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1. Mahalingam M, Nguyen LP, Richards JE, Muzikansky A, Hoang MP: The diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in distinguishing primary skin adnexal carcinomas from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal using cytokeratin 15, nestin, p63, D2-40, and calretinin. Mod Pathol; 2010 May;23(5):713-9
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  • [Title] The diagnostic utility of immunohistochemistry in distinguishing primary skin adnexal carcinomas from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin: an immunohistochemical reappraisal using cytokeratin 15, nestin, p63, D2-40, and calretinin.
  • Often the distinction of primary adnexal carcinoma from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin from breast, lung, and other sites can be a diagnostic dilemma.
  • We performed CK15 and nestin, as well as previously reported stains (such as p63, D2-40, and calretinin) on 113 cases (59 primary adnexal carcinomas and 54 cutaneous metastases).
  • Expressions of p63, CK15, nestin, D2-40, and calretinin were observed in 91, 40, 37, 44, and 14% of primary adnexal carcinoma, respectively, and in 8, 2, 8, 4, and 10% of cutaneous metastases, respectively. p63 appeared to be the most sensitive marker (with a sensitivity of 91%) in detecting primary adnexal carcinomas.
  • Using chi(2) analysis, statistically significant P-values (<0.05) were observed for p63, CK15, nestin, and D2-40 in the distinction of primary adnexal carcinoma versus cutaneous metastases.
  • In logistic regression and stepwise selection for predicting a primary adnexal carcinoma, statistical significance was observed for p63, CK15, and D2-40 (P-values: <0.001, 0.0275, and 0.0298, respectively) but not for nestin (P-value=0.4573).
  • Positive staining with all three markers argues in favor of a primary cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Calbindin 2. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Keratin-15 / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. Regression Analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20190734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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2. Pedamallu SB, Murphy J, Boyd D, Martin-Hirsch D, Al-Zwae K: Direct intracranial extension of malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the face. J Clin Med Res; 2009 Aug;1(3):181-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Direct intracranial extension of malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the face.
  • Malignant eccrine spiradenomas are exceedingly rare tumours.
  • We present a case of malignant eccrine spiradenoma of the right side of the face with direct intracranial extension without distant metastasis.
  • Histopathological findings were consistent with malignant eccrine spiradenoma.
  • This is a rare case of facial malignant eccrine spiradenoma with direct intracranial extension with no distant metastasis.
  • KEYWORDS: Eccrine carcinoma; Spiradenoma; Adnexal carcinoma; Malignant eccrine spiradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 22493654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical medicine research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3318883
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3. Hoang MP, Dresser KA, Kapur P, High WA, Mahalingam M: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical reappraisal. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):178-85
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical reappraisal.
  • Even though immunohistochemical comparisons of microcystic adnexal carcinoma vs infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma exist, they are mostly restricted to the use of a single stain.
  • In addition, a comparison with squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported previously.
  • In this study, we compare the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 15, CK7, CK20, CK903, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD10, CD15 and BerEP4 in 13 microcystic adnexal carcinoma, eight desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, 10 infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and eight squamous cell carcinoma of which five exhibited ductal differentiation.
  • We found that the majority of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (92%) and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (100%) cases expressed CK15 while the infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cases were all negative.
  • Forty percent of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma expressed CK7; while only two microcystic adnexal carcinoma cases (15%) and one squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation (12%) expressed CK7 in the remaining three tumor categories.
  • While the neoplastic cells were negative, luminal staining of ductal structures was noted for CK7, CD15 and CEA in some of the microcystic adnexal carcinoma, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation cases.
  • Sixty percent of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, 31% of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and 25% of squamous cell carcinoma express CD10.
  • BerEP4 expression was noted in 38% of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, 57% of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, 100% of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma, and 38% of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In conclusion, we found CK15 to be a useful marker in distinguishing microcystic adnexal carcinoma from infiltrative basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with ductal differentiation.
  • Our experience indicates that microcystic adnexal carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma have a similar immunohistochemical profile that is, CK15+ and BerEP4+/-; thus, additional studies are needed to separate these two entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / chemistry. Head and Neck Neoplasms / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-15 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18065959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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4. Brandt SM, Swistel AJ, Rosen PP: Secretory carcinoma in the axilla: probable origin from axillary skin appendage glands in a young girl. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jun;33(6):950-3
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  • [Title] Secretory carcinoma in the axilla: probable origin from axillary skin appendage glands in a young girl.
  • Invasive carcinoma in the axilla may arise from skin appendage glands or ectopic breast tissue or it may be a metastasis.
  • Carcinomas of the skin adnexal glands and breast can be difficult to distinguish from each other as they often display the same patterns of growth.
  • Tubular, cribriform, papillary, apocrine, mucinous, and adenoid cystic are histologic types of carcinoma seen in the breast and skin appendage glands.
  • To our knowledge, secretory carcinoma, the most common form of mammary carcinoma in children, has not yet been described as a morphologic pattern of skin adnexal carcinoma, although we cannot exclude the possibility that such a case was reported with a different diagnosis.
  • We report a case of a young girl with secretory carcinoma that seems to have arisen from skin appendage glands in the skin of the axilla in the absence of demonstrable ectopic breast tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Aug;34(8):1226-7; author reply 1228 [20631609.001]
  • (PMID = 19342945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Page RN, Hanggi MC, King R, Googe PB: Multiple microcystic adnexal carcinomas. Cutis; 2007 Apr;79(4):299-303
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  • [Title] Multiple microcystic adnexal carcinomas.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a relatively uncommon adnexal neoplasm that can demonstrate locally aggressive behavior; rare instances of metastatic lesions have been reported.
  • We report a case of a 34-year-old black man with multiple primary MACs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17500378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Sakuma A, Nishiyama S, Yasuno K, Ohmuro T, Kamiie J, Shirota K: A case of canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma with prominent expression of smooth muscle actin. J Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Dec;23(4):265-9
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  • [Title] A case of canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma with prominent expression of smooth muscle actin.
  • Cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma was found in the right lip of a 14-year-old male castrated Shih Tzu.

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  • (PMID = 22272037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-915X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234631
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cytokeratin / dermatopathology / dog / skin / skin tumor / stem cell
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7. Ivan D, Hafeez Diwan A, Prieto VG: Expression of p63 in primary cutaneous adnexal neoplasms and adenocarcinoma metastatic to the skin. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jan;18(1):137-42
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  • [Title] Expression of p63 in primary cutaneous adnexal neoplasms and adenocarcinoma metastatic to the skin.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of p63 expression in cutaneous adnexal neoplasms and to assess its possible value in the differential diagnosis of primary cutaneous neoplasms vs adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis for p63 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue from 20 benign adnexal tumors, 10 malignant adnexal tumors and 14 adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin.
  • The expression of p63 was evaluated in epidermal cells, skin appendages and metastatic tumor cells. p63 was consistently expressed in the basal and suprabasal cells of epidermis and cutaneous appendages, including the basal/myoepithelial cells of sweat glands.
  • Out of 20 benign adnexal tumors, 13 (65%) showed strong (score 3) p63 expression; the remaining seven (35%) cases had score 2.
  • All primary cutaneous carcinomas, including adenocarcinomas, expressed p63.
  • In contrast, none of the metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin was positive for p63 (P<0.001).
  • Based on our findings, analysis of p63 expression may help in the differential diagnosis of primary vs metastatic cutaneous adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA-Binding Proteins. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermis / chemistry. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins


8. Beltramini GA, Baj A, Moneghini L, Poli T, Combi VA, Giannì AB: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the centrofacial region: a case report. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2010 Aug;30(4):213
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the centrofacial region: a case report.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare, locally aggressive neoplasm with both eccrine and follicular differentiation and a high probability of perineural invasion of the centrofacial region.
  • Given the histopathological features of this tumour, early diagnosis is essential for adequate management.
  • This report refers to a case of microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the nasogenial region, with infiltration of the deep planes extending to the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Facial Neoplasms

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  • [Cites] Pathologica. 2000 Aug;92(4):225-35 [11029882.001]
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  • (PMID = 21253288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1827-675X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3008151
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Forehead flap / Microcystic adnexal carcinoma / Mustardé flap
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9. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) belongs to the spectrum of locally aggressive adnexal carcinomas and most commonly occurs in the head and neck region.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Previous histopathologic diagnoses were squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • The reported case demonstrates the difficulties in diagnosing MAC and indicates that MAC should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of slowly growing tumors in the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Castori M, Castiglia D, Passarelli F, Paradisi M: Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome: an ectodermal dysplasia with skin appendage neoplasms. Eur J Med Genet; 2009 Jul-Aug;52(4):250-5
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  • [Title] Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome: an ectodermal dysplasia with skin appendage neoplasms.
  • Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome is a rare X-linked genodermatosis characterized by early-onset nonmelanoma skin cancers, atrophoderma follicularis, hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis, and multiple milia.
  • We report a 5-year-old child presenting sparse hair, reduced sweating, ice-pick skin depressions of the dorsum of hands, facial and limb milia, perianal skin hyperpigmentation, and hyperpigmented papules of the axillae and neck.
  • Histologic examination of a skin papule obtained from the index case revealed features consistent with trichoepithelioma.
  • Our findings indicate that trichoepitheliomas are an early sign of Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome and may guide the diagnosis even before the development of basal cell carcinomas.
  • The high frequency of hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis and dry skin in Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndrome indicates that it may be better classified as an ectodermal dysplasia.
  • Comparison with other conditions combining features of ectodermal dysplasia and proneness to skin tumors suggests the involvement of a common pathogenic pathway implicated in both skin development and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Ectodermal Dysplasia / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Hair / pathology. Humans. Hyperpigmentation / diagnosis. Hyperpigmentation / pathology. Hypohidrosis / diagnosis. Hypohidrosis / physiopathology. Hypotrichosis / diagnosis. Hypotrichosis / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 19138767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0849
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Med Genet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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11. Liang H, Wu H, Giorgadze TA, Sariya D, Bellucci KS, Veerappan R, Liegl B, Acs G, Elenitsas R, Shukla S, Youngberg GA, Coogan PS, Pasha T, Zhang PJ, Xu X: Podoplanin is a highly sensitive and specific marker to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):304-10
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  • [Title] Podoplanin is a highly sensitive and specific marker to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin.
  • Distinction of primary skin adnexal carcinomas from cutaneous metastasis of adenocarcinomas is challenging.
  • In this study, we evaluated podoplanin immunoreactivity in a series of primary skin adnexal tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin using a D2-40 antibody.
  • The initial test series were composed of a total of 93 cases including 32 primary skin adnexal carcinomas, 46 benign primary adnexal tumors, and 15 cutaneous metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • We found that variable D2-40 reactivity was seen in all of the primary cutaneous carcinomas including sebaceous carcinomas (10/10), squamous cell carcinomas (10/10), porocarcinomas (4/4), trichilemmal carcinomas (4/4), skin adnexal carcinomas not otherwise specified (4/4), and in the majority of benign skin adnexal tumors.
  • To confirm the initial findings and to further explore the utility of podoplanin reactivity in the distinction of these tumors, we also examined a test set of 35 unknown cases, including 21 adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin and 14 primary adnexal tumors, in a blinded fashion.
  • Of the 13 D2-40 positive cases, 12 were proven to be primary adnexal tumors.
  • Our results suggest that podoplanin can be a useful tool to distinguish primary skin adnexal carcinomas form adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin with high sensitivity (94.5%) and specificity (97.2%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Single-Blind Method

