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1. Weinreb I, O'Malley F, Ghazarian D: Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jul;38(7):1092-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry.
  • Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma is a rare tumor of the lower neck occurring in adult men, which follows a benign course.
  • The origin of this tumor has been debated, but it is now believed to arise from remnants of the cervical sinus of His from early development.
  • We describe a case of ectopic hamartomatous thymoma with typical features, as well as multifocal areas of skin adnexal differentiation.
  • These included sebaceous, eccrine, and apocrine elements.
  • Epithelial membrane antigen stained sebaceous cells and the luminal borders of eccrine and apocrine ducts.
  • BRST-2 and AR stained apocrine elements in a cytoplasmic and a nuclear pattern, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Thymoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17574947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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2. Kumar B: Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jan;38(1):38-40
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  • Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region.
  • It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components.
  • Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19693940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Courtois G: Tumor suppressor CYLD: negative regulation of NF-kappaB signaling and more. Cell Mol Life Sci; 2008 Apr;65(7-8):1123-32
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  • [Title] Tumor suppressor CYLD: negative regulation of NF-kappaB signaling and more.
  • CYLD is a protein with tumor suppressor properties which was originally discovered associated with cylindromatosis, an inherited cancer exclusively affecting the folicullo-sebaceous-apocrine unit of the epidermis.
  • [MeSH-major] NF-kappa B / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18193168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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4. Kazakov DV, Bisceglia M, Sima R, Michal M: Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay.
  • In mammary pathology, adenosis tumor is defined as a clinically recognizable lesion that histologically primarily consists of adenosis, but also exhibits various combinations of diverse epithelial changes seen in other benign breast diseases.
  • A lesion that occurred in the anogenital area of a 46-year-old woman and apparently arose in anogenital mammary-like glands is described and which, in our opinion, is best classified as adenosis tumor.
  • Several histological patterns within the same tumor mass were recognizable: sclerosing adenosis-like changes, variably sized microcysts and cysts, some with rare short papillary projections having hyalinized cores, rare tubular structures exhibiting epithelial features reminiscent of simple ductal hyperplasia, areas with oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia, and clear cell epithelial changes resembling mucinous metaplasia.
  • The cells in the oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia areas stained for mitochondrial antigen and Bcl-2.
  • As our case exhibited a number of patterns identical to those seen in diverse benign breast diseases, its classification as adenosis tumor seems justifiable.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Clone Cells / metabolism. Clone Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16441411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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5. De Francesco V, Frattasio A, Pillon B, Stinco G, Scott CA, Trotter D, Patrone P: Carcinosarcoma arising in a patient with multiple cylindromas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):21-6
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  • In 1997 she underwent surgical excision of the entire forehead and scalp with skin grafting.
  • The lesion was excised and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a malignant cutaneous biphasic tumor extending into the subcutis, consisting of a major portion with the features of an adnexal carcinoma and of a minor one of atypical spindle cells.
  • Biphasic malignant skin tumors are rare and only a limited number have been described, none in association with the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • The authors discuss the morphogenesis of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit from which the tumors in this syndrome derive, and the pivotal role of mesenchymal cells in determining the process.
  • Since the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is characterized by a germline mutation in the CYLD oncosuppressor gene, a biphasic tumor in this setting may represent a true carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Skin Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Moriya T, Kozuka Y, Kanomata N, Tse GM, Tan PH: The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):68-76
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  • The significance of immunohistochemical evaluation of apocrine lesions is still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods


7. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • This finding could be likened to apocrine metaplasia, a term used in breast pathology.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • Oxyphilic metaplasia, areas with solid growth, and changes simulating atypical apocrine adenosis are rare and poorly recognized in hidradenoma papilliferum and may cause diagnostic difficulties; in our cases several submitting pathologists suspected malignancy.
  • The exact role of the HPV in etiology and pathogenesis of this neoplasm has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • In our routine practice, we observed that CD23 reacted strongly with eccrine and apocrine secretory coils.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of CD23 was performed in a total of 131 cases of apocrine, eccrine, follicular and other cutaneous non-lymphoid tumors.
  • RESULTS: CD23 expression was detected in all benign apocrine tumors and in half of benign eccrine tumors, particularly those derived from secretory coils.
  • CD23 staining was seen in 42% (8/19) of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), while no staining was observed in tumor cells of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, morpheaform basal cell carcinoma and syringoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CD23 appears to be a reliable immunohistochemical marker of the eccrine/apocrine secretory coil and helpful in identifying sweat gland tumors of such origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, IgE / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Eccrine Glands / metabolism. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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9. Weinreb I, Tabanda-Lichauco R, Van der Kwast T, Perez-Ordoñez B: Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland: report of 3 cases with marked apocrine differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):1014-21
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  • [Title] Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland: report of 3 cases with marked apocrine differentiation.
  • The intraductal component in all cases exhibited a remarkable degree of apocrine differentiation.
  • The tumor cells were positive for AE1:AE3, Cam 5.2, high molecular weight keratin, CK7, CK19, BRST-2, and androgen receptors (ARs).
  • Extensive apocrine differentiation, expression of ARs, CK7, and CK19, and progression to a widely invasive carcinoma after a long clinical latency have not been reported in LG-IDCs previously.
  • These tumors share some histopathologic features with salivary duct carcinoma including apocrine differentiation, and expression of ARs and BRST-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Kim ES, Lee DP, Lee MW, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK: Cutaneous metastasis of uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Oct;27(5):436-8
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  • A 54-year-old Korean female developed multiple pruritic skin nodules on the pubic area 13 months later after diagnosis of uterine papillary serous carcinoma.
  • A biopsy of the skin lesions showed papillary serous carcinoma, compatible with her primary tumor.
  • Without clinical history, it is difficult to distinguish other types of metastatic carcinoma to the skin and primary apocrine carcinoma of the skin from metastatic uterine papillary serous carcinoma.
  • Whereas uterine papillary serous carcinoma only rarely involves the skin, this entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of papillary adenocarcinoma in the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16148416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Jensen KC, Schaeffer DF, Cheang M, Montgomery K, West RB, Gilks CB, Ross D, Turashvili G, Schnitt S, van de Rijn M: Characterization of a novel anti-fatty acid synthase (FASN) antiserum in breast tissue. Mod Pathol; 2008 Dec;21(12):1413-20
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  • In addition to staining a subset of basal and suprabasal cells, the antiserum highlighted apocrine differentiation, and stained 106/144 (74%) cases of columnar cell lesions and five of five cases of flat epithelial atypia.
  • In addition, FASN expression is described in apocrine metaplasia, columnar cell lesions, and flat epithelial atypia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fatty Acid Synthases / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18820672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases
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12. Kato K, Uchida K, Nibe K, Tateyama S: Immunohistochemical studies on cytokeratin 8 and 18 expressions in canine cutaneous adnexus and their tumors. J Vet Med Sci; 2007 Mar;69(3):233-9
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  • The expressions of cytokeratin 8 and 18 (CK8 and CK18) in the normal canine skin (2 cases) and cutaneous adnexal tumors (127 cases) were investigated immunohistochemically.
  • In the normal skin, co-expression of CK8/18 was found in the glandular epithelium of apocrine sweat glands, and single CK8-immunoreactivity was detected occasionally in the external root sheath at the isthmus and suprabulbar regions of the hair follicles.
  • Neoplastic glandular epithelial cells in all apocrine gland tumors (21/21 cases, 100%) had co-expression of CK8/18.
  • In several cases of trichoblastomas (4/28 cases, 14%) and trichoepitheliomas (2/19 cases, 11%), tumor cells forming glandular structures had co-expression of CK8/18.
  • The present findings indicate that co-expression of CK8/18 is a specific feature of apocrine sweat glands and single CK8-expression represents the natures of external root sheath or pluripotential stem cells.

