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1. Gramann T, Matter L, Pfofe D, Flury R, Jaeger P: [Metastazation into the seminal vesicles due to primary goblet cell carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. An unusual diagnostic procedure of a seminal vesicle tumor]. Urologe A; 2009 Nov;48(11):1352-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Metastazation into the seminal vesicles due to primary goblet cell carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. An unusual diagnostic procedure of a seminal vesicle tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Samenblasenmetastase bei primärem Becherzellkarzinoid der Appendix vermiformis. Ein aussergewöhnlicher Abklärungsgang eines Samenblasentumors.
  • A goblet cell carcinoid of the vermiform appendix was identified as the primary tumor.
  • The tumor valency, diagnostic work up, therapy and further differential diagnoses are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / secondary. Seminal Vesicles / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendectomy. Appendix / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Digital Rectal Examination. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Palliative Care. Patient Care Team. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19705095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Synaptophysin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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2. Whyte C, Tran E, Lopez ME, Harris BH: Outpatient interval appendectomy after perforated appendicitis. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Nov;43(11):1970-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hospitals, Pediatric / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, Teaching / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Incidental Findings. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Male. New York City / epidemiology. Pain, Postoperative / drug therapy. Pain, Postoperative / epidemiology. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Rupture, Spontaneous. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Surg. 2009 May;44(5):1056-8 [19433198.001]
  • (PMID = 18970926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Taal BG, Smits M: Developments in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors. A review. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol; 2005 Dec;51(4):335-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Developments in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors. A review.
  • Carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumours derived from enterochromaffin cells which are widely distributed in the body and may, therefore, arise from any site.
  • Localisation in the gastrointestinal tract is the most frequent, among which the appendiceal involvement is often found at laparoscopy for appendicitis and the small bowel is known for the liver metastases with the production of serotonin causing the characteristic carcinoid syndrome with diarrhoea and flushes.
  • The overall incidence of carcinoid disease has increased in the past decades, but whether this is a true increase or due to early detection or better recognition at pathology is not known.
  • The prognosis of metastatic carcinoid tumours has improved during the last decade resulting in a 5 year survival of approximately 50% in the Netherlands.
  • Due to a longer survival, complications such as carcinoid heart disease and new metastatic patterns like skin and bone metastases may become a more important feature in carcinoid disease.
  • New developments are in the field of diagnostics (fine-tuning of the pathology, videocapsule endoscopy to find the primary tumour, positron emission tomography [PET] scanning) and treatment options (radiofrequency ablation, radioactive octreotide, meta-iodobenzylguanidine combinations).
  • The new serum marker of carcinoid, chromogranin A, may play an important role in the follow-up and NT-proBNP for the detection of heart problems.
  • Combining new diagnostic and treatment modalities in metastatic carcinoid patients may result in a better quality of life and a longer survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16282961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-421X
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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4. Fazio N, Luca F, Monfardini L, Pelosi G, Bodei L, Lorizzo K, Di Meglio G, Gibelli B, Ravizza D, Bonomo G, Grana CM, Baio S, Squadroni M, Paganelli G, de Braud F: Right pelvic mass in a patient with a radically resected carcinoid of the appendix. Gut; 2009 Sep;58(9):1200, 1259
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Right pelvic mass in a patient with a radically resected carcinoid of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibromatosis, Aggressive / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Male. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19671553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3288
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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5. Booij KA, van Eeden S, Ghazi Hosseini E, ten Kate FJ, Aronson DC: [An unusual presentation of a periappendicular infiltrate]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Sep 27;152(39):2133-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Een ongebruikelijke manifestatie van een periappendiculair infiltraat.
  • The clinical aspect, radiological investigations and peroperative aspect of the appendix were not conclusive but nevertheless a neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid tumour) of the appendix was suspected.

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  • (PMID = 18856031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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6. Knigge U, Hansen CP: [Appendiceal carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoids]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2010 May 31;172(22):1678-81
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  • [Title] [Appendiceal carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoids].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoide tumorer og gobletcelle-karcinoide tumorer i appendix.
  • Appendiceial carcinoid tumors (CAT) and goblet cell carcinoids (GCCAT) are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Goblet Cells

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  • (PMID = 20525467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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7. Srivastava A, Hornick JL: Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):626-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNET) of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lung are histologically similar.
  • We therefore analyzed the expression of CDX-2, PDX-1, TTF-1, and neuroendocrine secretory protein-55 (NESP-55), a recently described member of the chromogranin family, in primary and metastatic WDNET.
  • In total, 64 gastrointestinal carcinoids (5 stomach; 5 duodenum; 31 ileum; 11 appendix; and 12 rectum); 39 pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET); and 20 pulmonary carcinoid tumors were studied.
  • Ileal carcinoids were exclusively positive for CDX-2 (30/31) and negative for all other markers.
  • Appendiceal carcinoids were uniformly positive for CDX-2 (11/11).
  • All rectal carcinoids were negative for CDX-2 and TTF-1; 2/12 were positive for PDX-1, and 1/12 for NESP-55.
  • The gastric and duodenal carcinoids were only positive for PDX-1 (7/10).
  • TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids (7/20); 1/20 was positive for NESP-55; and all were negative for CDX-2 and PDX-1.
  • TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids in our study but was present in only about a third of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19065104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 protein; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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8. Pan Z, Repertinger S, Leonard R, Bewtra C, Gatalica Z, Sharma P: Cervical and endometrial metastases of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):776-80
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  • [Title] Cervical and endometrial metastases of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid.
  • Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare tumor with histologic features of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid).
  • Clinically, it behaves more aggressively than classic appendiceal carcinoid and commonly presents with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • We report 2 cases of appendiceal GCC, one with uterine cervical involvement and the other with endometrial involvement as the initial presentations.
  • Primary appendiceal GCC was demonstrated in both cases after systematic clinical investigations.
  • Metastatic appendiceal GCC to uterine cervix and endometrium can potentially be misinterpreted as primary cervical or endometrial signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • Therefore, for any uterine cervical/endometrial signet ring cell carcinoma, a metastatic appendiceal GCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially after excluding other primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary


9. Deschamps L, Couvelard A: Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jun;134(6):871-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review.
  • CONTEXT: Although rare, appendiceal endocrine tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide recent data that focus on the pathology of endocrine tumors of the appendix including classifications and guidelines for patient management.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Appendiceal endocrine tumors are separated into 2 main groups: classic endocrine tumors and goblet cell carcinoids.
  • Evaluation of their prognoses and risks of malignancy, according to these classifications, depends on several parameters including tumor size, proliferation rate, and infiltration of appendiceal wall and mesoappendix.
  • Most patients with classic endocrine tumors of the appendix have a favorable prognosis.
  • Indications for postappendectomy, complementary surgery, which are still controversial, especially for tumors between 1 and 2 cm, are presented and discussed.
  • In contrast, in patients presenting with a goblet cell carcinoid, a right hemicolectomy after the initial appendectomy is considered the standard surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colectomy. Humans. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 20524865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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10. Chen TH, Lin CJ, Wu RC, Ho YP, Hsu CM, Lin WP, Tseng YP, Chen CH, Chiu CT: The application of miniprobe ultrasonography in the diagnosis of colorectal subepithelial lesions. Chang Gung Med J; 2010 Jul-Aug;33(4):380-8
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  • Thirteen patients, suspected of having rectal carcinoid tumors (mean size, 6.9 +/- 3.3 mm), were treated radically by endoscopic mucosal resection using a transparent cap (EMRC) after EUS confirmation of no muscular invasion.
  • Three patients had no residual or recurrent carcinoid tumor on EUS examination after previous empiric polypectomy or biopsy.
  • Five patients had suspected rectal myogenic stromal tumors on EUS; three were transferred for surgical resection due to uterine myoma compression (N = 2) or mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix with rectal metastasis (N = 1), and two had uterine myoma detected by gynecologic ultrasound or CT.
  • One appendiceal stone with orifice obstruction mimicking cecal submucosal tumor was proved by surgical resection.

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  • (PMID = 20804667.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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11. Louzi A, Nargis Y, Belaabidia B, Alatawna H, Benelkhaiat R, Finech B, Dafali AE: [Appendicular mucocele caused by carcinoid tumor during pregnancy]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Nov;34(11):1051-4
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  • [Title] [Appendicular mucocele caused by carcinoid tumor during pregnancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Mucocèle de l'appendice sur tumeur carcinoïde pendant la grossesse.
  • Mucocele of the appendix secondary to appendicular carcinoid tumour is a rare entity.
  • The interaction between carcinoid tumour or mucocele of the appendix and pregnancy is not yet elucidated.
  • Prognosis depends on the size of the carcinoid tumour and its regional invasion.
  • We report a case of appendicular mucocele caused by a carcinoid tumour in a 36-year-old pregnant woman who had been admitted because of acute appendicitis.
  • Pathological examination of the appendicectomy specimen revealed a carcinoid tumour measuring 2 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Mucocele / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


12. Tannapfel A, Wittekind C: [The current TNM system for gastrointestinal tumors part II]. Pathologe; 2010 Sep;31(5):348-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The current TNM system for gastrointestinal tumors part II].
  • Entirely new classifications are those for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and perihilar extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas.
  • Major and praxis-relevant alterations concern colorectal tumours and include new classifications of carcinomas and carcinoids of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-minor] Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / classification. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / classification. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / classification. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / classification. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Disease Progression. Gallbladder Neoplasms / classification. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / classification. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / classification. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / classification. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / classification. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Pathologe. 2010 Sep;31(5):353-4 [20809402.001]
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  • (PMID = 20798945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Candela G, Varriale S, Di Libero L, Giordano M, Maschio A, Manetta F, Borrelli V, Nunziata A, Santini L: Carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. Description of three clinical cases and review of the literature. Minerva Chir; 2006 Jun;61(3):265-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid of the vermiform appendix. Description of three clinical cases and review of the literature.
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoide dell'appendice vermiforme.
  • Carcinoids of the appendix represent a separate class of tumours with characteristics that vary between benign (adenomas) and malignant (carcinomas) neoplasias.
  • A recent nomenclature identifies them as diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNS) and/or, parallely, as neuroendocrine tumours (NET): the gastroenteric tract is the site of about 64.3% of carcinoids, followed by the respiratory tract with 25.3%.
  • Among the gastrointestinals, tumour of the small intestine is the one with the highest incidence with 28.5%, followed by the appendix with 4.77%, the rectum with 13.6% and the stomach with 4.6%.
  • Carcinoid of the colon has an incidence of 8.62%, with the caecum which alone represents 34.5% of colic localisations.
  • The 3 cases described are an example of the behavioural unpredictability of intestinal carcinoids.
  • The first case is that of a female patient in whom the primary tumour was only discovered after liver metastasis was documented.
  • Subsequent investigations carried out in the postoperative period documented the presence of liver metastasis at the V and VI liver segments.
  • The last case, similar to the second from certain points of view, shows the need to carry out a right hemicolectomy with removal of locoregional lymphnodes in the event of an appendicular carcinoid >2 cm.
  • Both laboratory and instrumental examinations contribute to the diagnosis of intestinal carcinoid.
  • First level instrumental examinations for the diagnosis of intestinal carcinoid are represented by CT with and without contrast medium, diagnostic endoscopy and, to better highlight the presence of locoregional metastases, scintigraphy with octreotide and PET.
  • Treatment with somatostatin, on the other hand, proved effective in controlling tumour secretion, so attenuating the inconveniences of carcinoid syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 16858310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Fujiyoshi Y, Kuhara H, Eimoto T: Composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of two cases with goblet cell carcinoid component. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;200(11-12):823-9
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  • [Title] Composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of two cases with goblet cell carcinoid component.
  • Composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma (CGECC) is recognized as a special type of gastric tumor composed of ordinary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a well-established type of appendiceal carcinoid, but the GCC component has not been well delineated in CGECC of the stomach.
  • However, the resected tumors consisted of three components: signet-ring cell carcinoma, GCC, and glandular adenocarcinoma.
  • Although some signet-ring carcinoma cells and goblet carcinoid cells were indistinguishable by hematoxylin and eosin staining, E-cadherin immunostaining disclosed a definitive difference regarding the staining pattern in these cells.
  • Both patients are well, with no recurrent tumor for about 10 years of follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Treatment Outcome