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  • (PMID = 17255777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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12. Ntomouchtsis A, Vahtsevanos K, Patrikidou A, Andreadis C, Tsobanidou C, Antoniades K: Adnexal skin carcinomas of the face. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Jan;20(1):134-7
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  • [Title] Adnexal skin carcinomas of the face.
  • Skin adnexal neoplasms are rare tumors, and knowledge on their exact histological development and pathogenesis remains fragmented.
  • Their diagnosis and management are frequently troublesome, especially for malignant tumors.
  • We present a retrospective case series of malignant appendageal tumors of the face.
  • Records of patients with histologically confirmed adnexal skin carcinoma managed at a single department during the period 1995 to 2004 were reviewed.
  • Patient biodata, surgical management, and main outcome measures such as locoregional recurrence, distant metastasis, and disease-free and overall survival were recorded.Eleven patients were identified from record analysis.
  • Nine of 11 patients were alive and free of local and/or regional disease on final follow-up.
  • Two patients died of causes unrelated to the disease.
  • Clinical and histological features, tumor biological behavior, diagnostic difficulties, and recommended management are discussed.In conclusion, adnexal skin tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin tumors, particularly in view of their more sinister prognosis compared with other nonmelanoma skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Flaps. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19165010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Krahl D, Sellheyer K: Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 reliably discriminates between microcystic adnexal carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Oct;34(10):782-7
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  • [Title] Monoclonal antibody Ber-EP4 reliably discriminates between microcystic adnexal carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • It is diagnostically highly reliable in the differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In this study, we report its application in the differential diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma, desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Biopsy samples from 28 sclerosing and infiltrating basal cell carcinomas, 13 microcystic adnexal carcinomas and 16 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were examined after immunohistochemical staining with Ber-EP4.
  • RESULTS: Ber-EP4 did not label any of the microcystic adnexal carcinomas, whereas all 28 basal cell carcinomas were Ber-EP4 positive.
  • Only one basal cell carcinoma was weakly positive.
  • Twelve of the 16 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were immunoreactive with Ber-EP4 and the staining was more variable than those of basal cell carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ber-EP4 reliably differentiates microcystic adnexal carcinoma from basal cell carcinoma to the same extent as it distinguishes the latter tumor from squamous cell carcinoma.
  • While it stains the majority of desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas, these tumors still have to be considered in the differential diagnosis with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, when Ber-EP4 is applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Sclerosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17880584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125
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14. Clement CI, Genge J, O'Donnell BA, Lochhead AG: Orbital and periorbital microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2005 Mar;21(2):97-102
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  • [Title] Orbital and periorbital microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To review the clinical and histopathologic features of patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the orbital and periorbital tissues.
  • All had initial histopathology diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma but were subsequently diagnosed as microcystic adnexal carcinoma after clinical recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Review of the literature shows that microcystic adnexal carcinoma affecting the orbital and periorbital tissues is difficult to differentiate clinically and microscopically from other conditions including squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15778661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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15. Riou-Gotta MO, Fournier E, Danzon A, Pelletier F, Levang J, Mermet I, Blanc D, Humbert P, Aubin F: Rare skin cancer: a population-based cancer registry descriptive study of 151 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1980 and 2004. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(4):605-9
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  • [Title] Rare skin cancer: a population-based cancer registry descriptive study of 151 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1980 and 2004.
  • BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiological data available on rare skin cancer, including Merkel cell carcinoma, Paget's disease, adnexal carcinoma, and sarcoma.
  • We conducted this study to investigate the epidemiology of rare skin cancer diagnosed in the department of Doubs from 1980 to 2004.
  • Diagnosis was based on the 3(rd) edition of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology.
  • Median age for the diagnosed disease was 63 years.
  • Fifty nine cases (39%) were sarcomas, 35 (23%) adnexal carcinomas, 27 (18%) Merkel cell carcinoma and 27 (18%) Paget's disease.
  • The standardized incidence rates were 0.37/100 000 (0.27-0.47) for sarcomas, 0.16 (0.10-0.22) for adnexal tumors, 0.13 (0.08-0.18) for Merkel cell carcinoma, and 0.15 (0.09-0.21) for Paget's disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results based on a population-based cancer registry showed an increase of the standardized incidence rate for all types of rare skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / epidemiology. Child. Female. France / epidemiology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / epidemiology. Rare Diseases / epidemiology. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19137462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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16. Matsushita S, Uemura T, Imayama S, Sugihara H, Yamasaki M: Giant microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the scalp. J Dermatol; 2008 Nov;35(11):726-8
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  • [Title] Giant microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the scalp.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is an uncommon, locally aggressive tumor.
  • Resection included the cranium; for reconstruction we used a titan mesh allograft and covered it with a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap and a mesh skin graft.
  • Ours is the first case of a MAC measuring more than 100 cm2 arising on the scalp of an individual in the third decade of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] J Dermatol. 2008 Dec;35(12):808
  • (PMID = 19120767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Prayaga AK, Loya AC, Gottimukkala SR, Digumarti RR, Maddali LS, Challa S: Cytologic features of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae. Acta Cytol; 2008 Nov-Dec;52(6):702-9
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  • [Title] Cytologic features of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cases of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae diagnosed on cytology with histopathology confirmation were retrieved from case records of 1998-2005.
  • RESULTS: Thirty primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae were analyzed.
  • Melanoma was the most common (n=12), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=5).
  • There were 3 basal cell carcinomas and 2 cases each of sebaceous carcinoma, Paget's disease of the breast and lymphoma.
  • There were single cases of eccrine carcinoma, malignant trichilemmal tumor, undifferentiated carcinoma and extramedullary myeloid cell tumor.
  • All the cases of hemopoietic tumors (n=3) and the majority of the cases (4 of 7) of adnexal were seen to arise from head and neck region.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytodiagnosis of primary malignant tumors of skin and adnexae is possible based on morphology and clinical presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Records. Melanoma / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19068675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Pincus LB, McCalmont TH, Neuhaus IM, Kasper R, Oh DH: Basal cell carcinomas arising within multiple trichoepitheliomas. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35 Suppl 1:59-64
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinomas arising within multiple trichoepitheliomas.
  • We describe a 57-year-old male with numerous skin-colored firm papules and plaques present on the central face since 6 years of age.
  • Biopsies from multiple lesions showed TEs both alone and associated with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the same section, suggesting the secondary development of BCCs within TEs.
  • Awareness of the potential for the evolution of carcinoma in patients with MFT is important in the management of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2008.
  • (PMID = 18544067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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19. Ohtsuka H, Nozawa R, Kushida Y: Synchronous microcystic adnexal carcinoma and gastric cancer with review of the literature. J Dermatol; 2005 Jan;32(1):43-7
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  • [Title] Synchronous microcystic adnexal carcinoma and gastric cancer with review of the literature.
  • A microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) on the left lateral chest was synchronously accompanied by both an adenocarcinoma and a granular cell tumor of the stomach in a 70-year-old Japanese male.
  • After a definitive diagnosis was made by an excisional biopsy, a second operation was performed with wider excision, followed by split thickness skin grafting.
  • Three lymph nodes were excised for diagnostic purposes and found to be reactive hyperplasia without metastasis of skin tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Granular Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Thorax

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  • (PMID = 15841661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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20. Ivan D, Nash JW, Prieto VG, Calonje E, Lyle S, Diwan AH, Lazar AJ: Use of p63 expression in distinguishing primary and metastatic cutaneous adnexal neoplasms from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jun;34(6):474-80
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  • [Title] Use of p63 expression in distinguishing primary and metastatic cutaneous adnexal neoplasms from metastatic adenocarcinoma to skin.
  • p63, a recently identified homologue of the p53 gene, is mainly expressed by basal and myoepithelial cells in skin.
  • Others and we have shown the value of p63 in distinguishing primary adnexal tumors from visceral adenocarcinomas metastatic to skin.
  • We now investigate the pattern of p63 expression in metastases from skin adnexal carcinomas and their cognate primaries and evaluate p63 expression in a larger case series of malignant cutaneous adnexal neoplasms.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis for p63 was performed on 13 metastases of adnexal carcinomas and their corresponding primary tumors.
  • Twenty visceral metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin and 7 primary mucinous carcinomas with cutaneous or visceral origin were compared.
  • The majority (90.9%) of primary adnexal tumors strongly expressed p63 and their metastases labeled similar to their cognate primary tumors.
  • With one exception, primary or metastatic mucinous carcinomas did not express p63.
  • Metastases from two apocrine carcinomas lacked p63 expression.
  • Analysis of p63 expression may assist in the differential diagnosis of primary adnexal carcinomas versus metastatic visceral adenocarcinomas to the skin.
  • Metastases from adnexal carcinomas generally retain p63 expression similar to their associated primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Retrospective Studies. Transcription Factors

