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1. Tang LH: Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1612-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix.
  • CONTEXT: The appendix gives rise to an array of epithelial neoplasms showing glandular or neuroendocrine differentiation, and some tumors with elements of both cell types.
  • Although some appendiceal neoplasms resemble their counterparts in the small and large intestines (conventional adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor), the appendix also gives rise to relatively unique entities including mucinous neoplasms and goblet cell carcinoid tumors, which present a challenge in pathologic classification and clinical management.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and diagnostic issues for 3 pathologic types of epithelial neoplasms of the appendix:.
  • (1) adenocarcinoma, with specific focus on mucinous neoplasm;.
  • (2) goblet cell carcinoid tumor and associated adenocarcinoma; and (3) typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most important issue in pathologic assessment of epithelial tumors of the appendix is to understand the clinical implications inherent in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Hadj-Taieb I, Masmoudi A, Ayadi L, Meziou TJ, Khabir A, Charfeddine A, Boujelbène S, Beyrouti MI, Tahri N, Boudawara T, Turki H, Zahaf A: [Appendicular cystadenocarcinoma with cutaneous fistula]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Mar;137(3):198-202
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  • We report a case of fistular lesions of the buttocks revealing a mixed tumour of the appendix involving mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour.
  • Histological examination of skin biopsy specimens identified infiltration of the dermis by metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma while colonoscopy showed a caecal tumour measuring 4 cm.
  • Histopathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed mixed tumour consisting of perforated mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour of the appendix.
  • DISCUSSION: Cutaneous metastasis of colorectal cancer is an uncommon event that usually occurs after identification of the primary tumour and generally indicates advanced-stage disease and an ominous prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Cecal Neoplasms / pathology. Cutaneous Fistula / etiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20227562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Fornaro R, Picori E, Stabilini C, Frascio M, Sticchi C, Boccardo C, Ricci B, Giannetta E: [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):233-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?].
  • [Transliterated title] I tumori carcinoidi dell'appendice. Quando l'emicolectomia destra?
  • Three cases of carcinoid tumour of the appendix (about 0,3 % of all performed appendectomies) has induced the Authors to a review of the literature with the aim to underline the most important biological and pathological findings and the current clinic and therapeutic knowledges.
  • The kind of surgical intervention, that is the entity of the surgical demolition, for the treatment of the carcinoid tumours of the appendix is still controversial: appendectomy or right colectomy?
  • It is possible identify, also during the operation for an appendicitis or for other abdominal lesions, criteria that can orient toward a major surgery (size of the neoplasia, subserosal lymphatic invasion, infiltration of the serosa, diffusion in the meso-appendix, location in closeness of the base of the appendix, invasion of the the locoregional lymph nodes, presence of metastases, section ?margins, number of mitoses, cellular pleiomorfism).
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy

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  • (PMID = 16857114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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4. van Eeden S, Offerhaus GJ, Hart AA, Boerrigter L, Nederlof PM, Porter E, van Velthuysen ML: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):763-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Goblet cell carcinoid is a poorly understood tumour of the appendix.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether it should be regarded as a separate entity or as a variant of classical carcinoid.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression pattern of 21 markers and the mutation status of KRas codon 12 were determined in 16 goblet cell carcinoids and compared with 14 classical carcinoids, 19 colonic adenocarcinomas and 10 appendiceal mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas.
  • The results were subjected to a stepwise linear discriminant analysis.
  • Goblet cell carcinoids were significantly different from the control groups.
  • The most important markers for discriminating between the groups were CEA (classical carcinoid versus all others), KRas mutation (present in all mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas), beta-catenin (goblet cell carcinoid versus left sided colonic adenocarcinoma) and chromogranin (goblet cell carcinoid versus right sided colonic adenocarcinoma).
  • Expression of Math1 and HD5 was similar in goblet cell carcinoid and colonic adenocarcinoma but absent in classical carcinoid.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that goblet cell carcinoids should be regarded as a separate entity.
  • The formerly used term 'crypt cell carcinoma' may be more appropriate because it reflects the more aggressive clinical behaviour of these tumours as well as their greater similarity to adenocarcinomas rather than to carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2008 May;52(6):770-1 [18439158.001]
  • (PMID = 18042066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 1P20 MD001824
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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5. Chetty R, Serra S: Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):401-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid.
  • The so-called clear cell change has been described in neuroendocrine tumors at several locations.
  • Those associated with von Hippel Lindau disease are pathognomonically "clear" and the cytoplasmic appearance has been ascribed to intracytoplasmic lipid.
  • However, lipid has not been demonstrated in all cases of clear cell carcinoid tumors.
  • Such variants have not been described in carcinoid tumors of the appendix and cases with a prominent proportion of clear or more correctly, lipid-rich cytoplasm may bear a superficial resemblance to goblet cell carcinoid and/or signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • Seven cases, in 5 females and 2 males ranging in age from 22 to 65 years, were noted to have a population of lipid-rich and vacuolated clear cells accounting for 25% or more of the tumor population.
  • The carcinoid tumors were incidental in all cases with 4 of patients presenting with appendicitis, 2 with concomitant mucinous cystadenocarcinomas of the appendix and 1 with an adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon.
  • Morphologically, the tumors had a nested and trabecular pattern and were composed of an admixture of microvesicular and clear lipid-rich cells.
  • None of the patients have shown evidence of recurrent disease.
  • The importance of recognizing this variant of carcinoid tumor in the appendix is to avoid confusion with goblet cell carcinoid tumors with or without a signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • The presence of multi-vacuolated, foamy and clear cells, some resembling signet ring or goblet cells, in otherwise classic carcinoid tumors is rare but should be considered in this context in the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Vacuoles / chemistry. Vacuoles / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20139759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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6. Gomez D, Malik HZ, Al-Mukthar A, Menon KV, Toogood GJ, Lodge JP, Prasad KR: Hepatic resection for metastatic gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: outcome and prognostic predictors. HPB (Oxford); 2007;9(5):345-51
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  • [Title] Hepatic resection for metastatic gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: outcome and prognostic predictors.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment modalities for hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) include surgery, somatostatin analogues and arterial embolization.
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate the outcome of patients following surgery and to identify prognostic predictors of recurrent disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective clinico-pathological analysis of patients managed with hepatic NET metastases over a 13-year period (January 1994 to December 2006).
  • RESULTS: Eighteen patients with hepatic metastases from NET were identified with a median age of 53 years (range 31-75).
  • The localization of the primary tumour was the terminal ileum (n=8), pancreas (n=7), appendix (n=2) or duodenum (n=1).
  • Twelve patients had synchronous disease and six patients developed metachronous hepatic tumours over a median period of 20 months (range 6-144).
  • The 2- and 5-year disease-free rates following hepatic resection with complete cytoreduction were both 66%.
  • Partial or complete control of endocrine-related symptoms was achieved in all patients with functioning tumours following surgery.
  • Recurrent disease occurred in four patients following complete cytoreductive surgery.
  • Resection margin involvement was associated with developing recurrent disease (p=0.041).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical resection for hepatic NET metastases results in good long-term survival in selected patients and resection margin involvement was associated with recurrent disease.

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  • (PMID = 18345317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2225511
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; carcinoid tumour / hepatectomy / liver metastasis / neuroendocrine tumour / survival
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7. Louzi A, Nargis Y, Belaabidia B, Alatawna H, Benelkhaiat R, Finech B, Dafali AE: [Appendicular mucocele caused by carcinoid tumor during pregnancy]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Nov;34(11):1051-4
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  • [Title] [Appendicular mucocele caused by carcinoid tumor during pregnancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Mucocèle de l'appendice sur tumeur carcinoïde pendant la grossesse.
  • Mucocele of the appendix secondary to appendicular carcinoid tumour is a rare entity.
  • The interaction between carcinoid tumour or mucocele of the appendix and pregnancy is not yet elucidated.
  • Prognosis depends on the size of the carcinoid tumour and its regional invasion.
  • We report a case of appendicular mucocele caused by a carcinoid tumour in a 36-year-old pregnant woman who had been admitted because of acute appendicitis.
  • Pathological examination of the appendicectomy specimen revealed a carcinoid tumour measuring 2 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Mucocele / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


8. Wie HJ, Lee JH, Kyung MS, Jung US, Choi JS: Is incidental appendectomy necessary in women with ovarian endometrioma? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2008 Feb;48(1):107-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Several studies reported that pathology of the appendix is frequently detected alongside endometriosis, especially with chronic pelvic pain.
  • Furthermore, ovarian endometriosis is a marker of more extensive pelvic and intestinal disease.
  • METHODS: One hundred and six women with ovarian endometrioma underwent laparoscopic surgery including laparoscopic appendectomy.
  • RESULTS: The main symptoms consisted of lower abdominal pain in 51 (48.1%) women, dysmenorrhoea in 23 (21.7%), left lower quadrant pain in 6 (5.7%), right lower quadrant pain in nine (8.5%), chronic pelvic pain in five (4.7%), and others in 12 (11.3%).
  • Only three (3.3%) of the 106 women had abnormal findings on gross inspection during laparoscopic surgery: two women with endometriotic spots on the surface of their appendixes, and one with peri-appendiceal inflammation with severe adhesions.
  • Of the 106 resected appendixes, 37 (34.9%) had histopathologically confirmed pathology including lymphoid hyperplasia in 12 (11.3%), endometriosis in 14 (13.2%), peri-appendicitis and serositis in five (4.7%), carcinoid tumour in three (2.8%), and others in three (2.8%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In all surgical treatments for ovarian endometrioma, surgeons need to preoperatively inform the patients of the fact that appendiceal pathology including endometriosis is found frequently regardless of concurrent symptoms or gross finding of the appendix.
  • Furthermore, surgeons should take into account the possibility of appendiceal pathology during operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendix / pathology. Endometriosis / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Ovarian Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18275581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8666
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Byrn JC, Wang JL, Divino CM, Nguyen SQ, Warner RR: Management of goblet cell carcinoid. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Oct 1;94(5):396-402
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of goblet cell carcinoid.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Goblet cell carcinoid, a rare tumor of intermediate malignant potential, is known to account for a significant minority of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Sixteen new cases of gastrointestinal goblet cell carcinoid were reviewed to describe their presentation, treatment, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients were diagnosed with goblet cell carcinoid between 1995 and 2005.
  • Presenting diagnoses included appendicitis (n=8), abdominal or liver mass (n=5), uterine fibroids (n=1), ovarian mass (n=1), and Crohn's Disease exacerbation (n=1).
  • Patients were divided into two groups: those where the diagnosis was an incidental finding at operation (Group 1) and those where the presentation was of an abdominal mass or metastatic disease (Group 2).
  • Group 2 included patients presenting with Krukenberg type lesions (n=2) and abdominal masses (n=4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Goblet cell carcinoid is a rare malignant tumor largely affecting the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Appendectomy. Appendicitis / complications. Appendicitis / surgery. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16967437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Velusamy A, Saw S, Gossage J, Bailey S, Schofield J: Combined adenocarcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined adenocarcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Adenocarcinoid of the appendix is a rare malignant tumour with features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid, showing both epithelial and endocrine differentiation.
  • Mucinous cystadenoma is the commonest of the benign neoplasms of the appendix, with an incidence of 0.6% in appendicectomy specimens.
  • We report a rare combination of these tumours and discuss the latest treatment options.
  • Laparoscopy revealed an adenocarcinoid of the appendix in combination with mucinous cystadenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoids account for 2% of primary appendiceal malignancies.
  • Most tumours are less than 2 cm in diameter and 20% of them metastasize to the ovaries.
  • Right hemicolectomy is generally advised if any of the following features are present: tumours greater than 2 cm, involvement of resection margins, greater than 2 mitoses/10 high-power fields on histology, extension of tumour beyond serosa.
  • Chemotherapy mostly with 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin is advised for remnant disease after surgery.

