohort of well-characterised non-appendiceal MGC.
  • The study assessed whether tumour-associated Cox-2 and Bcl-2 expression were related to patient survival.
  • Tumour-associated Bcl-2 expression had no effect on patient survival (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.42, 2.99; p = 0.82).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Appendix / pathology. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Intestine, Small / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17700013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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69. Brustmann H: Myxoglobulosis of the appendix associated with a proximal carcinoid and a pseudodiverticulum. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Jun;10(3):166-8
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  • [Title] Myxoglobulosis of the appendix associated with a proximal carcinoid and a pseudodiverticulum.
  • Intraoperatively, the appendix was enlarged and distended.
  • The lumen of the appendix was tightly filled with pearl-like globules, diagnostic of myxoglobulosis, a rare variant of mucocele of the appendix.
  • A carcinoid of 2.0 cm diameter was found in the proximal region of the appendix.
  • The appendiceal mucosa showed hyperplastic-adenomatous changes.
  • The latter may be an adjunct to the proximal partial obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by the carcinoid in the development of the spheroids of myxoglobulosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Diverticulum, Colon / pathology. Mucocele / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Diagn Pathol. 2006 Aug;10(4):251
  • (PMID = 16730314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Van Gompel JJ, Stoddard E, Chen H: Incidental carcinoid tumors of the appendix: do they affect presentation or prognosis? Int Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;92(6):331-4
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  • [Title] Incidental carcinoid tumors of the appendix: do they affect presentation or prognosis?
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasm of the vermiform appendix, with most found incidentally after surgery for appendicitis.
  • To determine in patients presenting with appendicitis if incidental carcinoid tumors affected presentation or prognosis, we reviewed our experience.
  • Of 1350 patients receiving an appendectomy from 1992 to 2000 for appendicitis, 20 were found to have appendiceal carcinoid tumors.
  • Comparing tumor patients to 251 consecutive patients whom underwent appendectomy without tumors, we found patients with tumors were older at presentation (41 +/- 4 versus 30 +/- 1 years, P = 0.005) and had initial lower white blood cell (WBC) counts (10.8 +/- 0.8 vs. 14.2 +/- 0.3, P = 0.007).
  • There was equivalent survival between patients with carcinoid and without.
  • Therefore, these data suggest that patients with carcinoid tumors are older and have lower WBC counts at presentation with appendicitis, although outcome was not affected by their presence.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18402126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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76. Shapiro R, Eldar S, Sadot E, Venturero M, Papa MZ, Zippel DB: The significance of occult carcinoids in the era of laparoscopic appendectomies. Surg Endosc; 2010 Sep;24(9):2197-9
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  • [Title] The significance of occult carcinoids in the era of laparoscopic appendectomies.
  • BACKGROUND: We present data acquired in our institution about the incidence of incidental appendiceal carcinoids over a period of 16 years.
  • The possibility of occult carcinoids raises the question of appendectomy of a noninflamed appendix during diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis.
  • Outcome measures were the incidence of incidental carcinoids of the appendix found during appendectomies and whether the introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy should alter the surgical management of a normal-appearing appendix.
  • RESULTS: A total of 20 carcinoid appendices were resected by open surgery and 17 by laparoscopy.
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor was not suspected in any patient before the operation, nor was a tumor identified at the time of the operation.
  • In 6 (16%) patients the appendix appeared normal at the time of the operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It has long been the standard of care to remove any appendix found in laparotomy for suspected appendicitis, but it is not clear what should be done during laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis when the appendix appears normal.
  • Our data confirm the presence of occult carcinoids in normal-appearing appendices.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20174936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
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77. Bucher P, Gervaz P, Ris F, Oulhaci W, Egger JF, Morel P: Surgical treatment of appendiceal adenocarcinoid (goblet cell carcinoid). World J Surg; 2005 Nov;29(11):1436-9
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of appendiceal adenocarcinoid (goblet cell carcinoid).
