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1. Tchana-Sato V, Detry O, Polus M, Thiry A, Detroz B, Maweja S, Hamoir E, Defechereux T, Coimbra C, De Roover A, Meurisse M, Honoré P: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: a consecutive series from 1237 appendectomies. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Nov 7;12(41):6699-701
ORBi (University of Liege). Free full Text at ORBi .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: a consecutive series from 1237 appendectomies.
  • AIM: To report the experience of the CHU Sart Tilman, University of Liege, Belgium, in the management of appendiceal carinoid tumor.
  • RESULTS: Among the 1237 appendectomies, 5 appendiceal carcinoid tumors were identified (0.4%) in 4 male and 1 female patients, with a mean age of 29.2 years (range: 6-82 years).
  • All tumors were located at the tip of the appendix with a mean diameter of 0.6 cm (range: 0.3-1.0 cm).
  • CONCLUSION: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor most often presents as appendicitis.
  • Appendiceal carcinoid tumor can be managed by simple appendectomy and resection of the mesoappendix, if its size is <or=1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17075987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 29
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4125679
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2. Gilboa Y, Fridman E, Ofir K, Achiron R: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: ultrasound findings in early pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2008 May;31(5):576-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix: ultrasound findings in early pregnancy.
  • Ultrasound examination of a woman in early pregnancy with right lower quadrant abdominal pain demonstrated an edematous appendix with amorphous fluid surrounding the appendix.
  • On pathological evaluation following surgical removal of the appendix a rare case of carcinoid tumor of the appendix was diagnosed.
  • This is the first description of the transvaginal ultrasound features of a carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Carcinoid Tumor / ultrasonography. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 ISUOG
  • (PMID = 18393270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. In't Hof KH, van der Wal HC, Kazemier G, Lange JF: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: an analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Aug;12(8):1436-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: an analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies.
  • AIM: The aim of this study is to conduct a retrospective analysis of the incidence and long-term results of carcinoid tumours of the appendix in emergency appendectomies.
  • RESULTS: In three women and four men, carcinoid tumours were identified (0.47%).
  • Four patients underwent ileocecal resection; one other patient underwent right hemicolectomy.
  • In none of the re-operation specimens was residual carcinoid tumour detected.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumours of the appendix most often present as acute appendicitis.
  • It also emphasises the value of histopathological analysis of every removed appendix.
  • The long-term prognosis of incidentally found carcinoids of the appendix is good.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Emergencies

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2003 Feb 15;97(4):934-59 [12569593.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Surg. 2003 Nov;90(11):1317-22 [14598408.001]
  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1987 Dec 31;317(27):1699-701 [3696178.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1968 Feb;21(2):270-8 [4952505.001]
  • [Cites] Surgery. 1992 Apr;111(4):466-71 [1557693.001]
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  • (PMID = 18521695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2491701
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4. Christianakis E, Paschalidis N, Chorti M, Filippou G, Rizos S, Filippou D: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix in children: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):136

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumour of the appendix in children: a case report.
  • Carcinoids are the most common tumours of the appendix.
  • The clinical presentation of the appendiceal carcinoids is similar to that of acute appendicitis, although in many cases the tumour is diagnosed incidentally during an operation.
  • We report a case of a carcinoid tumour in the tip of the appendix of a thirteen year old girl which was diagnosed intraoperatively.

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  • (PMID = 18761734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2546371
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5. Cernaianu G, Tannapfel A, Nounla J, Gonzalez-Vasquez R, Wiesel T, Tröbs RB: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastasis in a child: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Nov;45(11):e1-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Carcinoid Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appendiceal carcinoid tumor with lymph node metastasis in a child: case report and review of the literature.
  • Most appendiceal carcinoids (ACs) in children present without lymph node metastasis.
  • Lymph node metastasis is rarely present when primary tumor diameter exceeds 1 cm.
  • We present the extraordinary case of an AC with a primary tumor diameter of 0.7 cm and infiltration of the mesentery, as well as 1 positive lymph node of the mesentery in a 14-year-old boy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21034920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Fornaro R, Frascio M, Sticchi C, De Salvo L, Stabilini C, Mandolfino F, Ricci B, Gianetta E: Appendectomy or right hemicolectomy in the treatment of appendiceal carcinoid tumors? Tumori; 2007 Nov-Dec;93(6):587-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appendectomy or right hemicolectomy in the treatment of appendiceal carcinoid tumors?
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Carcinoids of the appendix continue to be of interest, despite their low incidence.
  • There is still considerable controversy surrounding these tumors, especially with regard to the role of right hemicolectomy in the surgical management.
  • The clinical data were reviewed for demographic details, tumor size, localization in the appendix, histological patterns and surgical procedures.
  • RESULTS: Seven patients (0.9% of all appendectomies) were reported to have carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • None suffered from the carcinoid syndrome.
  • The site of the tumor was the apex of the appendix in 4 cases, the body in 2 cases and the base in 1 case.
  • Mean tumor diameter was 8 mm (range, 5-29 mm); in 6 patients it was <2 cm.
  • Treatment was appendectomy in all cases; additional right hemicolectomy was necessary in one case because of a tumor of more than 2 cm with invasion of the mesoappendix and lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: According to current guidelines, an appendectomy may be performed for small carcinoid tumors (<1 cm).
  • Reasons for more extensive surgery than appendectomy are tumor size >2 cm, lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, spread to the mesoappendix, tumor-positive resection margins, and cellular pleomorphism with a high mitotic index.
  • Tumor size is still considered the most important prognostic factor, with a presumed increase in the risk of metastasis for tumors greater than 2.0 cm.
  • The accepted treatment of such tumors is a right hemicolectomy.
  • However, there is no evidence demonstrating a survival benefit for right hemicolectomy over simple appendectomy in patients with carcinoids greater than 2.0 cm in diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy

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  • (PMID = 18338494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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7. Coşkun H, Bostanci O, Dilege ME, Mihmanli M, Yilmaz B, Akgün I, Yildirim S: Carcinoid tumors of appendix: treatment and outcome. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg; 2006 Apr;12(2):150-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of appendix: treatment and outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and histopathological features and the treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records and pathology specimens of patients with carcinoid tumor of the appendix has been done.
  • RESULTS: The histopathological examination of the appendices revealed carcinoid tumor in 11 out of 6777 (0.16%) patients operated for acute appendicitis.
  • The tumor was localized in the distal 1/3 region in 10 patients and in the proximal 1/3 region in 1 patient.
  • The mean tumor diameter was 0.73+/-0.36 cm (0.3-1.5).
  • Ten patients had classical type carcinoid tumor whereas goblet cell carcinoid tumor was only seen in one patient.
  • CONCLUSION: In tumors with a diameter of 1 to 2 cm, appendectomy is the treatment of choice.
  • No recurrence was detected with tumors smaller than 2 cm with simple appendectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16676255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1306-696X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery : TJTES
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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8. Gulubova MV, Yovchev Y, Vlaykova T, Hadjipetkov P, Prangova DK, Popharitov A: Application of light microscopical and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry in the study of goblet cell carcinoid in the appendix. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of light microscopical and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry in the study of goblet cell carcinoid in the appendix.
  • BACKGROUND: Goblet cell carcinoids appear less frequently in the appendix than do other carcinoids.
  • In the presented work a case with a goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is described.
  • METHODS: Routine histological and histochemical methods were employed, with a combination of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry on one section and light and electron microscopical immunohistochemisty on paraffin-embedded material, were applied to identify the type of the carcinoid and to reveal the fine structure of cell types in the tumour nests of the appendix.
  • RESULTS: During the biopsy of a patient who had undergone appendectomy, an infiltration with clusters of goblet cells in the submucosa of the appendix was found.
  • The ultrastructural immunohistochemistry showed that chromogranin A-positive cells had discoid and pleomorphic granules and were located in tumour nests or as single cells in the appendiceal wall.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined histochemical and immunohistochemical procedure and the ultrastructural immunohistochemistry on archival material could contribute in clarifying the diagnosis of goblet cell carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18252007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2275273
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9. Smaldone GM, Richard SD, Krivak TC, Kelley JL 3rd, Edwards RP: Pregnancy after tumor debulking and intraperitoneal cisplatin for appendiceal carcinoid tumor. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Aug;110(2 Pt 2):477-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pregnancy after tumor debulking and intraperitoneal cisplatin for appendiceal carcinoid tumor.
  • CASE: We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with appendiceal carcinoid tumor treated with intraperitoneal cisplatin for peritoneal recurrence after a fertility-sparing cytoreductive procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: Conception is possible after tumor debulking and intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Appendiceal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Infertility, Female / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy


10. Butte JM, García-Huidobro MA, Torres J, Duarte I, Zúñiga A, Llanos O: [Long-term survival in carcinoid tumour of the appendix. An analysis of 8903 appendectomies]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Oct;32(8):537-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long-term survival in carcinoid tumour of the appendix. An analysis of 8903 appendectomies].
  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación de la sobrevida a largo plazo del carcinoide del apéndice cecal. Un análisis a partir de 8.903 apendicectomías.
  • INTRODUCTION: Appendiceal carcinoids are the most frequent tumors of the appendix and are usually detected as an incidental finding in the final pathology report.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics, surgical treatment and long-term survival in patients with an appendiceal carcinoid tumor.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients treated from 1980 to 2007 with a pathological diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumor.
  • Carcinoid tumor was diagnosed in 40 patients (25 women and 15 men), aged 37+/-18 years old.
  • The tumor was localized in the distal third of the appendix in 24 patients (60%), and the size of the tumor was less than 1cm in 28 (70%).
  • Twenty-nine (72.5%) of these tumors infiltrated the subserosal and/or the serosal layer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Appendiceal carcinoid tumor is usually detected incidentally in the pathological analysis in patients undergoing surgery for suspected appendicitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / mortality. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19616872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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11. Pitiakoudis M, Kirmanidis M, Tsaroucha A, Christianakis E, Filippou D, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. A rare case and a review of the literature. J BUON; 2008 Apr-Jun;13(2):271-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. A rare case and a review of the literature.
  • We present a rare case of a carcinoid tumor of the appendix that was diagnosed during pregnancy in a 24-year-old female.
  • Open appendectomy was carried out and at the histological examination carcinoid was found in the surgical specimen.
  • Only few similar cases were found in the literature reporting appendiceal carcinoid tumor during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18555477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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12. Coursey CA, Nelson RC, Moreno RD, Dodd LG, Patel MB, Vaslef S: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT? Am Surg; 2010 Mar;76(3):273-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: are these tumors identifiable prospectively on preoperative CT?
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if carcinoid tumors of the appendix were identified prospectively on preoperative CT at our institution during the last decade.
  • A surgical database search performed using the Current Procedural Terminology codes for appendectomy and colectomy yielded 2108 patients who underwent appendectomy or colectomy with removal of the appendix from January 1998 through September 2007.
  • Pathology reports were reviewed to identify patients in whom an appendiceal carcinoid tumor was identified.
  • Twenty-three carcinoid tumors (1.1%; 15 women [65.2%], eight men [34.8%]; average age 54 years [range, 23 to 86 years]) were identified.
  • No tumors were identified prospectively on CT.
  • Average reported tumor size was 6.1 mm (range, 1.5 to 15 mm; n = 18).
  • A tip or distal location was reported for all tumors for which a location was given (n = 15).
  • Carcinoid tumors occurred in 1.1 per cent of appendix specimens.
  • These tumors were all less than or 1.5 cm in size.
  • Likely as a result of their small size, none of these tumors was identified prospectively on preoperative CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20349655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. West NE, Wise PE, Herline AJ, Muldoon RL, Chopp WV, Schwartz DA: Carcinoid tumors are 15 times more common in patients with Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2007 Sep;13(9):1129-34
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors are 15 times more common in patients with Crohn's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: The coexistence of intestinal neoplasms with Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported, but the evidence of an increased risk of carcinoid tumor with Crohn's disease has been mixed.
  • We present 4 patients with CD with associated carcinoid tumor.
  • The number of incidental carcinoid tumors in patients who underwent an appendectomy was used as a control.
  • RESULTS: Four cases of carcinoid tumor discovered in patients at resection for CD were identified.
  • None had metastatic disease or carcinoid syndrome.
  • These included 1 cecal (1 mm), 2 appendiceal (3 and 7 mm), and 1 transverse colon (7 mm) carcinoid tumors.
  • None of the carcinoid tumors were identified in regions of active Crohn's disease.
  • The incidence of carcinoid tumor in patients with Crohn's disease was 4 of 111 (3.6%).
  • In comparison, 3 of 1199 patients (0.25%) who had appendectomies were identified as having appendiceal carcinoid tumor.
  • Crohn's disease was associated with an increased incidence of carcinoid tumor; OR 14.9 (95% CI 2.5-102.5), P<0.0001.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There was a significantly increased incidence of carcinoid tumor in our Crohn's patients compared to the control patients.
  • None of the carcinoid tumors developed in areas of Crohn's disease.
  • This suggests that the development of carcinoid tumors may be secondary to distant proinflammatory mediators, rather than a local inflammatory effect from adjacent Crohn's disease.
  • Patients with CD may be at increased risk of developing a carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Crohn Disease / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Nov;14(11):1613-4 [18521905.001]
  • (PMID = 17538985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0998
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Paredes Esteban RM, Martínez de Vitoria JM, García Ruiz M: [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix]. Cir Pediatr; 2006 Oct;19(4):250-2
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  • [Title] [An association of mucocele and carcinoid tumour of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso de asociación de mucocele y tumor carcinoide apendicular.
  • The carcinoid tumour of the appendix and the mucocele are entities rather infrequent in children and are normally diagnosed in the course of an appendicectomy that is, in most of the cases, curative.
  • The authors present a case of carcinoid tumour of the appendix associated to mucocele in a male, aged 10 patient, who underwent an appendicectomy by suspicion of an acute appendicitis.
  • The histologic study confirmed the presence of a mucocele of the appendix associated to a carcinoid tumour with a 0,7 cm diameter.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Mucocele / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Appendix / pathology. Appendix / surgery. Child. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17352118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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15. Azordegan N, Yazdankhah A, Moghadasian MH: A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Feb;279(2):183-7
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  • [Title] A rare case of coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix vermicularis and ileal endometriosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumor is the most common tumor of appendix with overall good prognosis.
  • CASE REPORT: We here report the coexistence of carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis in a 37-year-old nulliparous woman who came to the emergency room with right lower abdominal pain mimicking acute appendicitis.
  • With preoperative suspicion of acute appendicitis, laparatomy was performed and revealed apparently normal looking appendix, along with a nodule in the terminal ileum.
  • Both the appendix and ileal nodule were removed.
  • Histological examinations revealed carcinoid tumor of appendix and ileal endometriosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Many cases of carcinoid tumor of the appendix and ileal endometriosis are diagnosed incidentally.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Endometriosis / complications. Ileal Diseases / complications


