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1. Hatanaka K, Tanimoto A, Umekita Y, Yoshioka T, Kanekura T: Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report.
  • A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported.
  • The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 x 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining.
  • A mural nodule, measuring 1 x 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells.
  • Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 20576161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907321
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2. Lozano M, Gonzalez F: [Adenocarcinoma with apocrine differentiation of the lacrimal gland]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2007 Apr;82(4):229-31
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoma with apocrine differentiation of the lacrimal gland].
  • CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old male presented with an orbital tumor located in the left lacrimal fossa.
  • DISCUSSION: Removal of the tumor was performed by a lateral orbitotomy.
  • The histopathologic study showed a tumor consistent with an adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland with apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Blepharoptosis / etiology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Recurrence. Stroke / complications. Stroke / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17443428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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3. Celis JE, Moreira JM, Gromova I, Cabezón T, Gromov P, Shen T, Timmermans V, Rank F: Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Mol Oncol; 2007 Jun;1(1):97-119
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The strategy we have been pursuing to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ.
  • First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature that includes 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a protein that is expressed by all benign apocrine lesions, and markers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas such as MRP14 (S100A9), psoriasin (S100A7), and p53 to identify precancerous lesions in sclerosing adenosis (SA) with apocrine metaplasia.
  • SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher degree of atypical apocrine hyperplasia, and these lesions are believed to be precursors of apocrine carcinoma, in situ and invasive.
  • Analysis of 24 selected SA samples with apocrine metaplasia revealed non-obligate putative apocrine precancerous lesions that displayed some, or in same cases all the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19383289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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4. Celis JE, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Vejborg IM, Proess G, Rank F, Gromova I: Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2006 Mar;5(3):462-83
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  • [Title] Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype.
  • Here we present an extensive proteomic and immunohistochemistry (IHC) study of breast apocrine cystic lesions aimed at generating specific biomarkers and elucidating the relationship, if existent, of apocrine cysts with cancer phenotype.
  • To this end we compared the expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts obtained from mastectomies from high risk cancer patients with those of cancerous and non-malignant mammary tissue biopsies collected from the same patients.
  • We identified two biomarkers, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, that were expressed specifically by apocrine type I cysts as well as by apocrine metaplastic cells in type II microcysts, terminal ducts, and intraductal papillary lesions.
  • IHC analysis of the corresponding 93 primary tumors indicated that most apocrine changes have little intrinsic malignant potential, although some may progress to invasive apocrine cancer.
  • None of the apocrine lesions examined, however, seemed to be a precursor of invasive ductal carcinomas, which accounted for 81% of the tumors analyzed.
  • Our studies also provided some insight into the origin, development, and enlargement of apocrine cysts in mammary tissue.
  • The successful identification of differentially expressed proteins that characterize specific steps in the progression from early benign lesions to apocrine cancer opens a window of opportunity for designing and testing new approaches for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic setting but also for chemoprevention, to inhibit cyst development as both 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase are currently being targeted for chemoprevention strategies in various malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cysts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyst Fluid / chemistry. Cytokines / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / chemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Phenotype. Proteome / analysis. Proteome / chemistry. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16316978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9476
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase
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5. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Recently it has been proposed that MAC is an apocrine tumor.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Celis JE, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Gromov P, Gromova I, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Iwase T, Akiyama F, Honma N, Rank F: Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort. Mol Oncol; 2009 Jun;3(3):220-37
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort.
  • Invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs), as defined by morphological features, correspond to 0.3-4% of all invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and despite the fact that they are histologically distinct from other breast lesions there are currently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and no unequivocal information as to their prognosis.
  • In an effort to address these concerns we have been using protein expression profiling technologies in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to discover specific biomarkers that could allow us to molecularly characterize these lesions as well as to dissect some of the steps in the processes underlying breast apocrine metaplasia and development of precancerous apocrine lesions.
  • Establishing these apocrine-specific markers as best practice for the routine pathology evaluation of breast cancer, however, will require their validation in large cohorts of patients.
  • Towards this goal we have composed a panel of antibodies against components of an apocrine protein signature that includes probes against the apocrine-specific markers 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), and acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), in addition to a set of categorizing markers that are consistently expressed (AR, CD24) or not expressed (ERα, PgR, Bcl-2, and GATA-3) by apocrine metaplasia in benign breast lesions and apocrine sweat glands.
  • This panel was used to analyze a well-defined cohort consisting of 14 apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (ADCIS), and 33 IACs diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo between 1997 and 2001.
  • Samples were originally classified on the basis of cellular morphology with all cases having more than 90% of the tumour cells exhibiting cytological features typical of apocrine cells.
  • Using the expression of 15-PGDH and/or ACSM1 as the main criterion, but taking into account the expression of other markers, we were able to identify unambiguously 13 out of 14 ADCIS (92.9%) and 20 out of 33 (60.6%) IAC samples, respectively, as being of apocrine origin.
  • Our results demonstrate that IACs correspond to a distinct, even if heterogeneous, molecular subgroup of breast carcinomas that can be readily identified in an unbiased way using a combination of markers that recapitulate the phenotype of apocrine sweat glands (15-PGDH(+), ACSM1(+), AR(+), CD24(+), ERα(-), PgR(-), Bcl-2(-), and GATA-3(-)).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19393583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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7. Morita R, Jin M, Ogawa B, Kuwata K, Shibutani M, Mitsumori K: A mixed apocrine gland tumor with metastases to the bone and bone marrow in a miniature poodle. J Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Jun;23(2):95-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A mixed apocrine gland tumor with metastases to the bone and bone marrow in a miniature poodle.
  • The tumor was divided into small multiple lobules by delicate connective tissues, and necroses were found in some of the central lobules.
  • The tumor cells were similar to the structure of apocrine gland epithelial cells with apical blebs resembling apocrine secretion and eosinophilic secretary materials within the luminal space, and spindle cells were sometimes found in the basal area of the glandular structure.
  • In some areas, tumor cells invaded in the blood vessels, bone and bone marrow.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells forming tubulo-acinar to solid structures were intensely positive for cytokeratin and keratin K8/K18, and the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin.
  • This case was diagnosed as a malignant mixed apocrine gland tumor with metastases to the bone and bone marrow.