  • Adenocarcinoid of the appendix is an infrequent tumor with histologic features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor.
  • Although its malignant potential remains unclear, adenocarcinoids seem to be biologically more aggressive than conventional carcinoids.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze long-term results of surgical treatment for appendiceal adenocarcinoid.
  • A retrospective review (1991-2003) identified seven patients (median age 72, range 27-81 years) treated for appendiceal adenocarcinoid.
  • Indications for colectomy were tumor size (three cases) associated with appendectomy margin invasion in one case.
  • Our results suggest that appendectomy alone could be used for appendiceal adenocarcinoid provided that the tumor (1) is less than 1 cm;.
  • (2) does not extend beyond the appendix adventitia;.
  • (3) has less than 2 mitoses/10 high power fields; and (4) has surgical margins that are tumor free.
  • The risk for developing colorectal adenocarcinoma seems to be extremely high in patients treated for appendiceal adenocarcinoid and warrants close follow-up with colonoscopic screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16136284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Benedix F, Reimer A, Gastinger I, Mroczkowski P, Lippert H, Kube R, Study Group Colon/Rectum Carcinoma Primary Tumor: Primary appendiceal carcinoma--epidemiology, surgery and survival: results of a German multi-center study. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Aug;36(8):763-71

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  • [Title] Primary appendiceal carcinoma--epidemiology, surgery and survival: results of a German multi-center study.
  • BACKGROUND: While carcinoma of the colon is a common malignancy, primary carcinoma of the appendix is rare.
  • Many retrospective reviews outlined experience from different centers on appendiceal neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the type of surgery and survival of patients with appendiceal malignancies using data from a German multi-center observational study (31 341 patients).
  • METHODS: During a five-year period, 196 consecutive patients with malignant appendiceal tumors were distributed into four groups: appendiceal carcinoids, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • Mean age at presentation was youngest for carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors had lowest tumor size and localized disease was present in 72.9%.
  • Overall 5-year survival was 83.1% for carcinoid vs. 49.2% for non-carcinoid tumors.
  • Histological subtype and tumor stage significantly affected survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcome of carcinoid tumors is superior to non-carcinoid neoplasms.
  • Among all appendiceal neoplasms, adenosquamous carcinoma is the rarest histological subtype which is most commonly associated with advanced tumor stage and worst prognosis.
  • However, the high rate of right hemicolectomy in patients with small carcinoid tumors needs to be critically discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Colectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Unnecessary Procedures / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20561765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Gidwani AL, Blake G: Four pathologies in one. Ir J Med Sci; 2008 Mar;177(1):77-8
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  • METHODS: Laparotomy revealed a perforated appendix with an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and thickened distal small bowel with fat encroaching the mesentery suggestive of active Crohn's disease.
  • A routine appendicectomy was done and pathology revealed inflamed perforated appendix with an incidental carcinoid within the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Appendicitis / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Meckel Diverticulum / complications

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  • (PMID = 17628741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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80. Kałuzny M, Bolanowski M, Sukiennik-Kujawa M, Ponikowski P, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jarzab B, Jawiarczyk A, Syrycka J: Long-term survival and nearly asymptomatic course of carcinoid tumour with multiple metastases (treated by surgery, chemotherapy, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and LAR octreotide analogue): a case report. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Sep-Oct;60(5):401-6
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  • [Title] Long-term survival and nearly asymptomatic course of carcinoid tumour with multiple metastases (treated by surgery, chemotherapy, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and LAR octreotide analogue): a case report.
  • Carcinoids are the most common neuroendocrine tumours.
  • The most frequently encountered clinical presentations of carcinoids are intermittent abdominal pain and carcinoid syndrome (diarrhoea and flushing).
  • We report a case of carcinoid tumour with primary focus in the ileum, with an appendix infiltration, in a thirty-two-year-old woman with acute appendicitis symptoms only.
  • Carcinoid was diagnosed postoperatively by histopathological examination.