15. Bolanowski M, Jarzab B, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jeziorski A, Kos-Kudła B, Zajecki W, oraz Pozostali Uczestnicy Konferencji Okragłego Stołu: [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jan-Feb;59(1):87-96
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)].
  • Polish recommendations regarding management of patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix are presented.
  • Small intestine, especially ileum represent most common origin of these tumors.
  • In 4-10% of patients typical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome are present.
  • The treatment of choice in the neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix is radical or palliative surgery, if possible using endoscopy.
  • The crucial in biotherapy is somatostatin analogs application, possible in symptomatic treatment of hormonally functioning tumors.
  • This is treatment of choice in carcinoid crisis.
  • Interferon alfa could be applied because of the same indications as somatostatin analogs, except for carcinoid crisis.
  • Chemotherapy is less successful in disseminated or locally advanced intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, so radioisotope therapy should be considered in each case of unresectable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Competence. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Humans. Intestine, Small. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Poland. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18335403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Investigator] Bar-Andziak E; Cwikła J; de Herder W; Dzielicki J; Falconi M; Foltyn W; Gaciong Z; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A; Kowalska A; Krolicki L; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska B; Kryszałowicz B; Kvols L; Nasierowska-Guttmejer A; O'Toole D; Kunikowska J; Lampe P; Matyja V; Mełen-Mucha G; Milewicz A; Nowak A; Nowakowska-Duława E; Omyła-Staszewska J; Pajak J; Rudzki S; Rydzewska G; Sowinski J; Starzynska T; Strzelczyk J; Sworczak K; Syrenicz A; Szawlowski A; Tomaszewska RA; Wasko-Czopnik D; Wronski M; Zemczak A; Zgliczynski W
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16. Paredes Esteban RM, Martínez de Vitoria JM, García Ruiz M: [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix]. Cir Pediatr; 2006 Oct;19(4):250-2
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  • [Title] [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso de asociación de mucocele y tumor carcinoide apendicular.
  • The carcinoid tumour of the appendix and the mucocele are entities rather infrequent in children and are normally diagnosed in the course of an appendicectomy that is, in most of the cases, curative.
  • The authors present a case of carcinoid tumour of the appendix associated to mucocele in a male, aged 10 patient, who underwent an appendicectomy by suspicion of an acute appendicitis.
  • The histologic study confirmed the presence of a mucocele of the appendix associated to a carcinoid tumour with a 0,7 cm diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Mucocele / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Appendix / pathology. Appendix / surgery. Child. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17352118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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17. Hristov AC, Young RH, Vang R, Yemelyanova AV, Seidman JD, Ronnett BM: Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Oct;31(10):1502-11
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases.
  • Synchronous and metachronous ovarian and appendiceal mucinous tumors are often the subject of diagnostic consultations in gynecologic pathology practices to address whether the tumors are independent neoplasms or related as primary and metastasis.
  • The ovarian tumors were bilateral in 25 of 28 cases with data on both ovaries and were typically large (mean/median: 14 cm, range: 4.5 to 24.0 cm).
  • The appendices were often firm or thickened but usually did not have a discrete measurable tumor and were not notably enlarged; microscopically, transmural invasion was present in all of them.
  • The ovarian and appendiceal tumors exhibited a variety of patterns of differentiation, including signet ring cell and glandular, with all displaying some goblet cell carcinoidlike patterns (nests, islands, cords, or cryptlike tubules with goblet cells); teratomatous elements were not identified in any ovarian tumors.
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 7 of 19 ovarian tumors (mean/median: 6.3%/0%; range: 0% to 20%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 4 of 18 of these (mean/median: 7.8%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 6 of 16 appendiceal tumors (mean/median: 11.9%/0%; range: 0% to 70%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 6 of 15 of these (mean/median: 16.7%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • The clinicopathologic features of these ovarian tumors indicate they should be labeled as metastatic appendiceal adenocarcinomas rather than as goblet cell carcinoid tumors both to reflect their behavior and help distinguish them from the rare true primary ovarian goblet cell carcinoid tumors.
  • As the ovarian tumors have appreciable components of signet ring cells they qualify as Krukenberg tumors.
  • In cases in which the primary tumor is not already evident, their "goblet cell carcinoidlike" patterns should direct attention to the appendix as a possible source.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17895750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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18. Pham TH, Wolff B, Abraham SC, Drelichman E: Surgical and chemotherapy treatment outcomes of goblet cell carcinoid: a tertiary cancer center experience. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Mar;13(3):370-6
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  • [Title] Surgical and chemotherapy treatment outcomes of goblet cell carcinoid: a tertiary cancer center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare malignant tumor with distinct histological and clinical features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis for patients with GCC tumors correlates well with the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage at initial presentation.
  • For staging purposes, right hemicolectomy is appropriate for T4 tumors or stage II to III disease provided that it can be performed with minimal risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16485156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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19. Hatzipantelis E, Panagopoulou P, Sidi-Fragandrea V, Fragandrea I, Koliouskas DE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2010 Nov;51(5):622-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: experience from a tertiary center in northern Greece.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are rare in childhood and usually have a benign clinical course.
  • The aim of the study was to report the frequency, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and outcome of children with appendiceal carcinoid treated in a pediatric oncology department.
  • Demographics, clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and follow-up results were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Among 839 admissions, 19 patients (9 boys) with appendiceal carcinoid were identified during the study period.
  • The mean tumor diameter was 4.55 (± 3.45) mm (range 1-15 mm).
  • In 18 children tumor size was ≤ 10 mm and did not infiltrate surrounding tissues.
  • In 1 patient the size was 15 mm and a microscopic rupture of the appendix with infiltration of the surrounding fat was present.
  • All of the tumors were located at the tip of the appendix and were of the classic histological type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms. Appendicitis / complications. Carcinoid Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Appendix / pathology. Appendix / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20948448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Wang HL, Dhall D: Goblet or signet ring cells: that is the question. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jul;16(4):247-54
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  • Goblet cell carcinoid tumor is a rare mixed endocrine-exocrine neoplasm of the appendix.
  • It carries an intermediate biologic behavior between a classic carcinoid tumor and a conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • A recent retrospective study of a large number of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids has shown that these tumors can be stratified into 3 subgroups based on careful histologic analysis: typical goblet cell carcinoid (group A); adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid, signet ring cell type (group B); and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid, poorly differentiated carcinoma type (group C).
  • Thus, meticulous histologic evaluation is of critical importance in determining the prognosis and guiding the management of patients with goblet cell carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Goblet Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19546612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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21. Coursey CA, Nelson RC, Moreno RD, Dodd LG, Patel MB, Vaslef S: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT? Am Surg; 2010 Mar;76(3):273-5
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT?
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if carcinoid tumors of the appendix were identified prospectively on preoperative CT at our institution during the last decade.
  • A surgical database search performed using the Current Procedural Terminology codes for appendectomy and colectomy yielded 2108 patients who underwent appendectomy or colectomy with removal of the appendix from January 1998 through September 2007.
  • Pathology reports were reviewed to identify patients in whom an appendiceal carcinoid tumor was identified.
  • Twenty-three carcinoid tumors (1.1%; 15 women [65.2%], eight men [34.8%]; average age 54 years [range, 23 to 86 years]) were identified.
  • No tumors were identified prospectively on CT.
  • Average reported tumor size was 6.1 mm (range, 1.5 to 15 mm; n = 18).
  • A tip or distal location was reported for all tumors for which a location was given (n = 15).
  • Carcinoid tumors occurred in 1.1 per cent of appendix specimens.
  • These tumors were all less than or 1.5 cm in size.
  • Likely as a result of their small size, none of these tumors was identified prospectively on preoperative CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20349655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Byrn JC, Wang JL, Divino CM, Nguyen SQ, Warner RR: Management of goblet cell carcinoid. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Oct 1;94(5):396-402
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  • [Title] Management of goblet cell carcinoid.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Goblet cell carcinoid, a rare tumor of intermediate malignant potential, is known to account for a significant minority of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Sixteen new cases of gastrointestinal goblet cell carcinoid were reviewed to describe their presentation, treatment, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients were diagnosed with goblet cell carcinoid between 1995 and 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Goblet cell carcinoid is a rare malignant tumor largely affecting the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16967437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Raja V, Balakrishnan R, Bollinger W, Crabtree D, Downey E, Mohindra M: Double diagnosis in cancer patients and cutaneous reaction related to gemcitabine: CASE 2. Mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the appendix. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):7223-4
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  • [Title] Double diagnosis in cancer patients and cutaneous reaction related to gemcitabine: CASE 2. Mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16192607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Ng SC, Noursadeghi M, von Herbay A, Vaizey C, Pitcher MC, Flanagan KL: Cytomegalovirus ileitis associated with goblet cell carcinoid tumour of the appendix. J Infect; 2007 Mar;54(3):e153-6
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus ileitis associated with goblet cell carcinoid tumour of the appendix.
  • We report a female patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) terminal ileitis and CMV viraemia, associated with a metastatic goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumour of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cytomegalovirus / isolation & purification. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Ileitis / complications. Ileitis / virology