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  • (PMID = 17409637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Keratin-8
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13. Francisco JS, Alfaro SE, Oliveira DC, Tonon S, Dias EP: Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar-Apr;71(2):224-7
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region.
  • The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
  • Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old black woman who developed apocrine carcinoma lesions in the head and neck region.
  • Two lesions involved her left parotid gland (first tumor and local recurrence), and other involved her submandibular skin.
  • The microscopic aspects were as follows: infiltrative glandular epithelial neoplasm with moderate cellular and nuclear pleomorphism; neoplasic cells with polygonal or circular shape, large nuclei and eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm.
  • The apical decapitation secretion was viewed in a large number of intra-cystic tumor cells.
  • Based on cutaneous apocrine carcinoma compatibility of the microscopic aspects, we concluded that the tumor in the submandibular skin was probably the primary neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Carcinoma / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16446921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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14. Knoedler D, Susnik B, Gonyo MB, Osipov V: Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):91-3
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  • [Title] Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an 8.0-cm tumor of the left breast.
  • The tumor was clinically and radiologically suspicious for malignancy.
  • The pathologic evaluation of the core biopsy and the subsequent excision specimen revealed a benign sclerosing, cystic, and papillary adnexal tumor with apocrine and clear cell morphology.
  • The final diagnosis was apocrine hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17214802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Saraiva AL, Gärtner F, Pires MA: Expression of p63 normal canine skin and primary cutaneous glandular carcinomas. Vet J; 2008 Jul;177(1):136-40
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  • [Title] Expression of p63 normal canine skin and primary cutaneous glandular carcinomas.
  • In this study, expression of p63 was determined in 31 primary cutaneous glandular carcinomas, including sebaceous, perianal (hepatoid) gland, apocrine and ceruminous carcinomas, as well as their adjacent normal skin.
  • Similar to humans, p63 is a reliable marker for basal and myoepithelial cells in canine epidermis, cutaneous appendages and malignant apocrine and ceruminous gland neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / metabolism. Epidermis / metabolism. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Dogs. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Trans-Activators. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17804265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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16. Spugnini EP, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, De Luca A, Codini C, Citro G, D'Avino A, Baldi A: Successful rescue of an apocrine gland carcinoma metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes by mitoxantrone coupled with trains of permeabilizing electrical pulses (electrochemotherapy). In Vivo; 2008 Jan-Feb;22(1):51-3
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  • [Title] Successful rescue of an apocrine gland carcinoma metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes by mitoxantrone coupled with trains of permeabilizing electrical pulses (electrochemotherapy).
  • Canine apocrine gland carcinoma is a locally aggressive neoplasm that can occasionally lead to metastatic spread, thus mimicking the behavior of their human counterpart.
  • In this paper we describe the successful treatment of a cervical metastatic spread of this neoplasia by using mitoxantrone selectively driven within the tumor cells by trains of biphasic pulses.
  • The dog experienced tumor reduction from the first cycle of electrochemotherapy (ECT) and complete remission by the time of its fourth session.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Electrochemotherapy / veterinary. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18396782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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17. Crain N, Nelson BL, Barnes EL, Thompson LD: Ceruminous gland carcinomas: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 17 cases. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Mar;3(1):1-17
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  • BACKGROUND: Ceruminal gland carcinomas are rare neoplasms confined to the skin lining the cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal.
  • Histologic features included a dual cell population (although not the dominant histology), increased cellularity, moderate to severe nuclear pleomorphism, irregular nucleoli, increased mitotic figures (mean, 3/10 HPF), including atypical forms, and tumor necrosis (n = 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Ceruminous-type carcinomas, with the exception of ceruminous mucoepidermoid carcinoma, all demonstrated a dual cell population of basal myoepithelial-type cells and luminal apocrine cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20596983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807538
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenoid cystic / Carcinoma / Ceruminal / Ceruminous / Ear / Gland / Immunohistochemistry / Mucoepidermoid / Prognosis
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18. Zelger BG, Stelzmueller I, Dunst KM, Zelger B: Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):332-6
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  • [Title] Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma.
  • The so called 'sweat gland carcinoma' is a rare skin malignancy.
  • The differentiation between apocrine and eccrine neoplasms remains difficult.
  • Skin tumors of the axilla are often suspected to be metastasis of other neoplasms in particular breast cancer.
  • After further clinical and laboratory work up including immunohistochemistry the original diagnosis of a breast cancer had to be changed to solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin.
  • Final tumor stage was pT2 N0 M0 (V0 L0).
  • Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare variant with apocrine differentiation.
  • A survey of the stereotypical presentation of this lesion and a comparison with lobular breast carcinoma and other types of apocrine carcinoma of the skin is given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18251751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. Tanaka A, Kimura A, Yamamoto Y, Uede K, Furukawa F: Expression of histo-blood group A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens in normal skin and extramammary Paget's disease. Acta Histochem Cytochem; 2008 Dec 27;41(6):165-71
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  • [Title] Expression of histo-blood group A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens in normal skin and extramammary Paget's disease.
  • The distribution of histo-blood group A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens was investigated using immunohistochemistry in normal human skin and extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD).
  • Apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands did not express these antigens.
  • Since these antigens were localized in the eccrine glands, we examined the possibility of a skin tumor marker.

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  • (PMID = 19180201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-5991
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica et cytochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem Cytochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2629552
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; eccrine glands / extramammary Paget’s disease / histo-blood group A type 1/2 antigens / histo-blood group A type 3 antigens
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20. Fukuda M, Hiroi M, Suzuki S, Ohmori Y, Sakashita H: Loss of CYLD might be associated with development of salivary gland tumors. Oncol Rep; 2008 Jun;19(6):1421-7
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  • Molecular studies of cylindromas, which arise from the eccrine or apocrine cells of the skin, have demonstrated frequent alterations at chromosome 16q12-13, recently found to house the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene.
  • CYLD, a tumor suppressor gene, has deubiquitinating enzyme activity and inhibits the activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB.
  • We demonstrated previously that human salivary gland tumor (SGT) cell line, HSG spontaneously expresses CYLD and also found that adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) arising from the hard palate was distinctly positive for CYLD, immunohistochemically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. I-kappa B Kinase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. NF-kappa B / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factor RelA / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18497946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transcription Factor RelA; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.10 / I-kappa B Kinase
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21. Goh SG, Carr R, Dayrit JF, Calonje E: Mucinous hidradenoma: a report of three cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jun;34(6):497-502
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  • Case 1 presented as a 1.3-cm eyelid nodule and histology showed a mucinous apocrine hidradenoma with a proliferation of mucinous cells and apocrine glands.
  • The tumor was also interpretated as a mucinous hidradenoma, most likely of follicular-apocrine origin.