  • Combined therapy, typical for chronic heart failure, together with long-acting octreotide analogue highly improved the patient's heart sufficiency and reduced carcinoid syndrome symptoms.
  • Long-term survival is typical for carcinoids, but 30-years survival has not been described in the literature yet.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / therapy. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Heart Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoid Heart Disease / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hyperbilirubinemia / chemically induced. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19885812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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81. Tang LH, Shia J, Soslow RA, Dhall D, Wong WD, O'Reilly E, Qin J, Paty P, Weiser MR, Guillem J, Temple L, Sobin LH, Klimstra DS: Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;32(10):1429-43
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  • [Title] Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • Appendiceal tumors exhibiting both neuroendocrine and glandular differentiation are uncommon and have caused difficulty in pathologic classification, prediction of prognosis, and clinical management.
  • Previously, such lesions have been variously designated as adenocarcinoid, goblet cell carcinoid (GCC), and mixed adenocarcinoma carcinoid.
  • In this study, we undertook a retrospective investigation of 63 such cases and classified them as typical GCC (group A) and adenocarcinoma ex GCC on the basis of the histologic features of the tumor at the primary site.
  • The clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared within these groups and with conventional de novo appendiceal adenocarcinomas.
  • Both groups A and B tumors shared a similar immunoprofile, which included generally focal immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers, and a normal intestinal type mucin glycoprotein profile (negative MUC1 expression and preserved MUC2 immunoreactivity).
  • The proliferative index was relatively low in these tumors and slightly increased from groups A to B tumors (11% to 16%).
  • Both beta-catenin and E-cadherin exhibited a normal membranous staining pattern in groups A and B tumors.
  • Although most patients (63%) with GCC presented at an advanced clinical stage, their clinical outcome could be differentiated by subclassification of tumors.
  • In conclusion, GCC is a distinctive appendiceal neoplasm that exhibits unique pathologic features and clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Aug;33(8):1259-60; author reply 1260-1 [19471156.001]
  • (PMID = 18685490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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82. Tannapfel A, Wittekind C: [The current TNM system for gastrointestinal tumors part II]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):348-52
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  • [Title] [The current TNM system for gastrointestinal tumors part II].
  • Entirely new classifications are those for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and perihilar extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas.
  • Major and praxis-relevant alterations concern colorectal tumours and include new classifications of carcinomas and carcinoids of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-minor] Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / classification. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / classification. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / classification. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Progression. Gallbladder Neoplasms / classification. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / classification. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / classification. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / classification. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Pathologe. 2010 Sep;31(5):353-4 [20809402.001]
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  • (PMID = 20798945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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83. Levy AD, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison. Radiographics; 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):237-57
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison.
  • Gastrointestinal carcinoids are well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms that belong to a diverse group of tumors that arise from cells of the diffuse endocrine system.
  • A wide variety of specialized endocrine cells that populate the gastrointestinal mucosa and submucosa give rise to carcinoids.
  • Consequently, carcinoids may occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract and produce a variety of hormones and protein products that are associated with specific clinical symptoms.
  • Biologic behavior of carcinoids varies by site and cell type, but all gastrointestinal carcinoids are considered to have malignant potential.
  • Metastatic carcinoids may produce carcinoid syndrome.
  • The small intestine is the most common location for gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • Most small intestinal carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells of the distal ileum that produce serotonin.
  • Small intestinal carcinoids often have an aggressive biologic behavior and, as such, patients frequently have metastases to regional lymph nodes and the liver at initial presentation.
  • Pathologic and radiologic manifestations of serotonin-producing small intestinal carcinoids are related to local and regional effects of serotonin and its metabolites.
  • In contrast, carcinoids of the appendix and rectum are commonly discovered incidentally as small lesions that are unassociated with clinical evidence of hormone production and have a more indolent clinical course.
  • Carcinoids of the stomach, duodenum, and colon are uncommon but have distinctive clinical, pathologic, and radiologic appearances.