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  • (PMID = 19171048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2647933
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11. Wang HL, Dhall D: Goblet or signet ring cells: that is the question. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jul;16(4):247-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid tumor is a rare mixed endocrine-exocrine neoplasm of the appendix.
  • It carries an intermediate biologic behavior between a classic carcinoid tumor and a conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • A recent retrospective study of a large number of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids has shown that these tumors can be stratified into 3 subgroups based on careful histologic analysis: typical goblet cell carcinoid (group A); adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid, signet ring cell type (group B); and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid, poorly differentiated carcinoma type (group C).
  • Thus, meticulous histologic evaluation is of critical importance in determining the prognosis and guiding the management of patients with goblet cell carcinoids.
  • This brief review summarizes these recent findings and raises a few issues that may need to be further addressed to better apply this classification to our practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Goblet Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19546612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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12. O'Donnell ME, Carson J, Garstin WI: Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;61(3):431-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix.
  • Since their first description in 1882, malignant neoplasms of the appendix still remain rare.
  • Malignant carcinoid tumours are the most common accounting for 85% of all appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Preoperative diagnosis is invariably difficult, and precise treatment protocols for these neoplasms remain unclear.
  • A retrospective review of all malignant carcinoid tumours diagnosed in our hospital between April 1994 and December 2003 was performed.
  • Nine patients were identified with classical carcinoid tumours (CCT); (M = 3 and F = 6, mean age: 43, range 14-81) and two patients with goblet-cell morphology (F = 2, age 46 and 76).
  • Other appendiceal pathologies were identified following hemicolectomy and oophorectomy.
  • CCT are the most common tumours and have the better prognosis.
  • From our experience and subsequent review of the literature, we recommend right hemicolectomy as the treatment of choice for malignant carcinoid tumours.
  • However, small CCTs less than 2 cm in diameter at the tip of the appendix, with a low proliferative index, without angiolymphatic or mesoappendiceal extension can be treated by appendicectomy.
  • Following oncological assessment, further adjuvant therapy should be considered for patients with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16911574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Candela G, Varriale S, Di Libero L, Giordano M, Maschio A, Manetta F, Borrelli V, Nunziata A, Santini L: Carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. Description of three clinical cases and review of the literature. Minerva Chir; 2006 Jun;61(3):265-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. Description of three clinical cases and review of the literature.
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoide dell'appendice vermiforme.
  • Carcinoids of the appendix represent a separate class of tumours with characteristics that vary between benign (adenomas) and malignant (carcinomas) neoplasias.
  • A recent nomenclature identifies them as diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNS) and/or, parallely, as neuroendocrine tumours (NET): the gastroenteric tract is the site of about 64.3% of carcinoids, followed by the respiratory tract with 25.3%.
  • Among the gastrointestinals, tumour of the small intestine is the one with the highest incidence with 28.5%, followed by the appendix with 4.77%, the rectum with 13.6% and the stomach with 4.6%.
  • Carcinoid of the colon has an incidence of 8.62%, with the caecum which alone represents 34.5% of colic localisations.
  • The 3 cases described are an example of the behavioural unpredictability of intestinal carcinoids.
  • The first case is that of a female patient in whom the primary tumour was only discovered after liver metastasis was documented.
  • Subsequent investigations carried out in the postoperative period documented the presence of liver metastasis at the V and VI liver segments.
  • The last case, similar to the second from certain points of view, shows the need to carry out a right hemicolectomy with removal of locoregional lymphnodes in the event of an appendicular carcinoid >2 cm.
  • Both laboratory and instrumental examinations contribute to the diagnosis of intestinal carcinoid.
  • First level instrumental examinations for the diagnosis of intestinal carcinoid are represented by CT with and without contrast medium, diagnostic endoscopy and, to better highlight the presence of locoregional metastases, scintigraphy with octreotide and PET.
  • Treatment with somatostatin, on the other hand, proved effective in controlling tumour secretion, so attenuating the inconveniences of carcinoid syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 16858310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Barry M, Collins CG, McCawley N, McGuinness J, Leahy AL: Synchronous appendiceal tumours. Surgeon; 2007 Apr;5(2):111-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous appendiceal tumours.
  • Primary appendiceal neoplasms are a rare clinical and pathological entity.
  • We report a case of synchronous appendiceal tumours of different histological types which presented as a symptomatic palpable and radiologically apparent mass in the right iliac fossa.
  • This case demonstrates the importance of pre-operative diagnosis of these neoplasms, as it may alter the surgical approach and obviate the need for additional surgery.
  • Furthermore, some of the controversies associated with the management of an appendix mass in the elderly population are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17450695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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15. Khan AW, Sheikh SH, Rahman MA: Results of emergency appendectomy for appendicular mass. Mymensingh Med J; 2007 Jul;16(2):209-13
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  • [Title] Results of emergency appendectomy for appendicular mass.
  • Emergency appendectomy was done on 1142 patients during the period of July 1990 to January 2003 to evaluate the results.
  • 342(30%) patients had appendix abscess and 228(19.96%) had loculated collection.
  • All had appendicitis except two of which one patient had carcinoid tumor and one had enteric fever perforation.
  • It seems that emergency appendectomy could safely be done in appendix mass without any increased risk of mortality and morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 17703161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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16. Azordegan N, Yazdankhah A, Moghadasian MH: A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Feb;279(2):183-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumor is the most common tumor of appendix with overall good prognosis.
  • CASE REPORT: We here report the coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis in a 37-year-old nulliparous woman who came to the emergency room with right lower abdominal pain mimicking acute appendicitis.
  • The main clinical and laboratory findings included fever, leukocytosis and elevated ESR.
  • With preoperative suspicion of acute appendicitis, laparatomy was performed and revealed apparently normal looking appendix, along with a nodule in the terminal ileum.
  • Both the appendix and ileal nodule were removed.
  • Histological examinations revealed carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Many cases of carcinoid tumor of the appendix and ileal endometriosis are diagnosed incidentally.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Endometriosis / complications. Ileal Diseases / complications


17. Iwuagwu OC, Jameel JK, Drew PJ, Hartley JE, Monson JR: Primary carcinoma of the appendix - Hull series. Dig Surg; 2005;22(3):163-7
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoma of the appendix - Hull series.
  • BACKGROUND: Appendiceal carcinoma (AC) is a rare entity that does not have a well-defined treatment strategy.
  • Once the diagnosis of AC is made, patients are treated by various strategies including surgery, chemotherapy depending on nodal status of the disease.
  • The histopathology reports of all appendiceal specimens removed were traced.
  • We did not include patients with primary carcinoid tumours or secondary adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: There was an equal sex distribution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16037676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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18. Marudanayagam R, Williams GT, Rees BI: Review of the pathological results of 2660 appendicectomy specimens. J Gastroenterol; 2006 Aug;41(8):745-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Review of the pathological results of 2660 appendicectomy specimens.
  • The appendix can also be the site of a variety of neoplasms and unusual inflammatory conditions.
  • RESULTS: Of the 2660 appendicectomy specimens, acute appendicitis was seen in 1718 patients (64.58%), with a peak in patients in their second decade (35.09% of cases of acute appendicitis).
  • Other pathologies include carcinoid (0.52%), adenocarcinoma (0.39%), and mucinous cystadenoma (0.60%).
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Appendicitis / epidemiology. Appendix / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16988762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Koopmans NG, Kwee HW, Heemskerk J: [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A1154
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid].
  • The patient underwent an appendicectomy of the inflamed appendix with periappendicular infiltrate.
  • However, histological examination revealed a small goblet cell carcinoid, histological group C, with acute inflammation.
  • Several tumour cells were present in a lymph duct at the appendix base.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20619032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Waisberg DR, Fava AS, Martins LC, Matos LL, Franco MI, Waisberg J: Colonic carcinoid tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 23 patients from a single institution. Arq Gastroenterol; 2009 Oct-Dec;46(4):288-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colonic carcinoid tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 23 patients from a single institution.
  • CONTEXT: Colonic carcinoids, excluding those arising in the appendix, have proved to be extremely rare.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the clinicopathologic features of patients operated on carcinoid tumors of the colon.
  • METHODS: Twenty-three patients (12 males and 11 females) were operated on colonic carcinoids.
  • The clinical and histopathological data of patients who were pathologically diagnosed as having carcinoid tumors and submitted to surgical treatment over a 30-year period (1977-2007) were gathered.
  • Actuarial patient survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with carcinoid-specific death as the outcome.
  • RESULTS: The mean time elapsed between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment was 8.3 months (1.5 to 20 months).
  • No carcinoid syndrome was noted.
  • Spreading of the disease to the liver and peritoneum was found in two (8.7%) patients who submitted to intestinal bypass.
  • In the resected cases, the lymph nodes were compromised in 10 patients (47.6%) and disease-free in 11 (52.4%).
  • The tumors had penetrated the muscularis propria in all resected cases.
  • Four (17.4%) patients had a second non-carcinoid primary tumor.
  • Fifteen patients (65.2%) remain alive without evidence of active disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the colon are frequently right-sided and may be clinically occult until an advanced stage is reached.
  • Based on the relatively poor survival rates reported, it is recommended that, in addition to standard surgical resection, vigorous surveillance for metastatic disease must be performed, particularly during the first 2 years after surgery.
  • In addition, these patients require evaluation of the entire gastrointestinal tract for evidence of coexisting malignancy, along with an extended period of follow-up, because tumor recurrences after 5 years are not uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20232008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4219
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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21. Deschamps L, Couvelard A: Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jun;134(6):871-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review.
  • CONTEXT: Although rare, appendiceal endocrine tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide recent data that focus on the pathology of endocrine tumors of the appendix including classifications and guidelines for patient management.
  • DATA SOURCES: A review of the recent literature including TNM classifications and patient management guidelines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Appendiceal endocrine tumors are separated into 2 main groups: classic endocrine tumors and goblet cell carcinoids.
  • Evaluation of their prognoses and risks of malignancy, according to these classifications, depends on several parameters including tumor size, proliferation rate, and infiltration of appendiceal wall and mesoappendix.
  • Most patients with classic endocrine tumors of the appendix have a favorable prognosis.
  • Indications for postappendectomy, complementary surgery, which are still controversial, especially for tumors between 1 and 2 cm, are presented and discussed.
  • In contrast, in patients presenting with a goblet cell carcinoid, a right hemicolectomy after the initial appendectomy is considered the standard surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colectomy. Humans. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 20524865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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22. Greenbaum D, Friedel D: Unanticipated findings at bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis; 2005 Jan-Feb;1(1):22-4
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  • [Title] Unanticipated findings at bariatric surgery.
  • RESULTS: All patients underwent abdominal exploration via an upper midline abdominal incision before gastric bypass surgery.
  • In only three cases (one case each of carcinoid of the appendix, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary, and serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary) would there have been a significant difference in the patient's prognosis had the problem been left undiagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Incidental Findings. Obesity, Morbid / epidemiology. Ovarian Diseases / epidemiology. Peritoneal Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16925197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-7289
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Obes Relat Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Pitiakoudis M, Kirmanidis M, Tsaroucha A, Christianakis E, Filippou D, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. A rare case and a review of the literature. J BUON; 2008 Apr-Jun;13(2):271-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. A rare case and a review of the literature.
  • We present a rare case of a carcinoid tumor of the appendix that was diagnosed during pregnancy in a 24-year-old female.
  • Open appendectomy was carried out and at the histological examination carcinoid was found in the surgical specimen.
  • Only few similar cases were found in the literature reporting appendiceal carcinoid tumor during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


24. Neves GR, Chapchap P, Sredni ST, Viana CR, Mendes WL: Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center. Sao Paulo Med J; 2006 Jan 5;124(1):21-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors are very rare both in children and adults.
  • About 85% of these tumors develop in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The objective of the present study was to describe our experience with children treated of carcinoid tumors, and investigate the frequency morphological findings and results.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Report on case series, at the Department of Pediatrics of Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Câncer, São Paulo.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical pathological data and outcomes among children (< 18 years old) with carcinoid tumors admitted from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2001.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients (mean age 12.2 years) were included: six girls and three boys (2:1), all of them Caucasian.
  • In eight cases (89%), the primary tumor site was the appendix and in one (11%) it was the left bronchus.
  • For those with primary tumor in the appendix, the main complaint was abdominal pain, which led to appendectomy.
  • Only one patient underwent right hemicolectomy due to tumor extension into the serosa.
  • The patient with bronchial tumor underwent left pneumonectomy.
  • All patients had localized disease and are alive and free of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the majority of carcinoid tumors arise from the appendix, these tumors can also occur in other primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brazil. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 16612458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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25. Coursey CA, Nelson RC, Moreno RD, Dodd LG, Patel MB, Vaslef S: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT? Am Surg; 2010 Mar;76(3):273-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT?
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if carcinoid tumors of the appendix were identified prospectively on preoperative CT at our institution during the last decade.
  • A surgical database search performed using the Current Procedural Terminology codes for appendectomy and colectomy yielded 2108 patients who underwent appendectomy or colectomy with removal of the appendix from January 1998 through September 2007.
  • Pathology reports were reviewed to identify patients in whom an appendiceal carcinoid tumor was identified.
  • Twenty-three carcinoid tumors (1.1%; 15 women [65.2%], eight men [34.8%]; average age 54 years [range, 23 to 86 years]) were identified.
  • No tumors were identified prospectively on CT.
  • Average reported tumor size was 6.1 mm (range, 1.5 to 15 mm; n = 18).
  • A tip or distal location was reported for all tumors for which a location was given (n = 15).
  • Carcinoid tumors occurred in 1.1 per cent of appendix specimens.
  • These tumors were all less than or 1.5 cm in size.
  • Likely as a result of their small size, none of these tumors was identified prospectively on preoperative CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Intestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Preoperative Period. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20349655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS: [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64(2):103-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid].
  • Carcinoid tumours are relatively rare neuroendocrine neoplasms that often present as diagnostic dilemmas due to obscure or non-specific symptomatology.
  • Carcinoids occur most frequently in the gastrointestinal system, where they are most common in the small intestine, appendix, and rectum, and in the bronchi.
  • Although, the majority are nonfunctional, some carcinoids can cause so called classical or atypical carcinoid syndrome and sometimes also paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • Carcinoid tumours often present with metastatic disease.
  • Recent years have brought new developments in the field of their diagnostic and treatment options.
  • Despite the fact that many advances have been made in both the basic science and clinical areas, the optimal treatment of carcinoid tumours is still a matter of debate.
  • In this article, the pathogenesis, clinical aspects, classification, diagnosis and treatment of carcinoids are reviewed including the latest advances in each area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17892042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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27. Ahmad J, Andrabi SI, Thekkinkattil DK, Rathore MA: Adenocarcinoid tumour of the appendix masquerading as acute appendicitis: a word of caution. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg; 2008 Apr;14(2):167-9
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoid tumour of the appendix masquerading as acute appendicitis: a word of caution.
  • Adenocarcinoids are rare and aggressive tumors with histological features of both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma.
  • We report a case of a 32-year-old man with diffuse infiltration of the appendix wall and mesoappendix by an adenocarcinoid.
  • We suggest that patients with diffuse appendiceal involvement require an aggressive surgical therapy and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18523911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1306-696X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery : TJTES
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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28. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Chetty R: Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 21;15(27):3431-3
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  • [Title] Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid is an uncommon primary tumor of the vermiform appendix, characterized by dual endocrine and glandular differentiation.
  • Whether goblet cell carcinoid represents a morphological variant of appendiceal classical carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is a matter of conjecture.
  • Rare cases of goblet cell carcinoid with other concomitant appendiceal epithelial neoplasms have been documented.
  • In this report, we describe a rare case of combined appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma, and discuss the possible histopathogenesis of this combination.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001 Mar;125(3):386-90 [11231488.001]
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  • (PMID = 19610147.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712907
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29. Yamada A, Yamamoto H, Arai O, Kiyosuke Y, Tsuji Y, Nakatsuji M, Fukatsu H, Miyoshi M, Kono H, Mouri H, Matsueda K, Tezen T, Shimamura J, Tsukayam C: [A case of goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix presented as a metastatic ovarian tumor and peritoneal dissemination, and diagnosed by autopsy]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Jul;102(7):905-11
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  • [Title] [A case of goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix presented as a metastatic ovarian tumor and peritoneal dissemination, and diagnosed by autopsy].
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16038438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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30. McGory ML, Maggard MA, Kang H, O'Connell JB, Ko CY: Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Dec;48(12):2264-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports.
  • PURPOSE: A comprehensive analysis was performed for five histologic types of appendiceal tumors to compare incidence, clinicopathologic features, survival, and appropriateness of surgery.
  • METHODS: All patients diagnosed with mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 951), adenocarcinoma (n = 646), carcinoid (n = 435), goblet (n = 369), and signet-ring cell (n = 113) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2001) were analyzed.
  • The appropriateness of the operative procedure (i.e. , appendectomy vs. colectomy) was examined by tumor type and size.
  • RESULTS: Tumor incidence, patient demographics, survival outcomes, and appropriateness of surgery varied significantly among the different appendiceal tumor histologies.
  • The most common appendiceal tumors were mucinous.
  • With regard to patient demographics, carcinoids presented at an earlier mean age of 41 years and 71 percent were female (P < 0.001 for both).
  • Overall five-year survival was highest for carcinoid (83 percent) and lowest for signet ring (18 percent).
  • Although current guidelines specify that a right hemicolectomy (rather than an appendectomy) be performed for all noncarcinoid tumors and carcinoid tumors >2 cm, we found that 30 percent of noncarcinoids underwent appendectomy.
  • Similarly, 28 percent of carcinoids >2 cm under-went appendectomy, which is a lesser resection than is indicated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a population-based analysis of epidemiology, tumor characteristics, survival, and quality of care for appendiceal carcinomas.
  • This characterization provides a novel description of the presentation and outcomes for malignancies of the appendix and highlights that a substantial number of patients with appendiceal tumors may not be receiving appropriate surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Shapiro MD: Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Gastroenterology; 2005 May;128(6):1717-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids are ill-understood, enigmatic malignancies, which, although slow growing compared with adenocarcinomas, can behave aggressively.
  • Carcinoids are classified based on organ site and cell of origin and occur most frequently in the GI (67%) where they are most common in small intestine (25%), appendix (12%), and rectum (14%).
  • Local manifestations--mass, bleeding, obstruction, or perforation--reflect invasion or tumor-induced fibrosis and often result in incidental detection at emergency surgery.
  • Intravenously administered receptor-targeted radiolabeled somatostatin analogs are of use in disseminated disease.
  • Local endoscopic excision for gastric (type I and II) and rectal carcinoids may be adequate.
  • Overall 5-year survival for carcinoids of the appendix is 98%, gastric (types I/II) is 81%, rectum is 87%, small intestinal is 60%, colonic carcinoids is 62%, and gastric type III/IV is 33%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy