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  • (PMID = 17518780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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22. Kazakov DV, Soukup R, Mukensnabl P, Boudova L, Michal M: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of a case with combined lesions containing cylindromatous, spiradenomatous, trichoblastomatous, and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):27-33
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  • The histopathological survey revealed a plethora of benign adnexal neoplasms showing apocrine, follicular, and sebaceous differentiation occurring independently and conjointly.
  • By far the most common composite tumor was spiradenocylindroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / surgery. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Diseases / surgery. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15677973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. Charfi S, Sevestre H, Dumont F, Regimbeau JM, Chatelain D: Atypical apocrine proliferation involving anogenital mammary-like glands of the perianal region. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:52-5
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  • [Title] Atypical apocrine proliferation involving anogenital mammary-like glands of the perianal region.
  • Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed atypical apocrine proliferation arising in a complex lesion with features of fibroadenoma, adenosis and hyperplastic and cystic change.
  • Normal MLGs were observed at the tumor periphery.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19775395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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24. Seethala RR, Richmond JA, Hoschar AP, Barnes EL: New variants of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: oncocytic-sebaceous and apocrine. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jun;133(6):950-9
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  • [Title] New variants of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: oncocytic-sebaceous and apocrine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a detailed analysis of oncocytic-sebaceous epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (OEMCa) and a similar, but novel, variant, apocrine epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (ApEMCa).
  • The ductal component of ApEMCa shares some similarities with salivary duct carcinoma and supports the notion that epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma can serve as the progenitor tumor for hybrid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology


25. Magro G, Floridia F, Geraci G, Marino B: Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jun;36(6):692-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast.
  • Apart this unusual clinical presentation, another intriguing feature of tumor was the histological picture, being composed of an extensive mature fatty stromal component closely intermingling with the epithelial structures.
  • As adipocytes were variable in size and focally showed a lipoblast-like appearance, some tumor areas were reminiscent of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, lipoma-like.
  • Based on the histological features, the term 'lipomatous mixed tumor, apocrine type' was proposed for such a lesion.
  • Histogenetic considerations about the lipomatous stromal component of the tumor are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19515050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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26. Kazikdas KC, Onal K, Ekinci N: Pathology quiz case 1: Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Feb;133(2):198, 200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology quiz case 1: Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17309993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Ko CJ, Cochran AJ, Eng W, Binder SW: Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Nov;33(11):726-30
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  • The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm.
  • Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases.
  • In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17083691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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28. Fernandez-Flores A: Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Dec;18(6):573-4
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  • [Title] Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast.

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  • (PMID = 20697264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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29. Revuz J: Hidradenitis suppurativa. Presse Med; 2010 Dec;39(12):1254-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical manifestations include painful nodules, abscesses, sinus tracts, and ropelike hypertrophic scars in the apocrine gland-bearing areas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Quality of Life / psychology. Risk Factors. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20965688.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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30. Konska G, Guerry M, Caldefie-Chezet F, De Latour M, Guillot J: Study of the expression of Tn antigen in different types of human breast cancer cells using VVA-B4 lectin. Oncol Rep; 2006 Feb;15(2):305-10
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  • Benign proliferative changes including fibroadenoma, apocrine and cylindrical metaplasia showed a very weak positive reaction, although strongly positive cells were also observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Lectins

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  • (PMID = 16391846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Tn antigen
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31. Suzuki T, Ikeda H, Hamasaki Y, Hatamochi A, Yamazaki S: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine poroma. J Dermatol; 2006 Apr;33(4):249-51
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  • [Title] Syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine poroma.
  • Histopathological examination of the mass revealed an aggregation of neoplastic cells (tumor cell nests) with cellular proliferation extending from the epidermis to the dermis.
  • The tumor consisted of two histologically distinct parts.
  • These histological changes were consistent with the diagnosis of apocrine poroma.
  • The remaining part of the tumor was composed of cystic invaginations with numerous projections oriented toward the lumen.
  • Based on these findings, a diagnosis of SCAP associated with apocrine poroma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Cystadenoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16674787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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32. Kruse AL, Zwahlen R, Bredell MG, Riener MO, Grätz KW: Apocrine hidrocystoma of the cheek. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Mar;21(2):594-6
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  • [Title] Apocrine hidrocystoma of the cheek.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine hidrocystoma is an uncommon benign cystic proliferation of the apocrine sweat glands.
  • An exocrine tumor or, more unlikely, a melanoma was considered as a differential diagnosis.
  • Pathologically, the lesion was determined to be an apocrine hidrocystoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Skin Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20489460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Filipovski V, Banev S, Janevska V, Dukova B: Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature. Cases J; 2009;2:8551
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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature.
  • Histological evaluation revealed a rare benign neoplasm - granular cell tumor.Granular cell tumor is rare neoplasm that may arise in virtually any body site, and in 5% it occurs in the breast.
  • The histogenesis of this tumor is still rather controversial and currently the most acceptable theory is a Schwann cell origin.
  • The main histological feature is granular cytoplasm of the tumor cells.From a clinical point of view there is a similarity between granular cell tumor and mammary carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound.
  • Pathohistologically, sometimes, differential diagnostic difficulties exist concerning apocrine carcinoma, histiocytic lesions and metastatic neoplasms.

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992 Feb;116(2):206-8 [1733419.001]
  • [Cites] Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1984;403(4):391-400 [6330972.001]
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  • (PMID = 19918386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769456
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34. Tirumalae R, Böer A: Calcification and ossification in eccrine mixed tumors: underrecognized feature and diagnostic pitfall. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):772-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine mixed tumors of the skin are rare adnexal neoplasms, and their morphological spectrum is not well established.
  • METHODS: Among 70, 000 skin biopsies, 5 were diagnosed as eccrine mixed tumors.
  • The stroma was mucinous and chondroid, calcification ranging from little to extensive with bone formation in 3 examples giving the impression of a chondroid or osseous neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eccrine mixed tumors are distinctive tumors that should not be lumped together with their apocrine counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcinosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19730221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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35. Morandi F, Benazzi C, Simoni P: Adenocarcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a mouflon (Ovis musimon). J Vet Diagn Invest; 2005 Jul;17(4):389-92
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a mouflon (Ovis musimon).
  • Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained numerous pleomorphic secretory granules and microvilli, which partially covered the luminal surface of the tumor cells.
  • On the basis of histological and ultrastructural findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a tubulopapillary adenocarcinoma, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Apocrine Glands. Sheep Diseases / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16131002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Akhtar I, Ispas CL, Flowers R, Siddiqi A, Young L, Donnellan KA, Heard K, Baliga M: Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma of the eyelid metastatic to the parotid gland: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Feb;37(2):91-5
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  • [Title] Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma of the eyelid metastatic to the parotid gland: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma (DPAC) of the eyelid is a rare malignant neoplasm in the periocular region.
  • The relative rarity of this tumor is a diagnostic challenge to the cytopathologist, especially when present as a metastatic lesion to an intraparotid lymph node, where the differential diagnosis includes primary parotid neoplasms, as well as various other metastatic malignancies.
  • We report a case of a 65-year-old African-American male with a history of ductopapillary apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid, diagnosed 6 weeks ago now presenting with a recurrence in the same area.
  • FNAB of the parotid mass showed a well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with a cystic component, similar to a previously excised ductopapillary apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19021198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human
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37. Fernandez-Flores A, Pol A, Juanes F, Crespo LG: Immunohistochemical phenotype of cutaneous cribriform carcinoma with a panel of 15 antibodies. Med Mol Morphol; 2007 Dec;40(4):212-7
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  • Owing to the cribriform pattern of the tumor, we also looked for a metastasis from other sites, mainly breast, vulva, and salivary glands, but all these were clinically excluded.
  • The tumor was negative for iron stain.
  • In spite of these characteristics, which are, for some authors, indicative of an apocrine phenotype, the immunohistochemical study revealed some differences with the profile that has been described in cases of apocrine adenocarcinoma.
  • The tumor did not express GCDFP-15 or CD 15.
  • Other markers expressed by the tumor were EMA, ER, c-erbB-2, p53, and S-100.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