16. Fornaro R, Picori E, Stabilini C, Frascio M, Sticchi C, Boccardo C, Ricci B, Giannetta E: [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?]. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):233-9
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  • [Title] [Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: when right colectomy?].
  • [Transliterated title] I tumori carcinoidi dell'appendice. Quando l'emicolectomia destra?
  • Three cases of carcinoid tumour of the appendix (about 0,3 % of all performed appendectomies) has induced the Authors to a review of the literature with the aim to underline the most important biological and pathological findings and the current clinic and therapeutic knowledges.
  • The kind of surgical intervention, that is the entity of the surgical demolition, for the treatment of the carcinoid tumours of the appendix is still controversial: appendectomy or right colectomy?
  • It is possible identify, also during the operation for an appendicitis or for other abdominal lesions, criteria that can orient toward a major surgery (size of the neoplasia, subserosal lymphatic invasion, infiltration of the serosa, diffusion in the meso-appendix, location in closeness of the base of the appendix, invasion of the the locoregional lymph nodes, presence of metastases, section ?margins, number of mitoses, cellular pleiomorfism).
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy

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  • (PMID = 16857114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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17. Dall'Igna P, Ferrari A, Luzzatto C, Bisogno G, Casanova M, Alaggio R, Terenziani M, Cecchetto G: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2005 Feb;40(2):216-9
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumor of the appendix in childhood: the experience of two Italian institutions.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although rare, carcinoid tumor of the appendix is the most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents.
  • The experience with 14 cases of carcinoid reported in the appendix is described.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: In six patients the tumor measured 1 cm or less; only in one patient did it measure 2 cm.
  • In three patients the tumor measured between 1 and 2 cm and in four the size was not known.
  • All tumors were discovered by chance, and three patients underwent further surgery as a result of suspected involvement of the margins.
  • In our experience, both patients with local invasiveness and the patient with a tumor larger than 2 cm had good outcomes.
  • Ileocolectomy performed in the patient with a 2-cm tumor and in another two patients with smaller tumors did not demonstrate residual disease.
  • Although the need for right hemicolectomy still remains controversial for tumors measuring more than 2 cm, the approach may be nonaggressive in case of tumors invading the serosa and the periappendiceal fat.
  • Nonaggressive treatment has been suggested by some authors in cases of tumors larger than 2 cm; however, larger series need to be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15699700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Chetty R, Serra S: Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Mar;34(3):401-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipid-rich and clear cell neuroendocrine tumors ("carcinoids") of the appendix: potential confusion with goblet cell carcinoid.
  • The so-called clear cell change has been described in neuroendocrine tumors at several locations.
  • However, lipid has not been demonstrated in all cases of clear cell carcinoid tumors.
  • Such variants have not been described in carcinoid tumors of the appendix and cases with a prominent proportion of clear or more correctly, lipid-rich cytoplasm may bear a superficial resemblance to goblet cell carcinoid and/or signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • Seven cases, in 5 females and 2 males ranging in age from 22 to 65 years, were noted to have a population of lipid-rich and vacuolated clear cells accounting for 25% or more of the tumor population.
  • The carcinoid tumors were incidental in all cases with 4 of patients presenting with appendicitis, 2 with concomitant mucinous cystadenocarcinomas of the appendix and 1 with an adenocarcinoma of the ascending colon.
  • Morphologically, the tumors had a nested and trabecular pattern and were composed of an admixture of microvesicular and clear lipid-rich cells.
  • The importance of recognizing this variant of carcinoid tumor in the appendix is to avoid confusion with goblet cell carcinoid tumors with or without a signet ring adenocarcinoma.
  • The presence of multi-vacuolated, foamy and clear cells, some resembling signet ring or goblet cells, in otherwise classic carcinoid tumors is rare but should be considered in this context in the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Vacuoles / chemistry. Vacuoles / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20139759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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19. Chetty R, Klimstra DS, Henson DE, Albores-Saavedra J: Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1163-7
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  • [Title] Combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid tumor: a new morphologic variant of carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid has been regarded as a distinctive tumor type, not related to classic carcinoids, and to our knowledge combinations of these 2 tumor types have not been described in detail.
  • In this report, we describe 5 cases of combined classical carcinoid and goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumors of the appendix.
  • The tumors (0.6 to 6.0 cm) were located in the mid-portion and the tip of the appendix.
  • All 5 appendiceal tumors had microscopic features of both classical carcinoid and GCC, either intimately admixed or separate but closely apposed.
  • The extent of the 2 components varied, with classical carcinoid representing 60% to 90% of the tumor.
  • Both components stained for the general neuroendocrine markers, however, staining in the classic component was greater.
  • In view of the fact that these combined carcinoid tumors appear to behave more as goblet cell carcinoids, detailed microscopic examination of classical carcinoid tumors of the appendix is suggested and larger series with longer follow-up is required to ascertain the true biologic potential of this unique form of combined carcinoid tumor of the appendix.
  • The occurrence of both carcinoid types in the same appendices suggests a closer histogenetic relationship than previously believed, although the possibility that the 2 components represent separate, independent primaries ("collision tumors") can also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Goblet Cells / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Aug;35(8):1248-50 [21753706.001]
  • (PMID = 20631606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Korkontzelos I, Papanicolaou S, Tsimoyiannis I, Kitsiou E, Stefos T, Tsanadis G, Antoniou N: Large carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Feb 1;118(2):255-7
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  • [Title] Large carcinoid tumor of the appendix during pregnancy.
  • The appendicial carcinoid tumor is a lesion that most frequently is discovered incidentally in the removed organ.
  • We report a rare case of an unruptured acute appendicitis during pregnancy, which proved to be a large carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic

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  • (PMID = 15653215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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21. Rossi G, Nannini N, Bertolini F, Mengoli MC, Fano R, Cavazza A: Clear cell carcinoid of the appendix: an uncommon variant of lipid-rich neuroendocrine tumor with a broad differential diagnosis. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):258-62
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  • [Title] Clear cell carcinoid of the appendix: an uncommon variant of lipid-rich neuroendocrine tumor with a broad differential diagnosis.
  • The designation of clear cell/lipid-rich refers to an unusual variant of neuroendocrine tumor ("carcinoid") described in several organs, but only recently observed in the appendix.
  • In this study, we report the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features of an incidentally discovered appendiceal clear cell/lipid-rich carcinoid in a 32-year-old man without any evidence of von Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • Differential diagnosis with mimicking neoplastic and non-tumor lesions, epidemiology, and clinical behavior of this exceedingly rare variant of carcinoid of the appendix are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission

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  • (PMID = 20814762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Tang LH: Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1612-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epithelial neoplasms of the appendix.
  • CONTEXT: The appendix gives rise to an array of epithelial neoplasms showing glandular or neuroendocrine differentiation, and some tumors with elements of both cell types.
  • Although some appendiceal neoplasms resemble their counterparts in the small and large intestines (conventional adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor), the appendix also gives rise to relatively unique entities including mucinous neoplasms and goblet cell carcinoid tumors, which present a challenge in pathologic classification and clinical management.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and diagnostic issues for 3 pathologic types of epithelial neoplasms of the appendix:.
  • (2) goblet cell carcinoid tumor and associated adenocarcinoma; and (3) typical carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most important issue in pathologic assessment of epithelial tumors of the appendix is to understand the clinical implications inherent in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Yang WL, Yan CQ, Wang FJ, Wang HL: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in 64 patients]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;30(7):538-40
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in 64 patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • METHODS: From 1972 to 2006, 64 patients with carcinoid tumors of the appendix received surgical treatment in our hospitals.
  • The operation modes were determined according to the doctor's judgments based on the age of the patients, the nature, size, location, infiltration depth and lymph node metastasis of the tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumor of the appendix is rare with a high rate of misdiagnosis before operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Diagnostic Errors

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  • (PMID = 19062724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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24. You J, Xu L, Zheng GY, Qiu JF: [Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors: analysis of 37 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jul 15;88(27):1909-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors: analysis of 37 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathology, diagnosis,treatment, and prognosis of primary appendiceal tumors.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 37 patients with primary tumors of the appendix, 16 males and 21 females, aged 56 +/- 13 (35-87) hospitalized Jan.
  • The pathological types included carcinoid tumor (n=12), mucinous tumor (n=17), and adenocarcinoma (n=8).
  • The 1, 3, and 5-year survival rates of the primary appendix carcinoid tumor, mucinous tumor, and adenocarcinoma were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 91.7%, 100.0%, 86.7%, and 71.5%, and 75.0%, 50.0%, and 50.0% respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: A rare disease, appendiceal tumors lack specific clinical features.
  • The prognosis of primary appendix carcinoid tumors is better.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19040005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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25. Suzuki O, Ono K, Sekishita Y, Fujimori M, Shiono T, Kondo S: Laparoscopic two-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a case and review of the Japanese literature. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2006 Apr;16(2):106-8
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic two-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a case and review of the Japanese literature.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is a rare clinical entity exhibiting features of both carcinoid and adenocarcinoma.
  • Here, we present the first report of laparoscopic 2-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid with a review of the Japanese literature.
  • A pathologic diagnosis of goblet cell carcinoid, accompanied by the aggressive proliferation, with acute appendicitis was made.
  • Subsequent laparoscopic ileocecal resection was performed, and it was verified that there were neither residual tumor nor lymph node metastases.
  • Because goblet cell carcinoid may be difficult to clinically distinguish from acute appendicitis, pathologic examination is essential.
  • Depending upon the grade of tumor proliferation, additional resection should be considered, and our experience with this case suggests that laparoscopic 2-stage surgery is feasible for the adequate treatment of goblet cell carcinoid without complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16773013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4515
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Booij KA, van Eeden S, Ghazi Hosseini E, ten Kate FJ, Aronson DC: [An unusual presentation of a periappendicular infiltrate]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Sep 27;152(39):2133-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Een ongebruikelijke manifestatie van een periappendiculair infiltraat.
  • The clinical aspect, radiological investigations and peroperative aspect of the appendix were not conclusive but nevertheless a neuroendocrine tumour (carcinoid tumour) of the appendix was suspected.