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  • (PMID = 22272018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-915X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3234640
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; apocrine gland tumor / dog / mixed tumor
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8. Cohen M, Cassarino DS, Shih HB, Abemayor E, St John M: Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp: a classification conundrum. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Mar;3(1):42-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp: a classification conundrum.
  • Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features.
  • After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken.
  • RESULTS: Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidradenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma can be viewed as an aggressive malignant lesion of cutaneous sweat glands on a spectrum that involves both eccrine and apoeccrine lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / classification. Scalp / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 20596988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807530
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Apocrine / Eccrine / Head / Hidradenocarcinoma / Neck / Scalp / Sweat gland
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9. Knoedler D, Susnik B, Gonyo MB, Osipov V: Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):91-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an 8.0-cm tumor of the left breast.
  • The tumor was clinically and radiologically suspicious for malignancy.
  • The pathologic evaluation of the core biopsy and the subsequent excision specimen revealed a benign sclerosing, cystic, and papillary adnexal tumor with apocrine and clear cell morphology.
  • The final diagnosis was apocrine hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17214802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Magro G, Floridia F, Geraci G, Marino B: Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jun;36(6):692-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast.
  • Apart this unusual clinical presentation, another intriguing feature of tumor was the histological picture, being composed of an extensive mature fatty stromal component closely intermingling with the epithelial structures.
  • As adipocytes were variable in size and focally showed a lipoblast-like appearance, some tumor areas were reminiscent of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, lipoma-like.
  • Based on the histological features, the term 'lipomatous mixed tumor, apocrine type' was proposed for such a lesion.
  • Histogenetic considerations about the lipomatous stromal component of the tumor are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19515050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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11. Shimato S, Wakabayashi T, Mizuno M, Nakahara N, Hatano H, Natsume A, Ishii D, Hasegawa Y, Hyodo I, Nagasaka T, Yoshida J: Brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma of the scalp: case report. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;77(3):285-9
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  • [Title] Brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma of the scalp: case report.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the axilla.
  • However, a literature search did not reveal any report describing the detailed clinical course of brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old male who suffered from multiple brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma that had originated in the scalp 6 years before.
  • The tumor in the right frontal lobe was successfully operated.
  • However, the small tumor in the right occipital lobe was not cured by gamma knife surgery, and eventually required second operation.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case of metastatic brain tumor from apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16314948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Yang AH: Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):274-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding.
  • Apocrine fibroadenoma (AFA), considered a counterpart of fibroadenoma of breast, is a rare cutaneous apocrine neoplasm occurring almost exclusively in women.
  • The tumor was composed of numerous tubular, cystic, and partially branching lumina and struts of epithelial cells oriented perpendicular to the skin surface, with which it connected through infundibula.
  • The cytokeratin profiles of our case were similar to those of apocrine or eccrine neoplasms.
  • Different from a more common anogenital AFA, this neoplasm might represent a second type of AFA with unique histopathologic and immunopathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17519626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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13. Misago N, Ohkawa T, Narisawa Y: An unusual apocrine carcinoma on the forehead. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Aug;29(4):404-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual apocrine carcinoma on the forehead.
  • We herein report an unusual case of apocrine carcinoma on the forehead.
  • The lesion was formed by the anastomosis of numerous tubular structures with widespread decapitation secretion, thus demonstrating apocrine differentiation.
  • However, we observed some unusual histopathologic features that differed from those found in typical examples of apocrine ductal carcinoma, namely:.
  • We believe the present case is an apocrine ductal carcinoma, although it has a nodular appearance and basaloid cells.
  • Otherwise, it could be a hitherto undescribed variant of apocrine carcinoma.
  • This apocrine carcinoma on the forehead may have originated from either pluripotential cells or from apocrine glands at an unusual site.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Forehead / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Dermis / pathology. Female. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Keratin-19 / analysis. Keratin-7 / analysis. Mucin-1 / analysis. Muramidase / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17667178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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14. Suzuki T, Ikeda H, Hamasaki Y, Hatamochi A, Yamazaki S: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine poroma. J Dermatol; 2006 Apr;33(4):249-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Syringocystadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine poroma.
  • Histopathological examination of the mass revealed an aggregation of neoplastic cells (tumor cell nests) with cellular proliferation extending from the epidermis to the dermis.
  • The tumor consisted of two histologically distinct parts.
  • These histological changes were consistent with the diagnosis of apocrine poroma.
  • The remaining part of the tumor was composed of cystic invaginations with numerous projections oriented toward the lumen.
  • Based on these findings, a diagnosis of SCAP associated with apocrine poroma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Cystadenoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16674787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Kruse AL, Zwahlen R, Bredell MG, Riener MO, Grätz KW: Apocrine hidrocystoma of the cheek. J Craniofac Surg; 2010 Mar;21(2):594-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine hidrocystoma of the cheek.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine hidrocystoma is an uncommon benign cystic proliferation of the apocrine sweat glands.
  • An exocrine tumor or, more unlikely, a melanoma was considered as a differential diagnosis.
  • Pathologically, the lesion was determined to be an apocrine hidrocystoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follicular Cyst / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Skin Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20489460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Cashell AW: Apocrine adenoma of the breast. W V Med J; 2008 Mar-Apr;104(2):16-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine adenoma of the breast.
  • A case of apocrine adenoma, a rare benign tumor of the breast is reported.
  • The tumor was well circumscribed and composed of tightly packed tubules lined by cells with apocrine features.
  • Apocrine adenomas have been reported arising in a variety of sites including the breast, (1-5) perianal region, (6,7) eyelid, (8) and axilla. (9) Their appearance has similarities to the apocrine metaplasia commonly seen in fibrocystic change of the breast but they are well-circumscribed tumors with closely packed tubular and papillary structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18491794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Bujas T, Pavić I, Lenicek T, Mijić A, Kruslin B, Tomas D: Axillary apocrine carcinoma associated with apocrine adenoma and apocrine gland hyperplasia. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2007;15(3):148-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary apocrine carcinoma associated with apocrine adenoma and apocrine gland hyperplasia.
  • Apocrine carcinomas represent a rare group of tumors with a potential for destructive local invasion, regional and distant metastases, and are equally common in both sexes.
  • A case of a 79-year-old woman with axillary apocrine carcinoma associated with apocrine adenoma and apocrine gland hyperplasia is presented.
  • Grossly, the tumor measured 3.2x1.5x1.2 cm and on cut section appeared granular, white to gray-tanned.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was located in the dermis, poorly demarcated, focally necrotic with ulcerated overlying skin.
  • The cells contained abundant eosinophilic, finely granular cytoplasm with pleomorphic nuclei and showed apocrine-like decapitation.
  • In one area, the tumor was lobular and composed of tubular structures lined with one layer of uniform cuboidal or columnar eosinophilic cells, indicating a pre-existing apocrine adenoma.
  • Beneath the tumor, in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue, hyperplastic apocrine glands were also found.
  • No additional therapy was used, and one year after the surgery the patient was alive and showed no signs of tumor spread.
  • This and previously reported cases suggest that apocrine hyperplasia and apocrine adenoma may represent successive steps in the development of apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17868540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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18. Miyamoto T, Inoue S, Adachi K, Takada R: Differential expression of mucin core proteins and keratins in apocrine carcinoma, extramammary Paget's disease and apocrine nevus. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):529-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of mucin core proteins and keratins in apocrine carcinoma, extramammary Paget's disease and apocrine nevus.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine carcinomas are rare, the immunohistochemical characterizations that are incomplete.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical characteristics of mucin core proteins and keratins in apocrine carcinoma, extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) and apocrine nevus.
  • METHODS: We report four cases of apocrine carcinomas along with immunohistochemical analyses: (i) an axillary apocrine carcinoma with an apocrine nevus, (ii) an inguinal apocrine carcinoma, (iii) a vulvar apocrine carcinoma with EMPD and (iv) an axillary apocrine carcinoma with EMPD and an apocrine nevus.
  • RESULTS: The tumor cells of apocrine carcinomas, EMPD and apocrine nevi displayed a positive reaction to MUC-1 and CK7 and a negative reaction to CK20.
  • Apocrine carcinomas had high molecular weight (HMW) cytokeratin(+)/CK5(+)/CK14(-)/MUC5AC(-), EMPD with underlying apocrine carcinoma had HMW cytokeratin(-)/CK5(-)/CK14(-)/MUCA5AC(-) and the apocrine nevi had HMW cytokeratin(+)/CK5(+)/CK14(+)/MUCA5AC(+).
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical findings suggest that apocrine carcinomas, apocrine nevi and EMPD with underlying apocrine carcinomas are quite different, even though they are all derived from apocrine glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / metabolism. Keratins / biosynthesis. Mucins / biosynthesis. Nevus / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 19476520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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19. Arias-Santiago S, Aceituno-Madera P, Aneiros-Fernández J, Gutiérrez-Salmerón MT, Naranjo-Sintes R: Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(11):9

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  • [Title] Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca.
  • Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum is a benign adnexal tumor usually located in head and neck that occurs during childhood or adolescence.
  • A case of a syringocystoadema papilliferum associated with apocrine hydrocystoma and verruca is presented.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Cystadenoma / complications. Cystadenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thoracic Wall. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19951645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Sugiyama A, Sugiura M, Piris A, Tomita Y, Mihm MC: Apocrine cystadenoma and apocrine hidrocystoma: examination of 21 cases with emphasis on nomenclature according to proliferative features. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Dec;34(12):912-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine cystadenoma and apocrine hidrocystoma: examination of 21 cases with emphasis on nomenclature according to proliferative features.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine cystadenoma (AC) and apocrine hidrocystoma (AH) have been used interchangeably in the literature to designate cystic lesions of apocrine glands.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 21 cases with biopsies of apocrine cystic lesions diagnosed as AH or AC stained by hematoxylin and eosin.
  • The following histological characteristics were recorded: (a) number of cysts, (b) predominant architectural growth pattern of cyst wall, (c) tumor circumscription, (d) nuclear atypia, (e) mitotic activity, counted per 1 mm2 and (f) Ki-67 staining pattern.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Apocrine cystic lesions with true papillary projections should be referred to as AC rather than AH, to emphasize the proliferative adenomatous growth and depicted by their frequency of cytological atypia and high mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Hidrocystoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18001413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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22. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;14(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) is a common finding in the breast of postmenopausal women and is seen in a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from microscopic cysts to invasive apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine metaplasia within sclerosing adenosis is known as apocrine adenosis (AA) and is considered a benign lesion of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia and AA have been the subject of many studies; however, little is known about the dynamics of cell turnover in these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Division. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Metaplasia. Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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23. Proia AD: Pigmented hamartoma of the eyelid with apocrine, follicular and sebaceous differentiation. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Nov;34(11):876-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pigmented hamartoma of the eyelid with apocrine, follicular and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Herein, I report a hamartoma of the eyelid with follicular, sebaceous and apocrine differentiation that exhibited prominent melanin pigmentation.
  • RESULTS: Biopsy showed a well-circumscribed tumor composed of predominantly apocrine glands but with areas of sebaceous and follicular differentiation.
  • Some areas had prominent light-brown, granular pigment within tumor cells.
  • Lack of tyrosinase activity in the tumor cells and the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positivity of the pigment indicating its similarity to neuromelanin raise the possibility that the melanin in the hamartoma is a non-enzymatically derived oxidation product of a substance intrinsic to the tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Female. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Sebaceous Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17944730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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24. Seethala RR, Richmond JA, Hoschar AP, Barnes EL: New variants of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: oncocytic-sebaceous and apocrine. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jun;133(6):950-9
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  • [Title] New variants of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma: oncocytic-sebaceous and apocrine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a detailed analysis of oncocytic-sebaceous epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (OEMCa) and a similar, but novel, variant, apocrine epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (ApEMCa).
  • The ductal component of ApEMCa shares some similarities with salivary duct carcinoma and supports the notion that epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma can serve as the progenitor tumor for hybrid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology


25. Kazakov DV, Belousova IE, Bisceglia M, Calonje E, Emberger M, Grayson W, Hantschke M, Kempf W, Kutzner H, Michal M, Spagnolo DV, Virolainen S, Zelger B: Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin ("mixed tumor of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine complex"). Spectrum of differentiations and metaplastic changes in the epithelial, myoepithelial, and stromal components based on a histopathologic study of 244 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Sep;57(3):467-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin ("mixed tumor of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine complex"). Spectrum of differentiations and metaplastic changes in the epithelial, myoepithelial, and stromal components based on a histopathologic study of 244 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: A systematic analysis of the entire spectrum of various forms of differentiation and metaplastic epiphenomena in cutaneous apocrine mixed tumor (AMT) has never been performed.
  • RESULTS: All types of differentiation along the lines of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit can be seen in AMT.
  • We propose that the most appropriate name for these lesions is "mixed tumor of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine complex. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17707152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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26. Shim HS, Jung WH, Kim H, Park K, Cho NH: Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions. APMIS; 2006 May;114(5):352-8
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  • [Title] Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions.
  • We investigated the role of these hormones in breast apocrine lesions (BAL) using immunohistochemistry to study androgen receptors (AR) and the inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits.
  • Forty-two cases of BAL were evaluated, including 22 cases of fibrocystic disease (FCD) showing prominent apocrine changes, 10 intraductal papillomas with extensive apocrine metaplasia, 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma.
  • Fifty non-apocrine lesions were included as controls: 20 cases of FCD, 5 cases of DCIS, and 25 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • AR was more frequently expressed in BAL than in non-apocrine lesions (p=0.001).
  • AR expression was not related to tumor progression.
  • As the expression of the alpha and betaA subunits reflects inhibin and activin A, respectively, AR and activin A may be implicated in apocrine morphogenesis, but not in tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Metaplasia / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16725011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits
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27. Usui K, Ochiai T, Abe I, Nishio H, Togo K, Yamagata M: Apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon. J Dermatol; 2010 Apr;37(4):350-4
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  • [Title] Apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon.
  • We reported a 52-year-old woman with an apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon.
  • Our diagnosis revealed that the nodule was an apocrine gland carcinoma and the intraepidermal neoplastic cells with pagetoid spread in the pigmented plaque were derived from the apocrine gland carcinoma.
  • No Paget's cells were detected in the right nipple, and no tumor cells were observed in the sentinel lymph node and underlying mammary gland tissue.
  • They showed that both intraepidermal neoplastic cells with pagetoid spread and tumor cells of the apocrine gland carcinoma were positive with cytokeratin-7 and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)/neu overexpression.
  • The results of the present study conclude that the intraepithelial spread of tumor cells in the mammary skin distant from the nipple occurred as a pagetoid phenomenon, and that HER-2 may have a key role in pagetoid phenomenon of an underlying apocrine gland carcinoma, as well as in mammary Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20507405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-7; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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28. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Spagnolo DV, Kempf W, Zelger B, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Sebaceous differentiation in poroid neoplasms: report of 11 cases, including a case of metaplastic carcinoma associated with apocrine poroma (sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma). Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):21-6
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  • [Title] Sebaceous differentiation in poroid neoplasms: report of 11 cases, including a case of metaplastic carcinoma associated with apocrine poroma (sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma).
  • We describe 11 poroid neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation, including a metaplastic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma arising in association with an apocrine poroma.
  • Six lesions had the silhouette of a classical poroma, 3 of poroid hidradenoma and 1 of dermal duct tumor.
  • The single carcinoma was an ulcerated oval to spindle cell neoplasm surrounded laterally by the residuum of a poroma containing groups of sebocytes.
  • Our study supports previous findings that sebaceous differentiation can be identified not only in classical poroma but also in the related lesions known as dermal duct tumor and poroid hidradenoma.
  • Occurrence of metaplastic carcinoma in association with apocrine poroma is a rare event which indicates the existence of a malignant counterpart of the latter entity, which can be descriptively referred to as "sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18212539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Baran JL, Hoang MP: Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin with a prominent pilomatricomal component. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Aug;36(8):882-6
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  • [Title] Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin with a prominent pilomatricomal component.
  • Pilomatrical differentiation within an apocrine mixed tumor (AMT) when present is only focal and has not been reported to be extensive.
  • Histologic sections revealed, underneath a neurofibroma, a well-circumscribed tumor composed of nodules of branching epithelial elements and occasional keratinous cysts within a myxoid and lipomatous stroma.
  • In approximately 50% of the tumor, eosinophilic ghost/shadow cells associated with a foreign body giant cell reaction formed a nodule resembling a pilomatricoma.
  • The presence of follicular and apocrine differentiation within our tumor reinforces the common embryologic derivation of these elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neurofibroma / metabolism. Neurofibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19586498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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30. Treiyer A, Haben B, Röttger P, Steffens J: First male apocrine genital carcinoma mimicking a penile cancer. Urology; 2008 Mar;71(3):546.e11-2

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  • [Title] First male apocrine genital carcinoma mimicking a penile cancer.
  • Perineal apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that has its origin in the apocrine sudoriparous glands of the genital and perianal regions.
  • We report a case of a genital apocrine carcinoma located at the penile basis.
  • To our knowledge our report represents the first case of a pathologically confirmed genital apocrine carcinoma mimicking a penile cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18342207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Charfi S, Sevestre H, Dumont F, Regimbeau JM, Chatelain D: Atypical apocrine proliferation involving anogenital mammary-like glands of the perianal region. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:52-5

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  • [Title] Atypical apocrine proliferation involving anogenital mammary-like glands of the perianal region.
  • Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed atypical apocrine proliferation arising in a complex lesion with features of fibroadenoma, adenosis and hyperplastic and cystic change.
  • Normal MLGs were observed at the tumor periphery.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19775395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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32. Roy S, Shafi NQ, Rose MG: Locally recurrent and metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma in an elderly man. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Jan;4(1):56-9

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  • [Title] Locally recurrent and metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma in an elderly man.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, blood tests, excisional biopsy, studies of tumor morphology and immunohistochemistry, CT of the chest and abdomen, and PET scan.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Carcinoma of the axillary apocrine gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17183356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Tanahashi J, Kashima K, Daa T, Kondoh Y, Yada N, Kuratomi E, Yokoyama S: A case of sebaceoma with extensive apocrine differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):408-11

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  • [Title] A case of sebaceoma with extensive apocrine differentiation.
  • Apocrine differentiation is a rare event in sebaceoma, and only 3 cases have been reported.
  • We report a case of sebaceoma with extensive apocrine differentiation on the scalp in a 73-year-old Japanese woman.
  • The resected tumor was located entirely within the dermis and subcutis as a well-circumscribed, lobulated, solid, and partially cystic mass, measuring 35 mm at the largest diameter.
  • Histopathologically, it was composed of uniform basaloid cells with clusters of sebocytes, squamous islands of ductal structures, and apocrine cells with apparent decapitation secretion.
  • We considered the lesion to be a sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2009 Feb;31(1):94 [19155736.001]
  • (PMID = 18645320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Kaya H, Bozkurt SU, Erbarut I, Djamgoz MB: Apocrine carcinomas of the breast in Turkish women: hormone receptors, c-erbB-2 and p53 immunoexpression. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(6):367-71
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinomas of the breast in Turkish women: hormone receptors, c-erbB-2 and p53 immunoexpression.
  • The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to determine the occurrence frequency of apocrine carcinoma of the breast (ApBCa) in Turkish breast cancer (BCa) patients; and (ii) to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), gross cystic disease protein-15 (GCDFP-15), c-erbB-2, and p53 in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18342452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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35. Francisco JS, Alfaro SE, Oliveira DC, Tonon S, Dias EP: Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar-Apr;71(2):224-7
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region.
  • The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
  • Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old black woman who developed apocrine carcinoma lesions in the head and neck region.
  • Two lesions involved her left parotid gland (first tumor and local recurrence), and other involved her submandibular skin.
  • The microscopic aspects were as follows: infiltrative glandular epithelial neoplasm with moderate cellular and nuclear pleomorphism; neoplasic cells with polygonal or circular shape, large nuclei and eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm.
  • The apical decapitation secretion was viewed in a large number of intra-cystic tumor cells.
  • Based on cutaneous apocrine carcinoma compatibility of the microscopic aspects, we concluded that the tumor in the submandibular skin was probably the primary neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Carcinoma / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16446921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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36. Robson A, Lazar AJ, Ben Nagi J, Hanby A, Grayson W, Feinmesser M, Granter SR, Seed P, Warneke CL, McKee PH, Calonje E: Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic analysis of 24 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):682-90
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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic analysis of 24 cases.
  • Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignancy.
  • Furthermore, steroid receptor expression should be investigated in these tumors, particularly if a tumor is unlikely to be controlled by surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Jan;33(1):155-7 [18971780.001]
  • (PMID = 18347508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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37. Haji BE, Das DK, Al-Ayadhy B, Pathan SK, George SG, Mallik MK, Abdeen SM: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jul;35(7):408-16
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary.
  • Recognition of special types of breast cancers by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology may have prognostic implications but some difficulties still exist in the ability of cytopathologists to determine the tumor subtypes.
  • In mucinous carcinoma, the frequency of signet ring cells (62.5%), and background pools of mucin (87.5%) were significantly higher than those of duct cell carcinoma (NOS), medullary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0408 to < 0.0001).
  • In medullary carcinomas, lymphomononuclear cell infiltration (100.0%) was observed in significantly higher number of cases than in papillary, mucinous, and apocrine types (P < 0.0001).
  • Abnormal apocrine cells and papillary formation, characterizing all the apocrine carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, respectively, were present in significantly lower number in other variants and in duct cell carcinoma (NOS) (P = 0.0002 to <0.0001).
  • Glycogen vacuoles (63.6%) were observed in a significantly higher number of papillary carcinoma as compared to duct cell carcinoma (NOS), apocrine, and medullary carcinomas (P = 0.0047 to 0.0022).
  • Thus, special and unusual variants of duct cell carcinomas like mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary have specific cytomorphological features, which differentiate them from one another and from duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17580344.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Morandi F, Benazzi C, Simoni P: Adenocarcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a mouflon (Ovis musimon). J Vet Diagn Invest; 2005 Jul;17(4):389-92