38. Rütten A, Kutzner H, Mentzel T, Hantschke M, Eckert F, Angulo J, Rodríguez Peralto JL, Requena L: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Oct;61(4):644-51
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Cribriform carcinoma is the histopathologic variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma characterized by interconnected solid aggregations of neoplastic cells that are punctuated by small round spaces.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of this under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six cases of primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma were clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma is a distinctive but little-known variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Microvilli / ultrastructure. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Mar;64(3):599-601 [21315957.001]
  • (PMID = 19751882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Sood AK, Wang J, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Jana B, Liang P, Geradts J: Sam-pointed domain containing Ets transcription factor in luminal breast cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Jun;18(6):1899-903
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  • We previously described frequent overexpression of Sam-pointed domain containing Ets transcription factor (SPDEF), also known as PDEF, in human breast cancer, and suggested a role for this transcription factor in breast tumor progression.
  • The data showed that SPDEF expression in MCF-12A cells induced accelerated tumor growth in severe combined immune deficient mice compared with vector-transfected MCF-12A cells.
  • SPDEF expression was further found to be restricted to tumors arising in the luminal epithelial lineage including estrogen receptor+ luminal subtype breast tumors, Her2/neu-positive tumors, and apocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Lineage. Female. Humans. Mice. Survival Analysis. Transfection. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19505923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / BC / BC045095; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 86164; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16056
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / SPDEF protein, human
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40. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast. Breast J; 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):475-82
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  • [Title] Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast.
  • G1/S transition defects have been a proposed requirement for tumor development.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) in the breast has been held as a sign of benignity.
  • Apocrine cells were negative for p16 while pRb was expressed in all cases.

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  • (PMID = 19624419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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41. Halbritter SA, Altermatt HJ, Caversaccio M, Bornstein MM: Apocrine papillary cystadenoma of a minor salivary gland on the lower lip: case presentation. Quintessence Int; 2009 Feb;40(2):167-9
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  • [Title] Apocrine papillary cystadenoma of a minor salivary gland on the lower lip: case presentation.
  • Cystadenomas are a rare, painless, and slow-growing benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland.

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  • (PMID = 19169449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Quintessence Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. Kazakov DV, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Tubular adenoma of the skin with follicular and sebaceous differentiation: A report of two cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Apr;28(2):142-6
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  • [Title] Tubular adenoma of the skin with follicular and sebaceous differentiation: A report of two cases.
  • The main controversies regarding tubular apocrine adenoma and papillary eccrine adenoma are whether they are two distinct entities or are the very same tumor, and if so, which lineage of differentiation (apocrine versus eccrine) it pursues.
  • The features in both cases indicated apocrine differentiation of the tubular component.
  • In conclusion, these two cases of cutaneous tubular adenoma with accompanying follicular and sebaceous differentiation give further support to the proposition that the majority of these neoplasms have apocrine differentiation.
  • Rare cases occurring in the sites normally devoid of apocrine glands may represent the eccrine counterpart.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16625077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Terada T: Ductal adenoma of the breast: immunohistochemistry of two cases. Pathol Int; 2008 Dec;58(12):801-5
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  • Patient 1 had extensive apocrine metaplasia.
  • The tumor cells expressed p53 protein (case 1, positive cell percentage 5%; case 2, 7%), c-erbB2 (HER2/neu, 76%, 64%), CEA (5%, 0%), estrogen receptor (33%, 84%), but were negative for progesterone receptor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged


44. Ishida M, Kojima F, Kushima R, Kakutani A, Okabe H: [Case of clear cell hidradenoma with mucinous metaplasia in the forehead--immunohistochemical analysis of the mucin]. Rinsho Byori; 2006 Aug;54(8):781-4
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  • Mucinous metaplasia rarely develops in the non-neoplastic skin or its appendages, and almost exclusively confined to the genitalia, palms and soles.
  • Our immunohistochemical analysis revealed MUC5AC in the mucinous metaplastic cells of this tumor as in the extramammary Paget's disease, and expression of this gastric foveolar epithelial mucin core protein in these two neoplastic conditions seem to related to their common apocrine origin.

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  • (PMID = 16989395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucins
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45. Naderi A, Hughes-Davies L: A functionally significant cross-talk between androgen receptor and ErbB2 pathways in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. Neoplasia; 2008 Jun;10(6):542-8
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  • One subtype (molecular apocrine) has an over-expression of steroid-response genes and ErbB2.
  • Using breast cancer cell lines with molecular apocrine features, we demonstrate a functional cross-talk between AR and ErbB2 pathways.
  • Moreover, testosterone stimulates the proliferation of molecular apocrine breast cell lines, and this effect can be reversed using antiandrogen flutamide and anti-ErbB2 AG825.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cohort Studies. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Humans. Models, Biological. Phosphorylation. Tetrazolium Salts / pharmacology. Thiazoles / pharmacology


46. Kazakov DV, Belousova IE, Bisceglia M, Calonje E, Emberger M, Grayson W, Hantschke M, Kempf W, Kutzner H, Michal M, Spagnolo DV, Virolainen S, Zelger B: Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin ("mixed tumor of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine complex"). Spectrum of differentiations and metaplastic changes in the epithelial, myoepithelial, and stromal components based on a histopathologic study of 244 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Sep;57(3):467-83
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  • [Title] Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin ("mixed tumor of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine complex"). Spectrum of differentiations and metaplastic changes in the epithelial, myoepithelial, and stromal components based on a histopathologic study of 244 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: A systematic analysis of the entire spectrum of various forms of differentiation and metaplastic epiphenomena in cutaneous apocrine mixed tumor (AMT) has never been performed.
  • RESULTS: All types of differentiation along the lines of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit can be seen in AMT.
  • We propose that the most appropriate name for these lesions is "mixed tumor of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine complex. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17707152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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47. Tsunemi Y, Saeki H, Kikuchi K, Tamaki K, Sato S: Extramammary Paget's disease with intracytoplasmic lumen formation. J Dermatol; 2009 Dec;36(12):649-53
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  • Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is regarded as a malignancy most likely derived from or differentiated into apocrine sweat duct and gland.
  • The tumor cells in EMPD usually have abundant pale cytoplasm and large pleomorphic nuclei.
  • We present a case with EMPD where the tumor included many signet ring cells, cells with intracytoplasmic lumen formation and glandular formation.
  • This case is interesting in that the tumor included many cells with intracytoplasmic lumen formation.
  • Signet ring cells and glandular formation support the traditional speculation that EMPD is derived from apocrine sweat gland and intracytoplasmic lumen formation may mimic the intrafollicular apocrine duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19958450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. Treiyer A, Haben B, Röttger P, Steffens J: First male apocrine genital carcinoma mimicking a penile cancer. Urology; 2008 Mar;71(3):546.e11-2
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  • [Title] First male apocrine genital carcinoma mimicking a penile cancer.
  • Perineal apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that has its origin in the apocrine sudoriparous glands of the genital and perianal regions.
  • We report a case of a genital apocrine carcinoma located at the penile basis.
  • To our knowledge our report represents the first case of a pathologically confirmed genital apocrine carcinoma mimicking a penile cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18342207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Mahalingam M, Srivastava A, Hoang MP: Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):774-9
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  • BACKGROUND: The overlap in histopathologic features and immunoprofile of eccrine and apocrine neoplasms confounds basic issues relating to lineage of these entities.
  • RESULTS: CK15 and nestin expression were noted in 39 of 78 (50%) and 36 of 78 (46%) cases in the benign group, respectively (8 cutaneous mixed tumor, 10 hidradenoma papilliferum, 9 apocrine cystadenoma, 11 cylindroma and/or spiradenoma, and 9 poroma/dermal duct tumor).
  • Except 1, both markers were negative in 4 syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 10 hidradenoma, 1 syringofibroadenoma, 10 syringoma, 1 eccrine adenoma, 8 poroma/dermal duct tumor, 5 eccrine hidrocystoma, and 1 apocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that follicular germinative cells give rise to the folliculosebaceous apocrine unit, expression of CK15 and nestin in the majority of cutaneous mixed tumor, hidradenoma papilliferum, apocrine cystadenoma, and cylindroma/spiradenoma is suggestive of an apocrine origin/differentiation of these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Eccrine Glands / chemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-15 / analysis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / chemistry. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20700038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT15 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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50. Iwenofu OH, Samie FH, Ralston J, Cheney RT, Zeitouni NC: Extramammary Paget's disease presenting as alopecia neoplastica. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Aug;35(8):761-4
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  • Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare malignant neoplasm with a predilection for the apocrine-rich anogenital skin and less commonly for the axilla.
  • The tumor rarely occurs in non-apocrine bearing regions where it is referred to as ectopic EMPD.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells stained positively for mucicarmine, periodic acid schiff, cytokeratin-7, polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, gross cystic disease fluid protein, androgen receptor and Her-2-neu; and negatively for S-100, HMB-45, CDX-2, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, thus, establishing the diagnosis of ectopic EMPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia Areata / metabolism. Alopecia Areata / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Aug;36(8):917-8 [19586507.001]
  • (PMID = 18422977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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51. Cohen M, Cassarino DS, Shih HB, Abemayor E, St John M: Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp: a classification conundrum. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Mar;3(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp: a classification conundrum.
  • Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features.
  • After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken.
  • RESULTS: Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidradenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma can be viewed as an aggressive malignant lesion of cutaneous sweat glands on a spectrum that involves both eccrine and apoeccrine lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / classification. Scalp / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2003 May 1;97(9):2285-9 [12712485.001]
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  • (PMID = 20596988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807530
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Apocrine / Eccrine / Head / Hidradenocarcinoma / Neck / Scalp / Sweat gland
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52. Villalón G, Monteagudo C, Martín JM, Ramón D, Alonso V, Jordá E: [Chondroid syringoma: a clinical and histological review of eight cases]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2006 Nov;97(9):573-7
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  • INTRODUCTION: Chondroid syringoma is a rare skin tumor that presents as a slow growing, indolent lesion, that is more frequent in male adults and is usually benign.
  • It can be classified as eccrine and apocrine according to its pathological characteristics.
  • Five of the eight cases were apocrine, one of them with follicular and sebaceous differentiation.
  • DISCUSSION: The chondroid syringoma is usually a small-sized skin tumor, frequently on the head and neck.
  • As a general rule, it is a benign tumor.
  • Some authors have proposed the term of atypical mixed tumor of the skin for those chondroid syringomas with histological traits of malignancy but without evidence of metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 17173760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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53. Skoro M, Ostović KT, Cikara I, Müller D, Novak NP, Virag M: Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroid syringoma. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):687-90
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  • Chondroid syringoma (CS) is a rare, benign, appendageal tumor with diagnostic feature of myxochondroid stroma supporting eccrine and apocrine epithelial structures.