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2008 Jul;35(7):692-3 [18312438.001]
  • (PMID = 17518775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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21. Wetter R, Goldstein GD: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Dermatol Ther; 2008 Nov-Dec;21(6):452-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm that is often diagnosed after having been present for a significant period of time.
  • Actual skin involvement is significantly more extensive than can be determined clinically and because of this, therapy is challenging.
  • Though metastasis is rare, there have been reports of both regional and distant metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19076623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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22. Hamsch C, Hartschuh W: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Apr;8(4):275-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma - aggressive infiltrative tumor often with innocent clinical appearance.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare sweat gland malignancy, characterized by slow, but aggressive infiltrative growth.
  • We report two patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma, using them as a basis to discuss, pathogenesis, diagnosis, histology and therapy of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19788582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Basile JR, Lin YL: A salivary gland adenocarcinoma mimicking a microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2010 Apr;109(4):e28-33
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  • [Title] A salivary gland adenocarcinoma mimicking a microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • The microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare, slow-growing but locally aggressive neoplasm arising in the midface and lips of middle-aged adults.
  • The diagnostic dilemma presented by this lesion is discussed, along with a differential diagnosis and brief review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cell Proliferation. Connective Tissue / pathology. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrosis. Humans. Lip / innervation. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sclerosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011 Sep;112(3):284-6 [21684772.001]
  • (PMID = 20303043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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24. Merritt BG, Snow SN, Longley BJ: Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative/morpheaform BCC, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma: differentiation by immunohistochemistry and determining the need for Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutis; 2010 May;85(5):254-8
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, infiltrative/morpheaform BCC, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma: differentiation by immunohistochemistry and determining the need for Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE), infiltrative/morpheaform basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) are tumors in this category that may be difficult to differentiate, especially when evaluating thin biopsy specimens.
  • An accurate diagnosis has important clinical implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Male. Middle Aged. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 20540416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20
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25. Martorell-Calatayud A, Requena-Caballero C, Botella-Estrada R, Almenar-Medina S, Sanmartín-Jiménez O, Llombart-Cussac B, Nagore-Enguídanos E, Serra-Guillén C, Echeverría-García B, Guillén-Barona C: [Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: Mohs micrographic surgery as the treatment of choice]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Oct;100(8):693-9
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  • [Title] [Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: Mohs micrographic surgery as the treatment of choice].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma anexial microquístico: la cirugía micrográfica de Mohs como tratamiento de elección.
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that manifests clinically as a subcutaneous nodule located on the head or neck.
  • The tumor can be confused clinically and histologically with other benign and malignant skin lesions, often leading to inappropriate initial treatment.
  • The chief concern with microcystic adnexal carcinoma is the elevated morbidity and the high rate of recurrence after wide local excision.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical histories of 6 consecutive patients with microcystic adnexal carcinoma who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery in our dermatology department between 1995 and 2007.
  • Seventy percent of the tumors were wrongly diagnosed initially as basal cell carcinoma.
  • The site and the absence of recurrence in all our patients who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery support the use of this technique as the treatment of choice in microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19775547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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26. Schulman FY, Lipscomb TP, Atkin TJ: Canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma: histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior of 26 cases. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2005 Sep;17(5):403-11
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  • [Title] Canine cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma: histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior of 26 cases.
  • The findings are consistent with a poorly differentiated, low-grade, adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Similar canine cutaneous neoplasms have been reported as "clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma" and "follicular stem cell carcinoma."
  • The authors propose the designation "cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / veterinary. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16312230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Fernández-Figueras MT, Montero MA, Admella J, de la Torre N, Quer A, Ariza A: High (nuclear) grade adnexal carcinoma with microcystic adnexal carcinoma-like structural features. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):346-51
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  • [Title] High (nuclear) grade adnexal carcinoma with microcystic adnexal carcinoma-like structural features.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a slow growing, locally aggressive sweat gland tumor.
  • Microscopically, MAC is characterized by a stratified proliferation of microcysts, cords, and ducts of cells that show squamous or adnexal differentiation.
  • We report a case of adnexal carcinoma with architectural features of MAC that displayed also marked nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia with squamous pearl formation and a widespread strong p53 immunoreaction.
  • We therefore want to sound an alert about the possible existence of tumors displaying microscopic findings characteristic of the aggressive forms of sweat gland carcinoma (nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia, vascular invasion, and necrosis) in addition to architectural features of MAC.

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  • (PMID = 16871041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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28. Khachemoune A, Olbricht SM, Johnson DS: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of four cases treated with Mohs' micrographic surgical technique. Int J Dermatol; 2005 Jun;44(6):507-12
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of four cases treated with Mohs' micrographic surgical technique.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor of the sweat glands.
  • The accumulated data continue to confirm that, if the diagnosis of MAC is made early, and if the anatomic location is accessible to excision by MMS, a favorable outcome can be expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Scalp / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15941444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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29. Baxi S, Deb S, Weedon D, Baumann K, Poulsen M: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin: the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2010 Oct;54(5):477-82
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin: the role of adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare cutaneous tumour where the role of radiotherapy remains undefined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists No claim to original US government works.
  • (PMID = 20958947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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30. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D, Lun K, Richards S, Paver R: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Feb;52(2):295-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: treatment with Mohs micrographic surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is reported to have a high rate of recurrence with standard wide local excision.
  • METHODS: This prospective, multi-center case series included all patients in Australia treated with MMS for MAC, who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation between 1993 and 2002.
  • In 32.5% of cases the tumor was initially misdiagnosed as basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Australia / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Child. Databases, Factual. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15692477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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31. Kamiya H, Kitajima Y, Ban M: Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells. J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;33(12):858-64
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  • [Title] Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma: the pluripotential nature of Bowen's disease cells.
  • Bowen's disease rarely exhibits multiple combinations of premalignant and/or malignant skin lesions.
  • Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma was originally described by Kao, but is not well recognized by clinicians due to its rarity and lack of specific clinical features of this condition.
  • Herein, we describe three unusual cases of Bowen's disease with invasive adnexal carcinoma.
  • The plaque lesions possessed clinical features typical of Bowen's disease.
  • In cases 1 and 3, we confirmed the adnexal tumor within tumors of Bowen's disease, the diagnosis of which is eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The tumor in case 2 was characteristic to trichilemmal carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells of Bowen's disease and the adnexal carcinoma differed in antigenicities.
  • The present cases support a notion that Bowen's disease maintains a pluripotential nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17169090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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32. Suwattee P, McClelland MC, Huiras EE, Warshaw EM, Lee PK, Kaye VN, McCalmont TH, Niehans GA: Plaque-type syringoma: two cases misdiagnosed as microcystic adnexal carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jun;35(6):570-4
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  • [Title] Plaque-type syringoma: two cases misdiagnosed as microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • This benign neoplasm may be easily misdiagnosed as microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), potentially resulting in unnecessary surgery with disfiguring consequences.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our cases are discussed in the context of histopathologic diagnosis.
  • Detailed histopathologic findings of syringoma, as well as other considerations in the differential diagnosis, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Cysts / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Syringoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18005172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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33. Lountzis N, Junkins-Hopkins J, Uberti-Benz M, Elenitsas R: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma arising within a nevus sebaceus. Cutis; 2007 Oct;80(4):352-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma arising within a nevus sebaceus.
  • Nevus sebaceus (NS) is a congenital skin lesion arising on the face and scalp that has been linked to the development of various carcinomas.
  • We describe a case of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) arising in an NS on the scalp of a 62-year-old man.
  • Excisional skin biopsy and hematoxylin and eosin stains were performed to examine the specimen.
  • This case presents a rare finding of MAC within an NS.


