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1. Francisco JS, Alfaro SE, Oliveira DC, Tonon S, Dias EP: Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar-Apr;71(2):224-7
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region.
  • The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
  • Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old black woman who developed apocrine carcinoma lesions in the head and neck region.
  • Two lesions involved her left parotid gland (first tumor and local recurrence), and other involved her submandibular skin.
  • The microscopic aspects were as follows: infiltrative glandular epithelial neoplasm with moderate cellular and nuclear pleomorphism; neoplasic cells with polygonal or circular shape, large nuclei and eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm.
  • The apical decapitation secretion was viewed in a large number of intra-cystic tumor cells.
  • Based on cutaneous apocrine carcinoma compatibility of the microscopic aspects, we concluded that the tumor in the submandibular skin was probably the primary neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Carcinoma / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16446921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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2. Hatanaka K, Tanimoto A, Umekita Y, Yoshioka T, Kanekura T: Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:42
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  • [Title] Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report.
  • A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported.
  • The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 x 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining.
  • A mural nodule, measuring 1 x 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells.
  • Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 20576161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907321
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3. Stoeckelhuber M, Matthias C, Andratschke M, Stoeckelhuber BM, Koehler C, Herzmann S, Sulz A, Welsch U: Human ceruminous gland: ultrastructure and histochemical analysis of antimicrobial and cytoskeletal components. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol; 2006 Aug;288(8):877-84
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  • The ceruminous glands in the skin of the human external auditory canal are modified apocrine glands, which, together with sebaceous glands, produce the cerumen, the ear wax.
  • The apocrine secretion mechanism is a special mode of secretion by which the apical part of the cell cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane is pinched off.
  • In addition, we detected proteins involved in the apocrine secretion mode of the ceruminous gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / ultrastructure. Cerumen / metabolism. Ear Canal / metabolism. Ear Canal / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Child. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Cytoskeleton / metabolism. Cytoskeleton / ultrastructure. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunity, Innate. Lactoferrin / metabolism. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Mucin-1. Mucins / metabolism. Muramidase / metabolism. Secretory Component / metabolism. beta-Defensins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16835926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4884
  • [Journal-full-title] The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Secretory Component; 0 / beta-Defensins; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase; EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
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4. Shimato S, Wakabayashi T, Mizuno M, Nakahara N, Hatano H, Natsume A, Ishii D, Hasegawa Y, Hyodo I, Nagasaka T, Yoshida J: Brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma of the scalp: case report. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;77(3):285-9
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  • [Title] Brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma of the scalp: case report.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the axilla.
  • However, a literature search did not reveal any report describing the detailed clinical course of brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old male who suffered from multiple brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma that had originated in the scalp 6 years before.
  • The tumor in the right frontal lobe was successfully operated.
  • However, the small tumor in the right occipital lobe was not cured by gamma knife surgery, and eventually required second operation.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case of metastatic brain tumor from apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16314948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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5. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Yang AH: Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):274-8

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  • [Title] Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding.
  • Apocrine fibroadenoma (AFA), considered a counterpart of fibroadenoma of breast, is a rare cutaneous apocrine neoplasm occurring almost exclusively in women.
  • The tumor was composed of numerous tubular, cystic, and partially branching lumina and struts of epithelial cells oriented perpendicular to the skin surface, with which it connected through infundibula.
  • The cytokeratin profiles of our case were similar to those of apocrine or eccrine neoplasms.
  • Different from a more common anogenital AFA, this neoplasm might represent a second type of AFA with unique histopathologic and immunopathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17519626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Miyamoto T, Adachi K, Fujishima M: Axillary apocrine carcinoma with Paget's disease and apocrine naevus. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Jul;34(5):e110-3
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  • [Title] Axillary apocrine carcinoma with Paget's disease and apocrine naevus.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant sweat-gland neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • There have been some reported cases of apocrine carcinoma with apocrine naevus.
  • The resected specimen showed apocrine adenocarcinoma with extramammary Paget's disease and apocrine naevus.
  • On resection of this enlarging right axilla, an apocrine naevus was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands. Axilla. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19438526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Al-Faky YH, Al-Mosallam AR, Al-Sohaibani MO: Periocular hidradenoma papilliferum. Saudi J Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;23(3-4):211-3

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  • Hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm originating from the apocrine sweat gland, and is almost exclusively detectable in the skin of the anogenital area of middle-aged white females after puberty.
  • Ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, which involves the skin away from the anogenital region, is exceedingly rare, and can also affect males.