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  • (PMID = 20698155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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54. Murali R, Salisbury E, Pathmanathan N: Histiocytoid change in breast carcinoma: a report of 3 cases with an unusual cytomorphologic pattern of apocrine change. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):548-52
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  • [Title] Histiocytoid change in breast carcinoma: a report of 3 cases with an unusual cytomorphologic pattern of apocrine change.
  • CONCLUSION: HBC represents an unusual morphologic pattern of apocrine change that may be seen in lobular and ductal breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Histiocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Cytol. 2006 Nov-Dec;50(6):158A
  • (PMID = 17017444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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55. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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56. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Recently it has been proposed that MAC is an apocrine tumor.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Maruyama N, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Monden M, Noguchi S: Clinicopathologic analysis of breast cancers with PIK3CA mutations in Japanese women. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jan 15;13(2 Pt 1):408-14
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  • Relationship of these mutations with various clinicopathologic variables [histologic type, tumor size, histologic grade, lymph node status, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and progesterone receptor status, and prognosis], biological variables [phospho-AKT (pAKT) and HER2 expression determined by immunohistochemistry], and p53 mutation status was studied.
  • RESULTS: Missense mutations of PIK3CA were found in 44 of 158 invasive ductal carcinomas, 4 of 10 invasive lobular carcinomas, 1 of 4 mucinous carcinomas, 2 of 2 squamous carcinomas, and 2 of 2 apocrine carcinomas, but no mutation was found in 12 noninvasive ductal carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17202311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human
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58. Sawada Y, Bito T, Kabashima R, Yoshiki R, Hino R, Nakamura M, Shiraishi M, Tokura Y: Ectopic extramammary Paget's disease: case report and literature review. Acta Derm Venereol; 2010 Sep;90(5):502-5
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  • Extramammary Paget's disease that occurs in non-apocrine-bearing regions is referred to as ectopic and has been rarely reported.
  • Like-wise, some germinative apocrine-differentiating cells might exist on the trunk preferentially in Asians.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Back. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20814627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2057
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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59. Ishida M, Katsura K, Nagata A, Kijima K, Kushima R, Okabe H: [A case of primary mucinous carcinoma with endocrine differentiation of the skin]. Rinsho Byori; 2008 Jun;56(6):455-8
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  • [Title] [A case of primary mucinous carcinoma with endocrine differentiation of the skin].
  • Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (MCS) is a rare skin appendage tumor and only a few cases of MCS with endocrine differentiation have been reported.
  • Histopathologically, the tumor was located in the dermis and subcutis, and nests of slight atypical epithelial cells were floating in the mucinous pools.
  • This tumor did not accompany carcinoma in situ or invasive non-mucinous carcinoma and was difficult to differentiate from metastatic mucinous carcinoma of the skin.
  • There was no tumor in the other organs and synaptophysin and chromogranin A were sporadically shown immunohistochemically in the tumor cells; a diagnosis of primary pure MCS with endocrine differentiation was made.
  • It is presumed that MCS is derived from the apocrine gland, which is closely related to the mammary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18646630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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60. Angulo J, Jaqueti G, Kutzner H, Requena L: Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Oct;34(10):801-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma.
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • The neoplasm is composed of four different types of epithelial cells, including pale or clear cells, polygonal cells, mucinous cells and squamous cells, with variable proportions of them from case to case.
  • In most examples of this neoplasm, clear or the polygonal cells are predominant, whereas the other types of neoplastic cells are less abundant.
  • We report two cases of apocrine hidradenoma mostly composed of squamous cells.
  • The rare cases described in this report are exceptional because most of the neoplastic cells showed squamous appearance and for that reason we think that squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma is the most appropriate name for these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17880588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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61. Ashbeck EL, Rosenberg RD, Stauber PM, Key CR: Benign breast biopsy diagnosis and subsequent risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Mar;16(3):467-72
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  • METHODS: Using data collected between 1992 and 2000 by the New Mexico Mammography Project and cancer data through 2003 from the New Mexico Tumor Registry, we calculated breast cancer rates following 14,602 benign breast biopsies for women ages 30 to 89 years.
  • Among low-risk histologic diagnoses, the strongest associations with subsequent breast cancer development included adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, calcifications, and ductal hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 17337650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA69976
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Fernandez-Flores A: Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma versus metastasis, a plea to the dermatopathology community. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):853-4
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma versus metastasis, a plea to the dermatopathology community.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2009 May;31(3):278-81 [19384070.001]
  • (PMID = 20431390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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63. Bratthauer GL, Saenger JS, Strauss BL: Antibodies targeting p63 react specifically in the cytoplasm of breast epithelial cells exhibiting secretory differentiation. Histopathology; 2005 Dec;47(6):611-6
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  • This reaction was not seen in cells undergoing apocrine differentiation or in other cells containing secretory vacuoles.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / metabolism. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Phosphoproteins. Trans-Activators
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16324199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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64. Petersson F, Tan PH, Putti TC: Low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive mammary carcinoma with columnar cell morphology arising in a complex fibroadenoma in continuity with columnar cell change and flat epithelial atypia. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):352-7
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  • We describe the clinicopathologic features of a small low-grade invasive mammary carcinoma with cytomorphological columnar cell features arising in a complex fibroadenoma that in addition to sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, and usual ductal hyperplasia also displayed columnar cell change with flat epithelial atypia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ merging with the invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20643672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Robson A, Lazar AJ, Ben Nagi J, Hanby A, Grayson W, Feinmesser M, Granter SR, Seed P, Warneke CL, McKee PH, Calonje E: Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic analysis of 24 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):682-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic analysis of 24 cases.
  • Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignancy.
  • Furthermore, steroid receptor expression should be investigated in these tumors, particularly if a tumor is unlikely to be controlled by surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate


66. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Tanese K, Wakabayashi A, Suzuki T, Miyakawa S: Immunoexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in apocrine carcinoma arising in naevus sebaceous, case report. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Mar;24(3):360-2
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  • [Title] Immunoexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 in apocrine carcinoma arising in naevus sebaceous, case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / immunology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / immunology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / immunology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biopsy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 19703100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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68. Usui K, Ochiai T, Abe I, Nishio H, Togo K, Yamagata M: Apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon. J Dermatol; 2010 Apr;37(4):350-4
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  • [Title] Apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon.
  • We reported a 52-year-old woman with an apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon.
  • Our diagnosis revealed that the nodule was an apocrine gland carcinoma and the intraepidermal neoplastic cells with pagetoid spread in the pigmented plaque were derived from the apocrine gland carcinoma.
  • No Paget's cells were detected in the right nipple, and no tumor cells were observed in the sentinel lymph node and underlying mammary gland tissue.
  • They showed that both intraepidermal neoplastic cells with pagetoid spread and tumor cells of the apocrine gland carcinoma were positive with cytokeratin-7 and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)/neu overexpression.
  • The results of the present study conclude that the intraepithelial spread of tumor cells in the mammary skin distant from the nipple occurred as a pagetoid phenomenon, and that HER-2 may have a key role in pagetoid phenomenon of an underlying apocrine gland carcinoma, as well as in mammary Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20507405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-7; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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69. Revuz J: Hidradenitis suppurativa. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Sep;23(9):985-98
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  • Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent, painful, deep-seated, rounded nodules and abscesses of apocrine gland-bearing skin.
  • The primary event is a follicular occlusion with secondary inflammation, infection and destruction of the pilo-sebaceo-apocrine apparatus and extension to the adjacent sub-cutaneous tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laser Therapy. Radiotherapy. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Skin / pathology. Steroids / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19682181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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70. Iqbal J, He G, Biesecker LG, Rosen P, Duray PH, Schwartzentruber D, Beg M, Kahn E: Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(4):469-74
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  • The non-neoplastic changes were characterized by cysts of various sizes, lined by cuboidal or apocrine cells, focally with epithelial papillary proliferation; the lumens contained eosinophilic, mucicarmine-positive, and PAS-positive material.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Mastectomy

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  • (PMID = 17127737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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71. Honma N, Takubo K, Arai T, Younes M, Kasumi F, Akiyama F, Sakamoto G: Comparative study of monoclonal antibody B72.3 and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 as markers of apocrine carcinoma of the breast. APMIS; 2006 Oct;114(10):712-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative study of monoclonal antibody B72.3 and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 as markers of apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) is a commonly used apocrine marker; however, its expression was recently found to decrease in infiltrating, larger, or metastasizing apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • In the breast, monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 has been reported to be useful as an apocrine marker although it is used for that purpose much less frequently than GCDFP-15.
  • In the search for a more consistent apocrine marker, immunoreactivity for MAb B72.3 was examined in apocrine carcinomas at different stages and compared with GCDFP-15.
  • 47 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (92%) and 9 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (15%) were MAb B72.3 positive, while 39 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (76%) and 13 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (21%) were GCDFP-15 positive.
  • Furthermore, unlike GCDFP-15, MAb B72.3 exhibited positivity irrespective of infiltrating status, tumor size, or metastatic status.
  • The combined usage of MAb B72.3 with GCDFP-15 was useful to confirm the diagnosis of apocrine carcinoma, especially for advanced tumors, with only two cases being negative for both MAb B72.3 and GCDFP-15.
  • Whether these two cases should be differentiated from ordinary apocrine carcinomas remains to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / secondary. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human
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72. Kosemehmetoglu K, Guler G: Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway? Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Dec;14(6):425-31
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  • [Title] Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway?
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia (PAM) and columnar cell lesion with atypia (CCL) are considered as candidates of early premalignant breast lesions.
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia and CCL tend to appear in close contact, especially in neoplastic breasts with favorable features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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73. Barbarino S, McCormick SA, Lauer SA, Milman T: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):185-8
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  • PURPOSE: To describe 6 patients with syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid and to review the literature regarding this rare eyelid tumor.
  • The PubMed database was searched for reported cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid (keywords: syringocystadenoma, eyelid, apocrine, eccrine).
  • Nine lesions (64%) were associated with apocrine, eccrine, or sebaceous tumors or malformations.
  • None of the lesions was associated with a malignant neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum can rarely affect eyelid skin.
  • The evidence suggests that this tumor should be managed with conservative complete excision.

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  • (PMID = 19454927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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74. Fernandez-Flores A: Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma. Cesk Patol; 2009 Oct;45(4):108-12
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (CAC) and cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma is commonly difficult.
  • Although, more cases of CAC should probably be studied in the future before any categorical conclusion can be obtained, our results seem to indicate that a pattern of immunostaining with expression of mammaglobin in many cells would favor a metastatic origin of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Uteroglobin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20301838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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75. Presutti L, Alicandri-Ciufelli M, Mattioli F, Marchioni D, Costantini M: A case of syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) involving middle ear, presenting with otomastoiditis and cerebral abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):401-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is an uncommon cutaneous adnexal neoplasm of apocrine gland origin.

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  • (PMID = 17870265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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76. de Longueville F, Lacroix M, Barbuto AM, Bertholet V, Gallo D, Larsimont D, Marcq L, Zammatteo N, Boffe S, Leclercq G, Remacle J: Molecular characterization of breast cancer cell lines by a low-density microarray. Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):881-92
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  • We designed a low-density microarray carrying 132 DNA capture sequences highly specific for genes known to be differentially expressed among breast tumors and BCC lines or associated with specific tumor properties (cell-cycle alteration, proteolysis, adhesion, hormone sensitivity, etc).
  • A few genes that are highly and specifically expressed in one cell line were identified, such as MGB1 (mammaglobin 1) in Evsa-T cells, and PIP (prolactin-inducible protein) in MDA-MB-453 BCC, suggesting an apocrine origin for these latter cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biotinylation. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cluster Analysis. DNA, Complementary / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phenotype. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Uteroglobin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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77. Cecchi R, Pavesi M, Bartoli L, Brunetti L, Rapicano V: Perineal extramammary Paget disease responsive to topical imiquimod. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Jan;8(1):38-40
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  • Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm that arises in skin rich in apocrine glands, such as the axillae and anogenital region and usually affects the elderly.
  • In most cases, EMPD is an apocrine carcinoma in situ, but it can be associated with internal malignancy spreading to overlying skin.
  • Because of the location and extent of the tumor, any surgical approach would have been problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20096058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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78. Sanga S, Broom BM, Cristini V, Edgerton ME: Gene expression meta-analysis supports existence of molecular apocrine breast cancer with a role for androgen receptor and implies interactions with ErbB family. BMC Med Genomics; 2009;2:59
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  • [Title] Gene expression meta-analysis supports existence of molecular apocrine breast cancer with a role for androgen receptor and implies interactions with ErbB family.
  • We use the Molecular Apocrine subtype of breast cancer to demonstrate our ability to infer pathways directly from patients' gene expression data with pattern analysis algorithms.
  • METHODS: We combine data from two studies that propose the existence of the Molecular Apocrine phenotype.
  • We use hierarchical clustering, principal components analysis, and comparison of gene signatures derived from Significance Analysis of Microarrays to establish the existence of the Molecular Apocrine subtype and the equivalence of its molecular phenotype across both institutions.
  • RESULTS: We demonstrate that the two separately introduced ER- breast cancer subsets represent the same tumor type, called Molecular Apocrine breast cancer.
  • Analysis of Molecular Apocrine breast cancer implies that therapies targeting AR might be hampered if interactions with ErbB family members are not addressed.