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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of apocrine sweat glands in a mouflon (Ovis musimon).
  • Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells contained numerous pleomorphic secretory granules and microvilli, which partially covered the luminal surface of the tumor cells.
  • On the basis of histological and ultrastructural findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a tubulopapillary adenocarcinoma, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Apocrine Glands. Sheep Diseases / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16131002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Japaze H, Emina J, Diaz C, Schwam RJ, Gercovich N, Demonty G, Morgenfeld E, Rivarola E, Gil Deza E, Gercovich FG: 'Pure' invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: a new clinicopathological entity? Breast; 2005 Feb;14(1):3-10
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  • [Title] 'Pure' invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: a new clinicopathological entity?
  • Invasive apocrine carcinoma (IAC) of the breast has a similar prognosis to infiltrating ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS).
  • The probability of 6-year survival was 0.72 for PIAC and 0.52 for IDC-NOS (P=0.02), and was still better after adjustment for tumor grade and axillary status.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Breast. 2005 Feb;14(1):1-2 [15695073.001]
  • (PMID = 15695074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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40. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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41. Zelger BG, Stelzmueller I, Dunst KM, Zelger B: Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):332-6
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  • [Title] Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma.
  • The so called 'sweat gland carcinoma' is a rare skin malignancy.
  • The differentiation between apocrine and eccrine neoplasms remains difficult.
  • Skin tumors of the axilla are often suspected to be metastasis of other neoplasms in particular breast cancer.
  • After further clinical and laboratory work up including immunohistochemistry the original diagnosis of a breast cancer had to be changed to solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin.
  • Final tumor stage was pT2 N0 M0 (V0 L0).
  • Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare variant with apocrine differentiation.
  • A survey of the stereotypical presentation of this lesion and a comparison with lobular breast carcinoma and other types of apocrine carcinoma of the skin is given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18251751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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42. Honma N, Saji S, Kurabayashi R, Aida J, Arai T, Horii R, Akiyama F, Iwase T, Harada N, Younes M, Toi M, Takubo K, Sakamoto G: Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma of the breast. APMIS; 2008 Oct;116(10):923-30
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  • [Title] Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • Apocrine carcinoma of the breast, which frequently expresses oestrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) in the absence of ER-alpha and only infrequently is treated endocrinologically, gives an opportunity to investigate the clinicopathological role of ER-beta in breast cancer independent of ER-alpha expression or tamoxifen treatment.
  • Here we aimed to clarify the clinicopathological importance of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx (ER-beta2) in apocrine carcinomas, immunohistochemically examining expressions of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx in 47 apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER-beta1 positivity was related to smaller tumor size (P=0.0359), lower histological grade (P=0.0322), and higher disease-free survival (P<0.0001), whereas ER-betacx status was related to none of these parameters.
  • ER-beta1 positivity was also associated with favorable clinical outcome in 24 so-called triple-negative (ER-alpha-negative/PR-negative/HER2-negative) apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER-beta1 itself, independent of ER-alpha expression and tamoxifen treatment, seems to have a tumor-suppressive effect, at least in apocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19132986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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43. Nibe K, Uchida K, Itoh T, Tateyama S: A case of canine apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant. Vet Pathol; 2005 Mar;42(2):215-8

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  • [Title] A case of canine apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant.
  • On the basis of these findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant.
  • There have been few previous reports of canine apocrine adenomas showing a clear cell morphology.

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  • (PMID = 15753476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Weinreb I, Tabanda-Lichauco R, Van der Kwast T, Perez-Ordoñez B: Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland: report of 3 cases with marked apocrine differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):1014-21
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  • [Title] Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland: report of 3 cases with marked apocrine differentiation.
  • The intraductal component in all cases exhibited a remarkable degree of apocrine differentiation.
  • The tumor cells were positive for AE1:AE3, Cam 5.2, high molecular weight keratin, CK7, CK19, BRST-2, and androgen receptors (ARs).
  • Extensive apocrine differentiation, expression of ARs, CK7, and CK19, and progression to a widely invasive carcinoma after a long clinical latency have not been reported in LG-IDCs previously.
  • These tumors share some histopathologic features with salivary duct carcinoma including apocrine differentiation, and expression of ARs and BRST-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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45. Jakobiec FA, Bhat P, Kropp TM: Palpebro-orbital apocrine cystadenoma: immunohistochemical verification of a unique variant with a critical differential diagnosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Jul-Aug;26(4):245-9
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  • [Title] Palpebro-orbital apocrine cystadenoma: immunohistochemical verification of a unique variant with a critical differential diagnosis.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a unique apocrine cystadenoma of the superonasal eyelid and anterior orbit.
  • METHODS: Clinical evaluation with axial and coronal CT; histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies including sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue, mucicarmine, and Prussian blue for iron; and monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratin-7, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle actin for myoepithelial cells, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 for apocrine differentiation, and CD-68 and lysozyme for histiocytes.
  • A stalk of solid tumor ingrowth from the wall was composed of adenomatous units of eosinophilic cells with apical snouts ("decapitation secretion").
  • Both the cyst's lining cells and the adenoma expressed gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 indicative of apocrine differentiation.
  • CONCLUSION: This unique lesion is the first example in the ophthalmic and dermatopathologic literatures of a solid adenoma encompassed by an apocrine cyst, which more typically features short or blunt papillae.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20502368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Swick BL, Baum CL, Walling HW: Rippled-pattern trichoblastoma with apocrine differentiation arising in a nevus sebaceus: report of a case and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Nov;36(11):1200-5
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  • [Title] Rippled-pattern trichoblastoma with apocrine differentiation arising in a nevus sebaceus: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Histologic sections of the papular growth at the superior pole of the nevus sebaceus showed a proliferation of cytologically bland basaloid epithelial tumor lobules both in the superficial dermis, with multiple connections to the epidermis, and within the deeper dermis in a nodular growth pattern demonstrating papillary mesenchymal bodies.
  • Ductal structures with apocrine-type decapitation secretion were present.
  • The histologic features resembled those of rippled-pattern trichoblastoma with apocrine differentiation arising in a nevus sebaceus, an association not previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / complications. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / complications

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  • (PMID = 19469871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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47. Alsaad KO, Obaidat N, Dube V, Chapman W, Ghazarian D: Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):131-5
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  • [Title] Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation.
  • Rare cases of adenocarcinoma with apocrine features have been reported, and whether these neoplasms originate from the "native apocrine" sweat glands or from "anogenital mammary-like" glands are still debatable.
  • The presence of normal mammary-like glands in the vicinity of the tumor, the transitional malignant morphological features from normal mammary-like glands and the tumor, the breast-like histological features of the tumor, and the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors generally suggest an origin from anogenital mammary-like glands.
  • Absence of these features points toward native apocrine sweat glands as the source of these neoplasms.
  • In this report, we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Paget's disease of the right vulva, which was treated by hemi-vulvectomy, and who later presented with primary vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes and intranodal mucinous/colloidal differentiation: a feature, to the best of our knowledge, not reported before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18842349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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48. Kim MS, Lee JH, Lee WM, Son SJ: A Case of Tubular Apocrine Adenoma with Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum that Developed in a Nevus Sebaceus. Ann Dermatol; 2010 Aug;22(3):319-22
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  • [Title] A Case of Tubular Apocrine Adenoma with Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum that Developed in a Nevus Sebaceus.
  • Tubular apocrine adenoma (TAA) is a very rare sweat gland tumor.

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 1976;3(2):75-87 [993400.001]
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  • (PMID = 20711270.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2917687
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Nevus sebaceus / Syringocystadenoma papilliferum / Tubular apocrine adenoma
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49. Fernandez-Flores A: Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma. Cesk Patol; 2009 Oct;45(4):108-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (CAC) and cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma is commonly difficult.
  • Although, more cases of CAC should probably be studied in the future before any categorical conclusion can be obtained, our results seem to indicate that a pattern of immunostaining with expression of mammaglobin in many cells would favor a metastatic origin of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Uteroglobin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20301838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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50. Honma N, Takubo K, Arai T, Younes M, Kasumi F, Akiyama F, Sakamoto G: Comparative study of monoclonal antibody B72.3 and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 as markers of apocrine carcinoma of the breast. APMIS; 2006 Oct;114(10):712-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative study of monoclonal antibody B72.3 and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 as markers of apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) is a commonly used apocrine marker; however, its expression was recently found to decrease in infiltrating, larger, or metastasizing apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • In the breast, monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 has been reported to be useful as an apocrine marker although it is used for that purpose much less frequently than GCDFP-15.
  • In the search for a more consistent apocrine marker, immunoreactivity for MAb B72.3 was examined in apocrine carcinomas at different stages and compared with GCDFP-15.
  • 47 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (92%) and 9 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (15%) were MAb B72.3 positive, while 39 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (76%) and 13 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (21%) were GCDFP-15 positive.
  • Furthermore, unlike GCDFP-15, MAb B72.3 exhibited positivity irrespective of infiltrating status, tumor size, or metastatic status.
  • The combined usage of MAb B72.3 with GCDFP-15 was useful to confirm the diagnosis of apocrine carcinoma, especially for advanced tumors, with only two cases being negative for both MAb B72.3 and GCDFP-15.
  • Whether these two cases should be differentiated from ordinary apocrine carcinomas remains to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / secondary. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human
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51. Bhargava R, Beriwal S, Striebel JM, Dabbs DJ: Breast cancer molecular class ERBB2: preponderance of tumors with apocrine differentiation and expression of basal phenotype markers CK5, CK5/6, and EGFR. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Mar;18(2):113-8
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  • [Title] Breast cancer molecular class ERBB2: preponderance of tumors with apocrine differentiation and expression of basal phenotype markers CK5, CK5/6, and EGFR.
  • Moderate lymphoid infiltrate (constituting 25% to 50% of the tumor) was seen in 5 of 8 (63%) cases and necrosis in 3 of 8 (38%) cases.
  • The most striking morphologic feature associated with ERBB2 tumors was the presence of apocrine differentiation seen in 7 of 8 (88%) cases.
  • We conclude that tumors with apocrine differentiation are most often of ERBB2 type.