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  • (PMID = 23960862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-4534
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of ophthalmology : official journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3729807
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Childhood / Ectopic / Hidradenoma papilliferum
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8. Maury G, Guillot B, Bessis D, Cribier B, Girard C: [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Aug-Sep;137(8-9):555-9

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  • [Title] [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome apocrine cutané axillaire inhabituel : difficultés diagnostiques histologiques.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine carcinoma of the skin (ACS) is a rare adnexal neoplasm presenting as an indurated slow-growing dermal or subcutaneous plaque that often occurs in the axilla.
  • Histological examination of the skin biopsy showed dermal invasion with atypical cells in an "Indian file" pattern.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20804902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Zelger BG, Stelzmueller I, Dunst KM, Zelger B: Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):332-6
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  • [Title] Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma.
  • The so called 'sweat gland carcinoma' is a rare skin malignancy.
  • The differentiation between apocrine and eccrine neoplasms remains difficult.
  • Skin tumors of the axilla are often suspected to be metastasis of other neoplasms in particular breast cancer.
  • After further clinical and laboratory work up including immunohistochemistry the original diagnosis of a breast cancer had to be changed to solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin.
  • Final tumor stage was pT2 N0 M0 (V0 L0).
  • Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare variant with apocrine differentiation.
  • A survey of the stereotypical presentation of this lesion and a comparison with lobular breast carcinoma and other types of apocrine carcinoma of the skin is given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18251751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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11. Rütten A, Kutzner H, Mentzel T, Hantschke M, Eckert F, Angulo J, Rodríguez Peralto JL, Requena L: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Oct;61(4):644-51

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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Cribriform carcinoma is the histopathologic variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma characterized by interconnected solid aggregations of neoplastic cells that are punctuated by small round spaces.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of this under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six cases of primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma were clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma is a distinctive but little-known variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Microvilli / ultrastructure. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Mar;64(3):599-601 [21315957.001]
  • (PMID = 19751882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

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  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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13. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Spagnolo DV, Kempf W, Zelger B, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Sebaceous differentiation in poroid neoplasms: report of 11 cases, including a case of metaplastic carcinoma associated with apocrine poroma (sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma). Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):21-6
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  • [Title] Sebaceous differentiation in poroid neoplasms: report of 11 cases, including a case of metaplastic carcinoma associated with apocrine poroma (sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma).
  • We describe 11 poroid neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation, including a metaplastic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma arising in association with an apocrine poroma.
  • Six lesions had the silhouette of a classical poroma, 3 of poroid hidradenoma and 1 of dermal duct tumor.
  • The single carcinoma was an ulcerated oval to spindle cell neoplasm surrounded laterally by the residuum of a poroma containing groups of sebocytes.
  • Our study supports previous findings that sebaceous differentiation can be identified not only in classical poroma but also in the related lesions known as dermal duct tumor and poroid hidradenoma.
  • Occurrence of metaplastic carcinoma in association with apocrine poroma is a rare event which indicates the existence of a malignant counterpart of the latter entity, which can be descriptively referred to as "sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18212539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Baran JL, Hoang MP: Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin with a prominent pilomatricomal component. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Aug;36(8):882-6
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  • [Title] Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin with a prominent pilomatricomal component.
  • Pilomatrical differentiation within an apocrine mixed tumor (AMT) when present is only focal and has not been reported to be extensive.
  • Histologic sections revealed, underneath a neurofibroma, a well-circumscribed tumor composed of nodules of branching epithelial elements and occasional keratinous cysts within a myxoid and lipomatous stroma.
  • In approximately 50% of the tumor, eosinophilic ghost/shadow cells associated with a foreign body giant cell reaction formed a nodule resembling a pilomatricoma.
  • The presence of follicular and apocrine differentiation within our tumor reinforces the common embryologic derivation of these elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neurofibroma / metabolism. Neurofibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19586498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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15. Novak NP, Kaić G, Tomasović-Loncarić C, Zic R, Skoro M, Ostović KT: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine hidradenoma. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):671-4