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  • (PMID = 18856031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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27. Hadj-Taieb I, Masmoudi A, Ayadi L, Meziou TJ, Khabir A, Charfeddine A, Boujelbène S, Beyrouti MI, Tahri N, Boudawara T, Turki H, Zahaf A: [Appendicular cystadenocarcinoma with cutaneous fistula]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Mar;137(3):198-202

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We report a case of fistular lesions of the buttocks revealing a mixed tumour of the appendix involving mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour.
  • Histological examination of skin biopsy specimens identified infiltration of the dermis by metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma while colonoscopy showed a caecal tumour measuring 4 cm.
  • Histopathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed mixed tumour consisting of perforated mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour of the appendix.
  • DISCUSSION: Cutaneous metastasis of colorectal cancer is an uncommon event that usually occurs after identification of the primary tumour and generally indicates advanced-stage disease and an ominous prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Cecal Neoplasms / pathology. Cutaneous Fistula / etiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20227562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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28. Debnath D, Rees J, Myint F: Are we missing diagnostic opportunities in cases of carcinoid tumours of the appendix? Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):266-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Are we missing diagnostic opportunities in cases of carcinoid tumours of the appendix?
  • OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumour of appendix is an uncommon condition that can potentially give rise to a variation in management.
  • We aimed to assess the occurrence and mode of presentation of carcinoid tumour of appendix, and any variation of its management.
  • Sixteen (0.82%) patients had carcinoid tumours.
  • The mean age of patients with carcinoid tumour (41.8 years) was significantly higher than those with non-carcinoid pathology (27.7 years) (p = 0.001).
  • The incidence of female patients was higher than the male amongst the carcinoid tumour group (female/male ratio 2.2).
  • None of the carcinoid tumours were identified at operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumour of the appendix remains an incidental diagnosis.
  • Patients with carcinoids were significantly older than non-carcinoid conditions.
  • There was a trend of increased occurrence of carcinoids amongst the females.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18939372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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29. Nakamura S, Kimura S, Kashima M, Shichijo K, Yoshida S, Harada E, Matsushita T, Oshima Y, Tamaki Y, Horiuchi N, Takeichi T, Fujimoto H, Masuda K, Iwasaka N, Shinomiya S: [A case of peritonitis carcinomatosa from goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix treated by intraperitoneal paclitaxel and systemic S-1 chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Dec;35(13):2425-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of peritonitis carcinomatosa from goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix treated by intraperitoneal paclitaxel and systemic S-1 chemotherapy].
  • Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix is a rare neoplasm and clinically tends to take a malignant course.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed massive ascites and slight contrast enhancement of appendix.
  • A tumor was found by colonoscopic examination at the orifice of vermiform and was diagnosed pathologically as goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix.
  • We performed intraperitoneal paclitaxel(PTX)administration at 70 mg/m(2) week without any resection of the tumor.
  • For about one year, her tumor was controlled but became worse thirteen months after diagnosis and died.
  • It is thought that intraabdominal paclitaxel administration and systemic S-1 therapy can be one of appropriate forms of chemotherapy for inoperable peritoneal carcinomatosis from goblet cell carcinoid of appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Peritonitis / drug therapy. Peritonitis / pathology. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19098416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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30. Sippel RS, Chen H: Carcinoid tumors. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):463-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors can present a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma.
  • Despite their reputation as indolent tumors, they frequently metastasize and can cause significant symptomatology.
  • The prognosis and treatment of carcinoids vary based on location and histology, and therapy must be tailored to each patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Heart Disease / physiopathology. Humans. Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid / urine. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Octreotide. Receptors, Somatostatin. Serotonin / blood. Serotonin / secretion. Serotonin / urine. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16882492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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31. San Vicente B, Bardají C, Rigol S, Obiols P, Melo M, Bella R: [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children]. Cir Pediatr; 2009 Apr;22(2):97-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective evaluation of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio retrospectivo del tumor carcinoide apendicular en niños.
  • Carcinoids of the appendix are rare in children.
  • To investigate the significance of the diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid tumors in children, we conducted a retrospective study in our institution.
  • In four patients the diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoid.
  • The median tumor diameter was lower than 1 cm and the appropriate treatment was appendectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendix. Carcinoid Tumor. Cecal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19715134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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32. Pan Z, Repertinger S, Leonard R, Bewtra C, Gatalica Z, Sharma P: Cervical and endometrial metastases of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):776-80
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  • [Title] Cervical and endometrial metastases of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid.
  • Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare tumor with histologic features of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid).
  • Clinically, it behaves more aggressively than classic appendiceal carcinoid and commonly presents with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • We report 2 cases of appendiceal GCC, one with uterine cervical involvement and the other with endometrial involvement as the initial presentations.
  • Primary appendiceal GCC was demonstrated in both cases after systematic clinical investigations.
  • Metastatic appendiceal GCC to uterine cervix and endometrium can potentially be misinterpreted as primary cervical or endometrial signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • Therefore, for any uterine cervical/endometrial signet ring cell carcinoma, a metastatic appendiceal GCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially after excluding other primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20441511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. May A, Nachbar L, Ell C: Push-and-pull enteroscopy using a single-balloon technique for difficult colonoscopy. Endoscopy; 2006 Apr;38(4):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The original ileocolonoscopy had been performed to investigate colon polyps (n = 6), an obscure inflammatory process in the ileocecal region (n = 6), or iron deficiency anemia with a positive fecal occult stool test (n = 2).
  • Multiple polyps were found in six patients; a colon cancer was found in one patient; appendicitis combined with a carcinoid tumour of the appendix was diagnosed in one patient; ileocolitis was observed in two patients; one patient with Crohn's disease had stenoses in the region of an anastomosis; and in three patients no relevant pathological finding was seen.

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  • (PMID = 16680641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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34. Bucher P, Gervaz P, Ris F, Oulhaci W, Inan I, Morel P: Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid. Surg Endosc; 2006 Jun;20(6):967-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic versus open resection for appendix carcinoid.
  • BACKGROUND: Since an increasing number of appendectomies are performed via laparoscopy, it is crucial to determine the impact of this approach on appendix carcinoid (AC) outcome.
  • Median carcinoid size was 1.1 cm (range, 0.3-5) and 0.4 cm (range, 0.2-3) in the LAP and OP groups, respectively.
  • Two patients died in the OP group, one due to metastatic carcinoid and the other due to metachronous colorectal cancer.
  • Prognosis of AC appears more dependent on carcinoid malignant potential or associated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laparoscopy

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  • (PMID = 16738993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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35. Feo CF, Porcu A, Scanu AM, Ginesu GC, Fancellu A, Lorettu A, Dettori G: Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases. Int Surg; 2009 Jul-Sep;94(3):224-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary appendiceal tumors: report on 10 cases.
  • We report our experience on 10 patients with primary tumors of the appendix treated at our institution from 1998 to 2005.
  • Six tumors were malignant, and the remaining were benign.
  • Two of the four patients with benign tumors died from causes unrelated to the appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The 6 patients with malignant tumors and the other 2 with benign disease were alive and disease free after a mean follow-up of 43 months.
  • Despite the rarity of appendiceal primary tumors, surgeons should be aware of these neoplasms for making correct treatment decisions.
  • We stress the importance of laparoscopic exploration in the management of appendiceal masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20187516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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36. Safioleas MC, Moulakakis KG, Kontzoglou K, Stamoulis J, Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Lygidakis NJ: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):123-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Prognostic factors and evaluation of indications for right hemicolectomy.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are thought to be the most common type of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although the vast majority of appendiceal carcinoids behave in a benign fashion, they are considered malignant because they all have the potential for invasion, metastasis and production of physiologically active substances.
  • Also, patients with tumor size more than 1cm underwent a Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (Octreoscan).
  • RESULTS: The most common site for the tumors was the tip of the appendix (18/22).
  • In sixteen patients the tumor size was less than 1cm, in seven patients the tumor diameter was measured to be 1 to 2cm and in one patient the tumor was 3cm.
  • Most of our patients (16/22) underwent only an appendicectomy, while in the rest of them (in the patients with tumor size between 1-2cm and in the patient with invasion of mesoappendix) a right hemicolectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix, in most cases, are found incidentally during appendicectomies, especially in young females and usually are less than 1cm in size, which is probably the reason of the absence of metastases in all cases.
  • Histological examination and size of the tumor are important factors that contribute to the selection of the surgical treatment and both must be estimated by the surgeons to make the final choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15783011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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37. Long KB, Srivastava A, Hirsch MS, Hornick JL: PAX8 Expression in well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine tumors: correlation with clinicopathologic features and comparison with gastrointestinal and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 May;34(5):723-9
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  • [Title] PAX8 Expression in well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine tumors: correlation with clinicopathologic features and comparison with gastrointestinal and pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • However, PAX8 expression has not previously been examined in pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs).
  • PAX8 expression in other well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) was also studied.
  • In total, 190 tumors were evaluated: 156 primary WDNETs (63 PETs, 31 ileal, 5 duodenal, 5 gastric, 19 appendiceal, 13 rectal, and 20 pulmonary carcinoid tumors) and 34 liver metastases (18 PETs and 16 ileal carcinoid tumors).
  • Expression of PAX8 was significantly associated with WHO category 1.1 ("benign" behavior) compared with category 1.2 (uncertain behavior) or 2 (well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma) (positive in 100%, 64%, and 52% of tumors, respectively; P<0.05).
  • PAX8-positive PETs were also significantly smaller and more often clinically functional; PAX8-negative tumors were more frequently associated with liver metastases.
  • PAX8 expression was detected in 0/20 (0%) pulmonary, 1/5 (20%) gastric, 5/5 (100%) duodenal, 0/31 (0%) ileal, 4/19 (21%) appendiceal, and 11/13 (85%) rectal carcinoid tumors.
  • Among the liver metastases, PAX8 was positive in 9/18 (50%) metastatic PETs compared with 0/16 (0%) metastatic ileal carcinoid tumors.
  • In the GI tract, PAX8 is positive in the majority of duodenal and rectal carcinoid tumors, and in a minor subset of appendiceal and gastric carcinoids.
  • PAX8 expression is absent in ileal and pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • PAX8 immunostaining may be helpful in determining the primary site for a WDNET metastatic to the liver, as ileal (PAX8 negative) and pancreatic (PAX8 positive) tumors most often present as a metastasis from an occult primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Islet Cell / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / secondary. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Islets of Langerhans / metabolism. Islets of Langerhans / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Dec;35(12):1906-8 [22067332.001]
  • (PMID = 20414099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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38. Srivastava A, Hornick JL: Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):626-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for CDX-2, PDX-1, NESP-55, and TTF-1 can help distinguish gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from pancreatic endocrine and pulmonary carcinoid tumors.
  • Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNET) of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and lung are histologically similar.
  • We therefore analyzed the expression of CDX-2, PDX-1, TTF-1, and neuroendocrine secretory protein-55 (NESP-55), a recently described member of the chromogranin family, in primary and metastatic WDNET.
  • In total, 64 gastrointestinal carcinoids (5 stomach; 5 duodenum; 31 ileum; 11 appendix; and 12 rectum); 39 pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET); and 20 pulmonary carcinoid tumors were studied.
  • Ileal carcinoids were exclusively positive for CDX-2 (30/31) and negative for all other markers.
  • Appendiceal carcinoids were uniformly positive for CDX-2 (11/11).
  • All rectal carcinoids were negative for CDX-2 and TTF-1; 2/12 were positive for PDX-1, and 1/12 for NESP-55.
  • The gastric and duodenal carcinoids were only positive for PDX-1 (7/10).
  • TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids (7/20); 1/20 was positive for NESP-55; and all were negative for CDX-2 and PDX-1.
  • TTF-1 positivity was confined to pulmonary carcinoids in our study but was present in only about a third of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19065104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 protein; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein; EC 3.6.1.- / GNAS protein, human; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
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39. Erbil Y, Barbaros U, Kapran Y, Yanik BT, Bozbora A, Ozarmağan S: Synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient. West Indian Med J; 2007 Mar;56(2):187-9
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  • [Title] Synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient.
  • Carcinoid tumours have been reported in a wide range of organs but most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Many of these carcinoid tumours are associated with metachronous and synchronous lesions of another histological type.
  • Primary carcinoid tumours of the different organ in the same patient is rare.
  • In this paper, the authors present a case with synchronous carcinoid tumour of the small intestine and appendix in the same patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cecal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17910153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3144
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Indian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Indian Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Jamaica
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40. van Eeden S, Offerhaus GJ, Hart AA, Boerrigter L, Nederlof PM, Porter E, van Velthuysen ML: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma. Histopathology; 2007 Dec;51(6):763-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a specific type of carcinoma.
  • AIMS: Goblet cell carcinoid is a poorly understood tumour of the appendix.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether it should be regarded as a separate entity or as a variant of classical carcinoid.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression pattern of 21 markers and the mutation status of KRas codon 12 were determined in 16 goblet cell carcinoids and compared with 14 classical carcinoids, 19 colonic adenocarcinomas and 10 appendiceal mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas.
  • Goblet cell carcinoids were significantly different from the control groups.
  • The most important markers for discriminating between the groups were CEA (classical carcinoid versus all others), KRas mutation (present in all mucinous cystadeno (carcino)mas), beta-catenin (goblet cell carcinoid versus left sided colonic adenocarcinoma) and chromogranin (goblet cell carcinoid versus right sided colonic adenocarcinoma).
  • Expression of Math1 and HD5 was similar in goblet cell carcinoid and colonic adenocarcinoma but absent in classical carcinoid.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that goblet cell carcinoids should be regarded as a separate entity.
  • The formerly used term 'crypt cell carcinoma' may be more appropriate because it reflects the more aggressive clinical behaviour of these tumours as well as their greater similarity to adenocarcinomas rather than to carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2008 May;52(6):770-1 [18439158.001]
  • (PMID = 18042066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / 1P20 MD001824
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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41. Stinner B, Rothmund M: Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;19(5):729-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoids) of the appendix.
  • Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the appendix (formerly 'carcinoids') are rare and are usually detected incidentally after appendectomy.
  • They are preferentially located at the tip of the appendix.
  • Treatment for lesions 1-2 cm is controversial and needs further characterization of the tumour (i.e. mesoappendiceal invasion, vascular invasion, mitotic activity, proliferation markers) and careful patient risk evaluation.
  • Goblet-cell carcinoids have features resembling both carcinoid and adenocarcinoma and should be treated by hemicolectomy.
  • Overall prognosis of small appendiceal NET is excellent in all ages.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16253897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6918
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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42. Costantini M, Montalti R, Rossi G, Luisa L, Masetti M, Di Benedetto F, Giorgio G: Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;16(4):455-7
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract.
  • The term adenocarcinoid was first coined by Warkel et al in 1978 to describe a group of uncommon low-grade malignant appendiceal tumors with morphologic and histochemical evidence of both glandular (adenocarcinoma) and neuroendocrine (carcinoid) differentiation for which several terms have been used in the past.
  • Although the appendix is the most frequent site of this tumor, similar neoplasms have been reported also in other sites, such as colon, gallbladder, Vater's ampulla, and stomach.
  • Provided that it can metastasize, a recent meta-analysis on appendiceal adenocarcinoids showed that right hemicolectomy is not required when the tumor is completely excised and there is no cecal involvement.
  • In this article, the clinicopathologic features of an adenocarcinoid tumor occurring in the extrahepatic biliary tract with infiltration of the common hepatic duct wall that, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first report in this site is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / complications. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 18480386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Eick GN, Mane SM, Camp RL: Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed. Ann Surg; 2006 Jul;244(1):52-60
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  • [Title] Genetic differentiation of appendiceal tumor malignancy: a guide for the perplexed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To use differential gene expression of candidate markers to discriminate benign appendiceal carcinoids (APCs) from malignant and mixed cell APCs.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy exists in regard to the appropriate surgical management of APCs since it is sometimes difficult to predict tumor behavior using traditional pathologic criteria.
  • We have identified 5 differentially expressed genes (a mitosis-regulatory gene NAP1L1, an adhesin MAGE-D2, an estrogen-antagonist, the metastasis marker MTA1, the apoptotic marker NALP, and chromogranin A) that define gut neuroendocrine cell behavior.
  • METHODS: Total RNA was isolated using TRIzol reagent from 42 appendiceal samples, including appendiceal carcinoids identified at exploration for appendicitis (no evidence of metastasis; n = 16), appendicitis specimens (n = 11), malignant appendiceal tumors (> 1.5 cm, evidence of metastatic invasion; n = 7), and mixed (goblet) cell appendiceal adenocarcinoids (n = 3), normal appendiceal tissue (n = 5), and 5 colorectal cancers.
  • RESULTS: CgA message was elevated (> 1000-fold, P < 0.05) in all tumor types.
  • MAGE-D2 and MTA1 message were significantly elevated (> 10-fold, P < 0.01) in the malignant and goblet cell adenocarcinoid tumors but not in the appendicitis-associated carcinoids or normal mucosa.
  • The apoptotic marker, NALP1, was overexpressed (> 50-fold, P < 0.05) in the appendicitis-associated and malignant appendiceal carcinoids but was significantly decreased (> 10-fold, P < 0.05) in the goblet cell adenocarcinoids.
  • Elevated CgA transcript and protein levels indicative of a carcinoid tumor were identified in one acute appendicitis sample with no histologic evidence of a tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that malignant APCs and goblet cell adenocarcinoids have elevated expression of NAP1L1, MAGE-D2, and MTA1 compared with appendiceal carcinoids identified at surgery for appendicitis.
  • This and the differences in NALP1 gene expression (decreased in goblet cell adenocarcinoids) provide a series of molecular signatures that differentiate carcinoids of the appendix.
  • CgA identified all appendiceal tumors as well as covert lesions, which may be more prevalent than previously recognized.
  • The molecular delineation of malignant appendiceal tumor potential provides a scientific basis to define the appropriate surgical management as opposed to morphologic assessment alone.