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  • (PMID = 17049463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2742
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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25. Nakamura S, Kimura S, Kashima M, Shichijo K, Yoshida S, Harada E, Matsushita T, Oshima Y, Tamaki Y, Horiuchi N, Takeichi T, Fujimoto H, Masuda K, Iwasaka N, Shinomiya S: [A case of peritonitis carcinomatosa from goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix treated by intraperitoneal paclitaxel and systemic S-1 chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Dec;35(13):2425-8
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  • [Title] [A case of peritonitis carcinomatosa from goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix treated by intraperitoneal paclitaxel and systemic S-1 chemotherapy].
  • Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is a rare neoplasm and clinically tends to take a malignant course.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed massive ascites and slight contrast enhancement of appendix.
  • A tumor was found by colonoscopic examination at the orifice of vermiform and was diagnosed pathologically as goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix.
  • We performed intraperitoneal paclitaxel(PTX)administration at 70 mg/m(2) week without any resection of the tumor.
  • For about one year, her tumor was controlled but became worse thirteen months after diagnosis and died.
  • It is thought that intraabdominal paclitaxel administration and systemic S-1 therapy can be one of appropriate forms of chemotherapy for inoperable peritoneal carcinomatosis from goblet cell carcinoid of appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Peritonitis / drug therapy. Peritonitis / pathology. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19098416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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26. Van Gompel JJ, Stoddard E, Chen H: Incidental carcinoid tumors of the appendix: do they affect presentation or prognosis? Int Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;92(6):331-4
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  • [Title] Incidental carcinoid tumors of the appendix: do they affect presentation or prognosis?
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasm of the vermiform appendix, with most found incidentally after surgery for appendicitis.
  • To determine in patients presenting with appendicitis if incidental carcinoid tumors affected presentation or prognosis, we reviewed our experience.
  • Of 1350 patients receiving an appendectomy from 1992 to 2000 for appendicitis, 20 were found to have appendiceal carcinoid tumors.
  • Comparing tumor patients to 251 consecutive patients whom underwent appendectomy without tumors, we found patients with tumors were older at presentation (41 +/- 4 versus 30 +/- 1 years, P = 0.005) and had initial lower white blood cell (WBC) counts (10.8 +/- 0.8 vs. 14.2 +/- 0.3, P = 0.007).
  • There was equivalent survival between patients with carcinoid and without.
  • Therefore, these data suggest that patients with carcinoid tumors are older and have lower WBC counts at presentation with appendicitis, although outcome was not affected by their presence.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18402126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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27. Guraya SY, Khairy GA, Ghallab A, Al-Saigh A: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Our experience in a university hospital. Saudi Med J; 2005 Mar;26(3):434-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Our experience in a university hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of carcinoid tumors of the appendix managed at a university teaching hospital.
  • The data of patients identified to have histological evidence of carcinoid tumors of the appendix were further reviewed for the demographic details, indications for surgery, surgical procedure, tumor localization in the appendix and size; concomitant appendicitis and further surgical procedures were considered.
  • RESULTS: During the study period, 1547 appendectomies were performed and, out of these, 9 (0.6%) cases were reported to have carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • Six carcinoid tumors were encountered at the appendiceal apex, 2 at the midportion, and one at the base with a mean diameter of 9.5 mm (range, 4-19 mm).
  • One patient had histologically confirmed residual tumor, which necessitated a right hemicolectomy 3 weeks later.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are extremely rare and invariably remain asymptomatic.
  • Simple appendectomy offers adequate relief while the need for further extensive surgery depends on tumor characteristics and dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / statistics & numerical data. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15806214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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28. Washington MK, Tang LH, Berlin J, Branton PA, Burgart LJ, Carter DK, Compton CC, Fitzgibbons PL, Frankel WL, Jessup JM, Kakar S, Minsky B, Nakhleh RE, Members of the Cancer Committee, College of American Pathologists: Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid tumors) of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Feb;134(2):171-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Protocol for the examination of specimens from patients with neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid tumors) of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20121602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Fucs M, Romero FR, Germanos de Castro M, de Carvalho Fernandes R, Camara-Lopes LH, Cardenuto Perez MD: Testicular metastasis 10 years after resection of appendiceal carcinoid. Urology; 2005 Mar;65(3):591
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular metastasis 10 years after resection of appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Testicular carcinoids are very rare and account for less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms.
  • They may present as primary testicular tumors or secondary tumors from extratesticular sources.
  • We report a case of a secondary testicular carcinoid occurring 10 years after surgical treatment of an appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Because secondary carcinoids have a worse clinical course and prognosis than primary tumors, metastatic disease should be excluded before the tumor is identified as a primary.
  • Long-term follow-up is necessary for patients with carcinoid tumor owing to its indolent course and the risk of metastasis several years after treatment of the primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15780387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Costantini M, Montalti R, Rossi G, Luisa L, Masetti M, Di Benedetto F, Giorgio G: Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;16(4):455-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract.
  • The term adenocarcinoid was first coined by Warkel et al in 1978 to describe a group of uncommon low-grade malignant appendiceal tumors with morphologic and histochemical evidence of both glandular (adenocarcinoma) and neuroendocrine (carcinoid) differentiation for which several terms have been used in the past.
  • Although the appendix is the most frequent site of this tumor, similar neoplasms have been reported also in other sites, such as colon, gallbladder, Vater's ampulla, and stomach.
  • Provided that it can metastasize, a recent meta-analysis on appendiceal adenocarcinoids showed that right hemicolectomy is not required when the tumor is completely excised and there is no cecal involvement.
  • In this article, the clinicopathologic features of an adenocarcinoid tumor occurring in the extrahepatic biliary tract with infiltration of the common hepatic duct wall that, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first report in this site is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / complications. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 18480386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS: [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid]. Przegl Lek; 2007;64(2):103-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current concepts on diagnosis and treatment of carcinoid].
  • Carcinoid tumours are relatively rare neuroendocrine neoplasms that often present as diagnostic dilemmas due to obscure or non-specific symptomatology.
  • Carcinoids occur most frequently in the gastrointestinal system, where they are most common in the small intestine, appendix, and rectum, and in the bronchi.
  • Although, the majority are nonfunctional, some carcinoids can cause so called classical or atypical carcinoid syndrome and sometimes also paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • Carcinoid tumours often present with metastatic disease.
  • Despite the fact that many advances have been made in both the basic science and clinical areas, the optimal treatment of carcinoid tumours is still a matter of debate.
  • In this article, the pathogenesis, clinical aspects, classification, diagnosis and treatment of carcinoids are reviewed including the latest advances in each area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17892042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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32. Debnath D, Rees J, Myint F: Are we missing diagnostic opportunities in cases of carcinoid tumours of the appendix? Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):266-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Are we missing diagnostic opportunities in cases of carcinoid tumours of the appendix?
  • OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumour of appendix is an uncommon condition that can potentially give rise to a variation in management.
  • We aimed to assess the occurrence and mode of presentation of carcinoid tumour of appendix, and any variation of its management.
  • Sixteen (0.82%) patients had carcinoid tumours.
  • The mean age of patients with carcinoid tumour (41.8 years) was significantly higher than those with non-carcinoid pathology (27.7 years) (p = 0.001).
  • The incidence of female patients was higher than the male amongst the carcinoid tumour group (female/male ratio 2.2).
  • None of the carcinoid tumours were identified at operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix remains an incidental diagnosis.
  • Patients with carcinoids were significantly older than non-carcinoid conditions.
  • There was a trend of increased occurrence of carcinoids amongst the females.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18939372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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33. Gordon R, Burns K, Friedlich M: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix. Can J Surg; 2005 Jun;48(3):251-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16013634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-428X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3211548
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34. Stinner B, Rothmund M: Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):729-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix.
  • Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the appendix (formerly 'carcinoids') are rare and are usually detected incidentally after appendectomy.
  • They are preferentially located at the tip of the appendix.
  • Treatment for lesions 1-2 cm is controversial and needs further characterization of the tumour (i.e. mesoappendiceal invasion, vascular invasion, mitotic activity, proliferation markers) and careful patient risk evaluation.
  • Goblet-cell carcinoids have features resembling both carcinoid and adenocarcinoma and should be treated by hemicolectomy.
  • Overall prognosis of small appendiceal NET is excellent in all ages.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16253897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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35. In't Hof KH, van der Wal HC, Kazemier G, Lange JF: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: an analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Aug;12(8):1436-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: an analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies.
  • AIM: The aim of this study is to conduct a retrospective analysis of the incidence and long-term results of carcinoid tumours of the appendix in emergency appendectomies.
  • RESULTS: In three women and four men, carcinoid tumours were identified (0.47%).
  • Four patients underwent ileocecal resection; one other patient underwent right hemicolectomy.
  • In none of the re-operation specimens was residual carcinoid tumour detected.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumours of the appendix most often present as acute appendicitis.
  • It also emphasises the value of histopathological analysis of every removed appendix.
  • The long-term prognosis of incidentally found carcinoids of the appendix is good.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Emergencies

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  • (PMID = 18521695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2491701
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36. Chetty R, Klimstra DS, Henson DE, Albores-Saavedra J: Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1163-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid has been regarded as a distinctive tumor type, not related to classic carcinoids, and to our knowledge combinations of these 2 tumor types have not been described in detail.
  • In this report, we describe 5 cases of combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumors of the appendix.
  • The tumors (0.6 to 6.0 cm) were located in the mid-portion and the tip of the appendix.
  • All 5 appendiceal tumors had microscopic features of both classical carcinoid and GCC, either intimately admixed or separate but closely apposed.
  • The extent of the 2 components varied, with classical carcinoid representing 60% to 90% of the tumor.
  • Both components stained for the general neuroendocrine markers, however, staining in the classic component was greater.
  • In view of the fact that these combined carcinoid tumors appear to behave more as goblet cell carcinoids, detailed microscopic examination of classical carcinoid tumors of the appendix is suggested and larger series with longer follow-up is required to ascertain the true biologic potential of this unique form of combined carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • The occurrence of both carcinoid types in the same appendices suggests a closer histogenetic relationship than previously believed, although the possibility that the 2 components represent separate, independent primaries ("collision tumors") can also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Goblet Cells / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Aug;35(8):1248-50 [21753706.001]
  • (PMID = 20631606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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37. Kidd M, Modlin IM, Mane SM, Camp RL, Shapiro MD: Q RT-PCR detection of chromogranin A: a new standard in the identification of neuroendocrine tumor disease. Ann Surg; 2006 Feb;243(2):273-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Q RT-PCR detection of chromogranin A: a new standard in the identification of neuroendocrine tumor disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: Message and protein expression of CgA was examined to evaluate the sensitivity of a PCR-based approach in the detection of covert neuroendocrine (NE) tissue.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement of chromogranin A (CgA) discriminates gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids from epithelial tumors.
  • METHODS: CgA gene expression was examined by Q-RT PCR in GI carcinoids (small intestinal and metastases, n=17, gastric, n=5), appendiceal tumors (n=10), and adenocarcinomas (gastric, n=5, colorectal, n=6).
  • CgA protein expression levels were quantitatively analyzed following IHC by automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) in 2 tissue microarrays (GI carcinoid and GI adenocarcinoma).
  • RESULTS: CgA gene was overexpressed (P<0.001) in GI carcinoids compared with GI adenocarcinomas and normal mucosa.
  • Elevated levels (P<0.00001) were also identified in carcinoid liver and lymph node (LN) metastases.
  • CgA levels were higher (approximately 2-4-fold) in NE appendiceal carcinoids than in adenocarcinoids, but in GI adenocarcinomas were identical to normal mucosa.
  • CgA protein levels were highest in primary GI carcinoids and in liver metastases and significantly elevated (P<0.005) compared with nonmetastatic lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of CgA mRNA and protein in GI carcinoids can identify metastatic cells; thus, PCR for CgA can be used to identify micrometastases not evident by light microscopy or IHC as well as define tumors of ambivalent morphologic phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 16432362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1448909
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38. Ahmad J, Andrabi SI, Thekkinkattil DK, Rathore MA: Adenocarcinoid tumour of the appendix masquerading as acute appendicitis: a word of caution. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg; 2008 Apr;14(2):167-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenocarcinoid tumour of the appendix masquerading as acute appendicitis: a word of caution.
  • Adenocarcinoids are rare and aggressive tumors with histological features of both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma.
  • We report a case of a 32-year-old man with diffuse infiltration of the appendix wall and mesoappendix by an adenocarcinoid.
  • We suggest that patients with diffuse appendiceal involvement require an aggressive surgical therapy and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18523911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1306-696X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery : TJTES
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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39. Tang LH: Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1612-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix.
  • CONTEXT: The appendix gives rise to an array of epithelial neoplasms showing glandular or neuroendocrine differentiation, and some tumors with elements of both cell types.
  • Although some appendiceal neoplasms resemble their counterparts in the small and large intestines (conventional adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor), the appendix also gives rise to relatively unique entities including mucinous neoplasms and goblet cell carcinoid tumors, which present a challenge in pathologic classification and clinical management.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and diagnostic issues for 3 pathologic types of epithelial neoplasms of the appendix:.
  • (2) goblet cell carcinoid tumor and associated adenocarcinoma; and (3) typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most important issue in pathologic assessment of epithelial tumors of the appendix is to understand the clinical implications inherent in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Cernaianu G, Tannapfel A, Nounla J, Gonzalez-Vasquez R, Wiesel T, Tröbs RB: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastasis in a child: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Nov;45(11):e1-5
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  • [Title] Appendiceal carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastasis in a child: case report and review of the literature.
  • Most appendiceal carcinoids (ACs) in children present without lymph node metastasis.
  • Lymph node metastasis is rarely present when primary tumor diameter exceeds 1 cm.
  • We present the extraordinary case of an AC with a primary tumor diameter of 0.7 cm and infiltration of the mesentery, as well as 1 positive lymph node of the mesentery in a 14-year-old boy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21034920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Gidwani AL, Blake G: Four pathologies in one. Ir J Med Sci; 2008 Mar;177(1):77-8
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  • METHODS: Laparotomy revealed a perforated appendix with an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and thickened distal small bowel with fat encroaching the mesentery suggestive of active Crohn's disease.
  • A routine appendicectomy was done and pathology revealed inflamed perforated appendix with an incidental carcinoid within the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Appendicitis / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Meckel Diverticulum / complications