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  • (PMID = 19801938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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52. Kosemehmetoglu K, Guler G: Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway? Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Dec;14(6):425-31
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  • [Title] Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway?
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia (PAM) and columnar cell lesion with atypia (CCL) are considered as candidates of early premalignant breast lesions.
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia and CCL tend to appear in close contact, especially in neoplastic breasts with favorable features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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53. Spugnini EP, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, De Luca A, Codini C, Citro G, D'Avino A, Baldi A: Successful rescue of an apocrine gland carcinoma metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes by mitoxantrone coupled with trains of permeabilizing electrical pulses (electrochemotherapy). In Vivo; 2008 Jan-Feb;22(1):51-3
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  • [Title] Successful rescue of an apocrine gland carcinoma metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes by mitoxantrone coupled with trains of permeabilizing electrical pulses (electrochemotherapy).
  • Canine apocrine gland carcinoma is a locally aggressive neoplasm that can occasionally lead to metastatic spread, thus mimicking the behavior of their human counterpart.
  • In this paper we describe the successful treatment of a cervical metastatic spread of this neoplasia by using mitoxantrone selectively driven within the tumor cells by trains of biphasic pulses.
  • The dog experienced tumor reduction from the first cycle of electrochemotherapy (ECT) and complete remission by the time of its fourth session.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Electrochemotherapy / veterinary. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18396782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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54. Pucevich B, Catinchi-Jaime S, Ho J, Jukic DM: Invasive primary ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma of axilla: a case report with immunohistochemical profiling and a review of literature. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):5
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  • [Title] Invasive primary ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma of axilla: a case report with immunohistochemical profiling and a review of literature.
  • Primary cutaneous ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma (PCDAA) is a rare malignant cutaneous neoplasm usually arising in areas of high apocrine gland density.
  • There have been a total of 40 cases of primary apocrine adenocarcinoma reported in the literature; many are indolent and slowly- developing, but some are rapidly progressive.
  • Primary cutaneous ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma has distinctive histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and the treatment of choice for PCDAA is wide local excision with clear margins.
  • We present a case of a 92-year-old female with a 1-year history of a subcutaneous tumor of the right axilla, histologically consistent with a diagnosis of PCDAA arising in an accessory nipple.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case of apocrine adenocarcinoma to develop in an accessory nipple.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Axilla. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18713586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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55. Banneau G, Guedj M, MacGrogan G, de Mascarel I, Velasco V, Schiappa R, Bonadona V, David A, Dugast C, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Ingster O, Vabres P, Caux F, de Reynies A, Iggo R, Sevenet N, Bonnet F, Longy M: Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(4):R63
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  • [Title] Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations.
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast carcinoma is the main malignant tumor occurring in patients with Cowden disease, a cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN characterized by the occurrence throughout life of hyperplastic, hamartomatous and malignant growths affecting various organs.
  • The gene expression profile of the Cowden tumors shows considerable overlap with that of a breast cancer subgroup known as molecular apocrine breast carcinoma, which is suspected to have increased androgenic signaling and shows frequent ERBB2 amplification in sporadic tumors.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical study showed that several cases had apocrine histological features and expressed GGT1, which is a potential new marker for apocrine breast carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that activation of the ERBB2-PI3K-AKT pathway by loss of PTEN at early stages of tumorigenesis promotes the formation of breast tumors with apocrine features.

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  • (PMID = 20712882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2949656
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56. Vazmitel M, Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov DV: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component. Report of a case. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):51-3
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  • [Title] Syringocystadenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component. Report of a case.
  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum is a benign tumor most commonly located on the scalp or face, and it often arises within a nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn.
  • We describe a 61-year-old man with syringocystadenoma papilliferum developing within a nevus sebaceus with sebaceous differentiation in an intradermal tubular apocrine component of the syringocystadenoma papilliferum.
  • Although some adnexal neoplasms that develop in association with a nevus sebaceus may exhibit conjoint sebaceous, follicular, or apocrine differentiation, reflecting close embryological relations of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit, the feature we report on has not previously been described to the best of our knowledge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Nevus, Sebaceous of Jadassohn / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18212545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Wahl CE, Todd DH, Binder SW, Cassarino DS: Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):582-5
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  • [Title] Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.
  • He had no history of skin cancer.
  • An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion.
  • The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease).
  • The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Mucins / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19476529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucins
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58. Niemeier LA, Dabbs DJ, Beriwal S, Striebel JM, Bhargava R: Androgen receptor in breast cancer: expression in estrogen receptor-positive tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative tumors with apocrine differentiation. Mod Pathol; 2010 Feb;23(2):205-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen receptor in breast cancer: expression in estrogen receptor-positive tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative tumors with apocrine differentiation.
  • Six of eight estrogen receptor-negative/androgen receptor-positive cases showed apocrine differentiation.
  • Androgen receptor expression in estrogen receptor-positive cases was associated with smaller tumor size (P=0.0001), lower Nottingham grade (P=0.002) and less frequent tumor cell necrosis (P=0.0001).
  • Androgen receptor expression in estrogen receptor-negative tumors was associated with lower Nottingham grade (P=0.005) and apocrine differentiation (P=0.039).
  • Androgen receptor expression in estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative/HER2+ tumors (which commonly show apocrine differentiation) and a subset of triple - negative apocrine tumors suggest that these tumors together comprises the 'molecular apocrine' group described previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19898421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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59. Rütten A, Kutzner H, Mentzel T, Hantschke M, Eckert F, Angulo J, Rodríguez Peralto JL, Requena L: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Oct;61(4):644-51

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Cribriform carcinoma is the histopathologic variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma characterized by interconnected solid aggregations of neoplastic cells that are punctuated by small round spaces.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of this under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six cases of primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma were clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma is a distinctive but little-known variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Microvilli / ultrastructure. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Mar;64(3):599-601 [21315957.001]
  • (PMID = 19751882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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60. Akhtar I, Ispas CL, Flowers R, Siddiqi A, Young L, Donnellan KA, Heard K, Baliga M: Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma of the eyelid metastatic to the parotid gland: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Feb;37(2):91-5

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  • [Title] Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma of the eyelid metastatic to the parotid gland: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma (DPAC) of the eyelid is a rare malignant neoplasm in the periocular region.
  • The relative rarity of this tumor is a diagnostic challenge to the cytopathologist, especially when present as a metastatic lesion to an intraparotid lymph node, where the differential diagnosis includes primary parotid neoplasms, as well as various other metastatic malignancies.
  • We report a case of a 65-year-old African-American male with a history of ductopapillary apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid, diagnosed 6 weeks ago now presenting with a recurrence in the same area.
  • FNAB of the parotid mass showed a well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with a cystic component, similar to a previously excised ductopapillary apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19021198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human
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61. Naderi A, Liu J: Inhibition of androgen receptor and Cdc25A phosphatase as a combination targeted therapy in molecular apocrine breast cancer. Cancer Lett; 2010 Dec 1;298(1):74-87
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  • [Title] Inhibition of androgen receptor and Cdc25A phosphatase as a combination targeted therapy in molecular apocrine breast cancer.
  • Molecular apocrine breast cancer is an estrogen receptor negative subtype characterized by the over-expression of steroid response genes.
  • Moreover, using a xenograft molecular apocrine model we demonstrate that the combination therapy results in a significantly better therapeutic response compared to monotherapy and control groups manifesting as reductions in tumor growth, proliferation index, and cellularity.
  • This study demonstrates that the combined application of AR and Cdc25A inhibitors is a promising therapeutic strategy in molecular apocrine breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Down-Regulation. Drug Delivery Systems. Drug Synergism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Phosphorylation. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa / antagonists & inhibitors. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20605569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
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62. Sanga S, Broom BM, Cristini V, Edgerton ME: Gene expression meta-analysis supports existence of molecular apocrine breast cancer with a role for androgen receptor and implies interactions with ErbB family. BMC Med Genomics; 2009;2:59
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  • [Title] Gene expression meta-analysis supports existence of molecular apocrine breast cancer with a role for androgen receptor and implies interactions with ErbB family.
  • We use the Molecular Apocrine subtype of breast cancer to demonstrate our ability to infer pathways directly from patients' gene expression data with pattern analysis algorithms.
  • METHODS: We combine data from two studies that propose the existence of the Molecular Apocrine phenotype.
  • We use hierarchical clustering, principal components analysis, and comparison of gene signatures derived from Significance Analysis of Microarrays to establish the existence of the Molecular Apocrine subtype and the equivalence of its molecular phenotype across both institutions.
  • RESULTS: We demonstrate that the two separately introduced ER- breast cancer subsets represent the same tumor type, called Molecular Apocrine breast cancer.
  • Analysis of Molecular Apocrine breast cancer implies that therapies targeting AR might be hampered if interactions with ErbB family members are not addressed.


63. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast. Breast J; 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):475-82
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  • [Title] Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast.
  • G1/S transition defects have been a proposed requirement for tumor development.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) in the breast has been held as a sign of benignity.
  • Apocrine cells were negative for p16 while pRb was expressed in all cases.

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  • (PMID = 19624419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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64. Kazakov DV, Bisceglia M, Spagnolo DV, Kutzner H, Belousova IE, Hes O, Sima R, Vanecek T, Yang Y, Michal M: Apocrine mixed tumors of the skin with architectural and/or cytologic atypia: a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 18 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;31(7):1094-102
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  • [Title] Apocrine mixed tumors of the skin with architectural and/or cytologic atypia: a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 18 cases.
  • We present a series of 18 atypical apocrine mixed tumors of the skin characterized by architectural and/or cytologic atypia but which nevertheless do not qualify these lesions as carcinomas.
  • There were 15 males and 3 females, and all but 1 presented with solitary nodules ranging in size from 4 to 20 mm; 1 female had a large tumor of 12 cm.
  • As controls, 4 authentic malignant mixed tumors were studied, but these likewise tested negative for HER-2/neu protein expression and showed no gene amplification; 1 malignant mixed tumor had polysomy 17.
  • We conclude that some atypical cytoarchitectural features in apocrine mixed tumors, albeit worrisome, do not indicate a malignant change.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17592277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Celis JE, Gromov P, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Friis E, Jirström K, Llombart-Bosch A, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Rank F, Gromova I: 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008 Oct;7(10):1795-809
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous, papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas.
  • An additional subclass termed "molecular apocrine" has recently been described, but these lesions did not exhibit all the histopathological features of classical invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs).
  • By comparing the protein expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts and non-malignant breast epithelial tissue we have previously reported the identification of a few proteins that are specifically expressed by benign apocrine lesions as well as by the few IACs that were available to us at the time.
  • Here we reiterate our strategy to reveal apocrine cell markers and present novel data, based on the analysis of a considerably larger number of samples, establishing that IACs correspond to a distinct molecular subtype of breast carcinomas characterized by the expression of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase alone or in combination with a novel form of acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / enzymology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraffin Embedding. Phenotype. Silver Staining. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18632593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9484
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; EC 6.2.1.- / ACSM1 protein, human; EC 6.2.1.- / Coenzyme A Ligases
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66. Ogino T, Noura S, Ohue M, Matsumura M, Ishiguro S, Kishi K, Takachi K, Eguchi H, Yamada T, Miyashiro I, Yano M, Ohigashi H, Sasaki Y, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S: [A case of apocrine adenocarcinoma suspected as an axillary lymph node metastasis from cecal cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1968-70

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  • [Title] [A case of apocrine adenocarcinoma suspected as an axillary lymph node metastasis from cecal cancer].
  • He had a 2-year history of subcutaneous tumor in the left axilla.
  • Biopsy of the tumor showed the features of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • He underwent ileocecal resection and a wide local resection of the axillary tumor.
  • Histopathological examination showed the axillary tumor was different from the cecal cancer.
  • Axillary tumor was diagnosed not as metastasis of axillary lymph nodes from cecal cancer but apocrine adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Cecal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17212162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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67. Murali R, Salisbury E, Pathmanathan N: Histiocytoid change in breast carcinoma: a report of 3 cases with an unusual cytomorphologic pattern of apocrine change. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):548-52
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  • [Title] Histiocytoid change in breast carcinoma: a report of 3 cases with an unusual cytomorphologic pattern of apocrine change.
  • CONCLUSION: HBC represents an unusual morphologic pattern of apocrine change that may be seen in lobular and ductal breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Histiocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Differentiation. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Cytol. 2006 Nov-Dec;50(6):158A
  • (PMID = 17017444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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68. Puri PK, Galan A, Glusac EJ, Cowper SE: Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jan;35(1):54-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • Herein, we report an unusual case of metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A 53-year-old male man presented with a neoplasm on the vertex of the scalp, clinically resembling a pigmented basal cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: A shave biopsy was suggestive of an apocrine poroma, however, a metastatic carcinoma could not be excluded.
  • After acquiring additional clinical information and the complete excision of the neoplasm, further immunohistochemical stains supported the diagnosis a metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic carcinoid tumor reported that has mimicked a poroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18095995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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69. Halbritter SA, Altermatt HJ, Caversaccio M, Bornstein MM: Apocrine papillary cystadenoma of a minor salivary gland on the lower lip: case presentation. Quintessence Int; 2009 Feb;40(2):167-9
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  • [Title] Apocrine papillary cystadenoma of a minor salivary gland on the lower lip: case presentation.
  • Cystadenomas are a rare, painless, and slow-growing benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland.

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  • (PMID = 19169449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Quintessence Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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70. Biernat W: Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):284-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin.
  • An unusual tumor of the neck in a 56-year-old female is reported.
  • The tumor was composed of tubules and small cords of epithelial cells dispersed in the fibromyxoid and adipose stroma.
  • At the periphery, the tumor was not encapsulated and its border was intermingled with the subcutaneous fat.
  • Lack of decapitation secretion and the absence of long tubules suggested an eccrine origin; however, in some of the tumor areas, the cells showed brightly eosinophilic copious cytoplasm that may indicate an apocrine differentiation.
  • As an area of chondroid metaplasia was identified, the diagnosis of a mixed tumor was rendered.
  • This unusual type of skin adnexal neoplasm with unique relation of the epithelial component to the surrounding adipose tissue requires differentiation with the primary cutaneous and metastatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18496435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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71. Bauer JA, Frye G, Bahr A, Gieg J, Brofman P: Anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin against spontaneous tumors in dogs. Invest New Drugs; 2010 Oct;28(5):694-702
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  • [Title] Anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin against spontaneous tumors in dogs.
  • The anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), an apoptosis-inducing, vitamin B12-based carrier of nitric oxide (NO), was evaluated in four dogs with spontaneous cancer.
  • (1) A 13 year-old female spayed Giant Schnauzer with inoperable thyroid carcinoma and hypercalcemia. (2) A 6 year-old male neutered Golden Retriever with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). (3) A ten yr-old neutered male Bichon Frise with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGACA). (4) A 7 year-old female spayed Labrador mix with spinal meningioma following partial surgical resection.
  • Tumor regression was measured by physical exam and verified using ultrasound (case 1) and MRI (case 2-4).
  • (1) The Giant Schnauzer demonstrated a 77% reduction in tumor volume after ten weeks of daily NO-Cbl treatment. (2) The Golden Retriever demonstrated a 53% reduction in tumor volume after 15 months of daily NO-Cbl therapy. (3) The Bichon Frise demonstrated a 43% regression of the primary tumor and a 90% regression of an iliac lymph node measured by MRI after 15 months of treatment.
  • After 61 months, the dog currently has stable disease, normal liver enzymes, CBC analysis, and no evidence of toxicity. (4) The Labrador demonstrated complete regression of the residual tumor after 6 months of treatment.
  • The use of NO-Cbl capitalizes on the tumor-specific properties of the vitamin B12 receptor and represents a promising anti-cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dogs. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tumor Burden