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  • (PMID = 16794389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / MAGED2 protein, human; 0 / NAP1L1 protein, human; 0 / NLRP1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 3.5.1.- / Mta1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1570599
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44. Bucher P, Gervaz P, Ris F, Oulhaci W, Egger JF, Morel P: Surgical treatment of appendiceal adenocarcinoid (goblet cell carcinoid). World J Surg; 2005 Nov;29(11):1436-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of appendiceal adenocarcinoid (goblet cell carcinoid).
  • Adenocarcinoid of the appendix is an infrequent tumor with histologic features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor.
  • Although its malignant potential remains unclear, adenocarcinoids seem to be biologically more aggressive than conventional carcinoids.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze long-term results of surgical treatment for appendiceal adenocarcinoid.
  • A retrospective review (1991-2003) identified seven patients (median age 72, range 27-81 years) treated for appendiceal adenocarcinoid.
  • Indications for colectomy were tumor size (three cases) associated with appendectomy margin invasion in one case.
  • Our results suggest that appendectomy alone could be used for appendiceal adenocarcinoid provided that the tumor (1) is less than 1 cm;.
  • (2) does not extend beyond the appendix adventitia;.
  • (3) has less than 2 mitoses/10 high power fields; and (4) has surgical margins that are tumor free.
  • The risk for developing colorectal adenocarcinoma seems to be extremely high in patients treated for appendiceal adenocarcinoid and warrants close follow-up with colonoscopic screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16136284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Knigge U, Hansen CP: [Appendiceal carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoids]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2010 May 31;172(22):1678-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Appendiceal carcinoid tumors and goblet cell carcinoids].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoide tumorer og gobletcelle-karcinoide tumorer i appendix.
  • Appendiceial carcinoid tumors (CAT) and goblet cell carcinoids (GCCAT) are rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Goblet Cells

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  • (PMID = 20525467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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46. Benedix F, Reimer A, Gastinger I, Mroczkowski P, Lippert H, Kube R, Study Group Colon/Rectum Carcinoma Primary Tumor: Primary appendiceal carcinoma--epidemiology, surgery and survival: results of a German multi-center study. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2010 Aug;36(8):763-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary appendiceal carcinoma--epidemiology, surgery and survival: results of a German multi-center study.
  • BACKGROUND: While carcinoma of the colon is a common malignancy, primary carcinoma of the appendix is rare.
  • Many retrospective reviews outlined experience from different centers on appendiceal neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the type of surgery and survival of patients with appendiceal malignancies using data from a German multi-center observational study (31 341 patients).
  • METHODS: During a five-year period, 196 consecutive patients with malignant appendiceal tumors were distributed into four groups: appendiceal carcinoids, adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • Mean age at presentation was youngest for carcinoid tumors.
  • Carcinoid tumors had lowest tumor size and localized disease was present in 72.9%.
  • Overall 5-year survival was 83.1% for carcinoid vs. 49.2% for non-carcinoid tumors.
  • Histological subtype and tumor stage significantly affected survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcome of carcinoid tumors is superior to non-carcinoid neoplasms.
  • Among all appendiceal neoplasms, adenosquamous carcinoma is the rarest histological subtype which is most commonly associated with advanced tumor stage and worst prognosis.
  • However, the high rate of right hemicolectomy in patients with small carcinoid tumors needs to be critically discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Colectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Unnecessary Procedures / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20561765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Ng SC, Noursadeghi M, von Herbay A, Vaizey C, Pitcher MC, Flanagan KL: Cytomegalovirus ileitis associated with goblet cell carcinoid tumour of the appendix. J Infect; 2007 Mar;54(3):e153-6
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus ileitis associated with goblet cell carcinoid tumour of the appendix.
  • We report a female patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) terminal ileitis and CMV viraemia, associated with a metastatic goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) tumour of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cytomegalovirus / isolation & purification. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Ileitis / complications. Ileitis / virology