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  • [Cites] J Chir (Paris). 1985 May;122(5):311-4 [4044690.001]
  • [Cites] Chirurg. 1989 Aug;60(8):549-52 [2791743.001]
  • [Cites] Am Surg. 1991 May;57(5):282-5 [2039123.001]
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  • [Cites] Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 1990 Jul;145(7):48 [2176392.001]
  • (PMID = 17628741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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42. La Rosa S, Finzi G, Puppa G, Capella C: Lipid-rich variant of appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine tumor (carcinoid). Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 May;133(5):809-14
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  • [Title] Lipid-rich variant of appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine tumor (carcinoid).
  • Well-differentiated endocrine tumors (WDETs) of the appendix show characteristic morphologic features, including proliferation of cells with finely granulated eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • We studied 13 appendiceal WDETs composed of clear cells, which showed an immunophenotype identical to that of conventional appendiceal WDETs.
  • Patient survival was excellent and equal to that of conventional appendiceal WDETs.
  • These neoplasms, which represent a lipid-rich variant of appendiceal WDETs, do not have different relevant clinical implications compared with conventional WDETs, but it is important to know of their existence for the differential diagnosis with more aggressive neoplasms, including goblet cell carcinoids and appendiceal metastases from clear cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Child. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20395531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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43. Koopmans NG, Kwee HW, Heemskerk J: [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A1154
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  • [Title] [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid].
  • The patient underwent an appendicectomy of the inflamed appendix with periappendicular infiltrate.
  • However, histological examination revealed a small goblet cell carcinoid, histological group C, with acute inflammation.
  • Several tumour cells were present in a lymph duct at the appendix base.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20619032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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44. Orta L, Trindade AJ, Luo J, Harpaz N: Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is a neoplastic complication of IBD: case-control study of primary appendiceal neoplasms. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2009 Mar;15(3):415-21
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  • [Title] Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is a neoplastic complication of IBD: case-control study of primary appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although IBD frequently involves the appendix microscopically, it is uncertain whether it also predisposes to appendiceal neoplasia.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of incidental appendiceal neoplasms in colectomy specimens of adults with and without IBD (cases and controls, respectively) based on surgical pathology records spanning 54 months.
  • To minimize referral bias, patients were excluded if they had preoperative clinical evidence or a principal pathologic diagnosis of appendiceal disease.
  • RESULTS: Eleven appendiceal cystadenomas and 6 appendiceal carcinoid tumors were identified among 705 IBD cases (377 ulcerative colitis, 317 Crohn's disease, 11 indeterminate colitis) and 498 non-IBD controls meeting our inclusion criteria.
  • Appendiceal carcinoids were equally prevalent in cases and controls (4/705 [0.6%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], OR 1.4 [95% CI 0.3-7.8]), cases with synchronous neoplasia and controls (1/69 [1.4%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], OR 3.6 [95% CI 0.3-40.8]), and cases with and without synchronous colorectal neoplasia (1/69 [1.4%] versus 3/636 [0.5%], OR 3.1 [95% CI 0.3-30.2]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: IBD with synchronous colorectal dysplasia or cancer is a risk factor for development of appendiceal cystadenomas, implicating this tumor as a neoplastic complication of IBD.
  • IBD does not predispose to the development of appendiceal carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / etiology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / etiology. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 May;16(5):735 [19705419.001]
  • (PMID = 18989894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4844
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Neves GR, Chapchap P, Sredni ST, Viana CR, Mendes WL: Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center. Sao Paulo Med J; 2006 Jan 5;124(1):21-5
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  • [Title] Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors are very rare both in children and adults.
  • About 85% of these tumors develop in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The objective of the present study was to describe our experience with children treated of carcinoid tumors, and investigate the frequency morphological findings and results.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Report on case series, at the Department of Pediatrics of Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Câncer, São Paulo.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical pathological data and outcomes among children (< 18 years old) with carcinoid tumors admitted from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2001.
  • In eight cases (89%), the primary tumor site was the appendix and in one (11%) it was the left bronchus.
  • For those with primary tumor in the appendix, the main complaint was abdominal pain, which led to appendectomy.
  • Only one patient underwent right hemicolectomy due to tumor extension into the serosa.
  • The patient with bronchial tumor underwent left pneumonectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the majority of carcinoid tumors arise from the appendix, these tumors can also occur in other primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16612458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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46. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Kapran Y, Yanik BT, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient. West Indian Med J; 2007 Mar;56(2):187-9
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  • [Title] Synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient.
  • Carcinoid tumours have been reported in a wide range of organs but most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Many of these carcinoid tumours are associated with metachronous and synchronous lesions of another histological type.
  • Primary carcinoid tumours of the different organ in the same patient is rare.
  • In this paper, the authors present a case with synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cecal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17910153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3144
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Indian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Indian Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Jamaica
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47. Stamatakos M, Stefanaki Ch, Tsaknaki S, Safioleas P, Iannescu R, Safioleas M: Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix: an update. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2009 Jul-Aug;104(4):389-92
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  • [Title] Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix: an update.
  • Adenocarcinoid arising in the vermiform appendix is a rarity.
  • The diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma has never been made preoperatively and is frequently an incidental finding at the time of operation for unrelated conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Humans. Incidental Findings. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19886044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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48. Avenel P, McKendrick A, Silapaswan S, Kolachalam R, Kestenberg W, Ferguson L, Jacobs MJ, Goriel Y, Mittal V: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: an increasing incidence of rectal distribution. Am Surg; 2010 Jul;76(7):759-63
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal carcinoids: an increasing incidence of rectal distribution.
  • Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing and usually become symptomatic late in the course of the disease.
  • We evaluated our 10-year experience in the management of GI carcinoid tumors.
  • The records of 133 patients with GI carcinoids were reviewed.
  • The rectum was the most common site for carcinoid tumors with an incidence of 30 per cent followed by jejunoileal at 29.3 per cent.
  • Other sites of carcinoid tumors were the appendix (8.3%), colon (8.3%), and duodenum (3.8%).
  • Endoscopy was the most helpful modality in diagnosing GI carcinoids.
  • CT was not helpful in preoperative diagnosis of carcinoid tumor.
  • Fifteen patients died in follow-up with eight deaths related to carcinoid tumors, in the small bowel (6), rectum (1), and colon (1).
  • Overall survival was 68.7 per cent and mortality rate was 19.5 per cent from carcinoid tumors.
  • Most of the deaths occurred in patients with carcinoid syndrome, synchronous malignancy, and malignant carcinoid tumors.
  • Screening colonoscopy, in addition to decreasing colorectal adenocarcinoma mortality, is useful in diagnosing carcinoid tumors at an earlier stage and in decreasing mortality from malignant colorectal carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20698387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Louthan O: [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1056-9
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  • [Title] [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoid appendixu s pohárkovými bunkami.
  • Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids are mixed tumors including neuroendocrine cells and intestinal type of goblet cells.
  • Compared to typical carcinoids, goblet cell carcinoids are malignant tumors with degree of malignity differing from case to case.
  • Carcinoid syndrom is not present.
  • There is poor prognosis in larger tumors.
  • Appendectomy is a sufficient therapeutical approach in small tumors, hemicolectomy should be performed in larger ones.
  • There is limited experience with chemotherapy in metastasizing tumors and sporadic with somatostatin analogues.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20017437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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50. Nonaka D, Kusamura S, Baratti D, Casali P, Younan R, Deraco M: CDX-2 expression in pseudomyxoma peritonei: a clinicopathological study of 42 cases. Histopathology; 2006 Oct;49(4):381-7
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  • The appendix evaluated in 25 cases showed two mucinous adenocarcinomas and 21 low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms.
  • This is a useful marker to confirm an appendiceal origin of PMP, particularly when used in conjunction with CK7, CK20, MUC-2 and MUC-5AC.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-2. Mucins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16978201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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51. Feo CF, Porcu A, Scanu AM, Ginesu GC, Fancellu A, Lorettu A, Dettori G: Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jul-Sep;94(3):224-7
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  • [Title] Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases.
  • We report our experience on 10 patients with primary tumors of the appendix treated at our institution from 1998 to 2005.
  • Six tumors were malignant, and the remaining were benign.
  • Two of the four patients with benign tumors died from causes unrelated to the appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The 6 patients with malignant tumors and the other 2 with benign disease were alive and disease free after a mean follow-up of 43 months.
  • Despite the rarity of appendiceal primary tumors, surgeons should be aware of these neoplasms for making correct treatment decisions.
  • We stress the importance of laparoscopic exploration in the management of appendiceal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20187516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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52. Tang LH, Shia J, Soslow RA, Dhall D, Wong WD, O'Reilly E, Qin J, Paty P, Weiser MR, Guillem J, Temple L, Sobin LH, Klimstra DS: Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;32(10):1429-43
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  • [Title] Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • Appendiceal tumors exhibiting both neuroendocrine and glandular differentiation are uncommon and have caused difficulty in pathologic classification, prediction of prognosis, and clinical management.
  • Previously, such lesions have been variously designated as adenocarcinoid, goblet cell carcinoid (GCC), and mixed adenocarcinoma carcinoid.
  • In this study, we undertook a retrospective investigation of 63 such cases and classified them as typical GCC (group A) and adenocarcinoma ex GCC on the basis of the histologic features of the tumor at the primary site.
  • The clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared within these groups and with conventional de novo appendiceal adenocarcinomas.
  • Both groups A and B tumors shared a similar immunoprofile, which included generally focal immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers, and a normal intestinal type mucin glycoprotein profile (negative MUC1 expression and preserved MUC2 immunoreactivity).
  • The proliferative index was relatively low in these tumors and slightly increased from groups A to B tumors (11% to 16%).
  • Both beta-catenin and E-cadherin exhibited a normal membranous staining pattern in groups A and B tumors.
  • Although most patients (63%) with GCC presented at an advanced clinical stage, their clinical outcome could be differentiated by subclassification of tumors.
  • In conclusion, GCC is a distinctive appendiceal neoplasm that exhibits unique pathologic features and clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology


53. Barry M, Collins CG, McCawley N, McGuinness J, Leahy AL: Synchronous appendiceal tumours. Surgeon; 2007 Apr;5(2):111-3
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  • [Title] Synchronous appendiceal tumours.
  • Primary appendiceal neoplasms are a rare clinical and pathological entity.
  • We report a case of synchronous appendiceal tumours of different histological types which presented as a symptomatic palpable and radiologically apparent mass in the right iliac fossa.
  • Furthermore, some of the controversies associated with the management of an appendix mass in the elderly population are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17450695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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54. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Perren A, Hsieh E, Chetty R: CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):252-7
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  • [Title] CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix.
  • The immunoexpression of CK19 recently has been identified as a marker of poor prognosis in pancreatic endocrine tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to explore CK19 and CD99 immunostaining in mucin-producing neuroendocrine (goblet cell) and classical carcinoids of the appendix.
  • Eighteen goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) and 20 classic carcinoids were stained with CK19, CD99, and Ki-67, and these results were correlated with known pathological features of aggression: extent of invasion, mitoses, necrosis, and histological pattern.
  • All 18 GCCs were CK19 strongly positive, whereas 16/20 classic carcinoids were also CK19 positive.
  • Fourteen of 18 GCCs and 14/20 classic carcinoids were CD99 positive.
  • CK19/CD99 immunoexpression did not correlate with extent of tumor invasion and mesoappendiceal extension, mitotic activity, Ki-67 labeling index, presence of extracellular mucinous pools dissecting muscle, and angiolymphatic and perineural/neural invasion.
  • There is no difference in the immunostaining for CK19 and CD99 between GCCs and classic carcinoids, and both types of neuroendocrine tumor show the same extent of expression of both markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Keratin-19 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17652531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Keratin-19
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55. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Chetty R: Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 21;15(27):3431-3
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  • [Title] Combined goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma of the vermiform appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid is an uncommon primary tumor of the vermiform appendix, characterized by dual endocrine and glandular differentiation.
  • Whether goblet cell carcinoid represents a morphological variant of appendiceal classical carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is a matter of conjecture.
  • Rare cases of goblet cell carcinoid with other concomitant appendiceal epithelial neoplasms have been documented.
  • In this report, we describe a rare case of combined appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid and mucinous cystadenoma, and discuss the possible histopathogenesis of this combination.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19610147.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712907
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56. Levy AD, Sobin LH: From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison. Radiographics; 2007 Jan-Feb;27(1):237-57
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: imaging features with clinicopathologic comparison.
  • Gastrointestinal carcinoids are well-differentiated endocrine neoplasms that belong to a diverse group of tumors that arise from cells of the diffuse endocrine system.
  • A wide variety of specialized endocrine cells that populate the gastrointestinal mucosa and submucosa give rise to carcinoids.
  • Consequently, carcinoids may occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract and produce a variety of hormones and protein products that are associated with specific clinical symptoms.
  • Biologic behavior of carcinoids varies by site and cell type, but all gastrointestinal carcinoids are considered to have malignant potential.
  • Metastatic carcinoids may produce carcinoid syndrome.
  • The small intestine is the most common location for gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • Most small intestinal carcinoids arise from enterochromaffin cells of the distal ileum that produce serotonin.
  • Small intestinal carcinoids often have an aggressive biologic behavior and, as such, patients frequently have metastases to regional lymph nodes and the liver at initial presentation.
  • Pathologic and radiologic manifestations of serotonin-producing small intestinal carcinoids are related to local and regional effects of serotonin and its metabolites.
  • In contrast, carcinoids of the appendix and rectum are commonly discovered incidentally as small lesions that are unassociated with clinical evidence of hormone production and have a more indolent clinical course.
  • Carcinoids of the stomach, duodenum, and colon are uncommon but have distinctive clinical, pathologic, and radiologic appearances.
  • Knowledge of the diverse clinical, pathologic, and radiologic spectrum of gastrointestinal carcinoids is important in the imaging and management of patients with suspected carcinoids or focal gastrointestinal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods

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  • (PMID = 17235010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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57. Cunningham JL, Janson ET, Agarwal S, Grimelius L, Stridsberg M: Tachykinins in endocrine tumors and the carcinoid syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;159(3):275-82
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  • [Title] Tachykinins in endocrine tumors and the carcinoid syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: A new antibody, active against the common tachykinin (TK) C-terminal, was used to study TK expression in patients with endocrine tumors and a possible association between plasma-TK levels and symptoms of diarrhea and flush in patients with metastasizing ileocecal serotonin-producing carcinoid tumors (MSPCs).
  • METHOD: TK, serotonin and chromogranin A (CgA) immunoreactivity (IR) was studied by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from 33 midgut carcinoids and 72 other endocrine tumors.
  • Circulating TK (P-TK) and urinary-5 hydroxyindoleacetic acid (U-5HIAA) concentrations were measured in 42 patients with MSPCs before treatment and related to symptoms in patients with the carcinoid syndrome.
  • TK-IR was also seen in all serotonin-producing lung and appendix carcinoids.
  • None of the other tumors examined contained TK-IR cells.
  • CONCLUSION: We found that TK synthesis occurs in serotonin-IR tumors and that P-TK levels are significantly correlated with symptoms of flush and diarrhea in patients with MSPCs.
  • This is, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating an independent correlation of P-TKs with carcinoid diarrhea, a symptom that is customarily regarded as serotonin mediated.

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  • (PMID = 18524798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tachykinins
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58. Gilboa Y, Fridman E, Ofir K, Achiron R: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: ultrasound findings in early pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2008 May;31(5):576-8
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: ultrasound findings in early pregnancy.
  • Ultrasound examination of a woman in early pregnancy with right lower quadrant abdominal pain demonstrated an edematous appendix with amorphous fluid surrounding the appendix.
  • On pathological evaluation following surgical removal of the appendix a rare case of carcinoid tumor of the appendix was diagnosed.
  • This is the first description of the transvaginal ultrasound features of a carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoid Tumor / ultrasonography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 ISUOG
  • (PMID = 18393270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Nikou GC, Lygidakis NJ, Toubanakis C, Pavlatos S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Giannatou E, Mallas E, Safioleas M: Current diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoids in a series of 101 patients: the significance of serum chromogranin-A, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin analogues. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 May-Jun;52(63):731-41
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  • [Title] Current diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoids in a series of 101 patients: the significance of serum chromogranin-A, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin analogues.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoids are relatively rare tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells and have proved to be slow growing malignancies which involve many organs and most frequently the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
  • Herein we present in this study 101 pts with carcinoid tumors that originated from the GI tract and pancreas.
  • The primary tumors originated from the GI tract in 97/101 pts (appendix 34%, small intestine 31%, stomach 14%, duodenum 6%, colon 6%, rectum 3%) and from the pancreas in 4/101 (4%).
  • The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in all cases, after surgical excision of the primary tumor or by biopsies taken during endoscopy.
  • All pts were evaluated several times per year with clinical, biochemical and imaging assessments, including neuroendocrine markers [urinary 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), serum Chromogranin-A (CgA)] and Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (OCTREOSCAN).
  • RESULTS: Patients were referred to us with gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms of the "carcinoid syndrome" (flushing, and diarrhea), depending mainly on the location of the primary tumors and the existence or not of metastases.
  • CgA and 5-HIAA levels were increased especially in metastatic tumors.
  • Localization of the primary tumors to facilitate surgery was made by many imaging techniques (US, CT, MRI, Enteroclysis, OCTREOSCAN) and endoscopic procedures.
  • Furthermore, it revealed the primary and the metastatic lesions in 16% and 33% of pts with carcinoids of the small intestine respectively, while other conventional imaging procedures (including MRI) were negative at the same time.
  • Seventy-four percent of the pts underwent a surgical resection of the primary tumor, while in 21%, an endoscopic polypectomy was performed.
  • All pts with metastatic tumors and positive OCTREOSCAN, were treated with Somatostatin analogues, which resulted in control of symptoms (75%), stabilization of tumor growth (71%) or tumor shrinkage (9%).
  • Pancreatic carcinoids and also those that originated from the proximal colon were found to have worst prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: a) Tumor size (especially in appendiceal and gastric carcinoids) and, also, the dispersion of disease, highly predict the evolution of the patients;.
  • b) serum Chromogranin-A seems to be a very useful tumor marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of pts with GI carcinoids;.
  • c) the introduction of new imaging techniques and especially OCTREOSCAN contributes to a better localization of the primary tumors and their metastases, as well as, to the right decision of the appropriate medical treatment;.
  • d) surgical excision is the treatment of choice in nonmetastatic tumors; and e) in pts with metastatic disease, the administration of Somatostatin analogues improves their quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Chromogranins / blood. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Somatostatin / blood. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15966194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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60. Dall'Igna P, Ferrari A, Luzzatto C, Bisogno G, Casanova M, Alaggio R, Terenziani M, Cecchetto G: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2005 Feb;40(2):216-9
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although rare, carcinoid tumor of the appendix is the most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents.
  • The experience with 14 cases of carcinoid reported in the appendix is described.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In six patients the tumor measured 1 cm or less; only in one patient did it measure 2 cm.
  • In three patients the tumor measured between 1 and 2 cm and in four the size was not known.
  • All tumors were discovered by chance, and three patients underwent further surgery as a result of suspected involvement of the margins.
  • In our experience, both patients with local invasiveness and the patient with a tumor larger than 2 cm had good outcomes.
  • Ileocolectomy performed in the patient with a 2-cm tumor and in another two patients with smaller tumors did not demonstrate residual disease.
  • Although the need for right hemicolectomy still remains controversial for tumors measuring more than 2 cm, the approach may be nonaggressive in case of tumors invading the serosa and the periappendiceal fat.
  • Nonaggressive treatment has been suggested by some authors in cases of tumors larger than 2 cm; however, larger series need to be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis


61. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Shapiro MD: Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Gastroenterology; 2005 May;128(6):1717-51
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  • [Title] Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids are ill-understood, enigmatic malignancies, which, although slow growing compared with adenocarcinomas, can behave aggressively.
  • Carcinoids are classified based on organ site and cell of origin and occur most frequently in the GI (67%) where they are most common in small intestine (25%), appendix (12%), and rectum (14%).
  • Local manifestations--mass, bleeding, obstruction, or perforation--reflect invasion or tumor-induced fibrosis and often result in incidental detection at emergency surgery.
  • Local endoscopic excision for gastric (type I and II) and rectal carcinoids may be adequate.
  • Overall 5-year survival for carcinoids of the appendix is 98%, gastric (types I/II) is 81%, rectum is 87%, small intestinal is 60%, colonic carcinoids is 62%, and gastric type III/IV is 33%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy


62. Summers HG, Loftus EV Jr, Sebo TJ, Durski JM: Appendiceal carcinoid mimicking a Meckel's diverticulum on Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Apr;35(4):277-9
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  • [Title] Appendiceal carcinoid mimicking a Meckel's diverticulum on Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Meckel Diverticulum / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m

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  • (PMID = 20305424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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63. Yong Jiang, Huawei Liu, Hu Long, Yingying Yang, Dianying Liao, Xiuhui Zhang: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases from southwest china. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;18(6):488-92
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases from southwest china.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the appendix is characterized by a dual differentiation of both endocrine and gland.
  • Follow-up data showed that 1 patient died from peritoneal metastasis and that the other 17 cases survived free of the tumor.
  • The authors characterize GCC as a special low-grade malignant carcinoma with a primary epithelial differentiation and little neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. China. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Schistosomiasis / complications

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  • (PMID = 20732910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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64. Zhang XD, He CN, Zhai JP, Zhao HF, Chen C, Shi WD: [Goblet cell carcinoid of appendix: report of two cases]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;35(2):126-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Goblet cell carcinoid of appendix: report of two cases].
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16630495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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65. Kaya M, Kanmaz T, Boleken ME, Yücesan S: Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):418-20
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  • [Title] Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case.
  • We report the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom an appendix carcinoid was found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst.
  • Although incidental carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first published case of a choledochal cyst associated with an appendix carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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66. Brustmann H: Myxoglobulosis of the appendix associated with a proximal carcinoid and a pseudodiverticulum. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Jun;10(3):166-8
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  • [Title] Myxoglobulosis of the appendix associated with a proximal carcinoid and a pseudodiverticulum.
  • Intraoperatively, the appendix was enlarged and distended.
  • The lumen of the appendix was tightly filled with pearl-like globules, diagnostic of myxoglobulosis, a rare variant of mucocele of the appendix.
  • A carcinoid of 2.0 cm diameter was found in the proximal region of the appendix.
  • The appendiceal mucosa showed hyperplastic-adenomatous changes.
  • The latter may be an adjunct to the proximal partial obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by the carcinoid in the development of the spheroids of myxoglobulosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Diverticulum, Colon / pathology. Mucocele / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Diagn Pathol. 2006 Aug;10(4):251
  • (PMID = 16730314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Gungor T, Altinkaya O, Ozat M, Sirvan L, Yalcin H, Mollamahmutoglu L: Primary adenocarcinoid tumor of the ovary arising in mature cystic teratoma. A case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(1):110-2
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  • [Title] Primary adenocarcinoid tumor of the ovary arising in mature cystic teratoma. A case report.
  • Primary carcinoid tumors of the ovary are rare, forming 0.3 % of all carcinoid tumors and less than 0.1 % of ovarian malignancies.
  • At laparoscopy, a smooth surfaced, firm and mobile right adnexal mass with solid and cystic portions was detected and the tumor was excised.
  • Pathologic and immunohistochemical examination revealed carcinoid tumor.
  • After the evaluation of gastrointestinal and respiratory systems by imaging and endoscopic studies, no evidence of tumor tissue or metastases were found.
  • All histological findings were similar to the features of mature cystic teratoma and carcinoid tumor.
  • Examination of the resected lymphatic, omental and appendiceal tissue indicated no tumoral invasion.
  • Thus, the diagnosis was primary ovarian carcinoid arising from a mature cystic teratoma.
  • This case, in the setting of a normal appendix and negative workup for an extraovarian origin, is one of a primary ovarian adenocarcinoid tumor.
  • The primary carcinoid tumor should be differentiated from a metastatic carcinoid inside the ovary, which is always bilateral.
  • It is important to be aware of this unusual entity in diagnoses of ovarian tumors, even in the absence of any clinical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology


68. Dang D, DeRenne LA: Goblet Cell Carcinoid Presenting as Appendicitis 1.5 Years After a Normal CT Scan. Radiol Case Rep; 2007;2(2):69-71
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  • [Title] Goblet Cell Carcinoid Presenting as Appendicitis 1.5 Years After a Normal CT Scan.
  • A 60-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis and was found to have goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the appendix.
  • The patient had no evidence of appendiceal disease on a computed tomography study one and a half year before.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor, previous case reports and series did not discuss the time course of the tumor's onset.
  • This case report also discusses relevant histopathological aspects of GCC as pertain to cross-sectional imaging findings and illustrates the importance of considering other types of appendiceal disease in the diagnosis of a patient presenting with acute appendicitis.

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  • (PMID = 27303467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4891629
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography
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69. Encinas JL, Avila LF, García-Cabeza MA, Luis A, Hernández F, Martínez L, Fernández A, Olivares P, Tovar JA: [Bronchial and appendiceal carcinoid tumors]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2006 May;64(5):474-7
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  • [Title] [Bronchial and appendiceal carcinoid tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor carcinoide bronquial y apendicular.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumor (CT) is an unusual neoplasm observed in several locations and associated with the production of vasoactive substances and occasionally with carcinoid syndrome (flushing, diarrhea, wheezing).
  • Eight had CT of the appendix, of which 4 showed the typical clinical presentation of acute appendicitis.
  • Seven of these tumors were localized at the tip of the appendix and measured 2 cm or less.
  • In one patient, the tumor was located at the cecum and measured 3.5 cm.
  • In this patient, reoperation with ileocecal resection was performed.
  • None of the patients showed symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Typical symptoms of acute appendicitis were not observed in half of patients with CT of the appendix.
  • CT associated with carcinoid syndrome is exceptional in pediatric patients.
  • In most CT of the appendix, simple appendicectomy was associated with an excellent prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16756890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-4033
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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70. Landry CS, Woodall C, Scoggins CR, McMasters KM, Martin RC 2nd: Analysis of 900 appendiceal carcinoid tumors for a proposed predictive staging system. Arch Surg; 2008 Jul;143(7):664-70; discussion 670
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of 900 appendiceal carcinoid tumors for a proposed predictive staging system.
  • BACKGROUND: Appendiceal carcinoid tumors (ACTs) are rare, and little is known about the long-term prognosis for these tumors because no staging system exists.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of 15 983 patients with carcinoid tumors in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 2004.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred patients with ACTs (552 females and 348 males; mean age, 47.1 years [age range, 9-89 years]; mean size of the primary tumor, 2.4 cm [range, 0.1-11.5 cm]).
  • At multivariate analysis, patient age, primary tumor size, histologic features, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis were significant factors predicting survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18645109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Sieren LM, Collins JN, Weireter LJ, Britt RC, Reed SF, Novosel TJ, Britt LD: The incidence of benign and malignant neoplasia presenting as acute appendicitis. Am Surg; 2010 Aug;76(8):808-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It is most often secondary to lymphoid hyperplasia, however it can also result from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by a mass.
  • Final pathology revealed four colonic adenocarcinoma; three mucinous tumors; one carcinoid; one endometrioma; and one patient had a combination of a mucinous cystadenoma, a carcinoid tumor, and endometriosis of the appendix.
  • Colonic and appendiceal neoplasia are not unusual etiologies of appendicitis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20726408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Bucher P, Gervaz P, Ris F, Oulhaci W, Inan I, Morel P: Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid. Surg Endosc; 2006 Jun;20(6):967-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid.
  • BACKGROUND: Since an increasing number of appendectomies are performed via laparoscopy, it is crucial to determine the impact of this approach on appendix carcinoid (AC) outcome.
  • Median carcinoid size was 1.1 cm (range, 0.3-5) and 0.4 cm (range, 0.2-3) in the LAP and OP groups, respectively.
  • Two patients died in the OP group, one due to metastatic carcinoid and the other due to metachronous colorectal cancer.
  • Prognosis of AC appears more dependent on carcinoid malignant potential or associated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16738993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Arnold R, McCallion K, McGailie C: Goblet cell carcinoids of the appendix. Ulster Med J; 2006 Jan;75(1):40-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoids of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16457403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-6193
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ulster medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulster Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Northern Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1891799
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74. Louthan O: [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1051-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumours of the appendix].
  • According to WHO, neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix (appendiceal carcinoids) are defined as 1. well-differentiated endocrine tumors with benign or uncertain behavior, 2. well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma and 3. goblet cell carcinoma.
  • These tumors are usually diagnosed incidentally during appendectomy.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is rare in appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Tumor size greater than 2 cm is the most important parameter for prognosis.
  • Most patients are cured by appendectomy (appendiceal tumors < or = 2 cm), tumors with a diameter > 2 cm should be managed by right hemicolectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Neuroendocrine Tumors

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  • (PMID = 20017436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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75. Yan TD, Brun EA, Sugarbaker PH: Discordant histology of primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 May;15(5):1440-6
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  • [Title] Discordant histology of primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoid is a rare appendiceal tumor that shows histologically both epithelial and neuroendocrine components.
  • We observed that some patients have peritoneal dissemination, which shows adenocarcinoma but lacks the neuroendocrine histology.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with peritoneal dissemination from primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid tumors underwent cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
  • All resected specimens were individually submitted for histopathological examination and immunostaining with three neuroendocrine markers.
  • The loss of the neuroendocrine tumor type in peritoneal implants was referred to as discordant feature of the adenocarcinoid tumor.
  • RESULTS: In nine of the 26 patients (35%) with a primary adenocarcinoid of the appendix, a loss of the neuroendocrine immunochemical marker was noted in peritoneal implants.
  • Discordant histology between the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid and the peritoneal implants was statistically significantly associated with an improved survival (p = 0.0262), when patients were treated by cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Discordant histology of the primary appendiceal tumor as compared to the peritoneal lesions occurs frequently in patients with adenocarcinoid.
  • An assessment of neuroendocrine markers in both primary and peritoneal lesions may help in the clinical assessment of this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18299936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. San Vicente B, Bardají C, Rigol S, Obiols P, Melo M, Bella R: [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children]. Cir Pediatr; 2009 Apr;22(2):97-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio retrospectivo del tumor carcinoide apendicular en niños.
  • Carcinoids of the appendix are rare in children.
  • To investigate the significance of the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumors in children, we conducted a retrospective study in our institution.
  • In four patients the diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoid.
  • The median tumor diameter was lower than 1 cm and the appropriate treatment was appendectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendix. Carcinoid Tumor. Cecal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19715134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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77. Hendi JM, Horton KM, Fishman EK: Somatostatinoma of the ampulla and appendical carcinoid in a patient with von Recklinghausen disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2005 May-Jun;29(3):418-9
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  • [Title] Somatostatinoma of the ampulla and appendical carcinoid in a patient with von Recklinghausen disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 1 / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis


78. Liu E, Telem DA, Hwang J, Warner RR, Dikman A, Divino CM: The clinical utility of Ki-67 in assessing tumor biology and aggressiveness in patients with appendiceal carcinoids. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep 15;102(4):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical utility of Ki-67 in assessing tumor biology and aggressiveness in patients with appendiceal carcinoids.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the correlation of Ki-67 with tumor biology and survival in appendiceal carcinoid tumors.
  • METHOD: A retrospective chart review conducted on 51 patients with appendiceal carcinoid tumors who underwent surgical intervention from 1991 to 2008.
  • RESULT: Of the 51 patients, 32 had tumors <2 cm; 3 >2 cm; and 16 with unspecified tumor size.
  • Increased MIB proliferative index did not significantly correlate with increasing tumor size (P = 0.426).
  • No correlation was demonstrated by MIB index and tumor size or presentation with metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20607756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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79. Roy P, Chetty R: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Jun 15;2(6):251-8
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid is an enigmatic and rare tumor involving the appendix almost exclusively.
  • Various other names have been used for this entity such as adenocarcinoid, mucinous carcinoid, crypt cell carcinoma, and mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor, although none have been found to be completely satisfactory or universally accepted.
  • The tumor is thought to arise from pluripotent intestinal epithelial crypt-base stem cells by dual neuroendocrine and mucinous differentiation.
  • The histologic hallmark of this entity is the presence of clusters of goblet cells in the lamina propria or submucosa stain for various neuroendocrine markers, though the intensity is often patchy.
  • Recently molecular studies have shown these tumors to lack the signatures of adenocarcinoma but they have some changes similar to that of ileal carcinoids (allelic loss of chromosome 11q, 16q and 18q).
  • The natural history of GCC is intermediate between carcinoids and adenocarcinomas of the appendix.
  • There is some debate about the surgical approach for these tumors, and a summary of published series and recommendations are provided.