  • Knowledge of the diverse clinical, pathologic, and radiologic spectrum of gastrointestinal carcinoids is important in the imaging and management of patients with suspected carcinoids or focal gastrointestinal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods

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  • (PMID = 17235010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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84. Hatzipantelis E, Panagopoulou P, Sidi-Fragandrea V, Fragandrea I, Koliouskas DE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2010 Nov;51(5):622-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are rare in childhood and usually have a benign clinical course.
  • The aim of the study was to report the frequency, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and outcome of children with appendiceal carcinoid treated in a pediatric oncology department.
  • Demographics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and follow-up results were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Among 839 admissions, 19 patients (9 boys) with appendiceal carcinoid were identified during the study period.
  • The mean tumor diameter was 4.55 (± 3.45) mm (range 1-15 mm).
  • In 18 children tumor size was ≤ 10 mm and did not infiltrate surrounding tissues.
  • In 1 patient the size was 15 mm and a microscopic rupture of the appendix with infiltration of the surrounding fat was present.
  • All of the tumors were located at the tip of the appendix and were of the classic histological type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms. Appendicitis / complications. Carcinoid Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Appendix / pathology. Appendix / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20948448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Boudreaux JP, Klimstra DS, Hassan MM, Woltering EA, Jensen RT, Goldsmith SJ, Nutting C, Bushnell DL, Caplin ME, Yao JC, North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS): The NANETS consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Cecum. Pancreas; 2010 Aug;39(6):753-66
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  • [Title] The NANETS consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Cecum.
  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the jejunum, ileum, and appendix are also collectively known as midgut carcinoids.
  • Classic carcinoid syndrome is more likely to appear in patients with advanced disease.
  • With the exception of small well-differentiated NETs of the appendix, NETs of the midgut have substantial risk of relapse after resection and need to be followed for at least 7 years.Metastatic/advanced NETs of the midgut are incurable.
  • Somatostatin analogs are effective in the management of carcinoid syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendix / pathology. Cecum / pathology. Humans. Ileum / pathology. Jejunum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20664473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Karahan OI, Kahriman G, Yikilmaz A, Ozkan M, Bayram F: Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors in rare locations: imaging findings. Clin Imaging; 2006 Jul-Aug;30(4):278-82
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors in rare locations: imaging findings.
  • In this article, we present radiological findings in three patients with mesenteric, gastric, and rectal carcinoid tumors.
  • More than 90% of the carcinoid tumors arise in the gastrointestinal system (GIS).
  • They comprise 2% of all GIS tumors and are usually located in the small intestine and the appendix.
  • On the other hand, gastric, rectal, and mesenteric carcinoids are rare.
  • Better knowledge of radiological features of carcinoid tumors in rare locations will prevent diagnostic delays and development of carcinoid syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16814146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Eick GN, Mane SM, Camp RL: Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Surg; 2006 Jul;244(1):52-60
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  • [Title] Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use differential gene expression of candidate markers to discriminate benign appendiceal carcinoids (APCs) from malignant and mixed cell APCs.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy exists in regard to the appropriate surgical management of APCs since it is sometimes difficult to predict tumor behavior using traditional pathologic criteria.
  • We have identified 5 differentially expressed genes (a mitosis-regulatory gene NAP1L1, an adhesin MAGE-D2, an estrogen-antagonist, the metastasis marker MTA1, the apoptotic marker NALP, and chromogranin A) that define gut neuroendocrine cell behavior.
  • METHODS: Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent from 42 appendiceal samples, including appendiceal carcinoids identified at exploration for appendicitis (no evidence of metastasis; n = 16), appendicitis specimens (n = 11), malignant appendiceal tumors (> 1.5 cm, evidence of metastatic invasion; n = 7), and mixed (goblet) cell appendiceal adenocarcinoids (n = 3), normal appendiceal tissue (n = 5), and 5 colorectal cancers.
