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1. Wells CA, El-Ayat GA: Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Dec;60(12):1313-20
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  • [Title] Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions.
  • Apocrine metaplasia is a very common finding in the female breast after the age of 25.
  • This, however, is only really the case in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla and in the peri-areolar apocrine glands.
  • The apocrine cell does, however, contribute to a number of different breast lesions, some of which are very taxing diagnostically; apocrine variants of both in-situ and invasive cancer are encountered.
  • This review considers the common apocrine metaplastic lesions seen in fibrocystic change as well as apocrine adenoma, apocrine change within sclerosing adenosis, atypical apocrine lesions and apocrine malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18042688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 62
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095572
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2. Celis JE, Moreira JM, Gromova I, Cabezón T, Gromov P, Shen T, Timmermans V, Rank F: Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Mol Oncol; 2007 Jun;1(1):97-119
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The strategy we have been pursuing to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ.
  • First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature that includes 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a protein that is expressed by all benign apocrine lesions, and markers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas such as MRP14 (S100A9), psoriasin (S100A7), and p53 to identify precancerous lesions in sclerosing adenosis (SA) with apocrine metaplasia.
  • SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher degree of atypical apocrine hyperplasia, and these lesions are believed to be precursors of apocrine carcinoma, in situ and invasive.
  • Analysis of 24 selected SA samples with apocrine metaplasia revealed non-obligate putative apocrine precancerous lesions that displayed some, or in same cases all the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19383289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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3. MacNeill KN, Riddell RH, Ghazarian D: Perianal apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign apocrine adenoma; first case report and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):217-9
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  • [Title] Perianal apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign apocrine adenoma; first case report and review of the literature.
  • Benign apocrine lesions have been described in the anogenital region, although according to the World Health Organisation convincing examples of anal apocrine adenocarcinomas have not been published.
  • This report describes the case of an invasive apocrine adenocarcinoma arising in a benign adenoma in the perianal region of a 45 year old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15677547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770559
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4. Celis JE, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Vejborg IM, Proess G, Rank F, Gromova I: Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2006 Mar;5(3):462-83
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  • [Title] Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype.
  • Here we present an extensive proteomic and immunohistochemistry (IHC) study of breast apocrine cystic lesions aimed at generating specific biomarkers and elucidating the relationship, if existent, of apocrine cysts with cancer phenotype.
  • To this end we compared the expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts obtained from mastectomies from high risk cancer patients with those of cancerous and non-malignant mammary tissue biopsies collected from the same patients.
  • We identified two biomarkers, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, that were expressed specifically by apocrine type I cysts as well as by apocrine metaplastic cells in type II microcysts, terminal ducts, and intraductal papillary lesions.
  • IHC analysis of the corresponding 93 primary tumors indicated that most apocrine changes have little intrinsic malignant potential, although some may progress to invasive apocrine cancer.
  • None of the apocrine lesions examined, however, seemed to be a precursor of invasive ductal carcinomas, which accounted for 81% of the tumors analyzed.
  • Our studies also provided some insight into the origin, development, and enlargement of apocrine cysts in mammary tissue.
  • The successful identification of differentially expressed proteins that characterize specific steps in the progression from early benign lesions to apocrine cancer opens a window of opportunity for designing and testing new approaches for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic setting but also for chemoprevention, to inhibit cyst development as both 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase are currently being targeted for chemoprevention strategies in various malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cysts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyst Fluid / chemistry. Cytokines / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / chemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Selection. Phenotype. Proteome / analysis. Proteome / chemistry. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 16316978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9476
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase
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5. Celis JE, Gromova I, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Rank F: Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia. FEBS Lett; 2006 May 22;580(12):2935-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia.
  • Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others.
  • Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.5% of all invasive breast cancers according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are at present no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis.
  • In addition, the relationship between benign apocrine changes and breast carcinoma is unclear and has been a matter of discussion for many years.
  • Recent proteome expression profiling studies of breast apocrine macrocysts, normal breast tissue, and breast tumours have identified specific apocrine biomarkers [15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase)] present in early and advanced apocrine lesions.
  • These biomarkers in combination with proteins found to be characteristically upregulated in pure apocrine carcinomas (psoriasin, S100A9, and p53) provide a protein expression signature distinctive for benign apocrine metaplasias and apocrine cystic lesions.
  • These studies have also presented compelling evidence for a direct link, through the expression of the prostaglandin degrading enzyme 15-PGDH, between early apocrine lesions and pure apocrine carcinomas.