34. Seaward JR, Kalipershad SN, Ross GL: Supraorbital neuroma masquerading as local recurrence from a previously excised microcystic adnexal carcinoma. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2010 Mar;63(3):e239-41
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  • [Title] Supraorbital neuroma masquerading as local recurrence from a previously excised microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • We present a case of a 53 year old gentleman with a previous history of a microcystic adnexal carcinoma in the supraorbital region who represented with pain and tenderness 3 years postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neuroma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19648071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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35. Kavand S, Cassarino DS: "Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma": an unusual low-grade case with follicular differentiation. Are these tumors squamoid variants of microcystic adnexal carcinoma? Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):849-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] "Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma": an unusual low-grade case with follicular differentiation. Are these tumors squamoid variants of microcystic adnexal carcinoma?
  • Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is a rare primary cutaneous tumor exhibiting both squamous and adnexal ductal differentiation.
  • The cell of origin of these tumors is unknown, and they have been classified both as variants of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and as a type of eccrine carcinoma.
  • We report an additional case of a slow-growing tumor, occurring on the great toe of a 61-year-old woman, which was unusual as it showed follicular differentiation in addition to squamoid and ductal areas.
  • We postulate that these tumors may be closely related to microcystic adnexal carcinoma and similarly show differentiation along both follicular and ductal lines, likely indicating folliculosebaceous-apocrine, rather than eccrine, origin or differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19786851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Nagatsuka H, Rivera RS, Gunduz M, Siar CH, Tamamura R, Mizukawa N, Asaumi J, Nagai N: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma with mandibular bone marrow involvement: a case report with immunohistochemistry. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Dec;28(6):518-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma with mandibular bone marrow involvement: a case report with immunohistochemistry.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a rare, locally aggressive cutaneous neoplasm with a high probability of persistence locally but a low probability of metastasis.
  • We report a case of a 69-year-old female patient with an indurated plaque at the mental region.
  • Our results indicate that microcystic adnexal carcinoma consists of tumor cells capable of both follicular and eccrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Lip Neoplasms / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17122497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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37. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. YASUNO K, NISHIYAMA S, SUETSUGU F, OGIHARA K, MADARAME H, SHIROTA K: Cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma in a dog: special reference to cytokeratin expression. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Nov;71(11):1513-7
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  • [Title] Cutaneous clear cell adnexal carcinoma in a dog: special reference to cytokeratin expression.
  • Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as canine clear cell adnexal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19959904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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39. Schaller J, Rytina E, Rütten A, Hendricks C, Ha T, Requena L: Sweat duct proliferation associated with aggregates of elastic tissue and atrophodermia vermiculata: a simulator of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Report of two cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):1002-9
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  • [Title] Sweat duct proliferation associated with aggregates of elastic tissue and atrophodermia vermiculata: a simulator of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Report of two cases.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare, usually solitary, slowly growing, yet aggressive neoplasm with a tendency for local recurrences.
  • However, to our knowledge, the presence of a MAC-like ductal proliferation embedded in sclerotic stroma and extending to the deep dermis has not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Skin / pathology. Sweat Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atrophy / pathology. Biopsy. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Elastic Tissue / pathology. Female. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20175822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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40. Yu JB, Blitzblau RC, Patel SC, Decker RH, Wilson LD: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database analysis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma) of the skin. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr;33(2):125-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database analysis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (sclerosing sweat duct carcinoma) of the skin.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a very rare cancer of the skin.
  • Predominant site of disease was the head and neck skin (74%).
  • There was only 1 case of recorded metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Clin Oncol. 2010 Apr;33(2):196-7 [20375780.001]
  • (PMID = 19675445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Eisen DB, Zloty D: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma involving a large portion of the face: when is surgery not reasonable? Dermatol Surg; 2005 Nov;31(11 Pt 1):1472-7; discussion 1478
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma involving a large portion of the face: when is surgery not reasonable?
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) involving a large portion of the face, one of the largest of any MAC reported thus far in this area, and review the literature regarding the nature of the tumor and available treatments.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about what is known about therapy for MAC and what options are available to patients who have this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16416625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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42. Chaudhry IH, Zembowicz A: Adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis: clinicopathologic analysis of 12 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Nov;131(11):1655-64
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  • [Title] Adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis: clinicopathologic analysis of 12 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a previously unrecognized, distinctive cutaneous adnexal carcinoma capable of an aggressive clinical course.
  • DESIGN: Clinicopathologic analysis of a series of 12 cases.
  • Histologically, adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis was characterized by dermal proliferation of nests of epithelial cells showing distinctive zonal arrangement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis appears to be a distinctive adnexal neoplasm that has to be distinguished from more indolent squamous cell and tricholemmal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Keratin-17 / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Necrosis / metabolism. Necrosis / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 May;135(5):532; author reply 533 [21526948.001]
  • (PMID = 17979483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1
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43. Beer KT, Bühler SS, Mullis P, Laeng RH, Greiner R: A microcystic adnexal carcinoma in the auditory canal 15 years after radiotherapy of a 12-year-old boy with nasopharynx carcinoma. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 Jun;181(6):405-10
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  • [Title] A microcystic adnexal carcinoma in the auditory canal 15 years after radiotherapy of a 12-year-old boy with nasopharynx carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiogenic malignancies require cure of the primary disease and a prolonged survival.
  • CASE REPORT: A 12-year-old boy is reported who suffered from an advanced nasopharynx carcinoma and was treated with radical irradiation in 1983.
  • 15 years later he developed a rare microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the auditory canal inside the volume of the target dose.
  • The secondary malignant neoplasm was resected and required another radiation treatment (1 Gy b.i.d.) due to involved margins.
  • DISCUSSION AND LITERATURE REVIEW: The entity of microcystic carcinoma is discussed with a review of the literature on biology, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Ear Neoplasms / surgery. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15925985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes
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44. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Rütten A, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Jun;27(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Carcinoid-like pattern in sebaceous neoplasms: another distinctive, previously unrecognized pattern in extraocular sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma.
  • The cases included 6 men and 1 woman, with their ages at the diagnosis ranging from 43 to 87 years (median age, 59).
  • Although the neoplasm appeared benign architecturally, the presence of cytologic atypia qualified 2 tumors as low-grade carcinomas.
  • Four lesions represented sebaceomas, and in 1 case microscopic delineation between a carcinoma and sebaceoma was difficult.
  • Electron microscopic examination performed in 1 case of carcinoma revealed lipid vacuoles in a minority of cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 16th Century. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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45. Gabillot-Carré M, Weill F, Mamelle G, Kolb F, Boitier F, Petrow P, Ortoli JC, Margulis A, Souteyrand P, Mercier S, Spatz A, Duvillard P, Validire P, Avril MF: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of seven cases including one with lung metastasis. Dermatology; 2006;212(3):221-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of seven cases including one with lung metastasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare cutaneous neoplasm, with a high rate of local recurrences.
  • In 3 patients, the course of the disease was severe: one of them developed pathologically proven lung metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • [Copyright] 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 16549917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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46. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Richards S, Paver R, Selva D: Periocular microcystic adnexal carcinoma: management and outcome with Mohs' micrographic surgery. Ophthalmologica; 2006;220(2):109-13
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  • [Title] Periocular microcystic adnexal carcinoma: management and outcome with Mohs' micrographic surgery.
  • PURPOSE: To report a series of patients with periocular microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) treated with Mohs' micrographic surgery (MMS).
  • METHODS: This series included all patients treated with MMS for periocular MAC, who were monitored by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia between 1993 and 2002.
  • The tumor was initially misdiagnosed as basal cell carcinoma in 3 patients and squamous cell carcinoma in 1 patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16491033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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47. Kazakov DV, Vittay G, Michal M, Calonje E: High-grade trichoblastic carcinosarcoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):62-4
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  • We view the present case and that previously reported in 2004 as authentic carcinosarcomas, and not as metaplastic (sarcomatoid) basal cell carcinomas.
  • This conclusion is reached after analyzing the embryological development of the hair follicle, its normal histology and the morphology of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18212548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Kazakov DV, Mentzel T, Erlandson RA, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Clear cell trichoblastoma: a clinicopathological and ultrastructural study of two cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Jun;28(3):197-201
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  • Clear cell change in basal cell carcinomas is a well-recognized phenomenon, but is obviously rare in trichoblastomas.
  • In addition to the usual organelles, the cytoplasm contained fairly conspicuous tonofilaments and variably sized vacuoles devoid of a limiting membrane, located between the palisaded nuclei and the outer cell membrane.
  • The majority of vacuoles were empty, although clumps of a finely granular substance were occasionally evident.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / ultrastructure. Head and Neck Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / ultrastructure. Skin Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16778484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Palamaras I, McKenna JD, Robson A, Barlow RJ: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: a case series treated with mohs micrographic surgery and identification of patients in whom paraffin sections may be preferable. Dermatol Surg; 2010 Apr;36(4):446-52
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: a case series treated with mohs micrographic surgery and identification of patients in whom paraffin sections may be preferable.
  • BACKGROUND: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare cutaneous tumor characterized by aggressive local infiltration, including a high propensity for perineural invasion (PNI).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Mohs Surgery / methods. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Eye Enucleation. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Photomicrography. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20180834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Sanguinetti A, Ragusa M, Calzolari F, D'Ajello F, Fioriti L, Papini D, Sidoni A, Roila F, Avenia N: Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue of the axilla. Case report and review of the literature. G Chir; 2010 Aug-Sep;31(8-9):383-6
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  • [Title] Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue of the axilla. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Mammary carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue is an uncommon occurrence.
  • Most reported cases have involved ductal carcinoma, but other types, such as medullary, papillary, and lobular carcinomas, have been described.
  • For pathologists, the diagnosis of mammary carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue can be difficult, especially in the axilla, where carcinoma of adnexal origin must be excluded.
  • We describe a 51-year-old woman who developed invasive secretory ductal carcinoma in ectopic left axillary breast tissue and micrometastatic carcinoma in an ipsilateral axillary lymph node.
  • The carcinoma arose in a left axillary mass that had been present for several years, from which she had secreted fluid during prior menstrual periods.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20843442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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51. Henning JS: Extramammary Paget's disease of the penis and scrotum. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;5(7):652-4
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  • [Title] Extramammary Paget's disease of the penis and scrotum.
  • A biopsy specimen showed extramammary Paget's disease.
  • Twenty years earlier, while living in China in 1983, this patient had a suprapubic skin cancer which was excised, and he received radiation to the region.
  • Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare cutaneous adenocarcinoma of epidermal origin, which is frequently associated with adnexal carcinoma and internal malignant conditions.
  • Clinically, extramammary Paget's disease is characterized by a red, moist, eroded plaque in the anogenital region.
  • Extramammary Paget's disease usually behaves as a slow-growing intraepithelial adenocarcinoma; however, it may become invasive and may metastasize through dermal lymphatics.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Scrotum. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16865871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Pennington BE, Leffell DJ: Mohs micrographic surgery: established uses and emerging trends. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Aug;19(9):1165-71; discussion 1171-2, 1175
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  • This approach appears to be superior to conventional surgical excision in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the two most common cancers of the skin.
  • Its efficacy in treating BCC and SCC has led clinicians to explore the role of Mohs micrographic surgery in the management of less common cutaneous neoplasms, such as melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, extramammary Paget's disease, and microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Humans. Melanoma / surgery. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16255133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Kinkor Z, Skálová A, Michal M, Janousek M, Kheck M: [Metastasing and relapsing "low grade" adenosquamous metaplastic breast cancer--is there a really indolent lesion? A description of three cases and review of literature]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 May;70(3):211-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Metastazující a recidivující "low grade" adenoskvamózní metaplastický karcinom prsu--jde skutecnĕ o indolentní lezi? Popis trí prípadů a rozbor literatury.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe personnel experience with three unusual cases of low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast.
  • Due to the aggressive course in two cases, the review of the literature does not concentrate on morphology and differential diagnosis only, but discuss overall biology of this lesion too.
  • Histology revealed low-grade adenosquamous metaplastic carcinoma displaying typical biphasic appearance combining regular tubular structures with surrounding storiform, sclerosing fibrous stroma.
  • CONCLUSION: low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, despite its bland histology, should be understood as regular malignancy prone to frequent recurrences and recognized metastatic potential.
  • It arises in the deep breast tissue and structurally resembles the microcystic adnexal carcinoma of the skin.
  • Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma, however, has nothing to do with syringomatous adenoma of the nipple, which is a benign tumor of the skin adnexa.
  • Differential diagnosis includes spectrum of non-neoplastic slerosing lesions and above-mentioned phylloid tumor.