  • RESULTS: CgA message was elevated (> 1000-fold, P < 0.05) in all tumor types.
  • MAGE-D2 and MTA1 message were significantly elevated (> 10-fold, P < 0.01) in the malignant and goblet cell adenocarcinoid tumors but not in the appendicitis-associated carcinoids or normal mucosa.
  • The apoptotic marker, NALP1, was overexpressed (> 50-fold, P < 0.05) in the appendicitis-associated and malignant appendiceal carcinoids but was significantly decreased (> 10-fold, P < 0.05) in the goblet cell adenocarcinoids.
  • Elevated CgA transcript and protein levels indicative of a carcinoid tumor were identified in one acute appendicitis sample with no histologic evidence of a tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that malignant APCs and goblet cell adenocarcinoids have elevated expression of NAP1L1, MAGE-D2, and MTA1 compared with appendiceal carcinoids identified at surgery for appendicitis.
  • This and the differences in NALP1 gene expression (decreased in goblet cell adenocarcinoids) provide a series of molecular signatures that differentiate carcinoids of the appendix.
  • CgA identified all appendiceal tumors as well as covert lesions, which may be more prevalent than previously recognized.
  • The molecular delineation of malignant appendiceal tumor potential provides a scientific basis to define the appropriate surgical management as opposed to morphologic assessment alone.

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  • (PMID = 16794389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / MAGED2 protein, human; 0 / NAP1L1 protein, human; 0 / NLRP1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1570599
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88. Neves GR, Chapchap P, Sredni ST, Viana CR, Mendes WL: Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center. Sao Paulo Med J; 2006 Jan 5;124(1):21-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors are very rare both in children and adults.
  • About 85% of these tumors develop in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The objective of the present study was to describe our experience with children treated of carcinoid tumors, and investigate the frequency morphological findings and results.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Report on case series, at the Department of Pediatrics of Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Câncer, São Paulo.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical pathological data and outcomes among children (< 18 years old) with carcinoid tumors admitted from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2001.
  • In eight cases (89%), the primary tumor site was the appendix and in one (11%) it was the left bronchus.
  • For those with primary tumor in the appendix, the main complaint was abdominal pain, which led to appendectomy.
  • Only one patient underwent right hemicolectomy due to tumor extension into the serosa.
  • The patient with bronchial tumor underwent left pneumonectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the majority of carcinoid tumors arise from the appendix, these tumors can also occur in other primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16612458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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89. Dupre MP, Jadavji I, Matshes E, Urbanski SJ: Diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix: a diagnostic clue to underlying appendiceal neoplasm. Hum Pathol; 2008 Dec;39(12):1823-6
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  • [Title] Diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix: a diagnostic clue to underlying appendiceal neoplasm.
  • Acquired diverticula of the vermiform appendix are rare and arise as a result of different pathogenetic mechanisms.
  • Although the association of appendiceal diverticulosis and neoplasia is known, it remains underemphasized in the teaching and practice of surgical pathology.
  • To investigate the frequency of appendiceal neoplasms with acquired diverticulosis, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all appendectomy specimens received in our institution for a 55-month period (January 2002-July 2006).
  • Eleven (48%) appendectomy specimens with diverticulosis also harbored an appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The association of appendiceal neoplasms with diverticulosis was statistically significant (P < .0001, 2-sided Fisher exact test).
  • Neoplastic processes included 5 well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), 3 mucinous adenomas, 1 tubular adenoma, and 2 adenocarcinomas.
  • We stress the need for meticulous gross assessment with histologic examination of the entire appendectomy specimen in cases of appendiceal diverticulosis.
  • As acquired diverticula represent a rare finding, examination of the entire appendix in this setting does not create a significant impact on the workload within the pathologic laboratory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Diverticulum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18715614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Koopmans NG, Kwee HW, Heemskerk J: [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A1154
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  • [Title] [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid].