  • Moreover, specific antibodies against the components of the expression signature have identified precursor lesions in the linear histological progression to apocrine carcinoma.
  • Finally, the identification of proteins that characterize the early stages of mammary apocrine differentiation such as 15-PGDH, HMG-CoA reductase, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has opened a window of opportunity for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic manner but also in a chemopreventive setting.
  • Here we review published and recent results in the context of the current state of research on breast apocrine cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16631754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] FEBS letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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6. Celis JE, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Gromov P, Gromova I, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Iwase T, Akiyama F, Honma N, Rank F: Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort. Mol Oncol; 2009 Jun;3(3):220-37
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort.
  • Invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs), as defined by morphological features, correspond to 0.3-4% of all invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and despite the fact that they are histologically distinct from other breast lesions there are currently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and no unequivocal information as to their prognosis.
  • In an effort to address these concerns we have been using protein expression profiling technologies in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to discover specific biomarkers that could allow us to molecularly characterize these lesions as well as to dissect some of the steps in the processes underlying breast apocrine metaplasia and development of precancerous apocrine lesions.
  • Establishing these apocrine-specific markers as best practice for the routine pathology evaluation of breast cancer, however, will require their validation in large cohorts of patients.
  • Towards this goal we have composed a panel of antibodies against components of an apocrine protein signature that includes probes against the apocrine-specific markers 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), and acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), in addition to a set of categorizing markers that are consistently expressed (AR, CD24) or not expressed (ERα, PgR, Bcl-2, and GATA-3) by apocrine metaplasia in benign breast lesions and apocrine sweat glands.
  • This panel was used to analyze a well-defined cohort consisting of 14 apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (ADCIS), and 33 IACs diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo between 1997 and 2001.
  • Samples were originally classified on the basis of cellular morphology with all cases having more than 90% of the tumour cells exhibiting cytological features typical of apocrine cells.
  • Using the expression of 15-PGDH and/or ACSM1 as the main criterion, but taking into account the expression of other markers, we were able to identify unambiguously 13 out of 14 ADCIS (92.9%) and 20 out of 33 (60.6%) IAC samples, respectively, as being of apocrine origin.
  • Our results demonstrate that IACs correspond to a distinct, even if heterogeneous, molecular subgroup of breast carcinomas that can be readily identified in an unbiased way using a combination of markers that recapitulate the phenotype of apocrine sweat glands (15-PGDH(+), ACSM1(+), AR(+), CD24(+), ERα(-), PgR(-), Bcl-2(-), and GATA-3(-)).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19393583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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7. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Yang AH: Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):274-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding.
  • Apocrine fibroadenoma (AFA), considered a counterpart of fibroadenoma of breast, is a rare cutaneous apocrine neoplasm occurring almost exclusively in women.
  • The tumor was composed of numerous tubular, cystic, and partially branching lumina and struts of epithelial cells oriented perpendicular to the skin surface, with which it connected through infundibula.
  • The cytokeratin profiles of our case were similar to those of apocrine or eccrine neoplasms.
  • Different from a more common anogenital AFA, this neoplasm might represent a second type of AFA with unique histopathologic and immunopathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17519626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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8. Leeborg N, Thompson M, Rossmiller S, Gross N, White C, Gatter K: Diagnostic pitfalls in syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum: case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Aug;134(8):1205-9
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  • An 86-year-old woman presented with a neoplasm on the neck, and the intralesional heterogeneity typical of these neoplasms led to an initial diagnosis on needle biopsy favoring squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Fortuitous sectioning revealed a focal connection to the skin surface with evidence of apocrine differentiation allowing final diagnosis as syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum.
  • We describe our findings and diagnostic pitfalls to help pathologists encountering this unusual apocrine neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20670144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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9. Maury G, Guillot B, Bessis D, Cribier B, Girard C: [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Aug-Sep;137(8-9):555-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome apocrine cutané axillaire inhabituel : difficultés diagnostiques histologiques.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine carcinoma of the skin (ACS) is a rare adnexal neoplasm presenting as an indurated slow-growing dermal or subcutaneous plaque that often occurs in the axilla.