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  • (PMID = 16047925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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54. Schulz T, Proske S, Hartschuh W, Kurzen H, Paul E, Wünsch PH: High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):9-16
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  • [Title] High-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma: a rare adnexal neoplasm often showing metastatic spread.
  • It has been debated whether malignant transformation of trichoblastoma occurs.
  • The concept was recently forwarded that basal cell carcinoma is as a malignant neoplasm of follicular germinative cells and should be named trichoblastic carcinoma to show its relationship to trichoblastoma.
  • Almost all basal cell carcinomas are low-grade malignant neoplasms and develop metastases only very rarely, and if so, only after very long duration and untreated growth.
  • Only rare basal cell carcinomas arise in trichoblastomas.
  • Up to now there have only been two reports of high-grade trichoblastic carcinoma arising in trichoblastoma, showing systemic metastatic spread and death.
  • We add two further cases of trichoblastic carcinoma with anaplastic nuclei, arising in trichoblastoma.
  • The other one was a trichoblastic carcinoma at the base of a trichoepithelioma on the right thigh of an 87-year-old woman with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • Our cases emphasize that high-grade trichoblastic carcinoma develops via malignant transformation of trichoblastoma, and is very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / secondary. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15677970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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55. Sengul D, Sengul I, Astarci MH, Ustun H, Mocan G: Differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles by using CD34. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(6):1615-9
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and benign tumors of cutaneous appendages originating from hair follicles by using CD34.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Differential diagnosis of the group of benign trichoblastomas, trichofolliculomas, trichoadenomas and trichoepitheliomas, and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is troublesome for the clinician as well as the pathologist, especially when only small biopsy specimens are available.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD34 may contribute to differential diagnosis of skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 21338206.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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56. Gerber PA, Schulte KW, Ruzicka T, Bruch-Gerharz D: Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient. Dermatology; 2008;216(3):229-33
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  • [Title] Eccrine porocarcinoma of the head: an important differential diagnosis in the elderly patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the sweat gland, characterized by a broad spectrum of clinicopathologic presentations.
  • Instead, eccrine porocarcinoma frequently occurs on the lower extremities, trunk and abdomen, but also on the head, resembling various other skin tumors, as illustrated in the patients described herein.
  • All patients were initially diagnosed as having epidermal or melanocytic skin tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Eccrine porocarcinomas are potentially fatal adnexal malignancies, in which extensive metastatic dissemination may occur.
  • Porocarcinomas are commonly overlooked, or misinterpreted as squamous or basal cell carcinomas as well as other common malignant and even benign skin tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18182815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Roh JY, Kee SH, Choi JW, Lee JH, Lee JH, Lee ES, Kim YS: Expression of class II beta-tubulin in non-melanoma cutaneous tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Feb;34(2):166-73
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  • METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of class II tubulin was investigated in 117 cutaneous tumors: 30 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), seven keratoacanthomas (KAs), 57 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 23 trichoepitheliomas (TEs), and in the adjacent non-neoplastic skin.
  • On grading the follicular differentiation or myofibroblastic response with anti-class II tubulin, TE showed follicular differentiation more frequently (p < 0.001) with less of a myofibroblastic response (p = 0.001) than BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratoacanthoma / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tubulin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Epidermis / cytology. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Skin / cytology. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17244029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tubulin
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58. Thosani MK, Marghoob A, Chen CS: Current progress of immunostains in Mohs micrographic surgery: a review. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Dec;34(12):1621-36
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  • Mohs micrographic surgery is often considered the treatment of choice for a variety of skin malignancies.
  • In recent years, the application of immunostaining techniques has facilitated the successful removal of a number of common and less common cutaneous malignancies, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, extramammary Paget's disease, and even sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 19018832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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59. Dalton SR, LeBoit PE: Squamous cell carcinoma with clear cells: how often is there evidence of tricholemmal differentiation? Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):333-9
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma with clear cells: how often is there evidence of tricholemmal differentiation?
  • Clear-cell carcinoma of the skin was described by Kuo in 1980 as a cutaneous tumor composed of clear cells that lacked cytoplasmic glycogen or evidence of tricholemmal keratinization.
  • Tricholemmal carcinoma (TC) is conventionally considered to be a neoplasm derived from adnexal keratinocytes with glycogenated clear cells and evidence of outer root sheath or tricholemmal differentiation.
  • The existence of TC has been questioned as it has been argued that without clear immunohistochemical evidence of outer root sheath differentiation, TC cannot be distinguished from clear-cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • Our laboratory has not routinely stained the cases that appear to be carcinomas with clear keratinocytes to determine if glycogen is present and has not made the diagnosis of TC.
  • We sought to test whether the presence of glycogen, light microscopic features said to be typical of TC, or immunohistochemical findings would delineate a group of "true" TC among the cases that we have been recording as squamous cell carcinomas with clear cells (SCC-C).
  • 40 cases of SCC-C were evaluated for 7 histologic and histochemical criteria (a lobular arrangement, peripheral palisading, tricholemmal keratinization, folliculocentricity, evidence of a preexisting tricholemmoma, the presence of intracytoplasmic glycogen, and a thickened basement membrane) said to characterize TC.
  • Overall, the carcinomas showed a spectrum of the above aggregated criteria ranging from 0 to 5.
  • The glycogen-free clear-cell carcinoma described by Kuo seems uncommon in our patient population.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