32. Hervás Benito I, Bello Arques P, Loaiza JL, Vercher JL, Velasco RP, Rivas Sánchez A, Ruiz Llorca C, Martí Vidal JF, Mateo Navarro A: [Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in pediatric bronchial carcinoid tumor]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2010 Jan-Feb;29(1):25-8
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  • [Title] [Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in pediatric bronchial carcinoid tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Gammagrafía con análogos de la somatostatina en el diagnóstico y el seguimiento del carcinoide bronquial pediátrico.
  • INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid tumor is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm with different locations, the most frequent ones during the pediatric age being the appendix and lung.
  • Scintigraphy with (111)In-DTPA-d-Phe(1)-octreotide has led to an importance advance in the diagnosis of extension in carcinoid tumor patients.
  • We present three pediatric patients with bronchial carcinoid studied with somatostatin analogue scintigraphy (SSRS).
  • CLINICAL CASES: The first patient (9 years) was studied using the SSRS after surgery due to carcinoid tumor in the right lower lobe in which tumor remains was observed (this being clearer in the tomography study).
  • The second patient (10 years) presented due to endobronchial tumor in the left lower lobe together with atelectasis of the LUL and emphysema of the LLL.
  • Radiology imaging techniques suggested the differential diagnosis between the endobronchial carcinoid tumor or plasma cells or foreign body gramuloma.
  • The SSRS showed an abnormal deposit of activity in the left hemithorax consisted with carcinoid tumor.
  • After the surgery (endobronchial resection), new controls with SSRS showed absence of disease.
  • The third patient (12 years) came after a lobectomy (RUL) due to bronchial carcinoid.
  • In the subsequent control (3 months), a deposit of activity was observed in the middle third of the right hemithorax, after which a lobectomy was performed (RLL and ML) that showed small remains of neuroendocrine carcinoid.
  • CONCLUSION: The SSRS has demonstrated great utility in the diagnosis, follow-up and staging of pediatric patients, carriers of neuroendocrine carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bronchial Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19819594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / indium-111-octreotide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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33. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Annapoorni S, Senthilkumar R, Anand NV: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a rare case and literature survey. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2008 Jun;18(3):417-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a rare case and literature survey.
  • Tumors of the appendix are rare entities, and the majority of them are discovered accidentally during an investigation for other conditions.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for appendiceal goblet-cell carcinoid (GCC) has only been reported once before.
  • Our patient was incidentally discovered to have an appendiceal tumor and was referred to us for laparoscopy.
  • The tumor involved the body of the appendix and was adherent to the cecum.
  • Histopathology confirmed an appendiceal goblet-cell carcinoid.
  • Immunohistochemistry was negative for the neuroendocrine markers, CK20 and CK7.
  • GCC is a rare tumor of the appendix.
  • Hemicolectomy is indicated in specific situations, such as local involvement or tumor size >2 cm.
  • In our patient, the tumor was adherent to the cecum and tumor size was 5 cm.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for appendiceal tumors is safe, feasible, and even may be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male

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  • (PMID = 18503377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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34. Cernaianu G, Tannapfel A, Nounla J, Gonzalez-Vasquez R, Wiesel T, Tröbs RB: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastasis in a child: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Nov;45(11):e1-5
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  • [Title] Appendiceal carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastasis in a child: case report and review of the literature.
  • Most appendiceal carcinoids (ACs) in children present without lymph node metastasis.
  • Lymph node metastasis is rarely present when primary tumor diameter exceeds 1 cm.
  • We present the extraordinary case of an AC with a primary tumor diameter of 0.7 cm and infiltration of the mesentery, as well as 1 positive lymph node of the mesentery in a 14-year-old boy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21034920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Maes M, Segers K, Cheyns P: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: laparoscopic appendectomy or right hemicolectomy? Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Jul-Aug;108(4):447-50
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: laparoscopic appendectomy or right hemicolectomy?
  • Goblet cell carcinoids are uncommon tumours with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour.
  • They occur predominantly in the appendix and although the malignant potential remains unclear, adenocarcinoids appear to be more aggressive than conventional carcinoids.
  • In this case report, we present a goblet cell carcinoid with laparoscopic operative treatment in two stages.
  • Macroscopically, a diffusely inflamed appendix was found with no sign of perforation.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a goblet cell carcinoid with characteristics of aggressive behaviour, indicating the need for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy in which, however, neither residual tumour nor metastatic lymph nodes could be found.
  • As they may present the same clinical presentation, pathological diagnosis is required to distinguish goblet cell carcinoid from acute appendicitis.
  • Two-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid is advocated in the literature, but the debate still continues as to whether the goblet cell carcinoid should be treated by appendectomy alone, as for most carcinoids, or by right hemicolectomy, as for the appendiceal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18807600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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36. Rindi G, Inzani F, Solcia E: Pathology of gastrointestinal disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2010 Dec;39(4):713-27
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  • Nonneoplastic and neoplastic proliferative lesions of endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract are detailed.
  • A multistep continuum from hyperplasia, dysplasia to neoplasia is identified for histamine-producing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the gastric corpus.
  • Most gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are silent and composed by ECL cells, the second most frequent neuroendocrine neoplasms being the high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC).
  • G-cell NETs are the most frequent neuroendocrine tumors of the duodenum, either functioning or nonfunctioning, followed by D-cell NETs and gangliocytic paraganglioma (GCP).
  • No systematic definition of nonneoplastic lesions exists for endocrine cells of the ileum, appendix, and colon-rectum.
  • The most frequent ileal NETs are serotonin-producing enterochromaffin (EC)-cell NETs (classic carcinoid), associating with functional syndrome only in presence of liver metastases.
  • Neoplasms are usually larger in the colon as compared with the small lesions observed in the rectum.
  • High-grade NECs are observed in the colon and rectum-sigmoid, often associate with nonendocrine neoplastic components, and fare an aggressive course with poor outcome and short survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenal Neoplasms / etiology. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenum / pathology. Duodenum / physiology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / etiology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / etiology. Hyperplasia / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / etiology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Ileum / pathology. Ileum / physiology. Stomach / pathology. Stomach / physiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21095540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-4410
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Kontzoglou K, Stamoulis J, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Lygidakis NJ: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):123-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are thought to be the most common type of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although the vast majority of appendiceal carcinoids behave in a benign fashion, they are considered malignant because they all have the potential for invasion, metastasis and production of physiologically active substances.
  • Also, patients with tumor size more than 1cm underwent a Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (Octreoscan).
  • RESULTS: The most common site for the tumors was the tip of the appendix (18/22).
  • In the rest of the cases, the neoplasms were located in the base (4/22) and in the body (2/22), while in one patient the mesoappendix was invaded.
  • In sixteen patients the tumor size was less than 1cm, in seven patients the tumor diameter was measured to be 1 to 2cm and in one patient the tumor was 3cm.
  • Most of our patients (16/22) underwent only an appendicectomy, while in the rest of them (in the patients with tumor size between 1-2cm and in the patient with invasion of mesoappendix) a right hemicolectomy was performed.
  • No patient was found to have metastatic disease during the operation, while the patient with invasion of the mesoappendix developed metastases in the lung, two years after the operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix, in most cases, are found incidentally during appendicectomies, especially in young females and usually are less than 1cm in size, which is probably the reason of the absence of metastases in all cases.
  • Histological examination and size of the tumor are important factors that contribute to the selection of the surgical treatment and both must be estimated by the surgeons to make the final choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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38. Levy AD, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison. Radiographics; 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):237-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison.
  • Gastrointestinal carcinoids are well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms that belong to a diverse group of tumors that arise from cells of the diffuse endocrine system.
  • A wide variety of specialized endocrine cells that populate the gastrointestinal mucosa and submucosa give rise to carcinoids.
  • Consequently, carcinoids may occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract and produce a variety of hormones and protein products that are associated with specific clinical symptoms.
  • Biologic behavior of carcinoids varies by site and cell type, but all gastrointestinal carcinoids are considered to have malignant potential.
  • They may produce specific syndromes such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, or they may occur in association with inherited syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • Metastatic carcinoids may produce carcinoid syndrome.
  • The small intestine is the most common location for gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • Most small intestinal carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells of the distal ileum that produce serotonin.
  • Small intestinal carcinoids often have an aggressive biologic behavior and, as such, patients frequently have metastases to regional lymph nodes and the liver at initial presentation.
  • Pathologic and radiologic manifestations of serotonin-producing small intestinal carcinoids are related to local and regional effects of serotonin and its metabolites.
  • In contrast, carcinoids of the appendix and rectum are commonly discovered incidentally as small lesions that are unassociated with clinical evidence of hormone production and have a more indolent clinical course.
  • Carcinoids of the stomach, duodenum, and colon are uncommon but have distinctive clinical, pathologic, and radiologic appearances.
  • Knowledge of the diverse clinical, pathologic, and radiologic spectrum of gastrointestinal carcinoids is important in the imaging and management of patients with suspected carcinoids or focal gastrointestinal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods

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  • (PMID = 17235010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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39. Nonaka D, Kusamura S, Baratti D, Casali P, Younan R, Deraco M: CDX-2 expression in pseudomyxoma peritonei: a clinicopathological study of 42 cases. Histopathology; 2006 Oct;49(4):381-7
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  • AIMS: CDX-2 is a highly sensitive and specific marker of intestinal epithelial cells and their neoplastic counterparts.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients were treated by cytoreduction.
  • The appendix evaluated in 25 cases showed two mucinous adenocarcinomas and 21 low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms.
  • Histological type was significantly correlated with PFS (P=0.02).
  • This is a useful marker to confirm an appendiceal origin of PMP, particularly when used in conjunction with CK7, CK20, MUC-2 and MUC-5AC.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-2. Mucins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16978201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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40. Khan MN, Moran BJ: Four percent of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery may have synchronous appendiceal neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Nov;50(11):1856-9
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  • [Title] Four percent of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery may have synchronous appendiceal neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: An individual with colorectal cancer has a 3 percent risk of synchronous colonic neoplasia and further 2 to 3 percent risk of metachronous cancer, a risk that has prompted colonic surveillance.
  • The appendix has a similar mucosal pattern to the colon and it has been hypothesized that appendicular adenocarcinoma may account for 1 percent of all colorectal malignancies.
  • A special interest of the senior author in appendiceal and rectal cancer has prompted routine removal of the appendix in all cases undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer.
  • RESULTS: In total, 169 patients under the care of a single surgeon had colorectal cancer resection between April 2002 and April 2005: 63 patients had right hemicolectomy, 29 had left hemicolectomy, and 77 had rectal cancer resection.
  • Seven of 169 appendices had abnormalities: 3 mucinous cystadenomas, 2 cystadenocarcinomas, 1 carcinoid tumor, and 1 villous adenoma.
  • Metachronous neoplasia is a risk in the retained appendix in patients with colorectal cancer.
  • Routine postoperative surveillance cannot assess the appendiceal mucosa, so there is little justification for not taking the opportunity to eliminate the possibility of future appendicitis or neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17763906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. O'Donnell ME, Badger SA, Beattie GC, Carson J, Garstin WI: Malignant neoplasms of the appendix. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Oct;22(10):1239-48
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  • [Title] Malignant neoplasms of the appendix.
  • BACKGROUND: Appendiceal neoplasms, first described in 1882, are still rare, with pre-operative diagnosis invariably difficult.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective histopathological review of all appendicectomy specimens was completed between April 1994 and December 2003 to identify patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasms.
  • A literature search of the PubMed database was then performed using the medical search headings; appendix, tumour, neoplasm and malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (eight men) were identified during the study period, with no age difference between gender (mean age in women 58, range 14-83 vs mean age in men 55, range 16-78).
  • Eleven patients were found to have carcinoid-type tumours, eight patients with adenocarcinomas and three patients with lymphomas.
  • Other appendiceal pathologies were identified after appendicectomies, hemicolectomy and oophorectomy.
  • Patients with classical carcinoid tumours (CCT) had better outcomes than patients with the goblet cell carcinoid, adenocarcinoma and lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: From our own experience and a subsequent review of the literature, we recommend right hemicolectomy as the treatment of choice for all malignant appendiceal neoplasms, except for small CCT less than 2 cm in diameter at the tip of the appendix, with a low proliferative index, without angiolymphatic or mesoappendiceal extension.
  • Further adjuvant therapy should be considered after oncological assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17447078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. You J, Xu L, Zheng GY, Qiu JF: [Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors: analysis of 37 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jul 15;88(27):1909-11
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors: analysis of 37 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathology, diagnosis,treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 37 patients with primary tumors of the appendix, 16 males and 21 females, aged 56 +/- 13 (35-87) hospitalized Jan.
  • RESULTS: Appendicitis and abdominal mass were the major clinical manifestations.
  • The pathological types included carcinoid tumor (n=12), mucinous tumor (n=17), and adenocarcinoma (n=8).
  • The 1, 3, and 5-year survival rates of the primary appendix carcinoid tumor, mucinous tumor, and adenocarcinoma were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 91.7%, 100.0%, 86.7%, and 71.5%, and 75.0%, 50.0%, and 50.0% respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: A rare disease, appendiceal tumors lack specific clinical features.
  • The prognosis of primary appendix carcinoid tumors is better.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19040005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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43. Korkontzelos I, Papanicolaou S, Tsimoyiannis I, Kitsiou E, Stefos T, Tsanadis G, Antoniou N: Large carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Feb 1;118(2):255-7
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  • [Title] Large carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy.
  • Diagnosis of acute appendicitis is considered more difficult in pregnant than in non-pregnant women.
  • The appendicial carcinoid tumor is a lesion that most frequently is discovered incidentally in the removed organ.
  • We report a rare case of an unruptured acute appendicitis during pregnancy, which proved to be a large carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic


44. Gulubova MV, Yovchev Y, Vlaykova T, Hadjipetkov P, Prangova DK, Popharitov A: Application of light microscopical and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry in the study of goblet cell carcinoid in the appendix. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:15
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  • [Title] Application of light microscopical and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry in the study of goblet cell carcinoid in the appendix.
  • BACKGROUND: Goblet cell carcinoids appear less frequently in the appendix than do other carcinoids.
  • In the presented work a case with a goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is described.
  • METHODS: Routine histological and histochemical methods were employed, with a combination of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on one section and light and electron microscopical immunohistochemisty on paraffin-embedded material, were applied to identify the type of the carcinoid and to reveal the fine structure of cell types in the tumour nests of the appendix.
  • RESULTS: During the biopsy of a patient who had undergone appendectomy, an infiltration with clusters of goblet cells in the submucosa of the appendix was found.
  • The ultrastructural immunohistochemistry showed that chromogranin A-positive cells had discoid and pleomorphic granules and were located in tumour nests or as single cells in the appendiceal wall.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined histochemical and immunohistochemical procedure and the ultrastructural immunohistochemistry on archival material could contribute in clarifying the diagnosis of goblet cell carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18252007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2275273
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45. Wittekind C: [TNM 2010. What's new?]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:153-60
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  • [Title] [TNM 2010. What's new?].
  • In the seventh edition of the TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours there are several entirely new classifications: upper aerodigestive mucosal melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, gastrointestinal carcinoid (neuroendocrine tumour), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, uterine sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Significant modifications concern carcinomas of the oesophagus, oesophagogastric junction, stomach, appendix, biliary tract, lung, skin, prostate and ophthalmic tumours, which will be not addressed in this article.
  • For several tumour entities only minor changes were introduced which might be of importance in daily practice.
  • The new classifications and changes will be commented on without going into details.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm Staging / trends. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / classification. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Digestive System Neoplasms / classification. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / classification. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / classification. Sarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / classification. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20737151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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46. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • Endocrine tumors (ET) of the digestive tract (formerly called neuroendocrine tumors) are rare.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • Functioning ET's secrete polypeptide hormones which cause characteristic hormonal syndromes.
  • The management of ET is multidisciplinary.
  • Poorly-differentiated ET's have a poor prognosis and are treated by chemotherapy.
  • Surgical excision is the only curative treatment of well-differentiated ET's.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • Ileal ET's, even if small, are malignant, frequently multiple, and complicated in 30-50% of cases by bowel obstruction, mesenteric invasion, or bleeding.
  • The carcinoid syndrome (consisting of abdominal pain, flushing, diarrhea, hypertension, bronchospasm, and right sided cardiac vegetations) is caused by the hypersecretion of serotonin into the systemic circulation; it occurs in 10% of cases and is usually associated with hepatic metastases.
  • More than half of the cases of pancreatic ET are non-functional.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • In 10-20% of cases, pancreaticoduodenal ET presents in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (NEM type I), an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with multifocal endocrine involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • For insulinoma with NEM-I, enucleation of lesions in the pancreatic head plus a caudal pancreatectomy is the most appropriate procedure.
  • For gastrinoma with NEM-I, the benefit of surgical resection for tumors less than 2-3 cm in size is not clear.
  • But the eventual development of liver metastases which are the most common cause of mortality still argues for an aggressive surgical approach in the early stages of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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47. May A, Nachbar L, Ell C: Push-and-pull enteroscopy using a single-balloon technique for difficult colonoscopy. Endoscopy; 2006 Apr;38(4):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Several factors predict difficult or incomplete colonoscopy with a standard colonoscope, including female gender, low body mass index, extensive diverticulosis, and prior pelvic surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A push-and-pull enteroscopy device and a single-balloon technique was used in 14 patients (six men, eight women; mean age 62 +/- 15 years) after failure of ileocolonoscopy or endoscopic therapy using either a standard or a pediatric colonoscope.
  • The original ileocolonoscopy had been performed to investigate colon polyps (n = 6), an obscure inflammatory process in the ileocecal region (n = 6), or iron deficiency anemia with a positive fecal occult stool test (n = 2).
  • RESULTS: Ileocolonoscopy was successfully performed using this push-and-pull technique in all 14 patients without technical problems or complications.
  • Multiple polyps were found in six patients; a colon cancer was found in one patient; appendicitis combined with a carcinoid tumour of the appendix was diagnosed in one patient; ileocolitis was observed in two patients; one patient with Crohn's disease had stenoses in the region of an anastomosis; and in three patients no relevant pathological finding was seen.
  • CONCLUSION: It was possible to perform ileocolonoscopy with therapeutic interventions using this new thin push-and-pull enteroscopy device with a single-balloon technique in patients who had previously undergone incomplete colonoscopy using a standard colonoscope.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16680641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Boudreaux JP, Klimstra DS, Hassan MM, Woltering EA, Jensen RT, Goldsmith SJ, Nutting C, Bushnell DL, Caplin ME, Yao JC, North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS): The NANETS consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Cecum. Pancreas; 2010 Aug;39(6):753-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The NANETS consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Cecum.
  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the jejunum, ileum, and appendix are also collectively known as midgut carcinoids.
  • Classic carcinoid syndrome is more likely to appear in patients with advanced disease.
  • With the exception of small well-differentiated NETs of the appendix, NETs of the midgut have substantial risk of relapse after resection and need to be followed for at least 7 years.Metastatic/advanced NETs of the midgut are incurable.
  • Somatostatin analogs are effective in the management of carcinoid syndrome.
  • Octreotide long-acting release has also recently been shown to delay disease progression.
  • Pivotal phase 3 studies with bevacizumab targeting vascular endothelial growth factor and everolimus targeting mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) are ongoing and may lead to improved outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendix / pathology. Cecum / pathology. Humans. Ileum / pathology. Jejunum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20664473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Terada T: Non-invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Vermiform Appendix: Incidence and Report of Four Cases among 512 Appendectomies. Gastroenterology Res; 2009 Aug;2(4):238-241
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  • [Title] Non-invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Vermiform Appendix: Incidence and Report of Four Cases among 512 Appendectomies.
  • : Tumors of the vermiform appendix are relatively rare.
  • More than 50% of appendiceal tumors are carcinoid tumors.
  • The author reviewed 512 consecutive pathological specimens of appendectomies in last ten years in our pathology laboratory in search for appendiceal tumors.
  • As the results, 4 cases (incidence: 0.8%) of non-invasive adenocarcinoma were found.
  • No other tumors including carcinoid tumors were recognized.
  • Pathologically, all the 4 tumors were non-invasive adenocarcinomas: 2 cases were flat type adenocarcinoma, 1 case was papillary adenocarcinoma, and 1 case was mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • The results suggest that incidence of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was 0.8% of all appendectomies, and that non-invasive adenocarcinoma of the appendix shows variable morphologies, and that postoperative clinical outcome of non-invasive appendiceal tumor is good.

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  • (PMID = 27942282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / Appendix / Histopathology / Non-invasive carcinoma / appendicitis
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50. Helland SK, Prøsch AM, Viste A: Carcinoid tumours in the gastrointestinal tract--a population-based study from Western Norway. Scand J Surg; 2006;95(3):158-61
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumours in the gastrointestinal tract--a population-based study from Western Norway.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze population-based incidence, anatomic distribution and patient characteristics of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NE, carcinoid tumours) arise from neuroendocrine cells and are most commonly found in gastrointestinal tract and lungs.
  • Previous studies on carcinoids report varying incidence rates, location of tumours and patient survival rates.
  • 88 patients were diagnosed with carcinoids located in the gastrointestinal tract in the period 1983-2003 in the Norwegian counties Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane.
  • Patient and tumour characteristics, treatment and survival were analyzed in a sub-group of 51 patients treated at Haukeland University Hospital.
  • RESULTS: Incidence of carcinoids was 0.8 when analyzed from the counties Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane as well as when analyzed from Haukeland University Hospital.
  • The tumours were located in the small bowel in 53%, appendix 18%, colon 4%, rectum 4%, stomach 8% and duodenum 10%.
  • Five-year survival rate was 50% in stomach, 80% in duodenum, 43% in the small bowel, 100% for tumours in appendix, 40% in colon and 100% in rectum.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumours are relatively uncommon neoplasms and most of them are found in the small bowel.
  • Carcinoids in the ileum tend to be more aggressive and carry a poorer prognosis than carcinoids at other locations.
  • Tumours in the appendix are found at lower age and in an early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Population Surveillance