79. Alikhan A, Lynch PJ, Eisen DB: Hidradenitis suppurativa: a comprehensive review. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Apr;60(4):539-61; quiz 562-3
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  • It is now considered a disease of follicular occlusion rather than an inflammatory or infectious process of the apocrine glands.
  • New treatments like tumor necrosis factor-alfa inhibitors have given clinicians more options against this difficult disease.


80. Proia AD: Pigmented hamartoma of the eyelid with apocrine, follicular and sebaceous differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Nov;34(11):876-81
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  • [Title] Pigmented hamartoma of the eyelid with apocrine, follicular and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Herein, I report a hamartoma of the eyelid with follicular, sebaceous and apocrine differentiation that exhibited prominent melanin pigmentation.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy showed a well-circumscribed tumor composed of predominantly apocrine glands but with areas of sebaceous and follicular differentiation.
  • Some areas had prominent light-brown, granular pigment within tumor cells.
  • Lack of tyrosinase activity in the tumor cells and the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positivity of the pigment indicating its similarity to neuromelanin raise the possibility that the melanin in the hamartoma is a non-enzymatically derived oxidation product of a substance intrinsic to the tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Sebaceous Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17944730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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81. Arias-Santiago S, Aceituno-Madera P, Aneiros-Fernández J, Gutiérrez-Salmerón MT, Naranjo-Sintes R: Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(11):9
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  • [Title] Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca.
  • Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum is a benign adnexal tumor usually located in head and neck that occurs during childhood or adolescence.
  • A case of a syringocystoadema papilliferum associated with apocrine hydrocystoma and verruca is presented.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Cystadenoma / complications. Cystadenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thoracic Wall. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19951645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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83. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Yang AH: Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):274-8
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  • [Title] Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding.
  • Apocrine fibroadenoma (AFA), considered a counterpart of fibroadenoma of breast, is a rare cutaneous apocrine neoplasm occurring almost exclusively in women.
  • The tumor was composed of numerous tubular, cystic, and partially branching lumina and struts of epithelial cells oriented perpendicular to the skin surface, with which it connected through infundibula.
  • The cytokeratin profiles of our case were similar to those of apocrine or eccrine neoplasms.
  • Different from a more common anogenital AFA, this neoplasm might represent a second type of AFA with unique histopathologic and immunopathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17519626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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84. Reck SJ, Xia L, Dehner LP, Reising CA: Glandular congenital lymphadenoma. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Sep-Oct;24(5):547-50
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  • Cutaneous lymphadenoma is a rare tumor with a distinct histologic triad of epithelial nodules, dense fibrous stroma, and intense intranodular lymphocytic infiltrate.
  • Typically, it is a slow growing, skin colored papule, nodule, or plaque, clinically resembling a basal cell carcinoma and often occurring in the head and neck region or lower extremities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Infant, Newborn, Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn


85. Lozano M, Gonzalez F: [Adenocarcinoma with apocrine differentiation of the lacrimal gland]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2007 Apr;82(4):229-31
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoma with apocrine differentiation of the lacrimal gland].
  • CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old male presented with an orbital tumor located in the left lacrimal fossa.
  • DISCUSSION: Removal of the tumor was performed by a lateral orbitotomy.
  • The histopathologic study showed a tumor consistent with an adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland with apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Blepharoptosis / etiology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Recurrence. Stroke / complications. Stroke / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17443428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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86. Honma N, Saji S, Kurabayashi R, Aida J, Arai T, Horii R, Akiyama F, Iwase T, Harada N, Younes M, Toi M, Takubo K, Sakamoto G: Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma of the breast. APMIS; 2008 Oct;116(10):923-30
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  • [Title] Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • Apocrine carcinoma of the breast, which frequently expresses oestrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) in the absence of ER-alpha and only infrequently is treated endocrinologically, gives an opportunity to investigate the clinicopathological role of ER-beta in breast cancer independent of ER-alpha expression or tamoxifen treatment.
  • Here we aimed to clarify the clinicopathological importance of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx (ER-beta2) in apocrine carcinomas, immunohistochemically examining expressions of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx in 47 apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER-beta1 positivity was related to smaller tumor size (P=0.0359), lower histological grade (P=0.0322), and higher disease-free survival (P<0.0001), whereas ER-betacx status was related to none of these parameters.
  • ER-beta1 positivity was also associated with favorable clinical outcome in 24 so-called triple-negative (ER-alpha-negative/PR-negative/HER2-negative) apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER-beta1 itself, independent of ER-alpha expression and tamoxifen treatment, seems to have a tumor-suppressive effect, at least in apocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19132986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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87. Celis JE, Moreira JM, Gromova I, Cabezón T, Gromov P, Shen T, Timmermans V, Rank F: Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Mol Oncol; 2007 Jun;1(1):97-119
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The strategy we have been pursuing to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ.
  • First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature that includes 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a protein that is expressed by all benign apocrine lesions, and markers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas such as MRP14 (S100A9), psoriasin (S100A7), and p53 to identify precancerous lesions in sclerosing adenosis (SA) with apocrine metaplasia.
  • SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher degree of atypical apocrine hyperplasia, and these lesions are believed to be precursors of apocrine carcinoma, in situ and invasive.
  • Analysis of 24 selected SA samples with apocrine metaplasia revealed non-obligate putative apocrine precancerous lesions that displayed some, or in same cases all the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19383289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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88. Vazmitel M, Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov DV: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component. Report of a case. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):51-3
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  • [Title] Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component. Report of a case.
  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is a benign tumor most commonly located on the scalp or face, and it often arises within a nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn.
  • We describe a 61-year-old man with syringocystadenoma papilliferum developing within a nevus sebaceus with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component of the syringocystadenoma papilliferum.
  • Although some adnexal neoplasms that develop in association with a nevus sebaceus may exhibit conjoint sebaceous, follicular, or apocrine differentiation, reflecting close embryological relations of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit, the feature we report on has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology


89. Puri PK, Galan A, Glusac EJ, Cowper SE: Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jan;35(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • Herein, we report an unusual case of metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A 53-year-old male man presented with a neoplasm on the vertex of the scalp, clinically resembling a pigmented basal cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: A shave biopsy was suggestive of an apocrine poroma, however, a metastatic carcinoma could not be excluded.
  • After acquiring additional clinical information and the complete excision of the neoplasm, further immunohistochemical stains supported the diagnosis a metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic carcinoid tumor reported that has mimicked a poroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18095995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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90. Celis JE, Gromov P, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Friis E, Jirström K, Llombart-Bosch A, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Rank F, Gromova I: 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008 Oct;7(10):1795-809
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  • [Title] 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous, papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas.
  • An additional subclass termed "molecular apocrine" has recently been described, but these lesions did not exhibit all the histopathological features of classical invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs).
  • By comparing the protein expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts and non-malignant breast epithelial tissue we have previously reported the identification of a few proteins that are specifically expressed by benign apocrine lesions as well as by the few IACs that were available to us at the time.
  • Here we reiterate our strategy to reveal apocrine cell markers and present novel data, based on the analysis of a considerably larger number of samples, establishing that IACs correspond to a distinct molecular subtype of breast carcinomas characterized by the expression of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase alone or in combination with a novel form of acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / enzymology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraffin Embedding. Phenotype. Silver Staining. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18632593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9484
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; EC 6.2.1.- / ACSM1 protein, human; EC 6.2.1.- / Coenzyme A Ligases
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91. de Koning HD, Bovenschen HJ: Two adjacent nodules on the leg. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(6):13
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  • Poroma is a rare benign neoplasm (derived from the intraepidermal part of the eccrine or apocrine duct), which may clinically mimic malignant tumors such as (amelanotic) malignant melanoma and porocarcinoma.
  • Despite a clinical differential diagnosis of melanoma, histopathology showed the typical characteristics of a poroma, a rare but much more favorable tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20579468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Kasashima S, Hiroshi M, Toshinori M, Yoshio O: Lipomatous mixed tumor with follicular differentiation of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 May;33(5):389-94
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  • [Title] Lipomatous mixed tumor with follicular differentiation of the skin.
  • A very rare case of cutaneous mixed tumor with numerous adipose tissue and hair follicular structures in a 67-year-old Japanese male was reported.
  • A well-circumscribed tumor was in the subcutaneous tissue of the cheek and far from the parotid gland.
  • Histologically, the tumor consisted of an admixture of the adipose tissue, fibromyxoid tissue with spindle cells, and branching tubular structures.
  • Outer layers of ductal epithelial cells and single spindle cells were often in a transition, likely as typical mixed tumor.
  • To our knowledge, this tumor is the first case of a lipomatous mixed tumor with hair follicular differentiation.
  • The case indicates an additional wide spectrum of histologic appearances of cutaneous mixed tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16640549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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93. Barker-Griffith AE, Streeten BW, Charles NC: Moll gland neoplasms of the eyelid: a clinical and pathological spectrum in 5 cases. Arch Ophthalmol; 2006 Nov;124(11):1645-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17102015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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94. Thamboo TP, Tan LH, Tan SY: Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):27-32
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  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • METHODS: Tissues from 31 cases of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors (five trichofolliculomas, five trichoepitheliomas, two sebaceous adenomas, five apocrine hidradenomas, five eccrine poromas, five eccrine spiradenomas, and four syringomas) were immunostained for Bcl-x.
  • Apocrine gland cells showed weak to moderate staining.
  • The cells of apocrine hidradenomas showed patchy weak staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Sweat Glands / metabolism. Sweat Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16441408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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95. Kurzen H, Kurokawa I, Jemec GB, Emtestam L, Sellheyer K, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Nagy I, Bechara FG, Sartorius K, Lapins J, Krahl D, Altmeyer P, Revuz J, Zouboulis CC: What causes hidradenitis suppurativa? Exp Dermatol; 2008 May;17(5):455-6; discussion 457-72
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  • Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)--a rather common, very chronic and debilitating inflammatory skin appendage disorder with a notoriously underestimated burden of disease--has long been a playground for the high priests of nomenclature: Ask a bunch of eminent dermatologists and skin pathologists to publicly share their thoughts on what causes HS, and they will soon get entrenched in a heated debate on whether this historical term is a despicable misnomer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / physiopathology. Hair Follicle / physiopathology. Hidradenitis Suppurativa / etiology. Skin / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / physiology. Female. Friction. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Staphylococcal Skin Infections / complications. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology


96. Shan SJ, Zhang N, Geng SL, Zhou Z, Chen X, Nie T, Guo Z, Li C, Liu Q, Guo Y, Wei H, Chen HD: Expression of survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase in extramammary Paget's disease. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jun;37(6):635-40
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  • BACKGROUND: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm of apocrine gland-bearing skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19788441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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97. Banneau G, Guedj M, MacGrogan G, de Mascarel I, Velasco V, Schiappa R, Bonadona V, David A, Dugast C, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Ingster O, Vabres P, Caux F, de Reynies A, Iggo R, Sevenet N, Bonnet F, Longy M: Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(4):R63
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  • [Title] Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations.
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast carcinoma is the main malignant tumor occurring in patients with Cowden disease, a cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN characterized by the occurrence throughout life of hyperplastic, hamartomatous and malignant growths affecting various organs.
  • The gene expression profile of the Cowden tumors shows considerable overlap with that of a breast cancer subgroup known as molecular apocrine breast carcinoma, which is suspected to have increased androgenic signaling and shows frequent ERBB2 amplification in sporadic tumors.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical study showed that several cases had apocrine histological features and expressed GGT1, which is a potential new marker for apocrine breast carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that activation of the ERBB2-PI3K-AKT pathway by loss of PTEN at early stages of tumorigenesis promotes the formation of breast tumors with apocrine features.


98. Pornpanich K, Chindasub P: Eyelid tumors in Siriraj Hospital from 2000-2004. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Nov;88 Suppl 9:S11-4
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  • These 32 malignant eyelid tumors included 13 sebaceous gland carcinomas, 12 basal cell carcinomas, 3 malignant melanomas, 2 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 apocrine adenocarcinoma and 1 metastatic carcinoma.
  • Sebaceous gland carcinoma was the most common eyelid tumor found in their present study that was consistent with other studies from Asian countries.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Thailand / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16681045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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99. Misago N, Ohkawa T, Narisawa Y: An unusual apocrine carcinoma on the forehead. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Aug;29(4):404-7
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  • [Title] An unusual apocrine carcinoma on the forehead.
  • We herein report an unusual case of apocrine carcinoma on the forehead.
  • The lesion was formed by the anastomosis of numerous tubular structures with widespread decapitation secretion, thus demonstrating apocrine differentiation.
  • However, we observed some unusual histopathologic features that differed from those found in typical examples of apocrine ductal carcinoma, namely:.
  • We believe the present case is an apocrine ductal carcinoma, although it has a nodular appearance and basaloid cells.
  • Otherwise, it could be a hitherto undescribed variant of apocrine carcinoma.
  • This apocrine carcinoma on the forehead may have originated from either pluripotential cells or from apocrine glands at an unusual site.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Forehead / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Dermis / pathology. Female. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Keratin-19 / analysis. Keratin-7 / analysis. Mucin-1 / analysis. Muramidase / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17667178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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100. Alsaad KO, Obaidat N, Dube V, Chapman W, Ghazarian D: Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):131-5
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  • [Title] Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation.
  • Rare cases of adenocarcinoma with apocrine features have been reported, and whether these neoplasms originate from the "native apocrine" sweat glands or from "anogenital mammary-like" glands are still debatable.
  • The presence of normal mammary-like glands in the vicinity of the tumor, the transitional malignant morphological features from normal mammary-like glands and the tumor, the breast-like histological features of the tumor, and the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors generally suggest an origin from anogenital mammary-like glands.
  • Absence of these features points toward native apocrine sweat glands as the source of these neoplasms.
  • In this report, we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Paget's disease of the right vulva, which was treated by hemi-vulvectomy, and who later presented with primary vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes and intranodal mucinous/colloidal differentiation: a feature, to the best of our knowledge, not reported before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18842349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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