60. Thomas L, Dalle S: [Pathology of the eyelid in elderly patients]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Jun;29(6):672-86
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  • [Transliterated title] Pathologie dermatologique des paupières du sujet âgé
  • METHODS: Illustrated review centered on diagnosis of the usual aspects and pitfalls of eyelid pathology divided into semiological chapters (tumors, blisters, erythema, etc.).
  • It is mainly centered on skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinomas, and melanoma).
  • A number of rare diseases deserve mention since their presence could lead to the diagnosis of internal or systemic diseases (dermatomyositis, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, Erdheim-Chester, etc.).
  • In such conditions, early diagnosis is often based on the observation of isolated periocular symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though topographic dermatology is a somewhat reductive vision of skin diseases, pathology of the eyelids deserves special mention because of its polymorphism as well as its diagnostic and/or therapeutic significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16885900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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61. Regauer S, Nogales FF: Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Apr;29(4):479-84
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  • [Title] Vulvar trichogenic tumors: a comparative study with vulvar basal cell carcinoma.
  • Trichogenic tumors are very rare in genital skin and often cause diagnostic problems because they are mitotically active and they share some histologic features with basal cell carcinomas (BCCs).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15767801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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62. González-Guerra E, Requena L, Kutzner H: [Immunohistochemical study of calretinin in normal hair follicles and tumors with follicular differentiation]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Jul-Aug;99(6):456-63
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  • [Transliterated title] Estudio inmunohistoquímico de la calretinina en el folículo piloso normal y neoplasias con diferenciación folicular.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether immunohistochemistry for calretinin allows identification of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation towards cells of the outer root sheath.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the staining pattern for calretinin by immunohistochemistry in 49 biopsies of cutaneous adnexal tumors with follicular differentiation.
  • Three were basal cell carcinomas with variable staining according to the type of follicular differentiation in each variant.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry for calretinin allows identification of cutaneous adnexal tumors of the hair follicle or a component of the follicle with differentiation towards cells of the outer root sheath.
  • [MeSH-major] Hair Follicle / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Acanthoma / chemistry. Acanthoma / pathology. Calbindin 2. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / chemistry. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Epidermal Cyst / metabolism. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Hamartoma / metabolism. Hamartoma / pathology. Humans. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / chemistry. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Diseases / metabolism. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18558053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
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63. Kazakov DV, Sima R, Vanecek T, Kutzner H, Palmedo G, Kacerovska D, Grossmann P, Michal M: Mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene (beta-catenin gene) in cutaneous adnexal tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):248-55
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  • [Title] Mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene (beta-catenin gene) in cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Previous studies suggested that mutant beta-catenin gene cells in cutaneous adnexal tumors with matrical differentiation contribute to their tumorigenesis.
  • Except for pilomatricoma and pilomatrical carcinoma, only a handful of other cutaneous adnexal tumor types have been studied.
  • DNA was extracted from 86 lesions including 17 proliferating tricholemmal and trichilemmal tumors, 15 trichoblastomas, 7 trichoadenomas, 4 pilomatricomas, 1 pilomatrical carcinoma, 4 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) with shadow cells, 2 trichofolliculomas, 3 BCCs with sebaceous differentiation, 9 sebaceous adenomas, 6 sebaceomas, 14 sebaceous carcinomas (both ocular and extraocular forms), 2 gigantic horns, and 2 apocrine mixed tumors with shadow cells and subjected to polymerase chain reaction with newly designed primers encompassing glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation sites of the CTNNB1 gene.
  • These included 5 different point mutations, 3 of them identified in 2 different tumors: S23N (cribriform trichoblastoma), D32Y (pilomatricoma and craniopharyngioma), G34R (pilomatrical carcinoma and craniopharyngioma), S37F (2 BCCs with shadow cell differentiation), and G34V (craniopharyngioma).
  • This study broadens the list of cutaneous adnexal tumors harboring CTNNB1 mutations and extends the listing of the mutations occurring in these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Exons. Mutation. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. beta Catenin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19384065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / beta Catenin
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64. Miyamoto T, Inoue S, Adachi K, Takada R: Differential expression of mucin core proteins and keratins in apocrine carcinoma, extramammary Paget's disease and apocrine nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):529-34
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  • [Title] Differential expression of mucin core proteins and keratins in apocrine carcinoma, extramammary Paget's disease and apocrine nevus.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine carcinomas are rare, the immunohistochemical characterizations that are incomplete.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical characteristics of mucin core proteins and keratins in apocrine carcinoma, extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) and apocrine nevus.
  • METHODS: We report four cases of apocrine carcinomas along with immunohistochemical analyses: (i) an axillary apocrine carcinoma with an apocrine nevus, (ii) an inguinal apocrine carcinoma, (iii) a vulvar apocrine carcinoma with EMPD and (iv) an axillary apocrine carcinoma with EMPD and an apocrine nevus.
  • RESULTS: The tumor cells of apocrine carcinomas, EMPD and apocrine nevi displayed a positive reaction to MUC-1 and CK7 and a negative reaction to CK20.
  • Apocrine carcinomas had high molecular weight (HMW) cytokeratin(+)/CK5(+)/CK14(-)/MUC5AC(-), EMPD with underlying apocrine carcinoma had HMW cytokeratin(-)/CK5(-)/CK14(-)/MUCA5AC(-) and the apocrine nevi had HMW cytokeratin(+)/CK5(+)/CK14(+)/MUCA5AC(+).
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical findings suggest that apocrine carcinomas, apocrine nevi and EMPD with underlying apocrine carcinomas are quite different, even though they are all derived from apocrine glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Keratins / biosynthesis. Mucins / biosynthesis. Nevus / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19476520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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65. Ostler DA, Prieto VG, Reed JA, Deavers MT, Lazar AJ, Ivan D: Adipophilin expression in sebaceous tumors and other cutaneous lesions with clear cell histology: an immunohistochemical study of 117 cases. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):567-73
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  • A total of 117 cutaneous clear cell lesions including 16 sebaceous adenomas, 25 sebaceous carcinomas, 8 basal cell carcinomas, 12 squamous cell carcinomas, 6 xanthomas, 10 xanthelasmas, 10 xanthogranulomas, 4 balloon cell nevi, 5 trichilemmomas, 8 clear cell hidradenomas, and 13 metastatic renal cell carcinomas were examined using immunohistochemistry for the expression of adipophilin.
  • Adipophilin was expressed in 16 of 16 (100%) sebaceous adenomas, 23 of 25 (92%) sebaceous carcinomas, 10 of 10 (100%) xanthelasmas, 9 of 10 (90%) xanthogranulomas, 6 of 6 (100%) xanthomas, and 9 of 13 (62.5%) metastatic renal cell carcinomas.
  • Adipophilin expression was not seen in any of the other lesions with clear cell histology, basal cell carcinomas, or squamous cell carcinomas, including cases that had focal clear cell differentiation.
  • In periocular lesions, it is effective in helping to exclude basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma when sebaceous carcinoma is under consideration.
  • Adipophilin expression is not as useful for the differential diagnosis that includes metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a rare but important, diagnostic differential.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Peptides / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Membrane Proteins. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20118912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / perilipin 2
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66. Fujiwara M, Taube J, Sharma M, McCalmont TH, Kim J: PAX8 discriminates ovarian metastases from adnexal tumors and other cutaneous metastases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):938-43
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  • [Title] PAX8 discriminates ovarian metastases from adnexal tumors and other cutaneous metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The distinction of metastatic ovarian carcinoma from other metastatic carcinomas and primary adnexal lesions in the skin is often difficult.
  • PAX8 is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in development of the Müllerian system and has been shown to be a useful discriminatory marker between ovarian and breast carcinomas.
  • Identification of ovarian cutaneous metastases may be of benefit in patients with familial breast-ovarian carcinoma syndrome.
  • METHODS: PAX8 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 24 cases of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the skin and compared with 7 cases of primary adnexal lesions and also compared with p63 immunohistochemical staining results.
  • Patients with metastatic adenocarcinomas had clinically documented primary malignancies, and patients with primary adnexal carcinomas had no known history of another adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Cutaneous ovarian and renal cell carcinoma metastases (2/2 and 8/8, respectively) showed positive nuclear expression of PAX8.
  • PAX8 immunohistochemical staining in primary adnexal and other cutaneous metastases was completely negative (0/7 and 0/16, respectively).
  • The p63 expression profile supported the distinction between adnexal and metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • PAX8 expression is a useful marker that effectively discriminated metastatic ovarian carcinomas from metastatic breast carcinomas and primary adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20492080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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67. Krahl D, Sellheyer K: p75 Neurotrophin receptor differentiates between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: insights into the histogenesis of adnexal tumours based on embryology and hair follicle biology. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jul;163(1):138-45
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  • [Title] p75 Neurotrophin receptor differentiates between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: insights into the histogenesis of adnexal tumours based on embryology and hair follicle biology.
  • However, a link between the embryology of the skin and the histogenesis of adnexal tumours has been largely overlooked.
  • We therefore speculated that it is involved in the histogenesis of follicular adnexal tumours.
  • One of the most challenging diagnoses in dermatopathology is differentiating morphoeic basal cell carcinoma from desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the expression pattern of p75NTR during cutaneous embryogenesis, in the adult hair follicle and in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • RESULTS: All 17 desmoplastic trichoepitheliomas were immunoreactive with > 80% of the cells stained, whereas 12 of the 14 (86%) morphoeic basal cell carcinomas were p75NTR negative.
  • In the two positive cases of morphoeic basal cell carcinoma < 30% of cells were labelled.
  • In contrast, the lack of p75NTR expression in morphoeic basal cell carcinoma favours a concept of this tumour as a more primitive follicular lesion with the characteristics of a carcinoma and not a hamartoma.
  • We suggest including p75NTR as a tool in the differential diagnosis between morphoeic basal cell carcinoma and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Merkel Cells / metabolism. Middle Aged. Skin / embryology. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20184585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor
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68. Dim-Jamora KC, Perone JB: Management of cutaneous tumors with mohs micrographic surgery. Semin Plast Surg; 2008 Nov;22(4):247-56

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  • We discuss the use of Mohs micrographic surgery for the following cutaneous tumors: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma in situ, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Merkel cell carcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, atypical fibroxanthoma, and sebaceous carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20567701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2884874
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mohs micrographic surgery / cutaneous oncology / skin cancer
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69. Pulitzer M, Desman G, Busam KJ: CK7 expression in primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):966-72
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  • [Title] CK7 expression in primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIM: To evaluate cytokeratin 7 (CK7) immunoreactivity in invasive primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).
  • This is important to bear in mind when immunohistochemistry is used to distinguish SCC from simulants, such as porocarcinoma, or other adnexal carcinomas with squamous metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Eccrine Porocarcinoma / diagnosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20528966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-7
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70. Huang W, Zhao Y, Zhao J, Huang Y, Wang J, Zhang Q: Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling an adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: a case of report and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Mar 15;206(3):180-4
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  • [Title] Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling an adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin: a case of report and review of the literature.
  • Endometrioid carcinoma is a common tumor of the female genital tract, mainly affecting the uterus corpus and ovary.
  • In the fallopian tube, endometrioid carcinoma is relatively uncommon.
  • The female adnexal tumor of probable wolffian origin (FATWO), although occasionally seen elsewhere, is most typically encountered in the broad ligament.
  • Endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling FATWO is a rare type of endometrioid carcinoma, and only 20 cases have been reported to date.
  • Here, we report a case of endometrioid carcinoma of the fallopian tube resembling FATWO and review the literature.
  • We review the previously published cases of endometrioid carcinomas of the fallopian tube resembling FATWO, and discuss the principal differential diagnosis of the tumor in the fallopian tube.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Wolffian Ducts / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19457622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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71. Rütten A, Requena L: [Sweat gland carcinomas of the skin]. Hautarzt; 2008 Feb;59(2):151-60

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  • [Title] [Sweat gland carcinomas of the skin].
  • Sweat gland carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the skin.
  • The well-defined entities porocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, mucinous eccrine carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18214401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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72. Mahalingam M, Srivastava A, Hoang MP: Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):774-9
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  • [Title] Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis.
  • METHODS: We evaluated expression of follicular stem-cell markers, cytokeratin (CK) 15 and nestin, in 78 benign and 23 malignant adnexal neoplasms.
  • CK15 and nestin expression were noted in 11 of 23 (48%) and 7 of 23 (30%) cases in the malignant group, respectively (6 microcystic adnexal carcinoma, 7 porocarcinoma, and 9 eccrine carcinoma).
  • Except 1, both markers were negative in 4 syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 10 hidradenoma, 1 syringofibroadenoma, 10 syringoma, 1 eccrine adenoma, 8 poroma/dermal duct tumor, 5 eccrine hidrocystoma, and 1 apocrine carcinoma.
  • Reinforcing this and a novel finding of our study is the preferential expression of nestin in myoepithelial cells of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Eccrine Glands / chemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-15 / analysis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / chemistry. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Boston. Cell Lineage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nestin. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 20700038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT15 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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73. Minicozzi A, Leopardi F, Segattini C, Pitoni F, Steccanella F, De Manzoni G, Iannucci A, Governa M: [Perianal Paget's disease: five cases report]. G Chir; 2008 Nov-Dec;29(11-12):469-74
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  • [Title] [Perianal Paget's disease: five cases report].
  • AIM: Extramammary Paget's disease is a rare neoplastic condition, often associated with a synchronous or metachronous underlying skin or visceral malignancies.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the results we got in 5 cases of perianal Paget's disease and to revise what literature have reported about this issue.
  • In 3 cases the disease was limited to the epidermidis, in one case with multiple recurrences there was dermal infiltration, and one patient had a low rectal adenocarcinoma with pagetoid phenomenon.
  • Four patients are alive and free from disease and one, who developed a multiple local recurrences, died for heart failure.
  • DISCUSSION: The studies available in literature clearly distinguish between a primary EMPD (intraepidermal/intradermal) and secondary disease which is associated with anorectal adenocarcinomas and is thought to be a pagetoid phenomenon, while few informations can derive from those cases in which the disease is associated with an underlying cutaneous adnexal carcinoma.
  • Disease tend to relapse even after a radical surgery and can have metastatic spread, also in intraepidermal form.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perianal EMPD is a complex disease, difficult to recognize and the association with synchronous or metachronous malignancies imposes long term clinical and instrumental follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Paget Disease, Extramammary