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  • (PMID = 17066609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1457-4969
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of surgery : SJS : official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Yang WL, Yan CQ, Wang FJ, Wang HL: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in 64 patients]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;30(7):538-40
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in 64 patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • METHODS: From 1972 to 2006, 64 patients with carcinoid tumors of the appendix received surgical treatment in our hospitals.
  • RESULTS: Of the 64 cases, only 6 cases (9.4%) were correctly diagnosed preoperatively, while 58 (90.6%) not confirmed, with a misdiagnosis rate of 90.6%.
  • All patients underwent surgical treatment, including appendectomy in 54, ileocecectomy in 4, right hemicolectomy in 2 and right hemicolectomy with regional lymph node dissection in 4 cases.
  • The operation modes were determined according to the doctor's judgments based on the age of the patients, the nature, size, location, infiltration depth and lymph node metastasis of the tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix is rare with a high rate of misdiagnosis before operation.
  • Surgical resection is the only effective treatment for this disease and proper operation mode is the key to achieve good survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Diagnostic Errors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Appendectomy. Colectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19062724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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52. Iwańczak B, Stawarski A, Czernik J, Bronowickip K, Iwańczak F, Pytrus T, Klempous J, Godziński J: [Diagnostic difficulties in pediatric abdominal pain with potential appendicitis]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64 Suppl 3:56-60
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  • RESULTS: The most often Crohn's disease were recognized (9 children), in 2 cases with concomitant other pathologies (fecal tumor of appendix in one case and with peritoneal abscess after perforation of intestinal wall).
  • In one boy with ulcerative colitis, during exacerbation of the disease appendicitis complicated by rupture and peritonitis was observed.
  • Carcinoid of the appendix was the cause of abdominal pain in one child.
  • 2. Despite new diagnostic imagines there are no definite criteria to recognize appendicitis, in most cases physical examination and very carefull evaluation of abdominal pain are the most important.
  • 3. All children with periappendipected of Crohn's disease.
  • 4. All children with equivocal presentations of appendicitis and with normal appendix during operation should undergo further diagnostic evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 18431916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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53. Orta L, Trindade AJ, Luo J, Harpaz N: Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is a neoplastic complication of IBD: case-control study of primary appendiceal neoplasms. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2009 Mar;15(3):415-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is a neoplastic complication of IBD: case-control study of primary appendiceal neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: IBD is a risk factor for development of colorectal neoplasia.
  • Although IBD frequently involves the appendix microscopically, it is uncertain whether it also predisposes to appendiceal neoplasia.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of incidental appendiceal neoplasms in colectomy specimens of adults with and without IBD (cases and controls, respectively) based on surgical pathology records spanning 54 months.
  • To minimize referral bias, patients were excluded if they had preoperative clinical evidence or a principal pathologic diagnosis of appendiceal disease.
  • RESULTS: Eleven appendiceal cystadenomas and 6 appendiceal carcinoid tumors were identified among 705 IBD cases (377 ulcerative colitis, 317 Crohn's disease, 11 indeterminate colitis) and 498 non-IBD controls meeting our inclusion criteria.
  • There was no significant difference in prevalence of cyst adenomas between the cases and controls (9/705 [1.3%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], respectively, OR 3.2 [95% CI 0.7-14.9]).
  • However, cyst adenomas were 15-fold more prevalent among cases with synchronous colorectal neoplasia compared with controls (4/69 [5.8%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], OR 15.3 [95% CI 2.7-85]) and 8-fold higher compared with cases without synchronous neoplasia (4/69 [5.8%] versus 5/636 [0.8%], OR 7.8 [95% CI 2.0-29.6]).
  • Appendiceal carcinoids were equally prevalent in cases and controls (4/705 [0.6%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], OR 1.4 [95% CI 0.3-7.8]), cases with synchronous neoplasia and controls (1/69 [1.4%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], OR 3.6 [95% CI 0.3-40.8]), and cases with and without synchronous colorectal neoplasia (1/69 [1.4%] versus 3/636 [0.5%], OR 3.1 [95% CI 0.3-30.2]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: IBD with synchronous colorectal dysplasia or cancer is a risk factor for development of appendiceal cystadenomas, implicating this tumor as a neoplastic complication of IBD.
  • IBD does not predispose to the development of appendiceal carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / etiology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / etiology. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Appendectomy. Colectomy. Colonoscopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 May;16(5):735 [19705419.001]
  • (PMID = 18989894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4844
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Eick GN, Mane SM, Camp RL: Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Surg; 2006 Jul;244(1):52-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use differential gene expression of candidate markers to discriminate benign appendiceal carcinoids (APCs) from malignant and mixed cell APCs.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy exists in regard to the appropriate surgical management of APCs since it is sometimes difficult to predict tumor behavior using traditional pathologic criteria.
  • We have identified 5 differentially expressed genes (a mitosis-regulatory gene NAP1L1, an adhesin MAGE-D2, an estrogen-antagonist, the metastasis marker MTA1, the apoptotic marker NALP, and chromogranin A) that define gut neuroendocrine cell behavior.
  • METHODS: Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent from 42 appendiceal samples, including appendiceal carcinoids identified at exploration for appendicitis (no evidence of metastasis; n = 16), appendicitis specimens (n = 11), malignant appendiceal tumors (> 1.5 cm, evidence of metastatic invasion; n = 7), and mixed (goblet) cell appendiceal adenocarcinoids (n = 3), normal appendiceal tissue (n = 5), and 5 colorectal cancers.
  • RESULTS: CgA message was elevated (> 1000-fold, P < 0.05) in all tumor types.
  • NAP1L1 was elevated (> 10-fold, P < 0.03) in both malignant and goblet cell adenocarcinoids compared with normal and incidental lesions (P < 0.006).
  • MAGE-D2 and MTA1 message were significantly elevated (> 10-fold, P < 0.01) in the malignant and goblet cell adenocarcinoid tumors but not in the appendicitis-associated carcinoids or normal mucosa.
  • The apoptotic marker, NALP1, was overexpressed (> 50-fold, P < 0.05) in the appendicitis-associated and malignant appendiceal carcinoids but was significantly decreased (> 10-fold, P < 0.05) in the goblet cell adenocarcinoids.
  • Elevated CgA transcript and protein levels indicative of a carcinoid tumor were identified in one acute appendicitis sample with no histologic evidence of a tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that malignant APCs and goblet cell adenocarcinoids have elevated expression of NAP1L1, MAGE-D2, and MTA1 compared with appendiceal carcinoids identified at surgery for appendicitis.
  • This and the differences in NALP1 gene expression (decreased in goblet cell adenocarcinoids) provide a series of molecular signatures that differentiate carcinoids of the appendix.
  • CgA identified all appendiceal tumors as well as covert lesions, which may be more prevalent than previously recognized.
  • The molecular delineation of malignant appendiceal tumor potential provides a scientific basis to define the appropriate surgical management as opposed to morphologic assessment alone.

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  • (PMID = 16794389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / MAGED2 protein, human; 0 / NAP1L1 protein, human; 0 / NLRP1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1570599
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55. Zafar S, Chen H, Sun W, Das K: Cytology of metastatic appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid in pleural effusion fluid: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):894-8
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  • [Title] Cytology of metastatic appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid in pleural effusion fluid: a case report.
  • Goblet cell appendiceal carcinoid (GCAC) is a rare neoplasm.
  • We described the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with symptoms related to ascites.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass involving the base of the appendix, ascites and concomitant pleural effusion.
  • The appendiceal mass was biopsied and diagnosed as a GCAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Hristov AC, Young RH, Vang R, Yemelyanova AV, Seidman JD, Ronnett BM: Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Oct;31(10):1502-11
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases.
  • Synchronous and metachronous ovarian and appendiceal mucinous tumors are often the subject of diagnostic consultations in gynecologic pathology practices to address whether the tumors are independent neoplasms or related as primary and metastasis.
  • The ovarian tumors were bilateral in 25 of 28 cases with data on both ovaries and were typically large (mean/median: 14 cm, range: 4.5 to 24.0 cm).
  • The appendices were often firm or thickened but usually did not have a discrete measurable tumor and were not notably enlarged; microscopically, transmural invasion was present in all of them.
  • The ovarian and appendiceal tumors exhibited a variety of patterns of differentiation, including signet ring cell and glandular, with all displaying some goblet cell carcinoidlike patterns (nests, islands, cords, or cryptlike tubules with goblet cells); teratomatous elements were not identified in any ovarian tumors.
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 7 of 19 ovarian tumors (mean/median: 6.3%/0%; range: 0% to 20%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 4 of 18 of these (mean/median: 7.8%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 6 of 16 appendiceal tumors (mean/median: 11.9%/0%; range: 0% to 70%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 6 of 15 of these (mean/median: 16.7%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • Follow-up was available for 25 patients: 17 died of disease at intervals ranging from 4 to 47 months (mean/median: 18/16) and 8 were alive with disease at 1 to 25 months (mean/median: 11/10); median survival was 19 months and the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 63% and 34%, respectively.
  • The clinicopathologic features of these ovarian tumors indicate they should be labeled as metastatic appendiceal adenocarcinomas rather than as goblet cell carcinoid tumors both to reflect their behavior and help distinguish them from the rare true primary ovarian goblet cell carcinoid tumors.
  • As the ovarian tumors have appreciable components of signet ring cells they qualify as Krukenberg tumors.
  • In cases in which the primary tumor is not already evident, their "goblet cell carcinoidlike" patterns should direct attention to the appendix as a possible source.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17895750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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57. Nezhat C, Datta MS, Defazio A, Nezhat F, Nezhat C: Natural orifice-assisted laparoscopic appendectomy. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):14-8
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  • METHODS: We reviewed cases of 42 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy or laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy followed by appendectomy, performed by applying a stapler and removing the appendix transvaginally.
  • By using a small-diameter laparoscope, the appendix was mobilized, especially in patients with adhesions, endometriosis, or retrocecal appendix, to facilitate transvaginal access with the stapler.
  • RESULTS: All procedures were performed successfully without intraoperative or major postoperative complications.
  • Appendiceal pathology included serosal adhesions (14), fibrous obliteration of the lumen (12), endometriosis (4), serositis (2), and carcinoid tumor (1), among others.

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  • [Cites] Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 1997 Mar;11(1):95-110 [9155938.001]
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  • (PMID = 19366534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015901
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58. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Perren A, Hsieh E, Chetty R: CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):252-7
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  • [Title] CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix.
  • The immunoexpression of CK19 recently has been identified as a marker of poor prognosis in pancreatic endocrine tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to explore CK19 and CD99 immunostaining in mucin-producing neuroendocrine (goblet cell) and classical carcinoids of the appendix.
  • Eighteen goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) and 20 classic carcinoids were stained with CK19, CD99, and Ki-67, and these results were correlated with known pathological features of aggression: extent of invasion, mitoses, necrosis, and histological pattern.
  • All 18 GCCs were CK19 strongly positive, whereas 16/20 classic carcinoids were also CK19 positive.
  • Fourteen of 18 GCCs and 14/20 classic carcinoids were CD99 positive.
  • CK19/CD99 immunoexpression did not correlate with extent of tumor invasion and mesoappendiceal extension, mitotic activity, Ki-67 labeling index, presence of extracellular mucinous pools dissecting muscle, and angiolymphatic and perineural/neural invasion.
  • There is no difference in the immunostaining for CK19 and CD99 between GCCs and classic carcinoids, and both types of neuroendocrine tumor show the same extent of expression of both markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Keratin-19 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17652531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Keratin-19
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59. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Batich K: Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1259-60; author reply 1260-1
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  • [Title] Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / classification. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Oct;32(10):1429-43 [18685490.001]
  • (PMID = 19471156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Costantini M, Montalti R, Rossi G, Luisa L, Masetti M, Di Benedetto F, Giorgio G: Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;16(4):455-7
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract.
  • The term adenocarcinoid was first coined by Warkel et al in 1978 to describe a group of uncommon low-grade malignant appendiceal tumors with morphologic and histochemical evidence of both glandular (adenocarcinoma) and neuroendocrine (carcinoid) differentiation for which several terms have been used in the past.
  • Although the appendix is the most frequent site of this tumor, similar neoplasms have been reported also in other sites, such as colon, gallbladder, Vater's ampulla, and stomach.
  • Provided that it can metastasize, a recent meta-analysis on appendiceal adenocarcinoids showed that right hemicolectomy is not required when the tumor is completely excised and there is no cecal involvement.
  • In this article, the clinicopathologic features of an adenocarcinoid tumor occurring in the extrahepatic biliary tract with infiltration of the common hepatic duct wall that, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first report in this site is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / complications. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 18480386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Robertson RG, Geiger WJ, Davis NB: Carcinoid tumors. Am Fam Physician; 2006 Aug 1;74(3):429-34
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that often are indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there has been metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome.
  • Recent evidence has revealed that the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors has been steadily increasing, and although the disease was thought to be relatively benign, it is now considered one of increasing malignancy.
  • Carcinoid tumors derive from different embryonic divisions of the gut: foregut carcinoid tumors commonly originate in the lungs, bronchi, or stomach; midgut carcinoid tumors in the small intestine, appendix, or proximal large bowel; and hindgut carcinoid tumors in the distal colon or rectum.
  • Carcinoid syndrome, although rare, is most associated with midgut carcinoid tumors.
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor often is coincidental with surgery performed for another reason.
  • Treatment and prognosis are dependent on the location of the primary tumor and the degree and extent of metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Respiratory Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / etiology. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16913162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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62. Roy P, Chetty R: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Jun 15;2(6):251-8
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid is an enigmatic and rare tumor involving the appendix almost exclusively.
  • Since its identification in 1969, understanding of this disease has evolved greatly, but issues regarding its histogenesis, nomenclature and management are still conjectural.
  • Various other names have been used for this entity such as adenocarcinoid, mucinous carcinoid, crypt cell carcinoma, and mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor, although none have been found to be completely satisfactory or universally accepted.
  • The tumor is thought to arise from pluripotent intestinal epithelial crypt-base stem cells by dual neuroendocrine and mucinous differentiation.
  • The most common clinical presentation is acute appendicitis, followed by abdominal pain and a mass.
  • The histologic hallmark of this entity is the presence of clusters of goblet cells in the lamina propria or submucosa stain for various neuroendocrine markers, though the intensity is often patchy.
  • Atypia is usually minimal, but carcinomatous growth patterns may be seen.
  • These may be of signet ring cell type or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Recently molecular studies have shown these tumors to lack the signatures of adenocarcinoma but they have some changes similar to that of ileal carcinoids (allelic loss of chromosome 11q, 16q and 18q).
  • The natural history of GCC is intermediate between carcinoids and adenocarcinomas of the appendix.
  • The most important prognostic factor is the stage of disease.
  • There is some debate about the surgical approach for these tumors, and a summary of published series and recommendations are provided.