  • The patient underwent an appendicectomy of the inflamed appendix with periappendicular infiltrate.
  • However, histological examination revealed a small goblet cell carcinoid, histological group C, with acute inflammation.
  • Several tumour cells were present in a lymph duct at the appendix base.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20619032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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91. Hristov AC, Young RH, Vang R, Yemelyanova AV, Seidman JD, Ronnett BM: Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Oct;31(10):1502-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases.
  • Synchronous and metachronous ovarian and appendiceal mucinous tumors are often the subject of diagnostic consultations in gynecologic pathology practices to address whether the tumors are independent neoplasms or related as primary and metastasis.
  • The ovarian tumors were bilateral in 25 of 28 cases with data on both ovaries and were typically large (mean/median: 14 cm, range: 4.5 to 24.0 cm).
  • The appendices were often firm or thickened but usually did not have a discrete measurable tumor and were not notably enlarged; microscopically, transmural invasion was present in all of them.
  • The ovarian and appendiceal tumors exhibited a variety of patterns of differentiation, including signet ring cell and glandular, with all displaying some goblet cell carcinoidlike patterns (nests, islands, cords, or cryptlike tubules with goblet cells); teratomatous elements were not identified in any ovarian tumors.
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 7 of 19 ovarian tumors (mean/median: 6.3%/0%; range: 0% to 20%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 4 of 18 of these (mean/median: 7.8%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 6 of 16 appendiceal tumors (mean/median: 11.9%/0%; range: 0% to 70%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 6 of 15 of these (mean/median: 16.7%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • The clinicopathologic features of these ovarian tumors indicate they should be labeled as metastatic appendiceal adenocarcinomas rather than as goblet cell carcinoid tumors both to reflect their behavior and help distinguish them from the rare true primary ovarian goblet cell carcinoid tumors.
  • As the ovarian tumors have appreciable components of signet ring cells they qualify as Krukenberg tumors.
  • In cases in which the primary tumor is not already evident, their "goblet cell carcinoidlike" patterns should direct attention to the appendix as a possible source.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17895750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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92. Wakahara T, Yamamoto S, Fujita S, Akasu T, Onouchi S, Moriya Y: A case of advanced rectal adenocarcinoid tumor with long-term survival. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jul;40(7):690-3
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  • [Title] A case of advanced rectal adenocarcinoid tumor with long-term survival.
  • Adenocarcinoid tumor most commonly occurs in the appendix and a tumor arising in the rectum is extremely rare.
  • A 58-year-old man underwent total pelvic exenteration with extended lateral lymph node dissection for rectal adenocarcinoid tumor invading the urethra with lateral lymph node metastasis.
  • Microscopically and immunohistochemically, the tumor consisted of carcinoid-like components and signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-like components, and an adenocarcinoid tumor was diagnosed.
  • There is no consensus on the indication of surgical treatment for adenocarcinoid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20338947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Srivastava A, Hornick JL: Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):626-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNET) of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lung are histologically similar.
  • We therefore analyzed the expression of CDX-2, PDX-1, TTF-1, and neuroendocrine secretory protein-55 (NESP-55), a recently described member of the chromogranin family, in primary and metastatic WDNET.
  • In total, 64 gastrointestinal carcinoids (5 stomach; 5 duodenum; 31 ileum; 11 appendix; and 12 rectum); 39 pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET); and 20 pulmonary carcinoid tumors were studied.
  • Ileal carcinoids were exclusively positive for CDX-2 (30/31) and negative for all other markers.
  • Appendiceal carcinoids were uniformly positive for CDX-2 (11/11).
  • All rectal carcinoids were negative for CDX-2 and TTF-1; 2/12 were positive for PDX-1, and 1/12 for NESP-55.
  • The gastric and duodenal carcinoids were only positive for PDX-1 (7/10).
  • TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids (7/20); 1/20 was positive for NESP-55; and all were negative for CDX-2 and PDX-1.
  • TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids in our study but was present in only about a third of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19065104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 protein; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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94. Helland SK, Prøsch AM, Viste A: Carcinoid tumours in the gastrointestinal tract--a population-based study from Western Norway. Scand J Surg; 2006;95(3):158-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumours in the gastrointestinal tract--a population-based study from Western Norway.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze population-based incidence, anatomic distribution and patient characteristics of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NE, carcinoid tumours) arise from neuroendocrine cells and are most commonly found in gastrointestinal tract and lungs.
  • Previous studies on carcinoids report varying incidence rates, location of tumours and patient survival rates.
  • 88 patients were diagnosed with carcinoids located in the gastrointestinal tract in the period 1983-2003 in the Norwegian counties Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane.
  • Patient and tumour characteristics, treatment and survival were analyzed in a sub-group of 51 patients treated at Haukeland University Hospital.
  • RESULTS: Incidence of carcinoids was 0.8 when analyzed from the counties Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane as well as when analyzed from Haukeland University Hospital.
  • The tumours were located in the small bowel in 53%, appendix 18%, colon 4%, rectum 4%, stomach 8% and duodenum 10%.
  • Five-year survival rate was 50% in stomach, 80% in duodenum, 43% in the small bowel, 100% for tumours in appendix, 40% in colon and 100% in rectum.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumours are relatively uncommon neoplasms and most of them are found in the small bowel.
  • Carcinoids in the ileum tend to be more aggressive and carry a poorer prognosis than carcinoids at other locations.
  • Tumours in the appendix are found at lower age and in an early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Population Surveillance

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  • (PMID = 17066609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1457-4969
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of surgery : SJS : official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Ellis L, Shale MJ, Coleman MP: Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: trends in incidence in England since 1971. Am J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec;105(12):2563-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: trends in incidence in England since 1971.
  • OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) is poorly understood.
  • Recent analyses have suggested changes in the incidence and distribution of such tumors, but have generally used data sets containing small patient numbers.
  • The anatomic distribution of tumors in the latest period analyzed was stomach 12%, small intestine 29%, appendix 38%, colon 13%, and rectum 8%.
  • The largest absolute increase in incidence was seen in the appendix (from 0.03 to 0.41 in men; from 0.05 to 0.59 in women).
  • Sex-specific incidence rates for gastric, colonic, and rectal NETs are similar, whereas appendiceal lesions were more common in females, and small intestinal tumors in men.
  • In view of the magnitude of these changes, particularly for gastric tumors, further studies to examine the underlying etiology of these changes are urgently indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20823835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 11700; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1336 / A5735
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Simon R, Bourne PA, Yang Q, Spaulding BO, di Sant'Agnese PA, Wang HL, Xu H: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas express K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer, but carcinoid tumors do not. Hum Pathol; 2007 Aug;38(8):1178-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas express K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer, but carcinoid tumors do not.
  • A number of malignancies, including high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung, have been reported to express K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer (KOC), a member of the insulin-like growth factor messenger RNA-binding protein (IMP) family also known as L523S and IMP3.
  • KOC acts to promote tumor cell proliferation by enhancing insulin-like growth factor-II protein expression.
  • This study aimed to examine KOC expression pattern in extrapulmonary neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Seventy-five extrapulmonary neuroendocrine tumors that were surgically resected or had undergone biopsy, including 53 small cell carcinomas (uterine cervix, 21; bladder, 10; colorectum, 13; prostate, 7; stomach, 1; and esophagus, 1) and 22 carcinoid tumors (colorectum, 10; appendix, 5; ileum, 4; duodenum, 2; and stomach, 1), were immunohistochemically studied using a monoclonal antibody against KOC.
  • Our results demonstrated that 47 small cell carcinomas (89%) showed moderate to strong positive staining for KOC, with 25 cases (53%) showing positivity in more than 90% of tumor cells and 22 cases (47%) in 40% to 80% of tumor cells.
  • Three cases showed weak staining in 5% to 10% of the tumor cells.