  • Histological examination of the skin biopsy showed dermal invasion with atypical cells in an "Indian file" pattern.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20804902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Miyamoto T, Adachi K, Fujishima M: Axillary apocrine carcinoma with Paget's disease and apocrine naevus. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Jul;34(5):e110-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Axillary apocrine carcinoma with Paget's disease and apocrine naevus.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant sweat-gland neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • There have been some reported cases of apocrine carcinoma with apocrine naevus.
  • The resected specimen showed apocrine adenocarcinoma with extramammary Paget's disease and apocrine naevus.
  • On resection of this enlarging right axilla, an apocrine naevus was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands. Axilla. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19438526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Angulo J, Jaqueti G, Kutzner H, Requena L: Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Oct;34(10):801-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma.
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • The neoplasm is composed of four different types of epithelial cells, including pale or clear cells, polygonal cells, mucinous cells and squamous cells, with variable proportions of them from case to case.
  • In most examples of this neoplasm, clear or the polygonal cells are predominant, whereas the other types of neoplastic cells are less abundant.
  • We report two cases of apocrine hidradenoma mostly composed of squamous cells.
  • The rare cases described in this report are exceptional because most of the neoplastic cells showed squamous appearance and for that reason we think that squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma is the most appropriate name for these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17880588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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12. Shimato S, Wakabayashi T, Mizuno M, Nakahara N, Hatano H, Natsume A, Ishii D, Hasegawa Y, Hyodo I, Nagasaka T, Yoshida J: Brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma of the scalp: case report. J Neurooncol; 2006 May;77(3):285-9
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  • [Title] Brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma of the scalp: case report.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the axilla.
  • However, a literature search did not reveal any report describing the detailed clinical course of brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old male who suffered from multiple brain metastases from apocrine carcinoma that had originated in the scalp 6 years before.
  • The tumor in the right frontal lobe was successfully operated.
  • However, the small tumor in the right occipital lobe was not cured by gamma knife surgery, and eventually required second operation.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case of metastatic brain tumor from apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16314948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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13. Monteagudo B, Antón-Badiola IM, Muñoz MJ, Paredes-Suárez C, Vázquez-Blanco M: [Pigmented apocrine hidradenoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):50-1

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pigmented apocrine hidradenoma].
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm.
  • After the histopathological study, the diagnosis was established as pigmented apocrine hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 16476334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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14. Yu DK, Joo YH, Cho KH: Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Feb;27(1):6-8
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  • [Title] Trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • Trichoblastoma is a rare, benign tumor that differentiates toward the hair germ, the embryonic precursor of a hair follicle.
  • An immunohistochemical study showed that the neoplasm, or areas in it, stained positive for low molecular cytokeratin, high molecular cytokeratin, EMA, S-100, and GCDFP-15.
  • This is an unusual case of a trichoblastoma with apocrine and sebaceous differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15677969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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15. Hernandez JM, Copeland EM 3rd: Infiltrating apocrine adenocarcinoma with extramammary pagetoid spread. Am Surg; 2007 Mar;73(3):307-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infiltrating apocrine adenocarcinoma with extramammary pagetoid spread.
  • Apocrine adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy with invasive potential.
  • We report on a case of apocrine carcinoma presenting with lymph node infiltration and extensive extramammary Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Groin. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17375797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Arias-Santiago S, Aceituno-Madera P, Aneiros-Fernández J, Gutiérrez-Salmerón MT, Naranjo-Sintes R: Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(11):9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum associated with apocrine hidrocystoma and verruca.
  • Syringocystoadenoma papilliferum is a benign adnexal tumor usually located in head and neck that occurs during childhood or adolescence.
  • A case of a syringocystoadema papilliferum associated with apocrine hydrocystoma and verruca is presented.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Cystadenoma / complications. Cystadenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Thoracic Wall. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19951645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Zelger BG, Stelzmueller I, Dunst KM, Zelger B: Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):332-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma.
  • The so called 'sweat gland carcinoma' is a rare skin malignancy.
  • The differentiation between apocrine and eccrine neoplasms remains difficult.
  • Skin tumors of the axilla are often suspected to be metastasis of other neoplasms in particular breast cancer.
  • After further clinical and laboratory work up including immunohistochemistry the original diagnosis of a breast cancer had to be changed to solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin.
  • Final tumor stage was pT2 N0 M0 (V0 L0).
  • Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare variant with apocrine differentiation.