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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine hidradenoma.
  • An apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm, usually covered by intact skin, but may show superficial ulceration and serous discharge.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20698151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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16. Puri PK, Galan A, Glusac EJ, Cowper SE: Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jan;35(1):54-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • Herein, we report an unusual case of metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A 53-year-old male man presented with a neoplasm on the vertex of the scalp, clinically resembling a pigmented basal cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: A shave biopsy was suggestive of an apocrine poroma, however, a metastatic carcinoma could not be excluded.
  • After acquiring additional clinical information and the complete excision of the neoplasm, further immunohistochemical stains supported the diagnosis a metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic carcinoid tumor reported that has mimicked a poroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18095995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Kazakov DV, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: An unusual hamartoma of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit: a case report. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 May;33(5):365-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual hamartoma of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit: a case report.
  • Hamartoma is a neoplasm-like lesion composed of an abnormal mixture of tissues native to the area.
  • We report on an unusual example of a hamartomatous lesion that showed an abnormal mixture of elements of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit and arrector pili muscle.
  • The patient obviously had no skin problems afterwards; her 12-year follow-up was significant for leucopenia and nephrolithiasis.
  • Some of the epithelial structures were reminiscent of those seen in tubular apocrine adenoma; others resembled syringomatous elements.
  • We interpreted this unusual lesion as a hamartoma of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Diseases / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16640544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Fernandez-Flores A: Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma. Cesk Patol; 2009 Oct;45(4):108-12
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (CAC) and cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma is commonly difficult.
  • Although, more cases of CAC should probably be studied in the future before any categorical conclusion can be obtained, our results seem to indicate that a pattern of immunostaining with expression of mammaglobin in many cells would favor a metastatic origin of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Uteroglobin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20301838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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19. Yang SH, Liu CH, Hsu CD, Yeh LS, Lin CT: Use of chemical ablation with trichloroacetic acid to treat eyelid apocrine hidrocystomas in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2007 Apr 15;230(8):1170-3
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  • [Title] Use of chemical ablation with trichloroacetic acid to treat eyelid apocrine hidrocystomas in a cat.
  • Previous histologic examination of the cysts had revealed apocrine hidrocystomas.
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS: Multiple pigmented nodules were seen around the skin of the upper and lower left eyelids.
  • Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of apocrine hidrocystoma.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that chemical ablation with trichloroacetic acid may be a useful treatment for apocrine hidrocystomas in cats.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Apocrine Glands / surgery. Cats. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17501654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caustics; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
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20. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B: Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1057-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • Only one case of sporadic TB in a composite tumor has been reported, arising in an apocrine poroma.
  • We report the association of TB and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in six patients.
  • It was often positive in the associated neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: TB can be associated with benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in composite tumors.
  • Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19615018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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21. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Recently it has been proposed that MAC is an apocrine tumor.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Biernat W: Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):284-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin.
  • An unusual tumor of the neck in a 56-year-old female is reported.
  • The tumor was composed of tubules and small cords of epithelial cells dispersed in the fibromyxoid and adipose stroma.
  • At the periphery, the tumor was not encapsulated and its border was intermingled with the subcutaneous fat.
  • Lack of decapitation secretion and the absence of long tubules suggested an eccrine origin; however, in some of the tumor areas, the cells showed brightly eosinophilic copious cytoplasm that may indicate an apocrine differentiation.
  • As an area of chondroid metaplasia was identified, the diagnosis of a mixed tumor was rendered.
  • This unusual type of skin adnexal neoplasm with unique relation of the epithelial component to the surrounding adipose tissue requires differentiation with the primary cutaneous and metastatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18496435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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23. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Leeborg N, Thompson M, Rossmiller S, Gross N, White C, Gatter K: Diagnostic pitfalls in syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum: case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Aug;134(8):1205-9
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  • An 86-year-old woman presented with a neoplasm on the neck, and the intralesional heterogeneity typical of these neoplasms led to an initial diagnosis on needle biopsy favoring squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Fortuitous sectioning revealed a focal connection to the skin surface with evidence of apocrine differentiation allowing final diagnosis as syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum.
  • We describe our findings and diagnostic pitfalls to help pathologists encountering this unusual apocrine neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20670144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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25. Shan SJ, Zhang N, Geng SL, Zhou Z, Chen X, Nie T, Guo Z, Li C, Liu Q, Guo Y, Wei H, Chen HD: Expression of survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase in extramammary Paget's disease. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jun;37(6):635-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm of apocrine gland-bearing skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19788441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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26. Apostolou G, Apostolou N, Chatzipantelis P, Biteli M: Spiradenocylindrocarcinoma. Report of a case with a low-grade component of spiradenocarcinoma and an immunohistochemical study. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Aug;31(6):594-8
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  • Spiradenocylindrocarcinoma is a very rare malignant cutaneous neoplasm of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • We report a case of this hybrid tumor in a 42-year-old woman.
  • The tumor consisted of 2 circumscribed nodules with areas of cylindrocarcinoma and low-grade spiradenocarcinoma.
  • Expansion of the tumor beyond the fibrous pseudocapsule into the adjacent tissue was present.
  • Furthermore, tumor cells were demonstrating mild to moderate pleomorphism and an increased mitotic index. p53 and ki-67 were among the positive immunohistochemical markers.
  • A relatively small number of tumor cells expressed estrogen receptors.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of this rare tumor of the skin appendages.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19590412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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27. Barbarino S, McCormick SA, Lauer SA, Milman T: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):185-8
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  • PURPOSE: To describe 6 patients with syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid and to review the literature regarding this rare eyelid tumor.
  • The PubMed database was searched for reported cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid (keywords: syringocystadenoma, eyelid, apocrine, eccrine).
  • Nine lesions (64%) were associated with apocrine, eccrine, or sebaceous tumors or malformations.
  • None of the lesions was associated with a malignant neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum can rarely affect eyelid skin.
  • The evidence suggests that this tumor should be managed with conservative complete excision.