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  • (PMID = 21160637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2998842
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Appendiceal neoplasm / Goblet cell carcinoid / Mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor of appendix
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63. Chen TH, Lin CJ, Wu RC, Ho YP, Hsu CM, Lin WP, Tseng YP, Chen CH, Chiu CT: The application of miniprobe ultrasonography in the diagnosis of colorectal subepithelial lesions. Chang Gung Med J; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):380-8
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  • The final diagnosis of these lesions was confirmed by cross section imaging, histopathologic findings, or clinical follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Miniprobe EUS allowed high-resolution imaging and a successful approach to all colorectal SEL through the working channel of a sigmoidoscope or colonoscope without breakdown of the miniprobe.
  • Thirteen patients, suspected of having rectal carcinoid tumors (mean size, 6.9 +/- 3.3 mm), were treated radically by endoscopic mucosal resection using a transparent cap (EMRC) after EUS confirmation of no muscular invasion.
  • Three patients had no residual or recurrent carcinoid tumor on EUS examination after previous empiric polypectomy or biopsy.
  • Five patients had suspected rectal myogenic stromal tumors on EUS; three were transferred for surgical resection due to uterine myoma compression (N = 2) or mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix with rectal metastasis (N = 1), and two had uterine myoma detected by gynecologic ultrasound or CT.
  • One appendiceal stone with orifice obstruction mimicking cecal submucosal tumor was proved by surgical resection.
  • The other six patients had various benign lesions, which were diagnosed and followed-up by EUS without progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonoscopy / methods. Colorectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 20804667.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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64. Hatzipantelis E, Panagopoulou P, Sidi-Fragandrea V, Fragandrea I, Koliouskas DE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2010 Nov;51(5):622-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are rare in childhood and usually have a benign clinical course.
  • The aim of the study was to report the frequency, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and outcome of children with appendiceal carcinoid treated in a pediatric oncology department.
  • Demographics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and follow-up results were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Among 839 admissions, 19 patients (9 boys) with appendiceal carcinoid were identified during the study period.
  • The mean tumor diameter was 4.55 (± 3.45) mm (range 1-15 mm).
  • In 18 children tumor size was ≤ 10 mm and did not infiltrate surrounding tissues.
  • In 1 patient the size was 15 mm and a microscopic rupture of the appendix with infiltration of the surrounding fat was present.
  • All of the tumors were located at the tip of the appendix and were of the classic histological type.
  • No relapses or other neoplasms occurred during a median follow-up period of 45 months (range 6-118 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms. Appendicitis / complications. Carcinoid Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Appendix / pathology. Appendix / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20948448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Dupre MP, Jadavji I, Matshes E, Urbanski SJ: Diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix: a diagnostic clue to underlying appendiceal neoplasm. Hum Pathol; 2008 Dec;39(12):1823-6
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  • [Title] Diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix: a diagnostic clue to underlying appendiceal neoplasm.
  • Acquired diverticula of the vermiform appendix are rare and arise as a result of different pathogenetic mechanisms.
  • One of the etiologies includes proximally located, often unsuspected small neoplasms.
  • Although the association of appendiceal diverticulosis and neoplasia is known, it remains underemphasized in the teaching and practice of surgical pathology.
  • To investigate the frequency of appendiceal neoplasms with acquired diverticulosis, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all appendectomy specimens received in our institution for a 55-month period (January 2002-July 2006).
  • Eleven (48%) appendectomy specimens with diverticulosis also harbored an appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The association of appendiceal neoplasms with diverticulosis was statistically significant (P < .0001, 2-sided Fisher exact test).
  • Neoplastic processes included 5 well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), 3 mucinous adenomas, 1 tubular adenoma, and 2 adenocarcinomas.
  • We stress the need for meticulous gross assessment with histologic examination of the entire appendectomy specimen in cases of appendiceal diverticulosis.
  • Thorough examination is required to rule out an underlying neoplasm as a cause of diverticulosis.
  • As acquired diverticula represent a rare finding, examination of the entire appendix in this setting does not create a significant impact on the workload within the pathologic laboratory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Diverticulum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18715614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Hirsch I, Kasper HU, Brabender J, Hölscher AH, Dienes HP: [Adenocarcinoid of the appendix vermiformis]. Pathologe; 2005 May;26(3):231-5
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoid of the appendix vermiformis].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenokarzinoid der Appendix vermiformis.
  • Adenocarcinoids are rare tumors with histological features of both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma.
  • They show a more aggressive biological behaviour than conventional carcinoids.
  • We report a case of a 64-years-old female patient with a diffuse infiltration of the appendicular wall by an adenocarcinoid.
  • Due to the positive surgical margin and the tumor expansion a hemicolectomy was performed.
  • It is thought that appendectomy is sufficient in case of small tumors in the tip of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15378268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. Gillick J, Mohanan N, Das L, Puri P: Laparoscopic appendectomy after conservative management of appendix mass. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Mar;24(3):299-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic appendectomy after conservative management of appendix mass.
  • The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic appendicectomy following non-operative management of appendix mass in children.
  • Medical records of 103 consecutive patients (61 males, 42 females) who underwent non-operative treatment of appendix mass followed by laparoscopic elective appendicectomy were examined.
  • Ten (9.7%) did not respond to initial treatment and developed appendix abscess requiring drainage.
  • Histological examination revealed fibrosed or resolving appendicitis in 52, acute or subacute appendicitis in 24, carcinoid tumour in two and normal appendix in 19.
  • Laparoscopic elective appendicectomy is a safe and effective method of treatment following conservative treatment of appendix mass.
  • Not only does it make the dissection and resection of the appendix easier but it also has the added advantage of performing adhesiolysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendix / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18197408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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68. San Vicente B, Bardají C, Rigol S, Obiols P, Melo M, Bella R: [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children]. Cir Pediatr; 2009 Apr;22(2):97-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio retrospectivo del tumor carcinoide apendicular en niños.
  • Carcinoids of the appendix are rare in children.
  • To investigate the significance of the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumors in children, we conducted a retrospective study in our institution.
  • In four patients the diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoid.
  • The median tumor diameter was lower than 1 cm and the appropriate treatment was appendectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendix. Carcinoid Tumor. Cecal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19715134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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69. Kinová S, Kekenák L, Kovácová E, Koren M: [Gastroenteropatic neuroendocrine tumors: multidisciplinary approach in therapy]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Sep;56(9 Suppl):946-50
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  • [Title] [Gastroenteropatic neuroendocrine tumors: multidisciplinary approach in therapy].
  • INTRODUCTION: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are classified on the basis of hormonal activity of tumor cells to functional and non-functional tumors.
  • Therapy of well differentiated NETs includes surgical procedures, debulking of tumor mass, biotherapy and peptid receptor radionuclid therapy.
  • RESULTS: In time period from 1. 1. 2005 to 1.
  • 1. 2010 we followed up 50 pts (19 men/31 women) with well differentiated GEP neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Primary localisation was: stomach--6 times, pancreas--9 times, duodenum--1 times, jejunum-- 4 times, appendix--3 times, ileum--23 times, rectum--4 times.
  • Metastatic disease was affirmed in time of diagnosis in 36 patients.
  • Carcinoid syndroma had 20 pts, 4 pts with pancreatic tumor had functional tumors (2 times overproduction of calcitonine, 1 times of gastrin, 1 times of insuline).
  • Surgical treatment was performed in 40 pts--resection of primary tumor and debulking of metastases, in 5 pts with pancreatic tumor resection was not possible due to invasion to sorrounding tissue and vessels.
  • Biological treatment with long acting somatostatin analogues was indicated in 20 pts with carcinoid syndroma and in 4 pts with functional pancreatic tumors.
  • In 5 pts with non resectable neuroendocrine carcinoma of pancreas peptid radionuclide receptor therapy (PRRT) was indicated: in 4 of them with 90Ytrium-DOTA-octreotid and in 1 patient with MIBG.
  • In all pts a reduction of tumor volume was noticed.
  • Biotherapy with somatostatin analogues reduced symptoms of hormonal activities and brought on stabilisation of disease in most of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Complex therapy in patients with well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors markedly contributes to prolongation of survival of patients and also to enhancement quality of their life.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21137165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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70. Booij KA, van Eeden S, Ghazi Hosseini E, ten Kate FJ, Aronson DC: [An unusual presentation of a periappendicular infiltrate]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Sep 27;152(39):2133-7
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  • [Title] [An unusual presentation of a periappendicular infiltrate].
  • [Transliterated title] Een ongebruikelijke manifestatie van een periappendiculair infiltraat.
  • The clinical aspect, radiological investigations and peroperative aspect of the appendix were not conclusive but nevertheless a neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid tumour) of the appendix was suspected.
  • In retrospect, ileocaecal resection was performed for a benign disease.
  • This case illustrates that an unusual presentation of a common disease occurs more frequently than a typical presentation of a rare disease.

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  • (PMID = 18856031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Tchana-Sato V, Detry O, Polus M, Thiry A, Detroz B, Maweja S, Hamoir E, Defechereux T, Coimbra C, De Roover A, Meurisse M, Honoré P: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: a consecutive series from 1237 appendectomies. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Nov 7;12(41):6699-701
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: a consecutive series from 1237 appendectomies.
  • AIM: To report the experience of the CHU Sart Tilman, University of Liege, Belgium, in the management of appendiceal carinoid tumor.
  • RESULTS: Among the 1237 appendectomies, 5 appendiceal carcinoid tumors were identified (0.4%) in 4 male and 1 female patients, with a mean age of 29.2 years (range: 6-82 years).
  • All tumors were located at the tip of the appendix with a mean diameter of 0.6 cm (range: 0.3-1.0 cm).
  • All patients were alive and disease-free during a mean follow-up of 33 mo.
  • CONCLUSION: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor most often presents as appendicitis.
  • Appendiceal carcinoid tumor can be managed by simple appendectomy and resection of the mesoappendix, if its size is <or=1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17075987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 29
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4125679
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72. Dall'Igna P, Ferrari A, Luzzatto C, Bisogno G, Casanova M, Alaggio R, Terenziani M, Cecchetto G: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2005 Feb;40(2):216-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although rare, carcinoid tumor of the appendix is the most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents.
  • It is usually an incidental finding after a laparotomy for appendectomy, with a frequency of 2 to 5 cases per 1000 appendectomies.
  • The experience with 14 cases of carcinoid reported in the appendix is described.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In six patients the tumor measured 1 cm or less; only in one patient did it measure 2 cm.
  • In three patients the tumor measured between 1 and 2 cm and in four the size was not known.
  • All tumors were discovered by chance, and three patients underwent further surgery as a result of suspected involvement of the margins.
  • All the patients were alive with no evidence of disease at 24 to 214 months from diagnosis.
  • In our experience, both patients with local invasiveness and the patient with a tumor larger than 2 cm had good outcomes.
  • Ileocolectomy performed in the patient with a 2-cm tumor and in another two patients with smaller tumors did not demonstrate residual disease.
  • Although the need for right hemicolectomy still remains controversial for tumors measuring more than 2 cm, the approach may be nonaggressive in case of tumors invading the serosa and the periappendiceal fat.
  • Nonaggressive treatment has been suggested by some authors in cases of tumors larger than 2 cm; however, larger series need to be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Colectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Ileus / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome


73. Kaya M, Kanmaz T, Boleken ME, Yücesan S: Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):418-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case.
  • We report the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom an appendix carcinoid was found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst.
  • Although incidental carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first published case of a choledochal cyst associated with an appendix carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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74. Soga J: Carcinoids of the pancreas: an analysis of 156 cases. Cancer; 2005 Sep 15;104(6):1180-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoids of the pancreas: an analysis of 156 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to clarify the actual clinicopathologic status of extremely rare pancreatic carcinoids.
  • To date, statistical evaluation of such carcinoids has been hampered because an insufficient number of cases has prevented any reliable statistical analyses.
  • METHODS: The Niigata Registry for Gut-Pancreatic Endocrinomas contains a total number of 156 cases of pancreatic carcinoids among 165 endocrinocarcinomas registered worldwide.
  • This figure of 156 cases comprises 144 typical and 12 atypical carcinoids, which were compared statistically with carcinoids in other representative sites, according to various clinicopathologic criteria.
  • RESULTS: Pancreatic carcinoids made up 1.4% of the total number of registered cases (n = 11,343) and were characteristic in the following five ways.
  • 2) They displayed the largest average tumor size (68.6 mm), followed by that for the ovary (68.2 mm), and ileocecum (46.5 mm) against a total average of 30.2 mm.
  • 3) They revealed a relatively high incidence of the carcinoid syndrome (23.3%), almost equal to that for the ileocecum (24.1%), and exceeded by that for the small intestine (35.8%), when compared with that for the total average of 11.0%.
  • 5) Five-year survival rate was extremely low (28.9% +/- 16.7%) compared with those for the appendix (89.7% +/- 2.0%) and the small intestine (82.1% +/- 3.3%).
  • It was noteworthy that silver impregnations in the pancreatic carcinoid series indicated a result identical to that for the total average: Grimelius argyrophilia, 84.8% versus 85.4%; argyrophil cell type, 59.1% versus 58.5%; and argentaffin cell type, 22.7% versus 22.3%.
  • CONCLUSION: It may be said that in the treatment of patients with pancreatic carcinoids, appropriate procedures should be carried out with these distinguishing characteristics always kept in mind.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Serotonin / analysis. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16104045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin
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75. Bolanowski M, Jarzab B, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jeziorski A, Kos-Kudła B, Zajecki W, oraz Pozostali Uczestnicy Konferencji Okragłego Stołu: [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jan-Feb;59(1):87-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)].
  • Polish recommendations regarding management of patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix are presented.
  • Small intestine, especially ileum represent most common origin of these tumors.
  • Rarely, they are less differentiated with fast growth and poor prognosis.
  • In 4-10% of patients typical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome are present.
  • Chromogranin A is useful in the laboratory diagnostics, and urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoloacetic acid is helpful for the diagnostics and monitoring of the disease.
  • The treatment of choice in the neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix is radical or palliative surgery, if possible using endoscopy.
  • The crucial in biotherapy is somatostatin analogs application, possible in symptomatic treatment of hormonally functioning tumors.
  • This is treatment of choice in carcinoid crisis.
  • Interferon alfa could be applied because of the same indications as somatostatin analogs, except for carcinoid crisis.
  • Chemotherapy is less successful in disseminated or locally advanced intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, so radioisotope therapy should be considered in each case of unresectable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Competence. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Humans. Intestine, Small. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Poland. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18335403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Investigator] Bar-Andziak E; Cwikła J; de Herder W; Dzielicki J; Falconi M; Foltyn W; Gaciong Z; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A; Kowalska A; Krolicki L; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska B; Kryszałowicz B; Kvols L; Nasierowska-Guttmejer A; O'Toole D; Kunikowska J; Lampe P; Matyja V; Mełen-Mucha G; Milewicz A; Nowak A; Nowakowska-Duława E; Omyła-Staszewska J; Pajak J; Rudzki S; Rydzewska G; Sowinski J; Starzynska T; Strzelczyk J; Sworczak K; Syrenicz A; Szawlowski A; Tomaszewska RA; Wasko-Czopnik D; Wronski M; Zemczak A; Zgliczynski W
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76. Cunningham JL, Janson ET, Agarwal S, Grimelius L, Stridsberg M: Tachykinins in endocrine tumors and the carcinoid syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;159(3):275-82
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  • [Title] Tachykinins in endocrine tumors and the carcinoid syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: A new antibody, active against the common tachykinin (TK) C-terminal, was used to study TK expression in patients with endocrine tumors and a possible association between plasma-TK levels and symptoms of diarrhea and flush in patients with metastasizing ileocecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumors (MSPCs).
  • METHOD: TK, serotonin and chromogranin A (CgA) immunoreactivity (IR) was studied by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from 33 midgut carcinoids and 72 other endocrine tumors.
  • Circulating TK (P-TK) and urinary-5 hydroxyindoleacetic acid (U-5HIAA) concentrations were measured in 42 patients with MSPCs before treatment and related to symptoms in patients with the carcinoid syndrome.
  • RESULTS: All MSPCs displayed serotonin and strong TK expression.
  • TK-IR was also seen in all serotonin-producing lung and appendix carcinoids.
  • None of the other tumors examined contained TK-IR cells.
  • Concentrations of P-TK, P-CgA, and U-5HIAA were elevated in patients experiencing daily episodes of either flush or diarrhea, when compared with patients experiencing occasional or none of these symptoms.
  • In a Spearman partial rank test, the correlation of P-TK with daily diarrhea was independent of both U-5HIAA and CgA levels.
  • CONCLUSION: We found that TK synthesis occurs in serotonin-IR tumors and that P-TK levels are significantly correlated with symptoms of flush and diarrhea in patients with MSPCs.
  • This is, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating an independent correlation of P-TKs with carcinoid diarrhea, a symptom that is customarily regarded as serotonin mediated.
  • Further investigations may present opportunities for new therapeutic possibilities.