  • A survey of the stereotypical presentation of this lesion and a comparison with lobular breast carcinoma and other types of apocrine carcinoma of the skin is given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 18251751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Rütten A, Kutzner H, Mentzel T, Hantschke M, Eckert F, Angulo J, Rodríguez Peralto JL, Requena L: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Oct;61(4):644-51

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  • [Title] Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases of an under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • BACKGROUND: Cribriform carcinoma is the histopathologic variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma characterized by interconnected solid aggregations of neoplastic cells that are punctuated by small round spaces.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of this under-recognized cutaneous adnexal neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six cases of primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma were clinically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma is a distinctive but little-known variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Cytoplasm / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Microvilli / pathology. Microvilli / ultrastructure. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Mar;64(3):599-601 [21315957.001]
  • (PMID = 19751882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Spagnolo DV, Kempf W, Zelger B, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Sebaceous differentiation in poroid neoplasms: report of 11 cases, including a case of metaplastic carcinoma associated with apocrine poroma (sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma). Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):21-6
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  • [Title] Sebaceous differentiation in poroid neoplasms: report of 11 cases, including a case of metaplastic carcinoma associated with apocrine poroma (sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma).
  • We describe 11 poroid neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation, including a metaplastic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma arising in association with an apocrine poroma.
  • Six lesions had the silhouette of a classical poroma, 3 of poroid hidradenoma and 1 of dermal duct tumor.
  • The single carcinoma was an ulcerated oval to spindle cell neoplasm surrounded laterally by the residuum of a poroma containing groups of sebocytes.
  • Our study supports previous findings that sebaceous differentiation can be identified not only in classical poroma but also in the related lesions known as dermal duct tumor and poroid hidradenoma.
  • Occurrence of metaplastic carcinoma in association with apocrine poroma is a rare event which indicates the existence of a malignant counterpart of the latter entity, which can be descriptively referred to as "sarcomatoid apocrine porocarcinoma. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18212539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Novak NP, Kaić G, Tomasović-Loncarić C, Zic R, Skoro M, Ostović KT: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine hidradenoma. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):671-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine hidradenoma.
  • An apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm, usually covered by intact skin, but may show superficial ulceration and serous discharge.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20698151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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21. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell cycle alterations and their relationship to proliferation in apocrine adenosis of the breast. Histopathology; 2009 Feb;54(3):348-54
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  • [Title] Cell cycle alterations and their relationship to proliferation in apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • AIMS: Apocrine adenosis (AA) is generally considered a benign disease of the breast.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19236511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins
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22. Roy S, Shafi NQ, Rose MG: Locally recurrent and metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma in an elderly man. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Jan;4(1):56-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Locally recurrent and metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma in an elderly man.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, blood tests, excisional biopsy, studies of tumor morphology and immunohistochemistry, CT of the chest and abdomen, and PET scan.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Carcinoma of the axillary apocrine gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17183356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Somasundaram SK, Balasubramanian RK, Aref F, Karim S, Vashisht R: A rare and unusual case of bilateral, axillary, metachronous apocrine carcinoma. Int Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;92(6):335-8
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  • [Title] A rare and unusual case of bilateral, axillary, metachronous apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is a rare sweat gland neoplasm with very few cases reported in the published literature.
  • We report a case of primary axillary apocrine carcinoma with later recurrences in both axillae.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18402127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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24. Francisco JS, Alfaro SE, Oliveira DC, Tonon S, Dias EP: Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar-Apr;71(2):224-7
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region.
  • The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
  • Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old black woman who developed apocrine carcinoma lesions in the head and neck region.
  • Two lesions involved her left parotid gland (first tumor and local recurrence), and other involved her submandibular skin.
  • The microscopic aspects were as follows: infiltrative glandular epithelial neoplasm with moderate cellular and nuclear pleomorphism; neoplasic cells with polygonal or circular shape, large nuclei and eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm.
  • The apical decapitation secretion was viewed in a large number of intra-cystic tumor cells.
  • Based on cutaneous apocrine carcinoma compatibility of the microscopic aspects, we concluded that the tumor in the submandibular skin was probably the primary neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Carcinoma / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16446921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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25. Puri PK, Galan A, Glusac EJ, Cowper SE: Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Jan;35(1):54-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • Herein, we report an unusual case of metastatic cutaneous carcinoid tumor mimicking an adnexal poroid neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A 53-year-old male man presented with a neoplasm on the vertex of the scalp, clinically resembling a pigmented basal cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: A shave biopsy was suggestive of an apocrine poroma, however, a metastatic carcinoma could not be excluded.