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  • [ErratumIn] Invest New Drugs. 2011 Oct;29(5):1122
  • (PMID = 19557306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-0646
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095020
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitroso Compounds; 0 / nitrosylcobalamin; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12
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72. Kasashima S, Hiroshi M, Toshinori M, Yoshio O: Lipomatous mixed tumor with follicular differentiation of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 May;33(5):389-94
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  • [Title] Lipomatous mixed tumor with follicular differentiation of the skin.
  • A very rare case of cutaneous mixed tumor with numerous adipose tissue and hair follicular structures in a 67-year-old Japanese male was reported.
  • A well-circumscribed tumor was in the subcutaneous tissue of the cheek and far from the parotid gland.
  • Histologically, the tumor consisted of an admixture of the adipose tissue, fibromyxoid tissue with spindle cells, and branching tubular structures.
  • Outer layers of ductal epithelial cells and single spindle cells were often in a transition, likely as typical mixed tumor.
  • To our knowledge, this tumor is the first case of a lipomatous mixed tumor with hair follicular differentiation.
  • The case indicates an additional wide spectrum of histologic appearances of cutaneous mixed tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16640549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Courtois G: Tumor suppressor CYLD: negative regulation of NF-kappaB signaling and more. Cell Mol Life Sci; 2008 Apr;65(7-8):1123-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumor suppressor CYLD: negative regulation of NF-kappaB signaling and more.
  • CYLD is a protein with tumor suppressor properties which was originally discovered associated with cylindromatosis, an inherited cancer exclusively affecting the folicullo-sebaceous-apocrine unit of the epidermis.
  • [MeSH-major] NF-kappa B / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18193168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-682X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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74. Mannan AA, Kahvic M, Aziz AH: Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jun;32(4):384-6
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  • [Title] Phyllodes tumor of the vulva: Report of a rare case and review of the literature.
  • Phyllodes tumor occurring in the vulva is extremely rare; only 6 cases have been previously reported in the literature.
  • The histogenetic origin of this tumor is controversial as it is being debated whether such lesions evolve from ectopic breast tissue, cutaneous apocrine glands, and most recently, anogenital mammary-like gland.
  • Microscopic examination revealed morphologic pattern characteristic of benign phyllodes tumor.
  • We also discuss the histogenesis of phyllodes tumor and related lesions occurring in the anogenital region in light of the current literature along with a brief review of the previously reported cases of vulvar phyllodes tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Phyllodes Tumor / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20514681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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75. Kazakov DV, Bisceglia M, Sima R, Michal M: Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay.
  • In mammary pathology, adenosis tumor is defined as a clinically recognizable lesion that histologically primarily consists of adenosis, but also exhibits various combinations of diverse epithelial changes seen in other benign breast diseases.
  • A lesion that occurred in the anogenital area of a 46-year-old woman and apparently arose in anogenital mammary-like glands is described and which, in our opinion, is best classified as adenosis tumor.
  • Several histological patterns within the same tumor mass were recognizable: sclerosing adenosis-like changes, variably sized microcysts and cysts, some with rare short papillary projections having hyalinized cores, rare tubular structures exhibiting epithelial features reminiscent of simple ductal hyperplasia, areas with oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia, and clear cell epithelial changes resembling mucinous metaplasia.
  • The cells in the oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia areas stained for mitochondrial antigen and Bcl-2.
  • As our case exhibited a number of patterns identical to those seen in diverse benign breast diseases, its classification as adenosis tumor seems justifiable.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Clone Cells / metabolism. Clone Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16441411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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76. Vaos G, Pierrakou P: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: a rare breast tumor in a young boy. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2006 Sep-Oct;9(5):381-3
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  • [Title] Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: a rare breast tumor in a young boy.
  • Histopathologically, this tumor, located deep in the dermis, was characterized by the presence of papillary projections extending into the lumen of epithelial cystic invaginations in a background of dense fibrous tissue.
  • These findings support apocrine differentiation in this case.
  • A fairly dense mononuclear infiltrate in the stroma of the tumor, especially in the papillary projections, was also present.
  • It is important to recognize this unusual location of the tumor so that a prompt diagnosis, based on histopathology and surgical excision, can be proposed.

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  • (PMID = 16953682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In our routine practice, we observed that CD23 reacted strongly with eccrine and apocrine secretory coils.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of CD23 was performed in a total of 131 cases of apocrine, eccrine, follicular and other cutaneous non-lymphoid tumors.
  • RESULTS: CD23 expression was detected in all benign apocrine tumors and in half of benign eccrine tumors, particularly those derived from secretory coils.
  • CD23 staining was seen in 42% (8/19) of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), while no staining was observed in tumor cells of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, morpheaform basal cell carcinoma and syringoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CD23 appears to be a reliable immunohistochemical marker of the eccrine/apocrine secretory coil and helpful in identifying sweat gland tumors of such origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Receptors, IgE / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Eccrine Glands / metabolism. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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78. Filipovski V, Banev S, Janevska V, Dukova B: Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature. Cases J; 2009;2:8551

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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature.
  • Histological evaluation revealed a rare benign neoplasm - granular cell tumor.Granular cell tumor is rare neoplasm that may arise in virtually any body site, and in 5% it occurs in the breast.
  • The histogenesis of this tumor is still rather controversial and currently the most acceptable theory is a Schwann cell origin.
  • The main histological feature is granular cytoplasm of the tumor cells.From a clinical point of view there is a similarity between granular cell tumor and mammary carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound.
  • Pathohistologically, sometimes, differential diagnostic difficulties exist concerning apocrine carcinoma, histiocytic lesions and metastatic neoplasms.

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992 Feb;116(2):206-8 [1733419.001]
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  • (PMID = 19918386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769456
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79. Mahalingam M, Srivastava A, Hoang MP: Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):774-9
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  • BACKGROUND: The overlap in histopathologic features and immunoprofile of eccrine and apocrine neoplasms confounds basic issues relating to lineage of these entities.
  • RESULTS: CK15 and nestin expression were noted in 39 of 78 (50%) and 36 of 78 (46%) cases in the benign group, respectively (8 cutaneous mixed tumor, 10 hidradenoma papilliferum, 9 apocrine cystadenoma, 11 cylindroma and/or spiradenoma, and 9 poroma/dermal duct tumor).
  • Except 1, both markers were negative in 4 syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 10 hidradenoma, 1 syringofibroadenoma, 10 syringoma, 1 eccrine adenoma, 8 poroma/dermal duct tumor, 5 eccrine hidrocystoma, and 1 apocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that follicular germinative cells give rise to the folliculosebaceous apocrine unit, expression of CK15 and nestin in the majority of cutaneous mixed tumor, hidradenoma papilliferum, apocrine cystadenoma, and cylindroma/spiradenoma is suggestive of an apocrine origin/differentiation of these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Eccrine Glands / chemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-15 / analysis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / chemistry. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20700038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT15 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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80. Barré C, Lorenzato M, Bourdat B, Quéreux C, Durlach A: [Vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma and hidradenoma papilliferum. Case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Sep;35(9):776-9
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  • We report a case of a vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma associated to a benign tumor with apocrine differenciation, the hidradenoma papilliferum, infiltrated by the carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17766164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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81. Kazakov DV, Calonje E, Rütten A, Glatz K, Michal M: Cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms with a focal glandular pattern (seboapocrine lesions): a clinicopathological study of three cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Aug;29(4):359-64

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Presented here are three cutaneous sebaceous tumors (one carcinoma and two sebaceomas), each demonstrating a focal glandular pattern representing apocrine differentiation.
  • The patients, two males and one female, each clinically presented with a small solitary nodule or tumor on the scalp.
  • In both sebaceomas, at least a portion of the glands had a peripheral small-cell layer that appeared similar to the basal/myoepithelial cells of normal eccrine and apocrine ducts.
  • These tumors may be viewed as rare histopathological variants of sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma, with a second type of differentiation along the lines of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sebum

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  • (PMID = 17667168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Leeborg N, Thompson M, Rossmiller S, Gross N, White C, Gatter K: Diagnostic pitfalls in syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum: case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Aug;134(8):1205-9
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  • An 86-year-old woman presented with a neoplasm on the neck, and the intralesional heterogeneity typical of these neoplasms led to an initial diagnosis on needle biopsy favoring squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Fortuitous sectioning revealed a focal connection to the skin surface with evidence of apocrine differentiation allowing final diagnosis as syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum.
  • We describe our findings and diagnostic pitfalls to help pathologists encountering this unusual apocrine neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20670144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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83. Kuwabara H, Haginomori S, Takamaki A, Ito K, Takenaka H, Kurisu Y, Tsuji M, Mori H: Lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma of the ceruminous gland. Pathol Int; 2006 Jan;56(1):51-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Light microscopic examination revealed a well-circumscribed tumor composed of tubular structures with apocrine secretion and ceroid deposition, extensive mature adipocytes, and spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells in the myxoid and fibrous stroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands. Cerumen. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16398681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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84. Grin A, Colgan T, Laframboise S, Shaw P, Ghazarian D: "Pagetoid" eccrine carcinoma of the vulva: report of an unusual case with review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2008 Apr;12(2):134-9
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  • Sweat gland carcinoma of the vulva is rare and may be classified as being of eccrine, apocrine, or mixed origin.
  • Most reported cases of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas associated with extramammary Paget disease describe a tumor of apocrine origin.

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  • (PMID = 18369309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Presutti L, Alicandri-Ciufelli M, Mattioli F, Marchioni D, Costantini M: A case of syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) involving middle ear, presenting with otomastoiditis and cerebral abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):401-3
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  • Syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is an uncommon cutaneous adnexal neoplasm of apocrine gland origin.

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  • (PMID = 17870265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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86. Yim YM, Yoon JW, Seo JW, Kwon H, Jung SN: Pleomorphic adenoma in the auricle. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 May;20(3):951-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is a rare tumor of the skin that may arise from either the apocrine or the eccrine glands.
  • Under a clinical diagnosis of an epidermal inclusion cyst, we performed a total excision of the tumor with the skin and with direct closure.
  • These findings suggested that this tumor originated from the apocrine glands.
  • Recurrence is rare if there is complete resection of the tumor along with the surrounding capsule.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Cyst Fluid / chemistry. Diagnosis, Differential. Ear Diseases / diagnosis. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Keratins / analysis. Mucin-1 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19461339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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87. Reck SJ, Xia L, Dehner LP, Reising CA: Glandular congenital lymphadenoma. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Sep-Oct;24(5):547-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cutaneous lymphadenoma is a rare tumor with a distinct histologic triad of epithelial nodules, dense fibrous stroma, and intense intranodular lymphocytic infiltrate.
  • Typically, it is a slow growing, skin colored papule, nodule, or plaque, clinically resembling a basal cell carcinoma and often occurring in the head and neck region or lower extremities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenolymphoma / pathology. Infant, Newborn, Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn


88. Iwenofu OH, Samie FH, Ralston J, Cheney RT, Zeitouni NC: Extramammary Paget's disease presenting as alopecia neoplastica. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Aug;35(8):761-4
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  • Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare malignant neoplasm with a predilection for the apocrine-rich anogenital skin and less commonly for the axilla.
  • The tumor rarely occurs in non-apocrine bearing regions where it is referred to as ectopic EMPD.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells stained positively for mucicarmine, periodic acid schiff, cytokeratin-7, polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, gross cystic disease fluid protein, androgen receptor and Her-2-neu; and negatively for S-100, HMB-45, CDX-2, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, thus, establishing the diagnosis of ectopic EMPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia Areata / metabolism. Alopecia Areata / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Aug;36(8):917-8 [19586507.001]
  • (PMID = 18422977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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89. Thamboo TP, Tan LH, Tan SY: Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):27-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • METHODS: Tissues from 31 cases of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors (five trichofolliculomas, five trichoepitheliomas, two sebaceous adenomas, five apocrine hidradenomas, five eccrine poromas, five eccrine spiradenomas, and four syringomas) were immunostained for Bcl-x.
  • Apocrine gland cells showed weak to moderate staining.
  • The cells of apocrine hidradenomas showed patchy weak staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Sweat Glands / metabolism. Sweat Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16441408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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90. Weinreb I, O'Malley F, Ghazarian D: Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jul;38(7):1092-5
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  • [Title] Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma: a case demonstrating skin adnexal differentiation with positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, androgen receptors, and BRST-2 by immunohistochemistry.
  • Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma is a rare tumor of the lower neck occurring in adult men, which follows a benign course.
  • The origin of this tumor has been debated, but it is now believed to arise from remnants of the cervical sinus of His from early development.
  • We describe a case of ectopic hamartomatous thymoma with typical features, as well as multifocal areas of skin adnexal differentiation.
  • These included sebaceous, eccrine, and apocrine elements.
  • Epithelial membrane antigen stained sebaceous cells and the luminal borders of eccrine and apocrine ducts.
  • BRST-2 and AR stained apocrine elements in a cytoplasmic and a nuclear pattern, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Thymoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17574947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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91. Alessi E, Venegoni L, Fanoni D, Berti E: Cytokeratin profile in basal cell carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):249-55
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  • We studied the cytokeratin (CK) profile in BCC using monoclonal antibodies against 12 CKs to further investigate the suggested origin of the tumor from follicular matrix cells or from follicular outer root sheath cells and to determine if BCC subtypes can be identified on the basis of their CK profiles.
  • Cases of pilomatricoma and samples of fetal skin served as controls to establish the CK profile in matrical cells and developing follicles during intrauterine life, that of the epidermis and cutaneous adnexa in adult life having been determined in a previous study.
  • The study suggests a tumorous differentiation toward follicular outer root sheath cells and, in most cases, also toward the glandular components of the pilosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Fetus. Gestational Age. Hair Diseases / metabolism. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / metabolism. Hair Follicle / pathology. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / metabolism. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin / chemistry. Skin / embryology

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  • (PMID = 18496426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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92. De Francesco V, Frattasio A, Pillon B, Stinco G, Scott CA, Trotter D, Patrone P: Carcinosarcoma arising in a patient with multiple cylindromas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):21-6
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  • In 1997 she underwent surgical excision of the entire forehead and scalp with skin grafting.
  • The lesion was excised and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a malignant cutaneous biphasic tumor extending into the subcutis, consisting of a major portion with the features of an adnexal carcinoma and of a minor one of atypical spindle cells.
  • Biphasic malignant skin tumors are rare and only a limited number have been described, none in association with the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.
  • The authors discuss the morphogenesis of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit from which the tumors in this syndrome derive, and the pivotal role of mesenchymal cells in determining the process.
  • Since the Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is characterized by a germline mutation in the CYLD oncosuppressor gene, a biphasic tumor in this setting may represent a true carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Skin Transplantation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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93. Shan SJ, Zhang N, Geng SL, Zhou Z, Chen X, Nie T, Guo Z, Li C, Liu Q, Guo Y, Wei H, Chen HD: Expression of survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase in extramammary Paget's disease. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jun;37(6):635-40
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  • BACKGROUND: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm of apocrine gland-bearing skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19788441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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94. Fukuda M, Hiroi M, Suzuki S, Ohmori Y, Sakashita H: Loss of CYLD might be associated with development of salivary gland tumors. Oncol Rep; 2008 Jun;19(6):1421-7
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  • Molecular studies of cylindromas, which arise from the eccrine or apocrine cells of the skin, have demonstrated frequent alterations at chromosome 16q12-13, recently found to house the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene.
  • CYLD, a tumor suppressor gene, has deubiquitinating enzyme activity and inhibits the activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB.
  • We demonstrated previously that human salivary gland tumor (SGT) cell line, HSG spontaneously expresses CYLD and also found that adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) arising from the hard palate was distinctly positive for CYLD, immunohistochemically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / physiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. I-kappa B Kinase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. NF-kappa B / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factor RelA / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 18497946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transcription Factor RelA; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.10 / I-kappa B Kinase
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95. Ko CJ, Cochran AJ, Eng W, Binder SW: Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Nov;33(11):726-30
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  • The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm.
  • Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases.
  • In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17083691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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96. Caldeira JR, Prando EC, Quevedo FC, Neto FA, Rainho CA, Rogatto SR: CDH1 promoter hypermethylation and E-cadherin protein expression in infiltrating breast cancer. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:48
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  • LOH at this site is thought to lead to loss of function of this tumor suppressor gene and was correlated with decreased disease-free survival, poor prognosis, and metastasis.
  • Differential CpG island methylation in the promoter region of the CDH1 gene might be an alternative way for the loss of expression and function of E-cadherin, leading to loss of tissue integrity, an essential step in tumor progression.
  • METHODS: The aim of our study was to assess, by Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP), the methylation pattern of the CDH1 gene and its possible correlation with the expression of E-cadherin and other standard immunohistochemical parameters (Her-2, ER, PgR, p53, and K-67) in a series of 79 primary breast cancers (71 infiltrating ductal, 5 infiltrating lobular, 1 metaplastic, 1 apocrine, and 1 papillary carcinoma).
  • RESULTS: CDH1 hypermethylation was observed in 72% of the cases including 52/71 ductal, 4/5 lobular carcinomas and 1 apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Cadherins / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16512896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1523210
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97. Weigelt B, Horlings HM, Kreike B, Hayes MM, Hauptmann M, Wessels LF, de Jong D, Van de Vijver MJ, Van't Veer LJ, Peterse JL: Refinement of breast cancer classification by molecular characterization of histological special types. J Pathol; 2008 Oct;216(2):141-50
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  • We aimed to refine the breast cancer classification systems by analysing a series of 11 histological special types [invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), tubular, mucinous A, mucinous B, neuroendocrine, apocrine, IDC with osteoclastic giant cells, micropapillary, adenoid cystic, metaplastic, and medullary carcinoma] using immunohistochemistry and genome-wide gene expression profiling.
  • When classified by expression profiling, IDC NOS and ILC contain all molecular breast cancer types (ie luminal, basal-like, HER2+), whereas histological special-type cancers, apart from apocrine carcinoma, are homogeneous and only belong to one molecular subtype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cluster Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Signal Transduction / genetics. Statistics, Nonparametric


98. Kurzen H, Kurokawa I, Jemec GB, Emtestam L, Sellheyer K, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Nagy I, Bechara FG, Sartorius K, Lapins J, Krahl D, Altmeyer P, Revuz J, Zouboulis CC: What causes hidradenitis suppurativa? Exp Dermatol; 2008 May;17(5):455-6; discussion 457-72
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  • Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS)--a rather common, very chronic and debilitating inflammatory skin appendage disorder with a notoriously underestimated burden of disease--has long been a playground for the high priests of nomenclature: Ask a bunch of eminent dermatologists and skin pathologists to publicly share their thoughts on what causes HS, and they will soon get entrenched in a heated debate on whether this historical term is a despicable misnomer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / physiopathology. Hair Follicle / physiopathology. Hidradenitis Suppurativa / etiology. Skin / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / physiology. Female. Friction. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Staphylococcal Skin Infections / complications. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18400064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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99. von Bomhard W, Goldschmidt MH, Shofer FS, Perl L, Rosenthal KL, Mauldin EA: Cutaneous neoplasms in pet rabbits: a retrospective study. Vet Pathol; 2007 Sep;44(5):579-88
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  • A total of 23 different tumor types and 1 tumorlike lesion were diagnosed.
  • Common nonviral epithelial tumors included trichoblastoma (59), squamous cell carcinoma (5), squamous papilloma (4), trichoepithelioma (3), and apocrine carcinoma (3).
  • Common mesenchymal tumors were lipoma (10), liposarcoma (3), myxosarcoma (9), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (8), fibrosarcoma (7), and leiomyosarcoma (4).
  • One malignant melanoma (1 of 3) and one poorly differentiated round cell neoplasm recurred (1 of 1).
  • This is the first comprehensive retrospective analysis on skin neoplasia in pet rabbits.
  • [MeSH-major] Rabbits. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / veterinary. Animals. Biopsy / veterinary. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Female. Hamartoma / pathology. Hamartoma / veterinary. Lipoma / pathology. Lipoma / veterinary. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / veterinary. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / veterinary. Tumor Virus Infections / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17846230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Revuz J: Hidradenitis suppurativa. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Sep;23(9):985-98
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  • Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent, painful, deep-seated, rounded nodules and abscesses of apocrine gland-bearing skin.
  • The primary event is a follicular occlusion with secondary inflammation, infection and destruction of the pilo-sebaceo-apocrine apparatus and extension to the adjacent sub-cutaneous tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Laser Therapy. Radiotherapy. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Skin / pathology. Steroids / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19682181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Steroids; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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