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  • (PMID = 18524798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tachykinins
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77. Fornaro R, Frascio M, Sticchi C, De Salvo L, Stabilini C, Mandolfino F, Ricci B, Gianetta E: Appendectomy or right hemicolectomy in the treatment of appendiceal carcinoid tumors? Tumori; 2007 Nov-Dec;93(6):587-90
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  • [Title] Appendectomy or right hemicolectomy in the treatment of appendiceal carcinoid tumors?
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Carcinoids of the appendix continue to be of interest, despite their low incidence.
  • There is still considerable controversy surrounding these tumors, especially with regard to the role of right hemicolectomy in the surgical management.
  • The clinical data were reviewed for demographic details, tumor size, localization in the appendix, histological patterns and surgical procedures.
  • All patients underwent appendectomy including removal of the mesenteriolum, and in one of them a right hemicolectomy was performed 3 weeks later.
  • RESULTS: Seven patients (0.9% of all appendectomies) were reported to have carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • None suffered from the carcinoid syndrome.
  • The site of the tumor was the apex of the appendix in 4 cases, the body in 2 cases and the base in 1 case.
  • Mean tumor diameter was 8 mm (range, 5-29 mm); in 6 patients it was <2 cm.
  • Treatment was appendectomy in all cases; additional right hemicolectomy was necessary in one case because of a tumor of more than 2 cm with invasion of the mesoappendix and lymph nodes.
  • Six patients are without disease, while 1 patient (the one who underwent a right hemicolectomy) developed metastases in the liver 6 years after the operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to current guidelines, an appendectomy may be performed for small carcinoid tumors (<1 cm).
  • Reasons for more extensive surgery than appendectomy are tumor size >2 cm, lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, spread to the mesoappendix, tumor-positive resection margins, and cellular pleomorphism with a high mitotic index.
  • Tumor size is still considered the most important prognostic factor, with a presumed increase in the risk of metastasis for tumors greater than 2.0 cm.
  • The accepted treatment of such tumors is a right hemicolectomy.
  • However, there is no evidence demonstrating a survival benefit for right hemicolectomy over simple appendectomy in patients with carcinoids greater than 2.0 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18338494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Chetty R, Klimstra DS, Henson DE, Albores-Saavedra J: Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1163-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid has been regarded as a distinctive tumor type, not related to classic carcinoids, and to our knowledge combinations of these 2 tumor types have not been described in detail.
  • In this report, we describe 5 cases of combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumors of the appendix.
  • Four men and 1 woman, (mean age 53.4 y) presented with acute appendicitis (4 cases), whereas 1 presented with a pelvic mass owing to widespread pelvic disseminated disease.
  • The tumors (0.6 to 6.0 cm) were located in the mid-portion and the tip of the appendix.
  • Four patients are alive and asymptomatic, whereas the patient with disseminated pelvic disease died 6 months after surgery.
  • All 5 appendiceal tumors had microscopic features of both classical carcinoid and GCC, either intimately admixed or separate but closely apposed.
  • The extent of the 2 components varied, with classical carcinoid representing 60% to 90% of the tumor.
  • Both components stained for the general neuroendocrine markers, however, staining in the classic component was greater.
  • The pelvic soft tissue and ovarian metastases in case 4 consisted predominantly of a signet ring cell carcinoma with a minor component of goblet cells and was interpreted as an adenocarcinoma ex-GCC.
  • In view of the fact that these combined carcinoid tumors appear to behave more as goblet cell carcinoids, detailed microscopic examination of classical carcinoid tumors of the appendix is suggested and larger series with longer follow-up is required to ascertain the true biologic potential of this unique form of combined carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • The occurrence of both carcinoid types in the same appendices suggests a closer histogenetic relationship than previously believed, although the possibility that the 2 components represent separate, independent primaries ("collision tumors") can also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Goblet Cells / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Aug;35(8):1248-50 [21753706.001]
  • (PMID = 20631606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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79. Pahlavan PS, Kanthan R: The epidemiology and clinical findings of colorectal cancer in Iran. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis; 2006 Mar;15(1):15-9
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  • [Title] The epidemiology and clinical findings of colorectal cancer in Iran.
  • RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included.
  • The tumors were categorized according to their distribution as appendix (n=4), cecum ( n=7), right colon (n=1), hepatic flexure (n=2), transverse colon (n=19), splenic flexure (n=3), left colon (n=6), sigmoid ( n=16), rectum (n=117), rectosigmoid and rectal lesions (n=16), and colorectal lesions without known locations (n=9).
  • Non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (AC) was the most common histological type (n=181, 90%), followed by mucinous AC (n=15), squamous cell carcinoma (n=1), carcinoid (n=1), melanoma (n=1) and signet ring carcinoma (n=1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have had few reports with reference to the epidemiology of CRC in Iran since 1977.
  • We found no significant difference between age, gender and type of cancer with subsite distribution.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16680227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1841-8724
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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80. Washington MK, Tang LH, Berlin J, Branton PA, Burgart LJ, Carter DK, Compton CC, Fitzgibbons PL, Frankel WL, Jessup JM, Kakar S, Minsky B, Nakhleh RE, Members of the Cancer Committee, College of American Pathologists: Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid tumors) of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Feb;134(2):171-5
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  • [Title] Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid tumors) of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20121602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Pahlavan PS, Kanthan R: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix. World J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jun 20;3:36
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix.
  • BACKGROUND: Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the appendix is a rare neoplasm that share histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor.
  • While its malignant potential remains unclear, GCC's are more aggressive than conventional carcinoid.
  • The clinical presentations of this neoplasm are also varied.
  • This review summarizes the published literature on GCC of the appendix.
  • METHODS: Published studies in the English language between 1966 to 2004 were identified through Medline keyword search utilizing terms "goblet cell carcinoid," "adenocarcinoid", "mucinous carcinoid" and "crypt cell carcinoma" of the appendix.
  • RESULTS: Based on the review of 57 published papers encompassing nearly 600 diagnosed patients, the mean age of presentation for GCC of the appendix was 58.89 years with equal representation in both males and females.
  • Accurate diagnosis of this neoplasm requires astute observations within an acutely inflamed appendix as this neoplasm has a prominent pattern of submucosal growth and usually lacks the formation of a well-defined tumor mass.
  • The most common clinical presentations in order of frequency were acute appendicitis in 22.5%; asymptomatic in 5.4%; non-localized abdominal pain in 5.15% and an appendicular mass in 3.09%.
  • GCC's of the appendix remains a neoplasm of unpredictable biological behavior and thus warrants lifelong surveillance for recurrence of the disease upon diagnosis and successful surgical extirpation.
  • CONCLUSION: GCC of the appendix is a rare neoplasm.
  • Due to its wide range of presentation, this tumor should be considered as a possible diagnosis in many varied situations leading to abdominal surgery.
  • The advocated plan of management recommended for patients with tumors that involve the adjacent caecum or with high-grade tumors with histological features such as an increased mitotic rate involve initial appendectomy with completion right hemicolectomy due to the high possibility of local recurrence with intraperitoneal seeding prior to lymph node involvement and a 20% risk of metastatic behavior.
  • In female patients with GCC of the appendix regardless of age, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is advocated.
  • In cases with obvious spread of the disease chemotherapy, mostly with 5-FU and leucovorin is advised.

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  • (PMID = 15967038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1182398
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82. Gungor T, Altinkaya O, Ozat M, Sirvan L, Yalcin H, Mollamahmutoglu L: Primary adenocarcinoid tumor of the ovary arising in mature cystic teratoma. A case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(1):110-2
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  • [Title] Primary adenocarcinoid tumor of the ovary arising in mature cystic teratoma. A case report.
  • Primary carcinoid tumors of the ovary are rare, forming 0.3 % of all carcinoid tumors and less than 0.1 % of ovarian malignancies.
  • We present a case of a 47-year-old woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding and abdominal discomfort.
  • At laparoscopy, a smooth surfaced, firm and mobile right adnexal mass with solid and cystic portions was detected and the tumor was excised.
  • Pathologic and immunohistochemical examination revealed carcinoid tumor.
  • After the evaluation of gastrointestinal and respiratory systems by imaging and endoscopic studies, no evidence of tumor tissue or metastases were found.
  • Based on this finding, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and appendectomy were performed and pelvic-paraaortic lymph nodes were also removed.
  • All histological findings were similar to the features of mature cystic teratoma and carcinoid tumor.
  • Examination of the resected lymphatic, omental and appendiceal tissue indicated no tumoral invasion.
  • Thus, the diagnosis was primary ovarian carcinoid arising from a mature cystic teratoma.
  • This case, in the setting of a normal appendix and negative workup for an extraovarian origin, is one of a primary ovarian adenocarcinoid tumor.
  • The primary carcinoid tumor should be differentiated from a metastatic carcinoid inside the ovary, which is always bilateral.
  • It is important to be aware of this unusual entity in diagnoses of ovarian tumors, even in the absence of any clinical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology


83. Stinner B, Rothmund M: Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):729-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix.
  • Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the appendix (formerly 'carcinoids') are rare and are usually detected incidentally after appendectomy.
  • They are preferentially located at the tip of the appendix.
  • Tumours <1 cm hardly ever metastasize and are treated by appendectomy.
  • Tumours >2 cm require right hemicolectomy because of a significant risk of metastatic spread.
  • Treatment for lesions 1-2 cm is controversial and needs further characterization of the tumour (i.e. mesoappendiceal invasion, vascular invasion, mitotic activity, proliferation markers) and careful patient risk evaluation.
  • Goblet-cell carcinoids have features resembling both carcinoid and adenocarcinoma and should be treated by hemicolectomy.
  • Overall prognosis of small appendiceal NET is excellent in all ages.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16253897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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84. Hsu TC: Intra-abdominal lesions could be missed by inadequate laparoscopy. Am Surg; 2008 Sep;74(9):824-6; discussion 827-8
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  • This study is a retrospective analysis of a single surgeon's experience of the frequencies of unexpected findings during laparotomies.
  • Eleven patients were found to have synchronous colorectal cancers; five patients were found to have unexpected liver metastases; three patients each were found to have gastric cancers, stromal tumors of the small bowel, and ectopic pancreas; two patients each were found to have gastric leiomyosarcomas, pancreatic cancers, mucoceles of the appendix, ulcers of the small intestine, bleeding Meckel's diverticula, pancreatitis, and perforations of the ileum; one patient each was found to have gall bladder cancer, malignant carcinoid tumor, pheochromocytoma, diverticulitis of the jejunum, diverticulitis of the colon, duplication of the colon, and aortic aneurysm larger than 6 cm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Cohort Studies. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18807670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Feo CF, Porcu A, Scanu AM, Ginesu GC, Fancellu A, Lorettu A, Dettori G: Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jul-Sep;94(3):224-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases.
  • We report our experience on 10 patients with primary tumors of the appendix treated at our institution from 1998 to 2005.
  • Six tumors were malignant, and the remaining were benign.
  • Two of the four patients with benign tumors died from causes unrelated to the appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The 6 patients with malignant tumors and the other 2 with benign disease were alive and disease free after a mean follow-up of 43 months.
  • Despite the rarity of appendiceal primary tumors, surgeons should be aware of these neoplasms for making correct treatment decisions.
  • We stress the importance of laparoscopic exploration in the management of appendiceal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20187516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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86. Ishida M, Kushima R, Brevet M, Chatelain D, Okabe H: Co-expression of neuronal intermediate filaments, peripherin and α-internexin in human well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms (carcinoid tumors) of the appendix. Mol Med Rep; 2008 Mar-Apr;1(2):191-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Co-expression of neuronal intermediate filaments, peripherin and α-internexin in human well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms (carcinoid tumors) of the appendix.
  • The rectum and appendix are the two major sites of well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms (carcinoid tumors) in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • Previously, we reported the consistent expression of peripherin in rectal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms without metastases.
  • However, its expression has not as yet been examined in appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms.
  • The aim of our present study was to clarify whether peripherin, a type III neuronal intermediate filament, and α-internexin, a type IV neuronal intermediate filament, are expressed in appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms.
  • Other endocrine markers were also examined and compared with the findings from the rectal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms.
  • The analyses were carried out by immunohistochemical methods using 12 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms.
  • In all the neoplasms examined, diffuse immunoreactivity of peripherin was observed.
  • In addition, immunoreactivity of α-internexin, which was frequently co-expressed with peripherin, was found in all appendiceal cases.
  • Chromogranin A and neural cell adhesion molecule expression was found in all appendiceal tumors, and serotonin was also frequently expressed (83%, 10/12 cases).
  • Incidences of the expression of these three markers were much higher in the appendiceal than in the rectal cases.
  • Peripherin expression is a common feature of appendiceal and rectal well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms, but the manner of neural marker expression is different depending on the site of origin.
  • It is uncertain whether the expression of peripherin and/or α-internexin is present in the well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms of other organs; further analysis is required to clarify this issue.