  • After acquiring additional clinical information and the complete excision of the neoplasm, further immunohistochemical stains supported the diagnosis a metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic carcinoid tumor reported that has mimicked a poroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18095995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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26. Japaze H, Emina J, Diaz C, Schwam RJ, Gercovich N, Demonty G, Morgenfeld E, Rivarola E, Gil Deza E, Gercovich FG: 'Pure' invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: a new clinicopathological entity? Breast; 2005 Feb;14(1):3-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 'Pure' invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: a new clinicopathological entity?
  • Invasive apocrine carcinoma (IAC) of the breast has a similar prognosis to infiltrating ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS).
  • The probability of 6-year survival was 0.72 for PIAC and 0.52 for IDC-NOS (P=0.02), and was still better after adjustment for tumor grade and axillary status.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Breast. 2005 Feb;14(1):1-2 [15695073.001]
  • (PMID = 15695074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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27. Adamski H, Le Lan J, Chevrier S, Cribier B, Watier E, Chevrant-Breton J: Primary cutaneous cribriform carcinoma: a rare apocrine tumour. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Sep;32(8):577-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous cribriform carcinoma: a rare apocrine tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous cribriform carcinoma (PCCC) is a rare apocrine tumour occurring in middle-aged people.
  • This neoplasm is often located on the limbs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16115058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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28. Misago N, Narisawa Y: Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation. J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):2-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytokeratin 15 expression in apocrine mixed tumors of the skin and other benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation.
  • To clarify the features of apocrine mixed tumors (AMT) of the skin among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their relationship to follicular stem cells, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of CK15 (LHK15 and C8/144B), which is a relatively specific marker of hair follicle stem cells in the bulge, in 35 cases of eight different benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation.
  • All eight cases of AMT of the skin showed CK15 immunostaining of the neoplastic cells, and all four cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum, all five cases of spiradenoma, and both cases of cylindroma also showed a focally positive reaction to CK15.
  • None of the other benign neoplasms with presumed apocrine differentiation showed CK15 expression.
  • In AMT of the skin, the proportion of CK15-positive cells in the follicular or sebaceous differentiation group (78.8%, average of four cases) was significantly higher than the group without this differentiation (8.8%, average of four cases).
  • AMT of the skin are unique among benign neoplasms with apocrine differentiation in their substantial and constant CK15 expression, suggesting that they derive from multipotent epithelial stem cells in the bulge.
  • AMT of the skin with follicular or sebaceous differentiation are considered to show an immature stage of apocrine differentiation still rich in stem cells or to originate from stem cells with an incompletely established apocrine fate.
  • The partially positive reaction for CK15 in syringocystadenomas papilliferum and spiradenoma/cylindroma may depend on the ability to express CK15 in stem cells with an apocrine fate or result from the follicular and apocrine nature of this neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Case-Control Studies. Cystadenoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16469077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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29. Honma N, Takubo K, Akiyama F, Sawabe M, Arai T, Younes M, Kasumi F, Sakamoto G: Expression of GCDFP-15 and AR decreases in larger or node-positive apocrine carcinomas of the breast. Histopathology; 2005 Aug;47(2):195-201
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  • [Title] Expression of GCDFP-15 and AR decreases in larger or node-positive apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • AIMS: Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is typically, though not always, positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15).
  • In order to clarify the clinical significance of GCDFP-15 in apocrine carcinomas, GCDFP-15 expression was examined in apocrine carcinomas of different stages and compared with clinicopathological factors.
  • Apocrine lesions reportedly exhibit an unusual immunohistochemical status, expressing androgen receptors (AR) instead of oestrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or bcl-2.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-two apocrine carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: GCDFP-15 positivity is transient and should not be considered a definitive marker of apocrine carcinomas.
  • Cases which have apocrine features but lack GCDFP-15 expression should rather be considered as advanced apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER/PR/bcl-2 negativity will sometimes be helpful to confirm the diagnosis of apocrine carcinoma, because it is more consistent than GCDFP-15/AR positivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16045781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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30. Kazakov DV, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: An unusual hamartoma of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit: a case report. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 May;33(5):365-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual hamartoma of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit: a case report.
  • Hamartoma is a neoplasm-like lesion composed of an abnormal mixture of tissues native to the area.
  • We report on an unusual example of a hamartomatous lesion that showed an abnormal mixture of elements of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit and arrector pili muscle.