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  • (PMID = 17049463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2742
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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48. Louthan O: [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1056-9
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  • [Title] [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoid appendixu s pohárkovými bunkami.
  • Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids are mixed tumors including neuroendocrine cells and intestinal type of goblet cells.
  • Compared to typical carcinoids, goblet cell carcinoids are malignant tumors with degree of malignity differing from case to case.
  • Carcinoid syndrom is not present.
  • There is poor prognosis in larger tumors.
  • Appendectomy is a sufficient therapeutical approach in small tumors, hemicolectomy should be performed in larger ones.
  • There is limited experience with chemotherapy in metastasizing tumors and sporadic with somatostatin analogues.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20017437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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49. Kaya M, Kanmaz T, Boleken ME, Yücesan S: Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(5):418-20
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  • [Title] Appendix carcinoid found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst: report of a case.
  • We report the case of a 13-year-old girl in whom an appendix carcinoid was found incidentally during excision of a choledochal cyst.
  • Although incidental carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is the first published case of a choledochal cyst associated with an appendix carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Choledochal Cyst / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15864427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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50. Maes M, Segers K, Cheyns P: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: laparoscopic appendectomy or right hemicolectomy? Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Jul-Aug;108(4):447-50
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: laparoscopic appendectomy or right hemicolectomy?
  • Goblet cell carcinoids are uncommon tumours with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumour.
  • They occur predominantly in the appendix and although the malignant potential remains unclear, adenocarcinoids appear to be more aggressive than conventional carcinoids.
  • In this case report, we present a goblet cell carcinoid with laparoscopic operative treatment in two stages.
  • Macroscopically, a diffusely inflamed appendix was found with no sign of perforation.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a goblet cell carcinoid with characteristics of aggressive behaviour, indicating the need for laparoscopic right hemicolectomy in which, however, neither residual tumour nor metastatic lymph nodes could be found.
  • As they may present the same clinical presentation, pathological diagnosis is required to distinguish goblet cell carcinoid from acute appendicitis.
  • Two-stage surgery for goblet cell carcinoid is advocated in the literature, but the debate still continues as to whether the goblet cell carcinoid should be treated by appendectomy alone, as for most carcinoids, or by right hemicolectomy, as for the appendiceal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18807600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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51. Hristov AC, Young RH, Vang R, Yemelyanova AV, Seidman JD, Ronnett BM: Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Oct;31(10):1502-11
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  • [Title] Ovarian metastases of appendiceal tumors with goblet cell carcinoidlike and signet ring cell patterns: a report of 30 cases.
  • Synchronous and metachronous ovarian and appendiceal mucinous tumors are often the subject of diagnostic consultations in gynecologic pathology practices to address whether the tumors are independent neoplasms or related as primary and metastasis.
  • The ovarian tumors were bilateral in 25 of 28 cases with data on both ovaries and were typically large (mean/median: 14 cm, range: 4.5 to 24.0 cm).
  • The appendices were often firm or thickened but usually did not have a discrete measurable tumor and were not notably enlarged; microscopically, transmural invasion was present in all of them.
  • The ovarian and appendiceal tumors exhibited a variety of patterns of differentiation, including signet ring cell and glandular, with all displaying some goblet cell carcinoidlike patterns (nests, islands, cords, or cryptlike tubules with goblet cells); teratomatous elements were not identified in any ovarian tumors.
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 7 of 19 ovarian tumors (mean/median: 6.3%/0%; range: 0% to 20%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 4 of 18 of these (mean/median: 7.8%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • Chromogranin was expressed in 6 of 16 appendiceal tumors (mean/median: 11.9%/0%; range: 0% to 70%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 6 of 15 of these (mean/median: 16.7%/0%; range: 0% to 90%).
  • The clinicopathologic features of these ovarian tumors indicate they should be labeled as metastatic appendiceal adenocarcinomas rather than as goblet cell carcinoid tumors both to reflect their behavior and help distinguish them from the rare true primary ovarian goblet cell carcinoid tumors.
  • As the ovarian tumors have appreciable components of signet ring cells they qualify as Krukenberg tumors.
  • In cases in which the primary tumor is not already evident, their "goblet cell carcinoidlike" patterns should direct attention to the appendix as a possible source.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17895750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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52. O'Donnell ME, Carson J, Garstin WI: Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix. Int J Clin Pract; 2007 Mar;61(3):431-7
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of malignant carcinoid tumours of the appendix.
  • Since their first description in 1882, malignant neoplasms of the appendix still remain rare.
  • Malignant carcinoid tumours are the most common accounting for 85% of all appendiceal neoplasms.
  • A retrospective review of all malignant carcinoid tumours diagnosed in our hospital between April 1994 and December 2003 was performed.
  • Nine patients were identified with classical carcinoid tumours (CCT); (M = 3 and F = 6, mean age: 43, range 14-81) and two patients with goblet-cell morphology (F = 2, age 46 and 76).
  • Other appendiceal pathologies were identified following hemicolectomy and oophorectomy.
  • From our experience and subsequent review of the literature, we recommend right hemicolectomy as the treatment of choice for malignant carcinoid tumours.
  • However, small CCTs less than 2 cm in diameter at the tip of the appendix, with a low proliferative index, without angiolymphatic or mesoappendiceal extension can be treated by appendicectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16911574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Encinas JL, Avila LF, García-Cabeza MA, Luis A, Hernández F, Martínez L, Fernández A, Olivares P, Tovar JA: [Bronchial and appendiceal carcinoid tumors]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2006 May;64(5):474-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Bronchial and appendiceal carcinoid tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor carcinoide bronquial y apendicular.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoid tumor (CT) is an unusual neoplasm observed in several locations and associated with the production of vasoactive substances and occasionally with carcinoid syndrome (flushing, diarrhea, wheezing).
  • Eight had CT of the appendix, of which 4 showed the typical clinical presentation of acute appendicitis.
  • Seven of these tumors were localized at the tip of the appendix and measured 2 cm or less.
  • In one patient, the tumor was located at the cecum and measured 3.5 cm.
  • In this patient, reoperation with ileocecal resection was performed.
  • None of the patients showed symptoms of carcinoid syndrome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Typical symptoms of acute appendicitis were not observed in half of patients with CT of the appendix.
  • CT associated with carcinoid syndrome is exceptional in pediatric patients.
  • In most CT of the appendix, simple appendicectomy was associated with an excellent prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bronchial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16756890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-4033
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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54. Young RH: From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 May;14(3):149-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II.
  • This is the second of a two-part consideration of metastatic tumors to the ovary.
  • The first tumor discussed is gastric carcinoma of intestinal-type whose ovarian manifestations have been the subject of a recent paper which emphasized its differences from the Krukenberg tumor.
  • The section on pancreatic neoplasms reemphasizes the problems caused by metastatic ductal carcinoma, considered primarily in Part I, and discusses less common issues such as spread of neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinomas.
  • The limited information on spread of tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts is then reviewed before more detailed consideration of hepatic neoplasms, prompted by recent contributions on hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the latter based on significant experience with this problem in Thailand.
  • The section on appendiceal neoplasms highlights ovarian spread of diverse tumors ranging from typical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma to signet-ring cell carcinomas with various patterns which in the ovary may prompt diagnoses such as a goblet cell (mucinous) carcinoid tumor, but whose ovarian features place them in the category of a Krukenberg tumor.
  • The diverse problems in differential diagnosis of carcinoid tumor (provoked by nested, acinar, and other patterns, including folliclelike spaces) are then reviewed.
  • The section on lung tumors largely reflects information in a recent paper that small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the lung cancers that spread to the ovary most commonly.
  • The extremely broad differential diagnosis posed by metastatic malignant melanoma ranging from that of an oxyphilic tumor, to a small cell tumor, to a follicle-forming neoplasm, is then considered.
  • The endometrial stromal tumors are problematic largely because the history of a primary tumor may be remote, in the ovaries the typical growth and vascular pattern of endometrial stromal neoplasms is not always conspicuous, and some endometrial stromal sarcomas in the ovary show sex cordlike patterns of growth.
  • Recent information has indicated that gastrointestinal stromal tumors may rarely have significant ovarian manifestations and if the primary neoplasm is overlooked, the ovarian tumor may be misdiagnosed, usually as an ovarian fibromatous tumor, but potentially as another primary neoplasm.
  • The final neoplasms considered are malignant mesothelioma and the desmoplastic small round cell tumor.
  • The differential diagnosis of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor is more complex because of the greater overlap with the many other small cell malignant tumors that may involve the ovaries primarily or secondarily.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17452813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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55. Greenbaum D, Friedel D: Unanticipated findings at bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis; 2005 Jan-Feb;1(1):22-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In only three cases (one case each of carcinoid of the appendix, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary, and serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary) would there have been a significant difference in the patient's prognosis had the problem been left undiagnosed.

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  • (PMID = 16925197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-7289
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Obes Relat Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Northrop JA, Lee JH: Large bowel carcinoid tumors. Curr Opin Gastroenterol; 2007 Jan;23(1):74-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large bowel carcinoid tumors.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal carcinoids comprise 90% of all carcinoid tumors and all carcinoids have malignant potential.
  • This review focuses on the morphology, prognosis, detection and treatment for appendiceal, colonic and rectal carcinoids.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Computed tomography exists as an initial examination for the primary carcinoid tumor as well as for metastases.
  • Octreotide scanning has a sensitivity of primary tumor detection of 90%; additionally, I- or I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scanning and tracer-specific positron emission tomographic scans have demonstrated encouraging results.
  • Further advancements in treatment with tumor-targeted therapy and biochemical evaluation of carcinoids have shown promise.
  • SUMMARY: The recent progress with scintigraphic and radiologic modalities has provided better means for diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinoid tumors.
  • These newly discovered diagnostic modalities have been more encouraging than the recent treatment approaches that have been studied with regard to metastatic carcinoids.
  • While surgery remains the mainstay of treatment of nonmetastatic carcinoid, there have been studies for various medical treatments of metastatic disease.
  • Unfortunately, there have been disappointing results with regard to improvement of tumor response and patient survival, but a foundation has been established for future trials employing alternative agents and exploration of combination therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Intestine, Large / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17133089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0267-1379
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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57. Orta L, Trindade AJ, Luo J, Harpaz N: Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is a neoplastic complication of IBD: case-control study of primary appendiceal neoplasms. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2009 Mar;15(3):415-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is a neoplastic complication of IBD: case-control study of primary appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Although IBD frequently involves the appendix microscopically, it is uncertain whether it also predisposes to appendiceal neoplasia.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of incidental appendiceal neoplasms in colectomy specimens of adults with and without IBD (cases and controls, respectively) based on surgical pathology records spanning 54 months.
  • To minimize referral bias, patients were excluded if they had preoperative clinical evidence or a principal pathologic diagnosis of appendiceal disease.
  • RESULTS: Eleven appendiceal cystadenomas and 6 appendiceal carcinoid tumors were identified among 705 IBD cases (377 ulcerative colitis, 317 Crohn's disease, 11 indeterminate colitis) and 498 non-IBD controls meeting our inclusion criteria.
  • Appendiceal carcinoids were equally prevalent in cases and controls (4/705 [0.6%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], OR 1.4 [95% CI 0.3-7.8]), cases with synchronous neoplasia and controls (1/69 [1.4%] versus 2/498 [0.4%], OR 3.6 [95% CI 0.3-40.8]), and cases with and without synchronous colorectal neoplasia (1/69 [1.4%] versus 3/636 [0.5%], OR 3.1 [95% CI 0.3-30.2]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: IBD with synchronous colorectal dysplasia or cancer is a risk factor for development of appendiceal cystadenomas, implicating this tumor as a neoplastic complication of IBD.
  • IBD does not predispose to the development of appendiceal carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / etiology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / etiology. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 May;16(5):735 [19705419.001]
  • (PMID = 18989894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4844
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Barry M, Collins CG, McCawley N, McGuinness J, Leahy AL: Synchronous appendiceal tumours. Surgeon; 2007 Apr;5(2):111-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous appendiceal tumours.
  • Primary appendiceal neoplasms are a rare clinical and pathological entity.
  • We report a case of synchronous appendiceal tumours of different histological types which presented as a symptomatic palpable and radiologically apparent mass in the right iliac fossa.
  • Furthermore, some of the controversies associated with the management of an appendix mass in the elderly population are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17450695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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59. Dupre MP, Jadavji I, Matshes E, Urbanski SJ: Diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix: a diagnostic clue to underlying appendiceal neoplasm. Hum Pathol; 2008 Dec;39(12):1823-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix: a diagnostic clue to underlying appendiceal neoplasm.
  • Acquired diverticula of the vermiform appendix are rare and arise as a result of different pathogenetic mechanisms.
  • Although the association of appendiceal diverticulosis and neoplasia is known, it remains underemphasized in the teaching and practice of surgical pathology.
  • To investigate the frequency of appendiceal neoplasms with acquired diverticulosis, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all appendectomy specimens received in our institution for a 55-month period (January 2002-July 2006).
  • Eleven (48%) appendectomy specimens with diverticulosis also harbored an appendiceal neoplasm.
  • The association of appendiceal neoplasms with diverticulosis was statistically significant (P < .0001, 2-sided Fisher exact test).
  • Neoplastic processes included 5 well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), 3 mucinous adenomas, 1 tubular adenoma, and 2 adenocarcinomas.
  • We stress the need for meticulous gross assessment with histologic examination of the entire appendectomy specimen in cases of appendiceal diverticulosis.
  • As acquired diverticula represent a rare finding, examination of the entire appendix in this setting does not create a significant impact on the workload within the pathologic laboratory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendix / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Diverticulum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18715614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Khan MN, Moran BJ: Four percent of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery may have synchronous appendiceal neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Nov;50(11):1856-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Four percent of patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery may have synchronous appendiceal neoplasia.
  • The appendix has a similar mucosal pattern to the colon and it has been hypothesized that appendicular adenocarcinoma may account for 1 percent of all colorectal malignancies.
  • A special interest of the senior author in appendiceal and rectal cancer has prompted routine removal of the appendix in all cases undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer.
  • Seven of 169 appendices had abnormalities: 3 mucinous cystadenomas, 2 cystadenocarcinomas, 1 carcinoid tumor, and 1 villous adenoma.
  • Metachronous neoplasia is a risk in the retained appendix in patients with colorectal cancer.
  • Routine postoperative surveillance cannot assess the appendiceal mucosa, so there is little justification for not taking the opportunity to eliminate the possibility of future appendicitis or neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17763906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Fucs M, Romero FR, Germanos de Castro M, de Carvalho Fernandes R, Camara-Lopes LH, Cardenuto Perez MD: Testicular metastasis 10 years after resection of appendiceal carcinoid. Urology; 2005 Mar;65(3):591
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular metastasis 10 years after resection of appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Testicular carcinoids are very rare and account for less than 1% of all testicular neoplasms.
  • They may present as primary testicular tumors or secondary tumors from extratesticular sources.
  • We report a case of a secondary testicular carcinoid occurring 10 years after surgical treatment of an appendiceal carcinoid.
  • Because secondary carcinoids have a worse clinical course and prognosis than primary tumors, metastatic disease should be excluded before the tumor is identified as a primary.
  • Long-term follow-up is necessary for patients with carcinoid tumor owing to its indolent course and the risk of metastasis several years after treatment of the primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15780387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. McGory ML, Maggard MA, Kang H, O'Connell JB, Ko CY: Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Dec;48(12):2264-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports.
  • PURPOSE: A comprehensive analysis was performed for five histologic types of appendiceal tumors to compare incidence, clinicopathologic features, survival, and appropriateness of surgery.
  • METHODS: All patients diagnosed with mucinous adenocarcinoma (n = 951), adenocarcinoma (n = 646), carcinoid (n = 435), goblet (n = 369), and signet-ring cell (n = 113) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2001) were analyzed.
  • The appropriateness of the operative procedure (i.e. , appendectomy vs. colectomy) was examined by tumor type and size.
  • RESULTS: Tumor incidence, patient demographics, survival outcomes, and appropriateness of surgery varied significantly among the different appendiceal tumor histologies.
  • The most common appendiceal tumors were mucinous.
  • With regard to patient demographics, carcinoids presented at an earlier mean age of 41 years and 71 percent were female (P < 0.001 for both).
  • Overall five-year survival was highest for carcinoid (83 percent) and lowest for signet ring (18 percent).
  • Although current guidelines specify that a right hemicolectomy (rather than an appendectomy) be performed for all noncarcinoid tumors and carcinoid tumors >2 cm, we found that 30 percent of noncarcinoids underwent appendectomy.
  • Similarly, 28 percent of carcinoids >2 cm under-went appendectomy, which is a lesser resection than is indicated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a population-based analysis of epidemiology, tumor characteristics, survival, and quality of care for appendiceal carcinomas.
  • This characterization provides a novel description of the presentation and outcomes for malignancies of the appendix and highlights that a substantial number of patients with appendiceal tumors may not be receiving appropriate surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Yan TD, Brun EA, Sugarbaker PH: Discordant histology of primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 May;15(5):1440-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Discordant histology of primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid neoplasms with peritoneal dissemination.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoid is a rare appendiceal tumor that shows histologically both epithelial and neuroendocrine components.
  • We observed that some patients have peritoneal dissemination, which shows adenocarcinoma but lacks the neuroendocrine histology.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with peritoneal dissemination from primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid tumors underwent cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
  • All resected specimens were individually submitted for histopathological examination and immunostaining with three neuroendocrine markers.
  • The loss of the neuroendocrine tumor type in peritoneal implants was referred to as discordant feature of the adenocarcinoid tumor.
  • RESULTS: In nine of the 26 patients (35%) with a primary adenocarcinoid of the appendix, a loss of the neuroendocrine immunochemical marker was noted in peritoneal implants.
  • Discordant histology between the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoid and the peritoneal implants was statistically significantly associated with an improved survival (p = 0.0262), when patients were treated by cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Discordant histology of the primary appendiceal tumor as compared to the peritoneal lesions occurs frequently in patients with adenocarcinoid.
  • An assessment of neuroendocrine markers in both primary and peritoneal lesions may help in the clinical assessment of this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18299936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Shapiro R, Eldar S, Sadot E, Venturero M, Papa MZ, Zippel DB: The significance of occult carcinoids in the era of laparoscopic appendectomies. Surg Endosc; 2010 Sep;24(9):2197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The significance of occult carcinoids in the era of laparoscopic appendectomies.
  • BACKGROUND: We present data acquired in our institution about the incidence of incidental appendiceal carcinoids over a period of 16 years.
  • The possibility of occult carcinoids raises the question of appendectomy of a noninflamed appendix during diagnostic laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis.
  • Outcome measures were the incidence of incidental carcinoids of the appendix found during appendectomies and whether the introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy should alter the surgical management of a normal-appearing appendix.
  • RESULTS: A total of 20 carcinoid appendices were resected by open surgery and 17 by laparoscopy.
  • The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor was not suspected in any patient before the operation, nor was a tumor identified at the time of the operation.
  • In 6 (16%) patients the appendix appeared normal at the time of the operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It has long been the standard of care to remove any appendix found in laparotomy for suspected appendicitis, but it is not clear what should be done during laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis when the appendix appears normal.
  • Our data confirm the presence of occult carcinoids in normal-appearing appendices.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / methods. Appendiceal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20174936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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65. Cadden I, Johnston BT, Turner G, McCance D, Ardill J, McGinty A: An evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 as a prognostic biomarker in mid-gut carcinoid tumours. Neuroendocrinology; 2007;86(2):104-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 as a prognostic biomarker in mid-gut carcinoid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mid-gut carcinoids (MGC) are the most common of the gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.
  • Cox-2 and Bcl-2 were evaluated as prognostic biomarkers in a cohort of well-characterised non-appendiceal MGC.
  • The study assessed whether tumour-associated Cox-2 and Bcl-2 expression were related to patient survival.
  • Tumour-associated Bcl-2 expression had no effect on patient survival (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% CI 0.42, 2.99; p = 0.82).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Appendix / pathology. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Intestine, Small / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17700013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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66. Toumpanakis C, Standish RA, Baishnab E, Winslet MC, Caplin ME: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors (adenocarcinoid) of the appendix. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Mar;50(3):315-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid tumors (adenocarcinoid) of the appendix.
  • PURPOSE: Goblet cell appendiceal carcinoids represent rare tumors that exhibit histologic features of both adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Ki67 index was greater than 20 percent in all of them, while in only one with local tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic value of chromogranin-A, urinary 5-hydroxy-indol-acetic acid, and (111)Indium-labeled octreotide scintigraphy seems to be limited in these tumors.
  • Ki67 index appears to predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendectomy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Colectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Streptozocin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17195086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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67. Mukensnabl P, Michal M, Hadravská S: [Carcinoids of the appendix]. Rozhl Chir; 2005 Apr;84(4):197-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Carcinoids of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoidy apendixu.
  • The appendical carcinoids represent a heterogeneous group of tumors of different morphology, biological features and treatment.
  • Our study aims to inform clinical practitioners, mainly surgeons and oncologists, about individual types of the appendical carcinoids, which are considered the most frequent carcinoid tumors the clinical practitioners come into contact with at all levels of the hospital care.
  • Our work describes the types of the appendical tumors from the histological point of view, as well as from the prognostic and therapeutical points of view.
  • At the end of the study report, a brief table summarizing the most important features of the individual histological types of the appendical carcinoids, is attached.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15984148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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68. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Annapoorni S, Senthilkumar R, Anand NV: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a rare case and literature survey. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2008 Jun;18(3):417-21
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for goblet-cell carcinoid of the appendix: report of a rare case and literature survey.
  • Tumors of the appendix are rare entities, and the majority of them are discovered accidentally during an investigation for other conditions.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for appendiceal goblet-cell carcinoid (GCC) has only been reported once before.
  • Our patient was incidentally discovered to have an appendiceal tumor and was referred to us for laparoscopy.
  • The tumor involved the body of the appendix and was adherent to the cecum.
  • Histopathology confirmed an appendiceal goblet-cell carcinoid.
  • Immunohistochemistry was negative for the neuroendocrine markers, CK20 and CK7.
  • GCC is a rare tumor of the appendix.
  • Hemicolectomy is indicated in specific situations, such as local involvement or tumor size >2 cm.
  • In our patient, the tumor was adherent to the cecum and tumor size was 5 cm.
  • Laparoscopic surgery for appendiceal tumors is safe, feasible, and even may be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male