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  • (PMID = 19068182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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74. Fullen DR, Garrisi AJ, Sanders D, Thomas D: Expression of S100A6 protein in a broad spectrum of cutaneous tumors using tissue microarrays. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35 Suppl 2:28-34
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  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays of cutaneous epithelial neoplasms, mesenchymal neoplasms, DM and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) were stained with S100A6 antibody.
  • RESULTS: Eleven basal cell carcinomas (BCC) failed to express S100A6, whereas all 10 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) expressed S100A6.
  • Four of seven microcystic adnexal carcinomas (MAC) stained for S100A6.
  • Malignant spindle cell tumors, with the exception of 13 of 30 MPNST, had a high incidence of S100A6 positivity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: S100A6 expression may distinguish SCC from BCC, MAC from BCC and hidradenoma from other adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18201235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
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75. Li YC, Lu LY, Yang YT, Chang CC, Chen LM: Extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Chin Med Assoc; 2009 Oct;72(10):542-6
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  • [Title] Extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare cutaneous carcinoma of epidermal origin.
  • The diagnosis is frequently delayed, and the disease tends to be associated with an underlying adnexal or internal malignancy.
  • There have been several reports of EMPD associated with carcinoma of the bladder, prostate, kidney, and colon.
  • The association of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with EMPD appears to be exceedingly rare; to our knowledge, it has been reported only once in the English literature.
  • EMPD was diagnosed 1 year after the appearance of an erythematous plaque, and HCC was noted 19 months after the diagnosis of EMPD.
  • From our experience and literature review, in patients with nonspecific skin lesions that are unresponsive to conventional treatment, EMPD should be considered and skin biopsy performed.
  • Long-term follow-up is needed to watch for the appearance of adnexal carcinoma or internal malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Male / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Paget Disease, Extramammary / etiology. Scrotum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19837650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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76. Blake PW, Bradford PT, Devesa SS, Toro JR: Cutaneous appendageal carcinoma incidence and survival patterns in the United States: a population-based study. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Jun;146(6):625-32
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  • [Title] Cutaneous appendageal carcinoma incidence and survival patterns in the United States: a population-based study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine incidence patterns of patients diagnosed as having cutaneous appendageal carcinoma (CAC).
  • RESULTS: Cutaneous appendageal carcinomas are uncommon (age-adjusted IR, 5.1 per 1 million person-years), with the IR among men statistically significantly higher than women (6.3 vs 4.2, respectively; male to female IR ratio 1.51; P < .001).
  • Apocrine-eccrine carcinoma overall was the most common category (IR, 2.6), and the IR was highest among non-Hispanic white (IR, 2.8) compared with other ethnic/racial groups (P < .001).
  • Cutaneous appendageal carcinomas IRs rose 100-fold with age, from 0.37 among those aged 20 to 29 years to 37.3 among those 80 years or older.
  • From 1978-1982 to 2002-2005, the CAC IRs increased 150%, from 2.0 to 5.0; the apocrine-eccrine carcinoma and the sebaceous carcinoma IRs rose 170%, from 1.0 to 2.7, and 217%, from 0.6 to 1.9, respectively.
  • Five-year relative survival rates overall were 99% for localized and 43% for distant disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous appendageal carcinomas are rare tumors with IRs that vary by sex and racial/ethnic group.
  • Cutaneous appendageal carcinoma IRs are increasing in the United States, especially for sebaceous carcinoma, perhaps related to improved recognition and classification, but factors such as UV exposure and immunosuppression may also play a role.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / epidemiology. Population Surveillance / methods. SEER Program. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20566926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Jakobiec FA, Hanna E, Townsend DJ: Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid with exceptional histomorphologic expressions. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):232-4

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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid with exceptional histomorphologic expressions.
  • A basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid had unique and potentially confusing histopathologic features.
  • The tumor displayed a carcinoma in situ pattern with replacement of an extensive segment of the tarsal epithelium by neoplastic basaloid cells, a finding to the best of the authors' knowledge that has not been previously documented.
  • Within the infiltrating component of the dermis were classical solid basaloid nests and lobules; they were accompanied, however, by a separate and exceptionally prominent component of duct-like (pseudoglandular) units mimicking a microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19454940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Donovan DJ, Person DA: Giant eccrine adenocarcinoma of the scalp with intracranial invasion: resection and reconstruction using a vacuum-assisted closure device: technical case report. Neurosurgery; 2006 Apr;58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-E371; discussion ONS-E371
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  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Carcinoma of the adnexal structures of the skin is a rare malignancy, and is even more unusual in the scalp.
  • We report an unusual case of scalp adnexal carcinoma of eccrine origin that went untreated for years, resulting in a giant tumor with extension through the cranium.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old woman experienced a large recurrence of her scalp adnexal carcinoma after an incomplete wide local excision, which invaded through the cranium.
  • Another split thickness skin graft was used to provide a cosmetically acceptable outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: Scalp adnexal tumors of eccrine origin rarely metastasize and can be resected for cure with complete removal.
  • The novel use of a vacuum-assisted wound closure device was a very useful adjunct in this situation, and may be beneficial in the reconstruction of other patients with large scalp and cranial defects after neurosurgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Vacuum Curettage
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. Skin Transplantation / methods. Subdural Effusion / etiology. Subdural Effusion / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Aug;63(2):E376; author reply E376 [18797336.001]
  • [CommentIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Aug;63(2):E376; author reply E376 [18797334.001]
  • (PMID = 16575296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. DuPont NC, Mabuchi S, Ries S, Berman ML: Sclerosing ductal carcinoma of the clitoris with microcystic adnexal carcinoma-like features. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Mar;36(3):359-61
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  • [Title] Sclerosing ductal carcinoma of the clitoris with microcystic adnexal carcinoma-like features.
  • Primary clitoral malignancies are rare and most are invasive squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is an indolent, rare dermatologic carcinoma that typically affects the head and neck region.
  • MAC is a cutaneous carcinoma rarely found on the vulva.
  • It is a slow growing but locally aggressive carcinoma that is best treated with surgical resection.
  • Sclerosing ductal carcinomas may have MAC-like features, and the diagnosis and management of one case is provided here.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Clitoris / pathology. Clitoris / surgery. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19220633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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80. Cangelosi JJ, Nash JW, Prieto VG, Ivan D: Cutaneous adnexal tumor with an unusual presentation--discussion of a potential diagnostic pitfall. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):278-81
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  • [Title] Cutaneous adnexal tumor with an unusual presentation--discussion of a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • The clinical presentation of skin adnexal tumors is nonspecific, and histologically; the differential diagnosis between primary cutaneous adnexal malignant carcinomas and metastatic tumors with a visceral origin can be challenging.
  • We report a patient with history of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast who presented with a 1-cm erythematous palpable lesion on her right calf.
  • The biopsy showed an intradermal proliferation of malignant epithelioid cells with ductal differentiation, histologically compatible with metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • Based on the p63 and CK5/6 positivity, the differential diagnosis also included the possibility of a primary adnexal neoplasm and a complete excision was advised.
  • The reexcision specimen revealed residual infiltrating dermal tumor and an overlying intraepithelial component with marked cytologic atypia and focal duct formation, diagnostic of a primary cutaneous adnexal tumor with ductal differentiation (porocarcinoma).
  • This discrimination is of a paramount importance because a diagnostic error can result in profound implications for patient's assumed prognosis and subsequently applied therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2010 Dec;32(8):853-4 [20431390.001]
  • (PMID = 19384070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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81. Bacchi CE, Silva TR, Zambrano E, Plaza J, Suster S, Luzar B, Lamovec J, Pizzolitto S, Falconieri G: Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Sep;34(9):1334-43
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  • [Title] Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin: a study of 18 cases with emphasis on its clinicopathologic spectrum and unusual morphologic features.
  • In elderly patients scalp or facial lesions and cutaneous lesions arising within irradiated breast skin predominated.
  • These cases posed further diagnostic challenges simulating lymphoma, melanoma, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Of the 9 patients available for follow-up, 5 were alive and apparently well, 2 had recurrent disease, and 2 had died of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20697249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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82. Plaza JA, Ortega PF, Stockman DL, Suster S: Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):403-10
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  • [Title] Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases.
  • The distinction of metastatic carcinomas to the skin from poorly differentiated primary cutaneous carcinomas and sometimes primary benign adnexal tumors can pose a significant diagnostic challenge.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity for separating primary skin tumors vs. cutaneous metastases of carcinomas from internal organs.
  • The 37 primary cutaneous tumors included 14 cases of benign adnexal tumors, 9 malignant skin adnexal neoplasms, and 14 primary squamous and basal cell carcinomas.
  • The 42 metastatic adenocarcinomas all corresponded to metastases from patients with a well-documented history of a primary tumor at another location.
  • We found variable positivity with podoplanin in all primary cutaneous neoplasms including spiradenoma (6/6), hidradenoma (2/4), cylindroma (3/3), desmoplastic trichilemmoma (1/1), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (4/4), sebaceous carcinoma (1/1), basal cell carcinoma (4/10), trichilemmal carcinoma (2/2), eccrine carcinoma (3/3), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (1/1), adnexal carcinoma NOS (1/1), and porocarcinoma (1/1).
  • In contrast, all metastatic carcinomas were negative (0/42) for podoplanin.
  • In regards to p63, all cases of primary cutaneous tumors were positive for p63 (37/37); in contrast, all cutaneous metastatic carcinomas were negative (0/42).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of podoplanin and p63 immunoreactivity to separate primary skin neoplasms from metastatic carcinomas were 78.4, 100.0, 100.0 and 84.0% for podoplanin, respectively, and 100.0, 100.0, 100.0 and 100.0% for p63, respectively.
  • The differences in p63 and podoplanin immunohistochemical expression between primary skin tumors and metastatic carcinomas to the skin were statistically significant (p < 0, 0001).
  • The results of our study suggest that the combined expression of p63 and podoplanin are a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of skin tumors in the clinical setting of a questionable metastasis and may be relatively specific for distinguishing primary skin tumors from metastatic carcinomas to the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20377670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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83. Kazakov DV, Schaller J, Vanecek T, Kacerovska D, Michal M: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with a novel mutation in the CYLD gene and different types of somatic mutations in benign and malignant tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Aug;37(8):886-90
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  • [Title] Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with a novel mutation in the CYLD gene and different types of somatic mutations in benign and malignant tumors.
  • The available histopathological material included 24 trichoepitheliomas, 2 large nodular basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 2 spiradenomas, 1 spiradenocylindroma and 1 trichoblastoma composed of large and small nodules with prominent clear cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / genetics. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / genetics. Facial Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20132422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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84. Vidal CI, Goldberg M, Burstein DE, Emanuel HJ, Emanuel PO: p63 Immunohistochemistry is a useful adjunct in distinguishing sclerosing cutaneous tumors. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 May;32(3):257-61
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  • We aimed to assess the utility of p63 immunohistochemical staining in distinguishing microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) from sclerosing basal cell carcinoma (SBCC) and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE).
  • Although all adnexal tumors examined demonstrated p63 expression, the pattern of staining was strikingly different in MAC when compared with other tumor types.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Trans-Activators / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis


85. Anolik R, Liang C, Wang N, Rosenman K, Pomeranz M, Joe E: Extramammary Paget disease. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(10):15
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  • [Title] Extramammary Paget disease.
  • A biopsy specimen showed an intra-epidermal neoplasm consistent with extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • Patients with EMPD require extensive medical evaluation because of its association with adnexal carcinoma and visceral malignant conditions.
  • Evaluation should include a full body skin and lymph node examination, colonscopy, cystoscopy, and sex-specific studies including pelvic and breast examinations, with imaging for women and prostate examination with prostate specific antigen levels for men.
  • Close monitoring after treatment is important because of the recognized risk of recurrence and malignant conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Diagnostic Errors. Herpes Simplex / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19061614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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86. Hall G, Duncan A, Azurdia R, Leonard N: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin: a case with lymph node metastases at presentation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Jun;28(3):211-5
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the skin: a case with lymph node metastases at presentation.
  • We report a case of a primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the skin.
  • He also had axillary node clearance for metastatic disease.
  • Differential diagnoses included squamous cell carcinoma, adnexal carcinoma, Merkel cell tumors, lymphoepithelial lesions, lymphomas, and skin metastases.
  • The histopathologic and immunohistochemical features were those of a LELC of the skin.
  • Just over 30 cases of primary LELCs arising in the skin have been reported with only 1 documented fatality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Rare Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Male

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  • (PMID = 16778488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Alonso T, Sánchez P, González A, Ingelmo J, Ruiz I, Delgado S, Rodríguez MA: [Mohs micrographic surgery: our first 100 patients]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 May;99(4):275-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Cirugía de Mohs: nuestros primeros cien pacientes.
  • In all cases, age, sex, tumor site, tumor type, histological subtype in the case of basal cell carcinoma, size, recurrences, number of Mohs stages, and reconstruction technique were recorded.
  • Of the tumors, 80 % corresponded to basal cell carcinoma, 12.38 % to squamous cell carcinoma, 4.76 % to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 0.95 % to Merkel cell carcinoma, 0.95 % to microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and 0.95 % to lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • After assessing the risk factors independently, we found that the size of the tumor is the risk factor most closely related to grade and subclinical extension in the case of basal cell carcinoma, although similar conclusions cannot be drawn for the other types of tumor studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18394403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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88. Bogner PN, Su LD, Fullen DR: Cluster designation 5 staining of normal and non-lymphoid neoplastic skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):50-4
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  • [Title] Cluster designation 5 staining of normal and non-lymphoid neoplastic skin.
  • RESULTS: Within normal skin, CD5 labeled lymphocytes, apocrine glands, deep dermal eccrine glands, and smooth muscle (weak).
  • The majority of benign and malignant apocrine lesions demonstrated strong focal (36%, n=11)-to-diffuse (64%, n=16) staining.
  • Microcystic adnexal carcinoma demonstrated focal staining of deeper ductal structures (71%, n=7), whereas desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and basal cell carcinoma showed only rare positive cells.
  • All cases of mammary (n=7) and extramammary (n=8) Paget's disease labeled diffusely for CD5.
  • Pagetoid Bowen's disease (n=6), intraepidermal sebaceous carcinoma (n=3), nor melanoma in situ (n=6) showed any CD5 staining.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical staining for CD5 is extremely useful in the differential diagnosis of pagetoid epidermal lesions and will mark mammary and extramammary Paget's disease, but not pagetoid Bowen's disease, melanoma in situ, or sebaceous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD5 / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Staining and Labeling
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget's Disease, Mammary / diagnosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15660655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD5
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89. McGuire JF, Ge NN, Dyson S: Nonmelanoma skin cancer of the head and neck I: histopathology and clinical behavior. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Mar-Apr;30(2):121-33
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  • [Title] Nonmelanoma skin cancer of the head and neck I: histopathology and clinical behavior.
  • Non-Melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most commonly encountered malignancy in almost every area of practice, but the cases that present to an Otolaryngology practice will be advanced in nature.
  • The major subtypes of NMSC include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, merkel cell carcinoma, and adnexal malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Dermatofibrosarcoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19239954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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90. Nazarian RM, Kapur P, Rakheja D, Piris A, Duncan LM, Mihm MC Jr, Hoang MP: Atypical and malignant hidradenomas: a histological and immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol; 2009 Apr;22(4):600-10
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  • [Title] Atypical and malignant hidradenomas: a histological and immunohistochemical study.
  • The histological features of atypical hidradenoma are worrisome for increased risk of recurrence and possible malignant potential; however, earlier studies with immunohistochemistry or patient follow-up have not been reported.
  • We compare the histological features and Ki-67, phosphorylated histone H3, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Her2/neu expression profiles of 15 atypical and 15 malignant hidradenomas with those of benign hidradenoma and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas.
  • Significant difference in mean Ki-67% was observed between benign and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), benign and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (0.002), atypical and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), and between atypical hidradenomas and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (0.002).
  • Significant difference in mean phosphorylated histone H3% was observed between benign and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), benign and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (0.003), atypical and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), and between atypical hidradenomas and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (P<0.001).
  • Mean epidermal growth factor receptor total score was significantly different in benign and atypical hidradenoma when compared with that in metastasizing adnexal carcinoma (P=0.014 and 0.019, respectively).
  • Equivocal or 2+ Her2/neu positivity was observed in one hidradenocarcinoma and in two metastasizing adnexal carcinomas.
  • Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for Ki-67 and phosphorylated histone H3% positivity reveals statistically significant criterion values of >11.425 and >0.7, respectively, for distinguishing malignant hidradenomas from atypical hidradenomas.
  • Despite the presence of some worrisome histological features, the significantly different immunoprofile from the malignant counterpart suggests that atypical hidradenomas are likely to recur but are unlikely to metastasize.
  • A tumor with Ki-67>11% and/or phosphorylated histone H3>0.7% would likely be a malignant rather than an atypical hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 19252473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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91. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CD23 staining was seen in 42% (8/19) of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), while no staining was observed in tumor cells of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, morpheaform basal cell carcinoma and syringoma.
  • All mammary and extramammary Paget's disease were labeled with CD23.
  • In comparison, pagetoid Bowen's disease, melanoma in situ and sebaceous carcinoma exhibited negative staining.
  • In addition, CD23 reacted diffusely with cutaneous mucinous eccrine carcinoma in a manner similar to breast or colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • CD23 is a useful addition to the diagnostic immunohistochemical panels for Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, IgE / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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92. Thomas CJ, Wood GC, Marks VJ: Mohs micrographic surgery in the treatment of rare aggressive cutaneous tumors: the Geisinger experience. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Mar;33(3):333-9
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  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 26,000 cases treated with MMS at the Geisinger Medical Center Department of Dermatology during a 16-year period with the following diagnoses: poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), and sebaceous carcinoma (SEB CA).
  • [MeSH-major] Mohs Surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17338692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Leibovitch I, Huilgol SC, Selva D, Paver R, Richards S: Cutaneous lip tumours treated with Mohs micrographic surgery: clinical features and surgical outcome. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;153(6):1147-52
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  • BACKGROUND: The Australian Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) database was initiated in 1993 by the Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia (SCFA) with the aim of collecting prospective data, and involved all Mohs surgeons in the country.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was diagnosed in 82.3%, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 16.5%, Bowen's disease (BD) in 0.7% and microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) in 0.5% of cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16307650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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94. Yang WJ, Kim DS, Im YJ, Cho KS, Rha KH, Cho NH, Choi YD: Extramammary Paget's disease of penis and scrotum. Urology; 2005 May;65(5):972-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extramammary Paget's disease of penis and scrotum.
  • OBJECTIVES: To make clear the uncertainty of the clinical outcome of extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD).
  • One patient who had invasion to the subcutaneous tissue died of metastatic EMPD and internal malignancy (renal cell carcinoma) at 17 months after the initial operation.
  • No patient had underlying adnexal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Paget Disease, Extramammary / surgery. Penile Neoplasms / surgery. Scrotum

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  • (PMID = 15882734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. De Francesco V, Frattasio A, Pillon B, Stinco G, Scott CA, Trotter D, Patrone P: Carcinosarcoma arising in a patient with multiple cylindromas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):21-6
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  • Familial cylindromatosis (Brooke-Spiegler syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by the development of adnexal tumors, mostly cylindromas, but also trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas.
  • Malignant tumors may occur, usually with the features of a cylindrocarcinoma.
  • The authors describe the case of a 75-year-old woman with the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome who presented with multiple nodules of the scalp, face, and trunk.
  • In 1997 she underwent surgical excision of the entire forehead and scalp with skin grafting.
  • The lesion was excised and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a malignant cutaneous biphasic tumor extending into the subcutis, consisting of a major portion with the features of an adnexal carcinoma and of a minor one of atypical spindle cells.
  • Biphasic malignant skin tumors are rare and only a limited number have been described, none in association with the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Skin Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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96. Nadiminti H, Nadiminti U, Washington C: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma in African-Americans. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Nov;33(11):1384-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma in African-Americans.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Scalp / surgery. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17958597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Fang W, Chen D, Shang JF, Wang F, Xiao L: [Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of two cases]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jan;38(1):59-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of two cases].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Arm. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19489229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1
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98. Liyanage SE, Saleh GM, Rose GE, Luthert PJ, Beaconsfield M, Verity DH: Delayed diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma in progressive eyelid distortion. Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan;128(1):132-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Delayed diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma in progressive eyelid distortion.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Eyelid Diseases / diagnosis. Eyelids / pathology. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20065232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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99. Jeon S, Paik JS, Yang SW: A case of microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan;54(1):104-5
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  • [Title] A case of microcystic adnexal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20151289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1613-2246
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / Keratin-20
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100. Hansen T, Kingsley M, Mallatt BD, Krishnan R: Extrafacial microcystic adnexal carcinoma: case report and review of the literature. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Nov;35(11):1835-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extrafacial microcystic adnexal carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19691664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lewis Blood-Group System
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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