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  • (PMID = 19454927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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28. Choi YD, Cho NH, Park YS, Cho SH, Lee G, Park K: Lymphovascular and marginal invasion as useful prognostic indicators and the role of c-erbB-2 in patients with male extramammary Paget's disease: a study of 31 patients. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):561-5
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  • PURPOSE: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm arising in skin that bears apocrine glands.
  • Dermal invasion depth, tumor margin status, adnexal invasion and lymphovascular invasion were determined from the hematoxylin and eosin stained slides of each case.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Scrotum

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  • [ErratumIn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1505. Park, Kyoungmee [added]
  • (PMID = 16006892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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29. Aldewereld W, Blanken R: [Extra-mammary Paget's disease of the scrotum]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:A919

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  • EMPD is an intra-epidermal adenocarcinoma, found in areas with apocrine sweat glands.
  • In secondary EMPD (25%) there is epidermal invasion of malignant cells of skin adnexal adenocarcinomas, or there is an association with adenocarcinomas of nearby internal organs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20051181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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30. Iwenofu OH, Samie FH, Ralston J, Cheney RT, Zeitouni NC: Extramammary Paget's disease presenting as alopecia neoplastica. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Aug;35(8):761-4
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  • Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare malignant neoplasm with a predilection for the apocrine-rich anogenital skin and less commonly for the axilla.
  • The tumor rarely occurs in non-apocrine bearing regions where it is referred to as ectopic EMPD.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells stained positively for mucicarmine, periodic acid schiff, cytokeratin-7, polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, gross cystic disease fluid protein, androgen receptor and Her-2-neu; and negatively for S-100, HMB-45, CDX-2, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, thus, establishing the diagnosis of ectopic EMPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia Areata / metabolism. Alopecia Areata / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Aug;36(8):917-8 [19586507.001]
  • (PMID = 18422977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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31. Cecchi R, Pavesi M, Bartoli L, Brunetti L, Rapicano V: Perineal extramammary Paget disease responsive to topical imiquimod. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Jan;8(1):38-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm that arises in skin rich in apocrine glands, such as the axillae and anogenital region and usually affects the elderly.
  • In most cases, EMPD is an apocrine carcinoma in situ, but it can be associated with internal malignancy spreading to overlying skin.
  • Because of the location and extent of the tumor, any surgical approach would have been problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20096058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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32. Schmaltz R, Müller CS, Vogt T: [Sudden growth of previously indolent scalp nodule]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jun;61(6):518-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cylindromas are benign adnexal tumors with eccrine and apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2001 Oct;145(4):653-6 [11703297.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2003 Jun;29(6):647-9 [12786711.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Apr;58(4):636-41 [18342709.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1993 Sep 1;72(5):1618-23 [7688655.001]
  • (PMID = 20490442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Tirumalae R, Böer A: Calcification and ossification in eccrine mixed tumors: underrecognized feature and diagnostic pitfall. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):772-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine mixed tumors of the skin are rare adnexal neoplasms, and their morphological spectrum is not well established.
  • METHODS: Among 70, 000 skin biopsies, 5 were diagnosed as eccrine mixed tumors.
  • The stroma was mucinous and chondroid, calcification ranging from little to extensive with bone formation in 3 examples giving the impression of a chondroid or osseous neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eccrine mixed tumors are distinctive tumors that should not be lumped together with their apocrine counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcinosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19730221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Shoieb AM, Hanshaw DM: Anal sac gland carcinoma in 64 cats in the United kingdom (1995-2007). Vet Pathol; 2009 Jul;46(4):677-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Apocrine gland origin was confirmed in a subset of these tumors by immunohistochemistry and the use of the glandular cytokeratin antibody (CAM 5.2).
  • Anal sac gland carcinoma accounted for 0.5% of all feline skin neoplasms.
  • More than three quarters of the affected cats for which postsurgical outcome was known were euthanatized or died as a direct consequence of the neoplasm, with a median survival of 3 months.