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  • (PMID = 21160637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2998842
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Appendiceal neoplasm / Goblet cell carcinoid / Mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor of appendix
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80. Chetty R, Serra S: Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):401-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid.
  • The so-called clear cell change has been described in neuroendocrine tumors at several locations.
  • However, lipid has not been demonstrated in all cases of clear cell carcinoid tumors.
  • Such variants have not been described in carcinoid tumors of the appendix and cases with a prominent proportion of clear or more correctly, lipid-rich cytoplasm may bear a superficial resemblance to goblet cell carcinoid and/or signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • Seven cases, in 5 females and 2 males ranging in age from 22 to 65 years, were noted to have a population of lipid-rich and vacuolated clear cells accounting for 25% or more of the tumor population.
  • The carcinoid tumors were incidental in all cases with 4 of patients presenting with appendicitis, 2 with concomitant mucinous cystadenocarcinomas of the appendix and 1 with an adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon.
  • Morphologically, the tumors had a nested and trabecular pattern and were composed of an admixture of microvesicular and clear lipid-rich cells.
  • The importance of recognizing this variant of carcinoid tumor in the appendix is to avoid confusion with goblet cell carcinoid tumors with or without a signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • The presence of multi-vacuolated, foamy and clear cells, some resembling signet ring or goblet cells, in otherwise classic carcinoid tumors is rare but should be considered in this context in the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Vacuoles / chemistry. Vacuoles / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20139759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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81. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Batich K: Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1259-60; author reply 1260-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / classification. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Oct;32(10):1429-43 [18685490.001]
  • (PMID = 19471156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Patel S, Heetun M, Gurjar SV, Szakacs S: A rare case of intra-cardiac metastasis from an appendiceal carcinoid tumour without liver metastases. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2009 Aug;24(8):993-4
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  • [Title] A rare case of intra-cardiac metastasis from an appendiceal carcinoid tumour without liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Heart Disease / etiology. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Myocardium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19387658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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83. West NE, Wise PE, Herline AJ, Muldoon RL, Chopp WV, Schwartz DA: Carcinoid tumors are 15 times more common in patients with Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2007 Sep;13(9):1129-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors are 15 times more common in patients with Crohn's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: The coexistence of intestinal neoplasms with Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported, but the evidence of an increased risk of carcinoid tumor with Crohn's disease has been mixed.
  • We present 4 patients with CD with associated carcinoid tumor.
  • The number of incidental carcinoid tumors in patients who underwent an appendectomy was used as a control.
  • RESULTS: Four cases of carcinoid tumor discovered in patients at resection for CD were identified.
  • None had metastatic disease or carcinoid syndrome.
  • These included 1 cecal (1 mm), 2 appendiceal (3 and 7 mm), and 1 transverse colon (7 mm) carcinoid tumors.
  • None of the carcinoid tumors were identified in regions of active Crohn's disease.
  • The incidence of carcinoid tumor in patients with Crohn's disease was 4 of 111 (3.6%).
  • In comparison, 3 of 1199 patients (0.25%) who had appendectomies were identified as having appendiceal carcinoid tumor.
  • Crohn's disease was associated with an increased incidence of carcinoid tumor; OR 14.9 (95% CI 2.5-102.5), P<0.0001.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There was a significantly increased incidence of carcinoid tumor in our Crohn's patients compared to the control patients.
  • None of the carcinoid tumors developed in areas of Crohn's disease.
  • This suggests that the development of carcinoid tumors may be secondary to distant proinflammatory mediators, rather than a local inflammatory effect from adjacent Crohn's disease.
  • Patients with CD may be at increased risk of developing a carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Crohn Disease / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Nov;14(11):1613-4 [18521905.001]
  • (PMID = 17538985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0998
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Kontzoglou K, Stamoulis J, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Lygidakis NJ: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):123-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are thought to be the most common type of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although the vast majority of appendiceal carcinoids behave in a benign fashion, they are considered malignant because they all have the potential for invasion, metastasis and production of physiologically active substances.
  • Also, patients with tumor size more than 1cm underwent a Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (Octreoscan).
  • RESULTS: The most common site for the tumors was the tip of the appendix (18/22).
  • In sixteen patients the tumor size was less than 1cm, in seven patients the tumor diameter was measured to be 1 to 2cm and in one patient the tumor was 3cm.
  • Most of our patients (16/22) underwent only an appendicectomy, while in the rest of them (in the patients with tumor size between 1-2cm and in the patient with invasion of mesoappendix) a right hemicolectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix, in most cases, are found incidentally during appendicectomies, especially in young females and usually are less than 1cm in size, which is probably the reason of the absence of metastases in all cases.
  • Histological examination and size of the tumor are important factors that contribute to the selection of the surgical treatment and both must be estimated by the surgeons to make the final choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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85. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Eick GN, Mane SM, Camp RL: Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Surg; 2006 Jul;244(1):52-60
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  • [Title] Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use differential gene expression of candidate markers to discriminate benign appendiceal carcinoids (APCs) from malignant and mixed cell APCs.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy exists in regard to the appropriate surgical management of APCs since it is sometimes difficult to predict tumor behavior using traditional pathologic criteria.
  • We have identified 5 differentially expressed genes (a mitosis-regulatory gene NAP1L1, an adhesin MAGE-D2, an estrogen-antagonist, the metastasis marker MTA1, the apoptotic marker NALP, and chromogranin A) that define gut neuroendocrine cell behavior.
  • METHODS: Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent from 42 appendiceal samples, including appendiceal carcinoids identified at exploration for appendicitis (no evidence of metastasis; n = 16), appendicitis specimens (n = 11), malignant appendiceal tumors (> 1.5 cm, evidence of metastatic invasion; n = 7), and mixed (goblet) cell appendiceal adenocarcinoids (n = 3), normal appendiceal tissue (n = 5), and 5 colorectal cancers.
  • RESULTS: CgA message was elevated (> 1000-fold, P < 0.05) in all tumor types.
  • MAGE-D2 and MTA1 message were significantly elevated (> 10-fold, P < 0.01) in the malignant and goblet cell adenocarcinoid tumors but not in the appendicitis-associated carcinoids or normal mucosa.
  • The apoptotic marker, NALP1, was overexpressed (> 50-fold, P < 0.05) in the appendicitis-associated and malignant appendiceal carcinoids but was significantly decreased (> 10-fold, P < 0.05) in the goblet cell adenocarcinoids.
  • Elevated CgA transcript and protein levels indicative of a carcinoid tumor were identified in one acute appendicitis sample with no histologic evidence of a tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that malignant APCs and goblet cell adenocarcinoids have elevated expression of NAP1L1, MAGE-D2, and MTA1 compared with appendiceal carcinoids identified at surgery for appendicitis.
  • This and the differences in NALP1 gene expression (decreased in goblet cell adenocarcinoids) provide a series of molecular signatures that differentiate carcinoids of the appendix.
  • CgA identified all appendiceal tumors as well as covert lesions, which may be more prevalent than previously recognized.
  • The molecular delineation of malignant appendiceal tumor potential provides a scientific basis to define the appropriate surgical management as opposed to morphologic assessment alone.