  • No KOC immunostaining was detected in 22 carcinoid tumors.
  • In addition, immunohistochemical detection of KOC expression may serve as a useful diagnostic tool in the distinction between small cell carcinoma and carcinoid tumor, particularly when the diagnostic material is a small biopsy with crushing artifact.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17521698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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97. Conlon JM: Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors. Regul Pept; 2010 Nov 30;165(1):5-11
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  • [Title] Granin-derived peptides as diagnostic and prognostic markers for endocrine tumors.
  • Chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity (CgA-LI) has been, and remains, the most widely used diagnostic and prognostic marker for endocrine tumors.
  • Additionally, certain endocrine tumors, such as rectal carcinoids, do not express the CgA gene so that there is a need for additional markers to complement CgA measurements.
  • Plasma concentrations of the CgA-derived peptide, pancreastatin, measured with antisera of defined regional specificity, have a prognostic value in patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors receiving somatostatin analog therapy or hepatic artery chemoembolization.
  • Other CgA-derived peptides with potential as tumor markers are vasostatin-1, WE-14, catestatin, GE-25, and EL-35 but their value has yet to be fully assessed.
  • Circulating concentrations of chromogranin B-like immunoreactivity (CgB-LI) are not elevated in non-neoplastic diseases and measurements of CCB, the COOH-terminal fragment of CgB, may be useful as a biochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in lung tumors.
  • Antisera to the secretogranin II-derived peptide, secretoneurin detects carcinoid tumors of the appendix with greater frequency than antisera to CgA and are of value in identifying therapy-resistant carcinoma of the prostate (clinical stage D3).
  • Measurement of concentrations of a second secretogranin II-derived peptide, EM-66 in tumor tissue has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant pheochromocytoma.
  • These examples point to a limited although potentially valuable role for granin-derived peptides as tumor markers.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1686
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory peptides
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Pept.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranin B; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Secretogranin II
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98. Nezhat C, Datta MS, Defazio A, Nezhat F, Nezhat C: Natural orifice-assisted laparoscopic appendectomy. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):14-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We reviewed cases of 42 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy or laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy followed by appendectomy, performed by applying a stapler and removing the appendix transvaginally.
  • By using a small-diameter laparoscope, the appendix was mobilized, especially in patients with adhesions, endometriosis, or retrocecal appendix, to facilitate transvaginal access with the stapler.
  • Appendiceal pathology included serosal adhesions (14), fibrous obliteration of the lumen (12), endometriosis (4), serositis (2), and carcinoid tumor (1), among others.

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  • (PMID = 19366534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015901
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99. Chung TP, Hunt SR: Carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):45-8
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  • [Title] Carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum.
  • Carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum arise from the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells of the intestine.
  • Carcinoid tumors are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and are located in decreasing order of frequency in appendix, ileum, rectum, stomach, and colon.
  • Adjuvant therapy is indicated only for metastatic disease, and admirable advances have been made in the realm of chemotherapy for reduction of disease and palliation of the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • In this article, we discuss the nature of these interesting and uncommon tumors, clinical presentation, treatment options, and prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 20011309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780103
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoid / colon / neuroendocrine tumor / rectum
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100. Iwańczak B, Stawarski A, Czernik J, Bronowickip K, Iwańczak F, Pytrus T, Klempous J, Godziński J: [Diagnostic difficulties in pediatric abdominal pain with potential appendicitis]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64 Suppl 3:56-60
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Appendicitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: The most often Crohn's disease were recognized (9 children), in 2 cases with concomitant other pathologies (fecal tumor of appendix in one case and with peritoneal abscess after perforation of intestinal wall).
  • Carcinoid of the appendix was the cause of abdominal pain in one child.
  • 4. All children with equivocal presentations of appendicitis and with normal appendix during operation should undergo further diagnostic evaluation.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Abdominal Pain.
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  • (PMID = 18431916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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