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  • (PMID = 19276061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. von Bomhard W, Goldschmidt MH, Shofer FS, Perl L, Rosenthal KL, Mauldin EA: Cutaneous neoplasms in pet rabbits: a retrospective study. Vet Pathol; 2007 Sep;44(5):579-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A total of 23 different tumor types and 1 tumorlike lesion were diagnosed.
  • Common nonviral epithelial tumors included trichoblastoma (59), squamous cell carcinoma (5), squamous papilloma (4), trichoepithelioma (3), and apocrine carcinoma (3).
  • Common mesenchymal tumors were lipoma (10), liposarcoma (3), myxosarcoma (9), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (8), fibrosarcoma (7), and leiomyosarcoma (4).
  • One malignant melanoma (1 of 3) and one poorly differentiated round cell neoplasm recurred (1 of 1).
  • This is the first comprehensive retrospective analysis on skin neoplasia in pet rabbits.
  • [MeSH-major] Rabbits. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / veterinary. Animals. Biopsy / veterinary. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Female. Hamartoma / pathology. Hamartoma / veterinary. Lipoma / pathology. Lipoma / veterinary. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / veterinary. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / veterinary. Tumor Virus Infections / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17846230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Presutti L, Alicandri-Ciufelli M, Mattioli F, Marchioni D, Costantini M: A case of syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) involving middle ear, presenting with otomastoiditis and cerebral abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):401-3
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  • Syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is an uncommon cutaneous adnexal neoplasm of apocrine gland origin.