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  • (PMID = 18503377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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69. Nezhat C, Datta MS, Defazio A, Nezhat F, Nezhat C: Natural orifice-assisted laparoscopic appendectomy. JSLS; 2009 Jan-Mar;13(1):14-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We reviewed cases of 42 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy or laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy followed by appendectomy, performed by applying a stapler and removing the appendix transvaginally.
  • By using a small-diameter laparoscope, the appendix was mobilized, especially in patients with adhesions, endometriosis, or retrocecal appendix, to facilitate transvaginal access with the stapler.
  • Appendiceal pathology included serosal adhesions (14), fibrous obliteration of the lumen (12), endometriosis (4), serositis (2), and carcinoid tumor (1), among others.

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  • [Cites] Baillieres Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 1997 Mar;11(1):95-110 [9155938.001]
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  • (PMID = 19366534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1086-8089
  • [Journal-full-title] JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JSLS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3015901
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70. La Rosa S, Finzi G, Puppa G, Capella C: Lipid-rich variant of appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine tumor (carcinoid). Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 May;133(5):809-14
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  • [Title] Lipid-rich variant of appendiceal well-differentiated endocrine tumor (carcinoid).
  • Well-differentiated endocrine tumors (WDETs) of the appendix show characteristic morphologic features, including proliferation of cells with finely granulated eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • We studied 13 appendiceal WDETs composed of clear cells, which showed an immunophenotype identical to that of conventional appendiceal WDETs.
  • Patient survival was excellent and equal to that of conventional appendiceal WDETs.
  • These neoplasms, which represent a lipid-rich variant of appendiceal WDETs, do not have different relevant clinical implications compared with conventional WDETs, but it is important to know of their existence for the differential diagnosis with more aggressive neoplasms, including goblet cell carcinoids and appendiceal metastases from clear cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Lipids / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Child. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20395531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lipids
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71. Yong Jiang, Huawei Liu, Hu Long, Yingying Yang, Dianying Liao, Xiuhui Zhang: Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases from southwest china. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;18(6):488-92
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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases from southwest china.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the appendix is characterized by a dual differentiation of both endocrine and gland.
  • Follow-up data showed that 1 patient died from peritoneal metastasis and that the other 17 cases survived free of the tumor.
  • The authors characterize GCC as a special low-grade malignant carcinoma with a primary epithelial differentiation and little neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. China. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Schistosomiasis / complications

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  • (PMID = 20732910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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72. Deschamps L, Couvelard A: Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jun;134(6):871-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine tumors of the appendix: a pathologic review.
  • CONTEXT: Although rare, appendiceal endocrine tumors are the most common neoplasms of the appendix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide recent data that focus on the pathology of endocrine tumors of the appendix including classifications and guidelines for patient management.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Appendiceal endocrine tumors are separated into 2 main groups: classic endocrine tumors and goblet cell carcinoids.
  • Evaluation of their prognoses and risks of malignancy, according to these classifications, depends on several parameters including tumor size, proliferation rate, and infiltration of appendiceal wall and mesoappendix.
  • Most patients with classic endocrine tumors of the appendix have a favorable prognosis.
  • Indications for postappendectomy, complementary surgery, which are still controversial, especially for tumors between 1 and 2 cm, are presented and discussed.
  • In contrast, in patients presenting with a goblet cell carcinoid, a right hemicolectomy after the initial appendectomy is considered the standard surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Colectomy. Humans. Prognosis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 20524865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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73. Tomita T: LYVE-1 immunocytochemical staining for gastrointestinal carcinoids. Pathology; 2009;41(3):248-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] LYVE-1 immunocytochemical staining for gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • The current study was extended to investigate possible immunostaining of gastrointestinal carcinoids using goat antihuman LYVE-1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: Among 27 gastrointestinal carcinoids, six cases (22%) including five primary and one metastatic carcinoids were positive in the cytoplasm for LYVE-1 in addition to lymphatic vessels and there were abundant lymphatic and blood vessels at the margin of the carcinoids.
  • These six LYVE-1 positive cases consisted of three of 10 small intestinal, one of five appendiceal and two of seven large intestinal carcinoids.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of LYVE-1 immunostaining in some gastrointestinal carcinoids may support a structure-function relationship of lymphatic vessels/hyaluronan receptor for modulating synthesis and secretion of hormones and amines by carcinoid tumour cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Vesicular Transport Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19291537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
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74. Nikolaou A, Thomas D, Kampanellou C, Alexandraki K, Andersson LG, Sundin A, Kaltsas G: The value of 11C-5-hydroxy-tryptophan positron emission tomography in neuroendocrine tumor diagnosis and management: experience from one center. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Dec;33(11):794-9
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  • [Title] The value of 11C-5-hydroxy-tryptophan positron emission tomography in neuroendocrine tumor diagnosis and management: experience from one center.
  • Many neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are small and may escape localization by conventional imaging techniques.
  • Nine patients with clinically, biochemically and/or histologically confirmed NET and negative computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 111In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan) scintigraphy underwent imaging with 11C-5-HTP-PET/CT in order to:.
  • 1) detect the primary tumor lesion in three patients;.
  • 2) detect residual disease in two patients with appendiceal carcinoid, one with rectal carcinoid, one with midgut carcinoid, and one with ectopic ACTH secretion (EAS) due to residual pulmonary carcinoid; and 3) restage a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hepatic metastases.
  • 11C-5-HTP-PET/CT detected lesions in the mediastinum in a patient with EAS due to a pulmonary carcinoid, further hepatic metastases in a patient with carcinoid syndrome (CS) from a NET of unknown primary, further hepatic metastases in the patient with MTC, and hepatic metastases in the patient with midgut carcinoid.
  • The 11C-5-HTP-PET/CT findings contributed to radical cure of the patient with recurrent EAS, and pointed towards bilateral adrenalectomy in the patient with EAS without evident primary tumor.
  • In addition, 11C-5- HTP-PET/CT directed towards combined surgical and medical treatment in the patient with CS and multiple rather than single hepatic metastases and in the patient with midgut carcinoid, and towards continuation of medical treatment in the patient with MTC.
  • 11C-5-HTP-PET/CT is a useful imaging technique, providing additional information for the diagnosis, staging and decision-making regarding management of patients with NET.
  • [MeSH-major] 5-Hydroxytryptophan. Carbon Radioisotopes. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Carcinoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 20332708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; C1LJO185Q9 / 5-Hydroxytryptophan
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75. Ahmad J, Andrabi SI, Thekkinkattil DK, Rathore MA: Adenocarcinoid tumour of the appendix masquerading as acute appendicitis: a word of caution. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg; 2008 Apr;14(2):167-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenocarcinoid tumour of the appendix masquerading as acute appendicitis: a word of caution.
  • Adenocarcinoids are rare and aggressive tumors with histological features of both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma.
  • We report a case of a 32-year-old man with diffuse infiltration of the appendix wall and mesoappendix by an adenocarcinoid.
  • We suggest that patients with diffuse appendiceal involvement require an aggressive surgical therapy and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18523911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1306-696X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery : TJTES
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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76. Louzi A, Nargis Y, Belaabidia B, Alatawna H, Benelkhaiat R, Finech B, Dafali AE: [Appendicular mucocele caused by carcinoid tumor during pregnancy]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Nov;34(11):1051-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Appendicular mucocele caused by carcinoid tumor during pregnancy].
  • [Transliterated title] Mucocèle de l'appendice sur tumeur carcinoïde pendant la grossesse.
  • Mucocele of the appendix secondary to appendicular carcinoid tumour is a rare entity.
  • The interaction between carcinoid tumour or mucocele of the appendix and pregnancy is not yet elucidated.
  • Prognosis depends on the size of the carcinoid tumour and its regional invasion.
  • We report a case of appendicular mucocele caused by a carcinoid tumour in a 36-year-old pregnant woman who had been admitted because of acute appendicitis.
  • Pathological examination of the appendicectomy specimen revealed a carcinoid tumour measuring 2 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Mucocele / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17052936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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77. Bamboat ZM, Berger DL: Is right hemicolectomy for 2.0-cm appendiceal carcinoids justified? Arch Surg; 2006 Apr;141(4):349-52; discussion 352
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is right hemicolectomy for 2.0-cm appendiceal carcinoids justified?
  • HYPOTHESIS: We believe right hemicolectomy (RHC) is not necessary in patients with an appendiceal carcinoid greater than 2.0 cm.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with a histologically confirmed appendiceal carcinoid from April 1, 1980, to February 28, 2005, and an analysis of the literature.
  • PATIENTS: Forty-eight patients (34 females and 14 males) with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of appendiceal carcinoid were included in the study.
  • Appendiceal carcinoid was diagnosed incidentally in all 48 patients.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed the relationship between survival, tumor size, and the role of RHC vs appendectomy alone.
  • RESULTS: Four patients in our series underwent secondary RHC and lymph node dissection for tumors greater than 2.0 cm, and none had positive lymph nodes.
  • Following review of the literature, we were unable to find any recent evidence of distant metastasis from carcinoids in patients already treated by appendectomy.
  • There seem to be no conclusive data to support the notion that RHC confers a survival benefit over appendectomy for carcinoids greater than 2.0 cm.
  • CONCLUSION: Appendiceal carcinoids greater than 2.0 cm can be managed effectively with simple appendectomy, given their low malignant potential and slow growth, obviating the need for RHC in this group of patients without affecting overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Colectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16618891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Fujiyoshi Y, Kuhara H, Eimoto T: Composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of two cases with goblet cell carcinoid component. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;200(11-12):823-9
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  • [Title] Composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma of the stomach. Report of two cases with goblet cell carcinoid component.
  • Composite glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma (CGECC) is recognized as a special type of gastric tumor composed of ordinary adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a well-established type of appendiceal carcinoid, but the GCC component has not been well delineated in CGECC of the stomach.
  • However, the resected tumors consisted of three components: signet-ring cell carcinoma, GCC, and glandular adenocarcinoma.
  • Although some signet-ring carcinoma cells and goblet carcinoid cells were indistinguishable by hematoxylin and eosin staining, E-cadherin immunostaining disclosed a definitive difference regarding the staining pattern in these cells.
  • Both patients are well, with no recurrent tumor for about 10 years of follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Treatment Outcome