  • The patient obviously had no skin problems afterwards; her 12-year follow-up was significant for leucopenia and nephrolithiasis.
  • Some of the epithelial structures were reminiscent of those seen in tubular apocrine adenoma; others resembled syringomatous elements.
  • We interpreted this unusual lesion as a hamartoma of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Diseases / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16640544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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31. Baran JL, Hoang MP: Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin with a prominent pilomatricomal component. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Aug;36(8):882-6
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  • [Title] Apocrine mixed tumor of the skin with a prominent pilomatricomal component.
  • Pilomatrical differentiation within an apocrine mixed tumor (AMT) when present is only focal and has not been reported to be extensive.
  • Histologic sections revealed, underneath a neurofibroma, a well-circumscribed tumor composed of nodules of branching epithelial elements and occasional keratinous cysts within a myxoid and lipomatous stroma.
  • In approximately 50% of the tumor, eosinophilic ghost/shadow cells associated with a foreign body giant cell reaction formed a nodule resembling a pilomatricoma.
  • The presence of follicular and apocrine differentiation within our tumor reinforces the common embryologic derivation of these elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / pathology. Pilomatrixoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Cysts / metabolism. Cysts / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neurofibroma / metabolism. Neurofibroma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19586498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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32. Pucevich B, Catinchi-Jaime S, Ho J, Jukic DM: Invasive primary ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma of axilla: a case report with immunohistochemical profiling and a review of literature. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):5
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  • [Title] Invasive primary ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma of axilla: a case report with immunohistochemical profiling and a review of literature.
  • Primary cutaneous ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma (PCDAA) is a rare malignant cutaneous neoplasm usually arising in areas of high apocrine gland density.
  • There have been a total of 40 cases of primary apocrine adenocarcinoma reported in the literature; many are indolent and slowly- developing, but some are rapidly progressive.
  • Primary cutaneous ductal apocrine adenocarcinoma has distinctive histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics and the treatment of choice for PCDAA is wide local excision with clear margins.
  • We present a case of a 92-year-old female with a 1-year history of a subcutaneous tumor of the right axilla, histologically consistent with a diagnosis of PCDAA arising in an accessory nipple.
  • To our knowledge this is the first reported case of apocrine adenocarcinoma to develop in an accessory nipple.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands. Axilla. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18713586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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33. Spugnini EP, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, De Luca A, Codini C, Citro G, D'Avino A, Baldi A: Successful rescue of an apocrine gland carcinoma metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes by mitoxantrone coupled with trains of permeabilizing electrical pulses (electrochemotherapy). In Vivo; 2008 Jan-Feb;22(1):51-3
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  • [Title] Successful rescue of an apocrine gland carcinoma metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes by mitoxantrone coupled with trains of permeabilizing electrical pulses (electrochemotherapy).
  • Canine apocrine gland carcinoma is a locally aggressive neoplasm that can occasionally lead to metastatic spread, thus mimicking the behavior of their human counterpart.
  • In this paper we describe the successful treatment of a cervical metastatic spread of this neoplasia by using mitoxantrone selectively driven within the tumor cells by trains of biphasic pulses.
  • The dog experienced tumor reduction from the first cycle of electrochemotherapy (ECT) and complete remission by the time of its fourth session.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Electrochemotherapy / veterinary. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18396782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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34. Yang SH, Liu CH, Hsu CD, Yeh LS, Lin CT: Use of chemical ablation with trichloroacetic acid to treat eyelid apocrine hidrocystomas in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2007 Apr 15;230(8):1170-3
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  • [Title] Use of chemical ablation with trichloroacetic acid to treat eyelid apocrine hidrocystomas in a cat.
  • Previous histologic examination of the cysts had revealed apocrine hidrocystomas.
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS: Multiple pigmented nodules were seen around the skin of the upper and lower left eyelids.
  • Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of apocrine hidrocystoma.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings suggested that chemical ablation with trichloroacetic acid may be a useful treatment for apocrine hidrocystomas in cats.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Apocrine Glands / surgery. Cats. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17501654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caustics; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
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35. Fernandez-Flores A: Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma. Cesk Patol; 2009 Oct;45(4):108-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (CAC) and cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma is commonly difficult.