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  • (PMID = 21479396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2997
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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87. Avenel P, McKendrick A, Silapaswan S, Kolachalam R, Kestenberg W, Ferguson L, Jacobs MJ, Goriel Y, Mittal V: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: an increasing incidence of rectal distribution. Am Surg; 2010 Jul;76(7):759-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gastrointestinal carcinoids: an increasing incidence of rectal distribution.
  • Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing and usually become symptomatic late in the course of the disease.
  • We evaluated our 10-year experience in the management of GI carcinoid tumors.
  • The records of 133 patients with GI carcinoids were reviewed.
  • The rectum was the most common site for carcinoid tumors with an incidence of 30 per cent followed by jejunoileal at 29.3 per cent.
  • Other sites of carcinoid tumors were the appendix (8.3%), colon (8.3%), and duodenum (3.8%).
  • Endoscopy was the most helpful modality in diagnosing GI carcinoids.
  • CT was not helpful in preoperative diagnosis of carcinoid tumor.
  • Fifteen patients died in follow-up with eight deaths related to carcinoid tumors, in the small bowel (6), rectum (1), and colon (1).
  • Overall survival was 68.7 per cent and mortality rate was 19.5 per cent from carcinoid tumors.
  • Most of the deaths occurred in patients with carcinoid syndrome, synchronous malignancy, and malignant carcinoid tumors.
  • The mean disease-free survival was 51 months (range, 15 to 138 months).
  • Screening colonoscopy, in addition to decreasing colorectal adenocarcinoma mortality, is useful in diagnosing carcinoid tumors at an earlier stage and in decreasing mortality from malignant colorectal carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20698387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Morelli U, Coccetta M, Cirocchi R, La Mura F, Napolitano V, Galanou I, Giustozzi G, Sciannameo F: An unusual case of rectal carcinoid removed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. Minerva Chir; 2008 Aug;63(4):311-4
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  • [Title] An unusual case of rectal carcinoid removed by transanal endoscopic microsurgery.
  • The name ''carcinoid'' was invented by Oberndorfer in 1907, when the nature of those histological entities was little understood.
  • Usually, they were found in various locations in the gastrointestinal (GI) apparatus (67%), most of them in the small intestine (25%), appendix (12%), and rectum (14%).The techniques used for their removal are various.
  • The authors present here a case of rectal carcinoid removed using the transanal endoscopic microsurgery technique, and referred to the diagnosis and treatment of this uncommon tumor.
  • Complete blood count (CBC) and laboratory data as tumor markers and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed no abnormalities, while urinary vanilmandelic acid level was elevate (18 mg/24 h).
  • The histological finding demonstrated a nodule characterized by cellular proliferation, with few microscopical abnormalities, arranged in small cords with a glandular pattern, separated by dense connective tissue.
  • Histochemically the tumor cells were cytocheratins +/-, chromogranin positive, synaptophysine positive, CD56 positive and Growth Index MIB1-Ki67 which was almost zero.
  • The use of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) as a safe and feasible technique for exciding rectal tumors can be easily understood, for the excellent view and precise dissection.
  • The use of new surgical devices as Harmonic Scalpel has improved the precision of this kind of approach, increasing the appropriateness of this approach compared to other kind of resection.
  • A full diagnostic course and an immunohistochemistry are mandatory for precise diagnosis of rectal carcinoid.
  • Careful attention must be paid to these tumors because of their unexpected behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Microsurgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18607329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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89. Bertuzzo VR, Coccolini F, Pinna AD: Peritoneal seeding from appendiceal carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature. World J Gastrointest Surg; 2010 Aug 27;2(8):265-9
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  • [Title] Peritoneal seeding from appendiceal carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
  • Non-carcinoid appendiceal malignancies are rare entities, representing less than 0.5% of all gastrointestinal malignancies.
  • Because of their rarity and particular biological behavior, a substantial number of patients affected by these neoplasms do not receive appropriate surgical resection.
  • In this report, we describe a rare case of primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the appendix with peritoneal seeding which occurred in a 40-year old man admitted at the Emergency Surgery Department with the clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis.
  • This report offers a brief review of the literature and suggests an algorithm for the management of non-carcinoid appendiceal tumors with peritoneal dissemination.

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  • (PMID = 21160886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-9366
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999252
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Appendiceal neoplasms / Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy / Peritoneal carcinomatosis / Signet-ring cell carcinoma / Therapeutic algorithm
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90. Iqbal CW, Wahoff DC: Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms. Curr Opin Pediatr; 2009 Jun;21(3):379-85
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To guide the clinician in the diagnostic evaluation of endocrine neoplasms, to distinguish between benign and malignant and determine when surgical referral is indicated.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Thyroid nodules are uncommon but malignant in as many as 27% of patients.
  • Adrenal neoplasms cover a wide spectrum of disorder.
  • Malignant lesions of the adrenal gland carry a poor prognosis when complete surgical resection cannot be achieved.
  • Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms, primarily of the appendix, associated with carcinoid syndrome in 10% of patients.
  • SUMMARY: Endocrine neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric population.
  • Their presence should raise concern about a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome and appropriate diagnostic and endocrine work-up.
  • Most neoplasms will require surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19421059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-698X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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91. Louthan O: [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1051-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Neuroendokrinní tumory appendixu.
  • According to WHO, neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix (appendiceal carcinoids) are defined as 1. well-differentiated endocrine tumors with benign or uncertain behavior, 2. well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma and 3. goblet cell carcinoma.
  • These tumors are usually diagnosed incidentally during appendectomy.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is rare in appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Tumor size greater than 2 cm is the most important parameter for prognosis.
  • Most patients are cured by appendectomy (appendiceal tumors < or = 2 cm), tumors with a diameter > 2 cm should be managed by right hemicolectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors

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  • (PMID = 20017436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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92. Yan TD, Brun EA, Sugarbaker PH: Discordant histology of primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 May;15(5):1440-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Discordant histology of primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoid is a rare appendiceal tumor that shows histologically both epithelial and neuroendocrine components.
  • We observed that some patients have peritoneal dissemination, which shows adenocarcinoma but lacks the neuroendocrine histology.
  • The objective of the present study was to quantitate these discordant histopathological findings and examine its clinical implication.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with peritoneal dissemination from primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid tumors underwent cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
  • All resected specimens were individually submitted for histopathological examination and immunostaining with three neuroendocrine markers.
  • The loss of the neuroendocrine tumor type in peritoneal implants was referred to as discordant feature of the adenocarcinoid tumor.
  • RESULTS: In nine of the 26 patients (35%) with a primary adenocarcinoid of the appendix, a loss of the neuroendocrine immunochemical marker was noted in peritoneal implants.
  • Discordant histology between the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid and the peritoneal implants was statistically significantly associated with an improved survival (p = 0.0262), when patients were treated by cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Discordant histology of the primary appendiceal tumor as compared to the peritoneal lesions occurs frequently in patients with adenocarcinoid.
  • An assessment of neuroendocrine markers in both primary and peritoneal lesions may help in the clinical assessment of this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18299936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Paklina OV, Setdikova GR, Nikitin PN, Petropavlovskiĭ AI: [Goblet-cell carcinoid of the colon]. Arkh Patol; 2008 Mar-Apr;70(2):45-7
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  • [Title] [Goblet-cell carcinoid of the colon].
  • The authors describe a case of goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix subject to additional immunohistological study.
  • Goblet-cell carcinoid is a rare colonic tumor comprises the morphological signs of adenocarcinoma and carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18540443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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94. Paredes Esteban RM, Martínez de Vitoria JM, García Ruiz M: [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix]. Cir Pediatr; 2006 Oct;19(4):250-2
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  • [Title] [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso de asociación de mucocele y tumor carcinoide apendicular.
  • The carcinoid tumour of the appendix and the mucocele are entities rather infrequent in children and are normally diagnosed in the course of an appendicectomy that is, in most of the cases, curative.
  • The authors present a case of carcinoid tumour of the appendix associated to mucocele in a male, aged 10 patient, who underwent an appendicectomy by suspicion of an acute appendicitis.
  • The histologic study confirmed the presence of a mucocele of the appendix associated to a carcinoid tumour with a 0,7 cm diameter.
  • The serum serotonin and chromogranin A assessment was normal, and the TAC and colonoscopic examination resulted in no meaningful findings.
  • The appendicectomy itself was curative, deeming it the appropiated treatment in tumours under 2 cm diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Mucocele / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Appendix / pathology. Appendix / surgery. Child. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17352118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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95. Huang B, Di MJ, Liu HS, Qiu LL, Sun LJ, Xu JP: [Primary malignant tumor of the appendix: clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2009 Mar;38(2):194-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary malignant tumor of the appendix: clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary malignant tumor of the appendix.
  • METHODS: The clinical data were reviewed; and histopathological and immunohistochemical features were analyzed in 22 cases with primary malignant tumor of the appendix.
  • RESULT: In 22 cases of primary malignant tumor of the appendix, 19 cases were carcinoid and 3 were adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the carcinoid was positively reacted to the neuroendocrine markers, and the adenocarcinoma was negatively reacted to the neuroendocrine markers.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry is useful in diagnosis of primary malignant tumor of the appendix, a rare type of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19363829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-9292
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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96. In't Hof KH, van der Wal HC, Kazemier G, Lange JF: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: an analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Aug;12(8):1436-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: an analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies.
  • AIM: The aim of this study is to conduct a retrospective analysis of the incidence and long-term results of carcinoid tumours of the appendix in emergency appendectomies.
  • RESULTS: In three women and four men, carcinoid tumours were identified (0.47%).
  • Four patients underwent ileocecal resection; one other patient underwent right hemicolectomy.
  • In none of the re-operation specimens was residual carcinoid tumour detected.
  • After a mean follow-up of 65 months (range, 25-92), all patients were alive and disease- and symptom-free.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumours of the appendix most often present as acute appendicitis.
  • It also emphasises the value of histopathological analysis of every removed appendix.
  • The long-term prognosis of incidentally found carcinoids of the appendix is good.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Emergencies
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18521695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2491701
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97. Bucher P, Gervaz P, Ris F, Oulhaci W, Inan I, Morel P: Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid. Surg Endosc; 2006 Jun;20(6):967-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid.
  • BACKGROUND: Since an increasing number of appendectomies are performed via laparoscopy, it is crucial to determine the impact of this approach on appendix carcinoid (AC) outcome.
  • The goal of this study was to compare results of laparoscopic (LAP) versus open (OP) appendectomy for AC according to intend to treat approach.
  • RESULTS: Most cases had associated acute appendicitis (64%).
  • Median carcinoid size was 1.1 cm (range, 0.3-5) and 0.4 cm (range, 0.2-3) in the LAP and OP groups, respectively.
  • Two patients died in the OP group, one due to metastatic carcinoid and the other due to metachronous colorectal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic appendectomy is a safe procedure for AC, with carcinologic and long-term results similar to those of conventional appendectomy.
  • Prognosis of AC appears more dependent on carcinoid malignant potential or associated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laparoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16738993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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98. Uchikov A, Genova S, Peshev Zh, Dimov R, Dimitrov I, Murdzhev K: [Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract--frequency, organ localization, clinical course, treatment (a presentation of 10 cases)]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2005;(4-5):20-2
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  • [Title] [Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract--frequency, organ localization, clinical course, treatment (a presentation of 10 cases)].
  • Carcinoid tumors originate from the argentofile cells found at the bottom of the crypt of Lieberkuhn.
  • In spite of their slow growth and comparatively better prognosis, the carcinoid are malignant tumors, which effective treatment is their surgical resection.
  • We present 10 patients with carcinoid of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)--3 from small intestine, 3 from large intestine, 2 from appendix, I from rectum and 1 from stomach, operated at our clinic for a 6 year period of time.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 18693512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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99. Chung TP, Hunt SR: Carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):45-8
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  • [Title] Carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum.
  • Carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum arise from the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells of the intestine.
  • Carcinoid tumors are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and are located in decreasing order of frequency in appendix, ileum, rectum, stomach, and colon.
  • The management of these lesions depends upon the size of the lesion, involvement of the muscularis, location, and presence of metastatic disease.
  • Adjuvant therapy is indicated only for metastatic disease, and admirable advances have been made in the realm of chemotherapy for reduction of disease and palliation of the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • In this article, we discuss the nature of these interesting and uncommon tumors, clinical presentation, treatment options, and prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 20011309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780103
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoid / colon / neuroendocrine tumor / rectum
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100. Mukensnabl P, Michal M, Hadravská S: [Carcinoids of the appendix]. Rozhl Chir; 2005 Apr;84(4):197-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Carcinoids of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoidy apendixu.
  • The appendical carcinoids represent a heterogeneous group of tumors of different morphology, biological features and treatment.
  • Our study aims to inform clinical practitioners, mainly surgeons and oncologists, about individual types of the appendical carcinoids, which are considered the most frequent carcinoid tumors the clinical practitioners come into contact with at all levels of the hospital care.
  • Our work describes the types of the appendical tumors from the histological point of view, as well as from the prognostic and therapeutical points of view.
  • At the end of the study report, a brief table summarizing the most important features of the individual histological types of the appendical carcinoids, is attached.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15984148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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