79. Zafar S, Chen H, Sun W, Das K: Cytology of metastatic appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid in pleural effusion fluid: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Dec;36(12):894-8
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  • [Title] Cytology of metastatic appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid in pleural effusion fluid: a case report.
  • Goblet cell appendiceal carcinoid (GCAC) is a rare neoplasm.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a mass involving the base of the appendix, ascites and concomitant pleural effusion.
  • The appendiceal mass was biopsied and diagnosed as a GCAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Schmitt A, Perren A, Chetty R: Cytokeratins 7 and 20 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell and classical carcinoids of appendix. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):16-22
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  • [Title] Cytokeratins 7 and 20 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell and classical carcinoids of appendix.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) of the vermiform appendix is an uncommon neoplasm and its histogenesis is controversial.
  • Whether GCC represents a morphological variant of classical appendiceal carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is still conjectural.
  • Little is known about the immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratins 7 (CK7) and 20 (CK20) in appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In this study, we compared the expression of CK7 and CK20 in 17 cases of appendiceal GCC and 25 cases of classical carcinoid.
  • The tumors were also evaluated for Ki-67 proliferation index, mitotic activity, tumor necrosis, extracellular pools of mucin, obvious intestinal type adenocarcinomatous foci, angiolymphatic permeation, perineural/neural infiltration, and the depth of invasion of the appendix wall.
  • Immunohistochemically, all 17 (100%) of GCC exhibited strong and diffuse immunopositivity for CK20, whereas expression of CK7 was present in 12 cases (70.5%), ranging from 5 to 50% of tumor cells being labeled.
  • On the other hand, 25 cases of classical carcinoid tumors were consistently negative for CK7; however, 4 cases (16%) showed immunolabeling for CK20 in 25-50% of the tumor cells.
  • The Ki-67 labeling index in classical carcinoids ranged from 0 to 5%.
  • This study shows that in addition to the morphological differences, GCC (CK7/CK20-positive) and classical carcinoid (CK7/CK20-negative) differ in their expression of CK7 and CK20.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid should be regarded as a crypt cell or an amphicrine carcinoma rather than a variant of carcinoid tumor, a lesion that has benign connotations.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Goblet Cells / metabolism. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17652796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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81. Landry CS, Woodall C, Scoggins CR, McMasters KM, Martin RC 2nd: Analysis of 900 appendiceal carcinoid tumors for a proposed predictive staging system. Arch Surg; 2008 Jul;143(7):664-70; discussion 670
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of 900 appendiceal carcinoid tumors for a proposed predictive staging system.
  • BACKGROUND: Appendiceal carcinoid tumors (ACTs) are rare, and little is known about the long-term prognosis for these tumors because no staging system exists.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of 15 983 patients with carcinoid tumors in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 2004.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred patients with ACTs (552 females and 348 males; mean age, 47.1 years [age range, 9-89 years]; mean size of the primary tumor, 2.4 cm [range, 0.1-11.5 cm]).
  • At multivariate analysis, patient age, primary tumor size, histologic features, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis were significant factors predicting survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18645109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Bolanowski M, Jarzab B, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jeziorski A, Kos-Kudła B, Zajecki W, oraz Pozostali Uczestnicy Konferencji Okragłego Stołu: [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jan-Feb;59(1):87-96
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)].
  • Polish recommendations regarding management of patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix are presented.
  • Small intestine, especially ileum represent most common origin of these tumors.
  • In 4-10% of patients typical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome are present.
  • The treatment of choice in the neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix is radical or palliative surgery, if possible using endoscopy.
  • The crucial in biotherapy is somatostatin analogs application, possible in symptomatic treatment of hormonally functioning tumors.
  • This is treatment of choice in carcinoid crisis.
  • Interferon alfa could be applied because of the same indications as somatostatin analogs, except for carcinoid crisis.
  • Chemotherapy is less successful in disseminated or locally advanced intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, so radioisotope therapy should be considered in each case of unresectable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Competence. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Humans. Intestine, Small. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Poland. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18335403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Investigator] Bar-Andziak E; Cwikła J; de Herder W; Dzielicki J; Falconi M; Foltyn W; Gaciong Z; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A; Kowalska A; Krolicki L; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska B; Kryszałowicz B; Kvols L; Nasierowska-Guttmejer A; O'Toole D; Kunikowska J; Lampe P; Matyja V; Mełen-Mucha G; Milewicz A; Nowak A; Nowakowska-Duława E; Omyła-Staszewska J; Pajak J; Rudzki S; Rydzewska G; Sowinski J; Starzynska T; Strzelczyk J; Sworczak K; Syrenicz A; Szawlowski A; Tomaszewska RA; Wasko-Czopnik D; Wronski M; Zemczak A; Zgliczynski W
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83. Alsaad KO, Serra S, Perren A, Hsieh E, Chetty R: CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix. Int J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;15(3):252-7
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  • [Title] CK19 and CD99 immunoexpression profile in goblet cell (mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumors) and classical carcinoids of the vermiform appendix.
  • The immunoexpression of CK19 recently has been identified as a marker of poor prognosis in pancreatic endocrine tumors and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to explore CK19 and CD99 immunostaining in mucin-producing neuroendocrine (goblet cell) and classical carcinoids of the appendix.
  • Eighteen goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) and 20 classic carcinoids were stained with CK19, CD99, and Ki-67, and these results were correlated with known pathological features of aggression: extent of invasion, mitoses, necrosis, and histological pattern.
  • All 18 GCCs were CK19 strongly positive, whereas 16/20 classic carcinoids were also CK19 positive.
  • Fourteen of 18 GCCs and 14/20 classic carcinoids were CD99 positive.
  • CK19/CD99 immunoexpression did not correlate with extent of tumor invasion and mesoappendiceal extension, mitotic activity, Ki-67 labeling index, presence of extracellular mucinous pools dissecting muscle, and angiolymphatic and perineural/neural invasion.
  • There is no difference in the immunostaining for CK19 and CD99 between GCCs and classic carcinoids, and both types of neuroendocrine tumor show the same extent of expression of both markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Keratin-19 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17652531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Keratin-19
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84. Hirsch I, Kasper HU, Brabender J, Hölscher AH, Dienes HP: [Adenocarcinoid of the appendix vermiformis]. Pathologe; 2005 May;26(3):231-5
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoid of the appendix vermiformis].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenokarzinoid der Appendix vermiformis.
  • Adenocarcinoids are rare tumors with histological features of both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma.
  • They show a more aggressive biological behaviour than conventional carcinoids.
  • Due to the positive surgical margin and the tumor expansion a hemicolectomy was performed.
  • It is thought that appendectomy is sufficient in case of small tumors in the tip of the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15378268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Roy P, Chetty R: Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Jun 15;2(6):251-8

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  • [Title] Goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix: An overview.
  • Goblet cell carcinoid is an enigmatic and rare tumor involving the appendix almost exclusively.
  • Various other names have been used for this entity such as adenocarcinoid, mucinous carcinoid, crypt cell carcinoma, and mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor, although none have been found to be completely satisfactory or universally accepted.
  • The tumor is thought to arise from pluripotent intestinal epithelial crypt-base stem cells by dual neuroendocrine and mucinous differentiation.
  • The histologic hallmark of this entity is the presence of clusters of goblet cells in the lamina propria or submucosa stain for various neuroendocrine markers, though the intensity is often patchy.
  • Recently molecular studies have shown these tumors to lack the signatures of adenocarcinoma but they have some changes similar to that of ileal carcinoids (allelic loss of chromosome 11q, 16q and 18q).
  • The natural history of GCC is intermediate between carcinoids and adenocarcinomas of the appendix.
  • There is some debate about the surgical approach for these tumors, and a summary of published series and recommendations are provided.