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  • (PMID = 17870265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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37. Barré C, Lorenzato M, Bourdat B, Quéreux C, Durlach A: [Vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma and hidradenoma papilliferum. Case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Sep;35(9):776-9
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  • We report a case of a vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma associated to a benign tumor with apocrine differenciation, the hidradenoma papilliferum, infiltrated by the carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17766164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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38. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • This finding could be likened to apocrine metaplasia, a term used in breast pathology.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • Oxyphilic metaplasia, areas with solid growth, and changes simulating atypical apocrine adenosis are rare and poorly recognized in hidradenoma papilliferum and may cause diagnostic difficulties; in our cases several submitting pathologists suspected malignancy.
  • The exact role of the HPV in etiology and pathogenesis of this neoplasm has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Fernandez-Flores A, Pol A, Juanes F, Crespo LG: Immunohistochemical phenotype of cutaneous cribriform carcinoma with a panel of 15 antibodies. Med Mol Morphol; 2007 Dec;40(4):212-7
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  • Owing to the cribriform pattern of the tumor, we also looked for a metastasis from other sites, mainly breast, vulva, and salivary glands, but all these were clinically excluded.
  • The tumor was negative for iron stain.
  • In spite of these characteristics, which are, for some authors, indicative of an apocrine phenotype, the immunohistochemical study revealed some differences with the profile that has been described in cases of apocrine adenocarcinoma.
  • The tumor did not express GCDFP-15 or CD 15.
  • Other markers expressed by the tumor were EMA, ER, c-erbB-2, p53, and S-100.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18085381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm
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40. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Huang CH: Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of poroid hidradenoma. Arch Dermatol Res; 2006 Jan;297(7):319-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Poroid hidradenoma (PH), a less common subtype of poroid neoplasm (PN) than eccrine poroma (EP), has not been immunohistochemically studied before.
  • Sebaceous differentiation in two PH lesions suggested the possibility of an apocrine origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanins / analysis. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16283345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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41. Chaudhry IH, Zembowicz A: Adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis: clinicopathologic analysis of 12 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Nov;131(11):1655-64
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  • The periphery of the tumor nests was formed by squamoid cells merging with centrally located clear cell areas containing foci of comedonecrosis.
  • No ductal, cuticular, or apocrine differentiation was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis appears to be a distinctive adnexal neoplasm that has to be distinguished from more indolent squamous cell and tricholemmal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 May;135(5):532; author reply 533 [21526948.001]
  • (PMID = 17979483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1
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42. Knoedler D, Susnik B, Gonyo MB, Osipov V: Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):91-3
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  • [Title] Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an 8.0-cm tumor of the left breast.
  • The tumor was clinically and radiologically suspicious for malignancy.
  • The pathologic evaluation of the core biopsy and the subsequent excision specimen revealed a benign sclerosing, cystic, and papillary adnexal tumor with apocrine and clear cell morphology.
  • The final diagnosis was apocrine hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17214802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Zibly Z, Haik J, Khaikin M, Barshack I, Zmora O: Perianal Paget's disease. J Cutan Med Surg; 2006 Jul-Aug;10(4):197-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Perianal Paget's disease is an uncommon intraepithelial neoplasm that involves areas affluent with apocrine glands, most frequently in the female external genitalia, but may also affect the perianal region.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17234119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Volmar KE, Cummings TJ, Wang WH, Creager AJ, Tyler DS, Xie HB: Clear cell hidradenoma: a mimic of metastatic clear cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):e113-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a benign skin appendage tumor that may mimic conventional-type renal cell carcinoma.
  • Histologically, clear cell hidradenoma contains small ductular lumens, focal apocrine and squamoid change, and a less prominent vascular pattern than renal cell carcinoma.
  • Knowing the cytologic features of primary skin adnexal neoplasms helps distinguish them from cutaneous metastases, which are more commonly referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsy evaluation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15859654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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45. Grin A, Colgan T, Laframboise S, Shaw P, Ghazarian D: "Pagetoid" eccrine carcinoma of the vulva: report of an unusual case with review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2008 Apr;12(2):134-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sweat gland carcinoma of the vulva is rare and may be classified as being of eccrine, apocrine, or mixed origin.
  • Most reported cases of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas associated with extramammary Paget disease describe a tumor of apocrine origin.

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  • (PMID = 18369309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Angulo J, Jaqueti G, Kutzner H, Requena L: Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Oct;34(10):801-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma.
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • The neoplasm is composed of four different types of epithelial cells, including pale or clear cells, polygonal cells, mucinous cells and squamous cells, with variable proportions of them from case to case.
  • In most examples of this neoplasm, clear or the polygonal cells are predominant, whereas the other types of neoplastic cells are less abundant.
  • We report two cases of apocrine hidradenoma mostly composed of squamous cells.
  • The rare cases described in this report are exceptional because most of the neoplastic cells showed squamous appearance and for that reason we think that squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma is the most appropriate name for these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17880588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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47. Magro G, Floridia F, Geraci G, Marino B: Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jun;36(6):692-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast.
  • Apart this unusual clinical presentation, another intriguing feature of tumor was the histological picture, being composed of an extensive mature fatty stromal component closely intermingling with the epithelial structures.
  • As adipocytes were variable in size and focally showed a lipoblast-like appearance, some tumor areas were reminiscent of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, lipoma-like.
  • Based on the histological features, the term 'lipomatous mixed tumor, apocrine type' was proposed for such a lesion.
  • Histogenetic considerations about the lipomatous stromal component of the tumor are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19515050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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48. Fernandez-Flores A: Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Dec;18(6):573-4
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  • [Title] Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast.

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  • (PMID = 20697264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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49. Bowling JC, Powles A, Nasiri N, Searle A, Bunker CB: Spontaneous regression of extramammary Paget's disease after excision of primary apocrine carcinoma, in an immunosuppressed patient. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Sep;153(3):676-7
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of extramammary Paget's disease after excision of primary apocrine carcinoma, in an immunosuppressed patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Immunocompromised Host. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16120170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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