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  • (PMID = 16794389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / MAGED2 protein, human; 0 / NAP1L1 protein, human; 0 / NLRP1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1570599
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86. Shapiro R, Eldar S, Sadot E, Venturero M, Papa MZ, Zippel DB: The significance of occult carcinoids in the era of laparoscopic appendectomies. Surg Endosc; 2010 Sep;24(9):2197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The significance of occult carcinoids in the era of laparoscopic appendectomies.
  • BACKGROUND: We present data acquired in our institution about the incidence of incidental appendiceal carcinoids over a period of 16 years.
  • The possibility of occult carcinoids raises the question of appendectomy of a noninflamed appendix during diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis.
  • Outcome measures were the incidence of incidental carcinoids of the appendix found during appendectomies and whether the introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy should alter the surgical management of a normal-appearing appendix.
  • RESULTS: A total of 20 carcinoid appendices were resected by open surgery and 17 by laparoscopy.
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor was not suspected in any patient before the operation, nor was a tumor identified at the time of the operation.
  • In 6 (16%) patients the appendix appeared normal at the time of the operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It has long been the standard of care to remove any appendix found in laparotomy for suspected appendicitis, but it is not clear what should be done during laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis when the appendix appears normal.
  • Our data confirm the presence of occult carcinoids in normal-appearing appendices.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20174936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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87. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • Endocrine tumors (ET) of the digestive tract (formerly called neuroendocrine tumors) are rare.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • The carcinoid syndrome (consisting of abdominal pain, flushing, diarrhea, hypertension, bronchospasm, and right sided cardiac vegetations) is caused by the hypersecretion of serotonin into the systemic circulation; it occurs in 10% of cases and is usually associated with hepatic metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • For gastrinoma with NEM-I, the benefit of surgical resection for tumors less than 2-3 cm in size is not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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88. Jaffee IM, Rahmani M, Singhal MG, Younes M: Expression of the intestinal transcription factor CDX2 in carcinoid tumors is a marker of midgut origin. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1522-6
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  • [Title] Expression of the intestinal transcription factor CDX2 in carcinoid tumors is a marker of midgut origin.
  • CONTEXT: Carcinoid tumors are classified according to their site of origin into foregut, midgut, or hindgut carcinoids, which have different presentations and prognosis.
  • The intestinal transcription factor CDX2 has been found to be expressed in most intestinal adenocarcinomas but in less than one half of the gastrointestinal carcinoids according to 1 study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CDX2 expression in carcinoid tumors varies by the site of origin and whether CDX2 expression is retained in metastatic disease.
  • Design.-Sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue from 36 primary carcinoid tumors and 5 cases of metastatic carcinoid to the liver were immunohistochemically stained for CDX2.
  • RESULTS: All 18 foregut carcinoids (10 pulmonary and 8 gastric) were negative (0%) for CDX2.
  • All 11 midgut carcinoids (100%) were positive for CDX2 with moderate to strong staining in more than 50% of the cells.
  • Only 2 (29%) of 7 of hindgut carcinoids were CDX2-positive with the 2 positive cases showing weak to moderate staining intensity in less than 10% of the cells.
  • Expression of CDX2 in more than 50% of tumor cells was seen only in midgut carcinoids (P < .001).
  • CDX2 expression in metastatic tumors was consistent with the site of origin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Midgut carcinoid tumors and their metastases are distinct from foregut and hindgut carcinoids in that they express high levels of CDX2.
  • Additional studies are needed to determine whether CDX2 immunostaining may be helpful in determining the primary site of metastatic carcinoid tumors of unknown origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestine, Small. Intestines / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Rectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Staining and Labeling. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein
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89. Couvelard A: [Appendicular pathology. Goblet cell carcinoid]. Ann Pathol; 2010 Apr;30(2):120-3
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  • [Title] [Appendicular pathology. Goblet cell carcinoid].
  • [Transliterated title] Pathologie de l'appendice. Cas no 6. Carcinoïde à cellules caliciformes (adénocarcinoïde).
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendicitis / etiology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcian Blue. Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranin A / analysis. Coloring Agents. Female. Humans. Keratin-20 / analysis. Middle Aged. Mucin-2 / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 20451070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; P4448TJR7J / Alcian Blue
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90. Northrop JA, Lee JH: Large bowel carcinoid tumors. Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2007 Jan;23(1):74-8
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  • [Title] Large bowel carcinoid tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal carcinoids comprise 90% of all carcinoid tumors and all carcinoids have malignant potential.
  • This review focuses on the morphology, prognosis, detection and treatment for appendiceal, colonic and rectal carcinoids.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Computed tomography exists as an initial examination for the primary carcinoid tumor as well as for metastases.
  • Octreotide scanning has a sensitivity of primary tumor detection of 90%; additionally, I- or I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scanning and tracer-specific positron emission tomographic scans have demonstrated encouraging results.
  • Further advancements in treatment with tumor-targeted therapy and biochemical evaluation of carcinoids have shown promise.
  • SUMMARY: The recent progress with scintigraphic and radiologic modalities has provided better means for diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinoid tumors.
  • These newly discovered diagnostic modalities have been more encouraging than the recent treatment approaches that have been studied with regard to metastatic carcinoids.
  • While surgery remains the mainstay of treatment of nonmetastatic carcinoid, there have been studies for various medical treatments of metastatic disease.
  • Unfortunately, there have been disappointing results with regard to improvement of tumor response and patient survival, but a foundation has been established for future trials employing alternative agents and exploration of combination therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Intestine, Large / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17133089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0267-1379
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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91. Zafar S, Chen H, Sun W, Das K: Cytology of metastatic appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid in pleural effusion fluid: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):894-8
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  • [Title] Cytology of metastatic appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid in pleural effusion fluid: a case report.
  • Goblet cell appendiceal carcinoid (GCAC) is a rare neoplasm.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass involving the base of the appendix, ascites and concomitant pleural effusion.
  • The appendiceal mass was biopsied and diagnosed as a GCAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Zhang HY, Rumilla KM, Jin L, Nakamura N, Stilling GA, Ruebel KH, Hobday TJ, Erlichman C, Erickson LA, Lloyd RV: Association of DNA methylation and epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A and beta-catenin with metastasis in small bowel carcinoid tumors. Endocrine; 2006 Dec;30(3):299-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of DNA methylation and epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A and beta-catenin with metastasis in small bowel carcinoid tumors.
  • We analyzed promoter methylation of RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CDH1, LAMB3, LAMC2, RUNX3, NORE1A, and CAV1 using methylation-specific PCR in 33 cases of small bowel carcinoid with both matched primary and metastatic tumors.
  • The methylation status of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were also determined in six primary appendiceal carcinoid tumors.
  • Two neuroendocrine cell lines, NCI-H727 and HTB-119, were analyzed for promoter methylation.
  • Immunohistochemical analyses for RASSF1A and beta-catenin were performed in 28 matched primary and metastatic tumors.
  • RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were unmethylated in appendiceal carcinoids.
  • Methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 promoters was more frequent in metastatic compared to primary tumors (p = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively).
  • These results suggest that increased methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 may play important roles in progression and metastasis of small bowel carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. DNA Methylation. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. CpG Islands. DNA Mutational Analysis. Enterochromaffin Cells / metabolism. Epigenesis, Genetic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17526942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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93. Terada T: Non-invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Vermiform Appendix: Incidence and Report of Four Cases among 512 Appendectomies. Gastroenterology Res; 2009 Aug;2(4):238-241
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  • [Title] Non-invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Vermiform Appendix: Incidence and Report of Four Cases among 512 Appendectomies.
  • : Tumors of the vermiform appendix are relatively rare.
  • More than 50% of appendiceal tumors are carcinoid tumors.
  • The author reviewed 512 consecutive pathological specimens of appendectomies in last ten years in our pathology laboratory in search for appendiceal tumors.
  • No other tumors including carcinoid tumors were recognized.
  • Pathologically, all the 4 tumors were non-invasive adenocarcinomas: 2 cases were flat type adenocarcinoma, 1 case was papillary adenocarcinoma, and 1 case was mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • The results suggest that incidence of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was 0.8% of all appendectomies, and that non-invasive adenocarcinoma of the appendix shows variable morphologies, and that postoperative clinical outcome of non-invasive appendiceal tumor is good.

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  • (PMID = 27942282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-2805
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / Appendix / Histopathology / Non-invasive carcinoma / appendicitis
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94. Toumpanakis C, Standish RA, Baishnab E, Winslet MC, Caplin ME: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors (adenocarcinoid) of the appendix. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Mar;50(3):315-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid tumors (adenocarcinoid) of the appendix.
  • PURPOSE: Goblet cell appendiceal carcinoids represent rare tumors that exhibit histologic features of both adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Ki67 index was greater than 20 percent in all of them, while in only one with local tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic value of chromogranin-A, urinary 5-hydroxy-indol-acetic acid, and (111)Indium-labeled octreotide scintigraphy seems to be limited in these tumors.
  • Ki67 index appears to predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Colectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Streptozocin / administration & dosage


95. Nezhat C, Datta MS, Defazio A, Nezhat F, Nezhat C: Natural orifice-assisted laparoscopic appendectomy. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):14-8
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  • METHODS: We reviewed cases of 42 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy or laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy followed by appendectomy, performed by applying a stapler and removing the appendix transvaginally.
  • By using a small-diameter laparoscope, the appendix was mobilized, especially in patients with adhesions, endometriosis, or retrocecal appendix, to facilitate transvaginal access with the stapler.
  • Appendiceal pathology included serosal adhesions (14), fibrous obliteration of the lumen (12), endometriosis (4), serositis (2), and carcinoid tumor (1), among others.

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  • (PMID = 19366534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015901
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96. Azordegan N, Yazdankhah A, Moghadasian MH: A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Feb;279(2):183-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumor is the most common tumor of appendix with overall good prognosis.
  • CASE REPORT: We here report the coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis in a 37-year-old nulliparous woman who came to the emergency room with right lower abdominal pain mimicking acute appendicitis.
  • With preoperative suspicion of acute appendicitis, laparatomy was performed and revealed apparently normal looking appendix, along with a nodule in the terminal ileum.
  • Both the appendix and ileal nodule were removed.
  • Histological examinations revealed carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Many cases of carcinoid tumor of the appendix and ileal endometriosis are diagnosed incidentally.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Endometriosis / complications. Ileal Diseases / complications


97. Gulubova MV, Yovchev Y, Vlaykova T, Hadjipetkov P, Prangova DK, Popharitov A: Application of light microscopical and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry in the study of goblet cell carcinoid in the appendix. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:15
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  • [Title] Application of light microscopical and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry in the study of goblet cell carcinoid in the appendix.
  • BACKGROUND: Goblet cell carcinoids appear less frequently in the appendix than do other carcinoids.
  • In the presented work a case with a goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is described.
  • METHODS: Routine histological and histochemical methods were employed, with a combination of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on one section and light and electron microscopical immunohistochemisty on paraffin-embedded material, were applied to identify the type of the carcinoid and to reveal the fine structure of cell types in the tumour nests of the appendix.
  • RESULTS: During the biopsy of a patient who had undergone appendectomy, an infiltration with clusters of goblet cells in the submucosa of the appendix was found.
  • The ultrastructural immunohistochemistry showed that chromogranin A-positive cells had discoid and pleomorphic granules and were located in tumour nests or as single cells in the appendiceal wall.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined histochemical and immunohistochemical procedure and the ultrastructural immunohistochemistry on archival material could contribute in clarifying the diagnosis of goblet cell carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18252007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2275273
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98. van Eeden S, Offerhaus GJ, Hart AA, Boerrigter L, Nederlof PM, Porter E, van Velthuysen ML: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):763-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Goblet cell carcinoid is a poorly understood tumour of the appendix.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether it should be regarded as a separate entity or as a variant of classical carcinoid.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression pattern of 21 markers and the mutation status of KRas codon 12 were determined in 16 goblet cell carcinoids and compared with 14 classical carcinoids, 19 colonic adenocarcinomas and 10 appendiceal mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas.
  • Goblet cell carcinoids were significantly different from the control groups.
  • The most important markers for discriminating between the groups were CEA (classical carcinoid versus all others), KRas mutation (present in all mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas), beta-catenin (goblet cell carcinoid versus left sided colonic adenocarcinoma) and chromogranin (goblet cell carcinoid versus right sided colonic adenocarcinoma).
  • Expression of Math1 and HD5 was similar in goblet cell carcinoid and colonic adenocarcinoma but absent in classical carcinoid.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that goblet cell carcinoids should be regarded as a separate entity.
  • The formerly used term 'crypt cell carcinoma' may be more appropriate because it reflects the more aggressive clinical behaviour of these tumours as well as their greater similarity to adenocarcinomas rather than to carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2008 May;52(6):770-1 [18439158.001]
  • (PMID = 18042066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 1P20 MD001824
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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99. Fornaro R, Picori E, Stabilini C, Frascio M, Sticchi C, Boccardo C, Ricci B, Giannetta E: [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):233-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?].
  • [Transliterated title] I tumori carcinoidi dell'appendice. Quando l'emicolectomia destra?
  • Three cases of carcinoid tumour of the appendix (about 0,3 % of all performed appendectomies) has induced the Authors to a review of the literature with the aim to underline the most important biological and pathological findings and the current clinic and therapeutic knowledges.
  • The kind of surgical intervention, that is the entity of the surgical demolition, for the treatment of the carcinoid tumours of the appendix is still controversial: appendectomy or right colectomy?
  • It is possible identify, also during the operation for an appendicitis or for other abdominal lesions, criteria that can orient toward a major surgery (size of the neoplasia, subserosal lymphatic invasion, infiltration of the serosa, diffusion in the meso-appendix, location in closeness of the base of the appendix, invasion of the the locoregional lymph nodes, presence of metastases, section ?margins, number of mitoses, cellular pleiomorfism).
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy

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  • (PMID = 16857114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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100. Hwang J, Telem DA, Nguyen SQ, Suarez YN, Warner RR, Divino CM: Tubular carcinoid tumor: a rare cause of appendicitis. Am Surg; 2009 Jun;75(6):518-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tubular carcinoid tumor: a rare cause of appendicitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Appendicitis / etiology. Carcinoid Tumor / complications






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