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  • (PMID = 21160637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2998842
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Appendiceal neoplasm / Goblet cell carcinoid / Mucin-producing neuroendocrine tumor of appendix
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86. Guraya SY, Khairy GA, Ghallab A, Al-Saigh A: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Our experience in a university hospital. Saudi Med J; 2005 Mar;26(3):434-7
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Our experience in a university hospital.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience of carcinoid tumors of the appendix managed at a university teaching hospital.
  • The data of patients identified to have histological evidence of carcinoid tumors of the appendix were further reviewed for the demographic details, indications for surgery, surgical procedure, tumor localization in the appendix and size; concomitant appendicitis and further surgical procedures were considered.
  • RESULTS: During the study period, 1547 appendectomies were performed and, out of these, 9 (0.6%) cases were reported to have carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • Six carcinoid tumors were encountered at the appendiceal apex, 2 at the midportion, and one at the base with a mean diameter of 9.5 mm (range, 4-19 mm).
  • One patient had histologically confirmed residual tumor, which necessitated a right hemicolectomy 3 weeks later.
  • CONCLUSION: Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are extremely rare and invariably remain asymptomatic.
  • Simple appendectomy offers adequate relief while the need for further extensive surgery depends on tumor characteristics and dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy / statistics & numerical data. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15806214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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87. Gidwani AL, Blake G: Four pathologies in one. Ir J Med Sci; 2008 Mar;177(1):77-8
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  • METHODS: Laparotomy revealed a perforated appendix with an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and thickened distal small bowel with fat encroaching the mesentery suggestive of active Crohn's disease.
  • A routine appendicectomy was done and pathology revealed inflamed perforated appendix with an incidental carcinoid within the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Appendicitis / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Meckel Diverticulum / complications

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  • (PMID = 17628741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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88. Owczarek D, Cibor D, Szczepański W, Kosowski B, Mach T: Concomitant carcinoid tumor and papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential in a patient with Crohn's disease: a case report. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Dec;20(12):1231-4
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  • [Title] Concomitant carcinoid tumor and papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential in a patient with Crohn's disease: a case report.
  • In the case of Crohn's disease, such an increased risk is also associated with other malignant tumors.
  • The report presents a very rare case of a concomitant carcinoid tumor and papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential in a 35-year-old patient with diagnosed Crohn's disease complicated by an enterovesical fistula.
  • The carcinoid tumor and papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential were diagnosed by postoperative histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoid Tumor / etiology. Crohn Disease / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Papilloma / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / etiology


89. Tang LH, Shia J, Soslow RA, Dhall D, Wong WD, O'Reilly E, Qin J, Paty P, Weiser MR, Guillem J, Temple L, Sobin LH, Klimstra DS: Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;32(10):1429-43
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  • [Title] Pathologic classification and clinical behavior of the spectrum of goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix.
  • Appendiceal tumors exhibiting both neuroendocrine and glandular differentiation are uncommon and have caused difficulty in pathologic classification, prediction of prognosis, and clinical management.
  • Previously, such lesions have been variously designated as adenocarcinoid, goblet cell carcinoid (GCC), and mixed adenocarcinoma carcinoid.
  • In this study, we undertook a retrospective investigation of 63 such cases and classified them as typical GCC (group A) and adenocarcinoma ex GCC on the basis of the histologic features of the tumor at the primary site.
  • The clinical characteristics and prognosis were compared within these groups and with conventional de novo appendiceal adenocarcinomas.
  • Both groups A and B tumors shared a similar immunoprofile, which included generally focal immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers, and a normal intestinal type mucin glycoprotein profile (negative MUC1 expression and preserved MUC2 immunoreactivity).
  • The proliferative index was relatively low in these tumors and slightly increased from groups A to B tumors (11% to 16%).
  • Both beta-catenin and E-cadherin exhibited a normal membranous staining pattern in groups A and B tumors.
  • Although most patients (63%) with GCC presented at an advanced clinical stage, their clinical outcome could be differentiated by subclassification of tumors.
  • In conclusion, GCC is a distinctive appendiceal neoplasm that exhibits unique pathologic features and clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Aug;33(8):1259-60; author reply 1260-1 [19471156.001]
  • (PMID = 18685490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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90. Zhang HY, Rumilla KM, Jin L, Nakamura N, Stilling GA, Ruebel KH, Hobday TJ, Erlichman C, Erickson LA, Lloyd RV: Association of DNA methylation and epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A and beta-catenin with metastasis in small bowel carcinoid tumors. Endocrine; 2006 Dec;30(3):299-306
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  • [Title] Association of DNA methylation and epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A and beta-catenin with metastasis in small bowel carcinoid tumors.
  • We analyzed promoter methylation of RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CDH1, LAMB3, LAMC2, RUNX3, NORE1A, and CAV1 using methylation-specific PCR in 33 cases of small bowel carcinoid with both matched primary and metastatic tumors.
  • The methylation status of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were also determined in six primary appendiceal carcinoid tumors.
  • Two neuroendocrine cell lines, NCI-H727 and HTB-119, were analyzed for promoter methylation.
  • Immunohistochemical analyses for RASSF1A and beta-catenin were performed in 28 matched primary and metastatic tumors.
  • RASSF1A and CTNNB1 were unmethylated in appendiceal carcinoids.
  • Methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 promoters was more frequent in metastatic compared to primary tumors (p = 0.013 and 0.004, respectively).
  • These results suggest that increased methylation of RASSF1A and CTNNB1 may play important roles in progression and metastasis of small bowel carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. DNA Methylation. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. CpG Islands. DNA Mutational Analysis. Enterochromaffin Cells / metabolism. Epigenesis, Genetic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17526942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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91. Neves GR, Chapchap P, Sredni ST, Viana CR, Mendes WL: Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center. Sao Paulo Med J; 2006 Jan 5;124(1):21-5
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  • [Title] Childhood carcinoid tumors: description of a case series in a Brazilian cancer center.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Carcinoid tumors are very rare both in children and adults.
  • About 85% of these tumors develop in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The objective of the present study was to describe our experience with children treated of carcinoid tumors, and investigate the frequency morphological findings and results.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Report on case series, at the Department of Pediatrics of Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa Hospital do Câncer, São Paulo.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical pathological data and outcomes among children (< 18 years old) with carcinoid tumors admitted from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2001.
  • In eight cases (89%), the primary tumor site was the appendix and in one (11%) it was the left bronchus.
  • For those with primary tumor in the appendix, the main complaint was abdominal pain, which led to appendectomy.
  • Only one patient underwent right hemicolectomy due to tumor extension into the serosa.
  • The patient with bronchial tumor underwent left pneumonectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the majority of carcinoid tumors arise from the appendix, these tumors can also occur in other primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16612458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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92. Avenel P, McKendrick A, Silapaswan S, Kolachalam R, Kestenberg W, Ferguson L, Jacobs MJ, Goriel Y, Mittal V: Gastrointestinal carcinoids: an increasing incidence of rectal distribution. Am Surg; 2010 Jul;76(7):759-63
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal carcinoids: an increasing incidence of rectal distribution.
  • Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing and usually become symptomatic late in the course of the disease.
  • We evaluated our 10-year experience in the management of GI carcinoid tumors.
  • The records of 133 patients with GI carcinoids were reviewed.
  • The rectum was the most common site for carcinoid tumors with an incidence of 30 per cent followed by jejunoileal at 29.3 per cent.
  • Other sites of carcinoid tumors were the appendix (8.3%), colon (8.3%), and duodenum (3.8%).
  • Endoscopy was the most helpful modality in diagnosing GI carcinoids.
  • CT was not helpful in preoperative diagnosis of carcinoid tumor.
  • Fifteen patients died in follow-up with eight deaths related to carcinoid tumors, in the small bowel (6), rectum (1), and colon (1).
  • Overall survival was 68.7 per cent and mortality rate was 19.5 per cent from carcinoid tumors.
  • Most of the deaths occurred in patients with carcinoid syndrome, synchronous malignancy, and malignant carcinoid tumors.
  • Screening colonoscopy, in addition to decreasing colorectal adenocarcinoma mortality, is useful in diagnosing carcinoid tumors at an earlier stage and in decreasing mortality from malignant colorectal carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20698387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Koopmans NG, Kwee HW, Heemskerk J: [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A1154
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  • [Title] [Acute appendicitis with goblet cell carcinoid].
  • The patient underwent an appendicectomy of the inflamed appendix with periappendicular infiltrate.
  • However, histological examination revealed a small goblet cell carcinoid, histological group C, with acute inflammation.
  • Several tumour cells were present in a lymph duct at the appendix base.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20619032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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94. Liu E, Telem DA, Hwang J, Warner RR, Dikman A, Divino CM: The clinical utility of Ki-67 in assessing tumor biology and aggressiveness in patients with appendiceal carcinoids. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep 15;102(4):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical utility of Ki-67 in assessing tumor biology and aggressiveness in patients with appendiceal carcinoids.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the correlation of Ki-67 with tumor biology and survival in appendiceal carcinoid tumors.
  • METHOD: A retrospective chart review conducted on 51 patients with appendiceal carcinoid tumors who underwent surgical intervention from 1991 to 2008.
  • RESULT: Of the 51 patients, 32 had tumors <2 cm; 3 >2 cm; and 16 with unspecified tumor size.
  • Increased MIB proliferative index did not significantly correlate with increasing tumor size (P = 0.426).
  • No correlation was demonstrated by MIB index and tumor size or presentation with metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20607756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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95. Ellis L, Shale MJ, Coleman MP: Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: trends in incidence in England since 1971. Am J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec;105(12):2563-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: trends in incidence in England since 1971.
  • OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) is poorly understood.
  • Recent analyses have suggested changes in the incidence and distribution of such tumors, but have generally used data sets containing small patient numbers.
  • The anatomic distribution of tumors in the latest period analyzed was stomach 12%, small intestine 29%, appendix 38%, colon 13%, and rectum 8%.
  • The largest absolute increase in incidence was seen in the appendix (from 0.03 to 0.41 in men; from 0.05 to 0.59 in women).
  • Sex-specific incidence rates for gastric, colonic, and rectal NETs are similar, whereas appendiceal lesions were more common in females, and small intestinal tumors in men.
  • In view of the magnitude of these changes, particularly for gastric tumors, further studies to examine the underlying etiology of these changes are urgently indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / epidemiology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20823835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / CRUK/ 11700; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1336 / A5735
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Pham TH, Wolff B, Abraham SC, Drelichman E: Surgical and chemotherapy treatment outcomes of goblet cell carcinoid: a tertiary cancer center experience. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Mar;13(3):370-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical and chemotherapy treatment outcomes of goblet cell carcinoid: a tertiary cancer center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare malignant tumor with distinct histological and clinical features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis for patients with GCC tumors correlates well with the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage at initial presentation.
  • For staging purposes, right hemicolectomy is appropriate for T4 tumors or stage II to III disease provided that it can be performed with minimal risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendectomy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .
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  • (PMID = 16485156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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97. Van Gompel JJ, Stoddard E, Chen H: Incidental carcinoid tumors of the appendix: do they affect presentation or prognosis? Int Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;92(6):331-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidental carcinoid tumors of the appendix: do they affect presentation or prognosis?
  • Carcinoid tumors are the most common neoplasm of the vermiform appendix, with most found incidentally after surgery for appendicitis.
  • To determine in patients presenting with appendicitis if incidental carcinoid tumors affected presentation or prognosis, we reviewed our experience.
  • Of 1350 patients receiving an appendectomy from 1992 to 2000 for appendicitis, 20 were found to have appendiceal carcinoid tumors.
  • Comparing tumor patients to 251 consecutive patients whom underwent appendectomy without tumors, we found patients with tumors were older at presentation (41 +/- 4 versus 30 +/- 1 years, P = 0.005) and had initial lower white blood cell (WBC) counts (10.8 +/- 0.8 vs. 14.2 +/- 0.3, P = 0.007).
  • There was equivalent survival between patients with carcinoid and without.
  • Therefore, these data suggest that patients with carcinoid tumors are older and have lower WBC counts at presentation with appendicitis, although outcome was not affected by their presence.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendicitis / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18402126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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98. Byrn JC, Wang JL, Divino CM, Nguyen SQ, Warner RR: Management of goblet cell carcinoid. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Oct 1;94(5):396-402
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of goblet cell carcinoid.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Goblet cell carcinoid, a rare tumor of intermediate malignant potential, is known to account for a significant minority of appendiceal neoplasms.
  • Sixteen new cases of gastrointestinal goblet cell carcinoid were reviewed to describe their presentation, treatment, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients were diagnosed with goblet cell carcinoid between 1995 and 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Goblet cell carcinoid is a rare malignant tumor largely affecting the appendix.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16967437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Sadot E, Telem DA, Arora M, Butala P, Nguyen SQ, Divino CM: Laparoscopy: a safe approach to appendicitis during pregnancy. Surg Endosc; 2010 Feb;24(2):383-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Abscess / complications. Abdominal Abscess / surgery. Adult. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Chorioamnionitis / etiology. Fallopian Tube Diseases / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Diseases / surgery. Female. Fetal Death / etiology. Gangrene / complications. Humans. Obstetric Labor, Premature / etiology. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Ovarian Diseases / surgery. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Pregnancy Outcome. Pregnancy Trimesters. Retrospective Studies. Torsion Abnormality / diagnosis. Torsion Abnormality / surgery. Young Adult


100. Lin X, Saad RS, Luckasevic TM, Silverman JF, Liu Y: Diagnostic value of CDX-2 and TTF-1 expressions in separating metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms of unknown origin. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Dec;15(4):407-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value of CDX-2 and TTF-1 expressions in separating metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms of unknown origin.
  • Histomorphologic features and routine endocrine immunohistochemical (IHC) markers do not differentiate neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in relation to their location, making it difficult to establish the site of origin of a metastatic neoplasm.
  • In this study, CDX-2 was expressed in 28/60 (47%) of gastrointestinal NETs with the following results: 11/11 (100%) appendiceal, 12/14 (86%) small intestinal, 3/4 (75%) colonic, 2/11 (18%) rectal, and 0/20 (0%) gastric.
  • TTF-1 was expressed in pulmonary carcinoid tumors in 13/30 (43%) and in 27/30 (90%) pulmonary small cell carcinomas.
  • Metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms of intestinal origin were positive for CDX-2 and negative for TTF-1.

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  • (PMID = 18091383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein
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