  • Although, more cases of CAC should probably be studied in the future before any categorical conclusion can be obtained, our results seem to indicate that a pattern of immunostaining with expression of mammaglobin in many cells would favor a metastatic origin of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Uteroglobin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20301838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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36. Nakata M, Miwa Y, Nakayama H, Sakai T, Sasaki N: Localised radiotherapy for a ferret with possible anal sac apocrine adenocarcinoma. J Small Anim Pract; 2008 Sep;49(9):476-8

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  • [Title] Localised radiotherapy for a ferret with possible anal sac apocrine adenocarcinoma.
  • On histopathology, the masses were diagnosed as apocrine adenocarcinoma possibly of anal gland origin based on tumour location.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fatal Outcome. Male. Mesothelioma / radiography. Mesothelioma / surgery. Mesothelioma / veterinary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / veterinary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiography. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / veterinary. Pleural Effusion / etiology. Pleural Effusion / radiography. Pleural Effusion / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18631226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4510
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Pai RR, Kini JR, Achar C, Rau A, Kini H: Apocrine (cutaneous) sweat gland carcinoma of axilla with signet ring cells: a diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Oct;36(10):739-41

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  • [Title] Apocrine (cutaneous) sweat gland carcinoma of axilla with signet ring cells: a diagnostic dilemma on fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • Carcinoma arising in the apocrine sweat glands is rare and there are few reports describing the cytological features of this neoplasm.
  • We describe the cytological features of a histologically confirmed apocrine carcinoma occurring in a 55-year-old man who presented with an ulcerated mass in the right axilla.
  • The significance of this infrequently encountered neoplasm lies in its potential for diagnostic confusion with more common lesions containing signet ring cells.
  • In an axillary mass lesion, cytological features along with clinical correlation are essential to distinguish primary apocrine carcinoma from mammary neoplasms with signet ring cells and other metastatic adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 18773442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Akhtar I, Ispas CL, Flowers R, Siddiqi A, Young L, Donnellan KA, Heard K, Baliga M: Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma of the eyelid metastatic to the parotid gland: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Feb;37(2):91-5

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  • [Title] Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma of the eyelid metastatic to the parotid gland: report of a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Ductopapillary apocrine carcinoma (DPAC) of the eyelid is a rare malignant neoplasm in the periocular region.
  • The relative rarity of this tumor is a diagnostic challenge to the cytopathologist, especially when present as a metastatic lesion to an intraparotid lymph node, where the differential diagnosis includes primary parotid neoplasms, as well as various other metastatic malignancies.
  • We report a case of a 65-year-old African-American male with a history of ductopapillary apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid, diagnosed 6 weeks ago now presenting with a recurrence in the same area.
  • FNAB of the parotid mass showed a well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma with a cystic component, similar to a previously excised ductopapillary apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19021198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human
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39. Celis JE, Gromov P, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Friis E, Jirström K, Llombart-Bosch A, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Rank F, Gromova I: 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008 Oct;7(10):1795-809
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous, papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas.
  • An additional subclass termed "molecular apocrine" has recently been described, but these lesions did not exhibit all the histopathological features of classical invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs).
  • By comparing the protein expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts and non-malignant breast epithelial tissue we have previously reported the identification of a few proteins that are specifically expressed by benign apocrine lesions as well as by the few IACs that were available to us at the time.
  • Here we reiterate our strategy to reveal apocrine cell markers and present novel data, based on the analysis of a considerably larger number of samples, establishing that IACs correspond to a distinct molecular subtype of breast carcinomas characterized by the expression of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase alone or in combination with a novel form of acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / enzymology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraffin Embedding. Phenotype. Silver Staining. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18632593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9484
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; EC 6.2.1.- / ACSM1 protein, human; EC 6.2.1.- / Coenzyme A Ligases
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40. Battistella M, Peltre B, Cribier B: Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Oct;37(10):1057-63
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  • [Title] Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • Only one case of sporadic TB in a composite tumor has been reported, arising in an apocrine poroma.
  • We report the association of TB and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in six patients.
  • It was often positive in the associated neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSION: TB can be associated with benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm in composite tumors.
  • Composite tumors associating trichoblastoma and benign epidermal/follicular neoplasm: another proof of the follicular nature of inverted follicular keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19615018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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41. Wright ZM, Fryer JS, Calise DV, Oliveira FN: Carboplatin chemotherapy in a cat with a recurrent anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2010 Jan-Feb;46(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Carboplatin chemotherapy in a cat with a recurrent anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Sacs / pathology. Animals. Cats. Fatal Outcome. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / veterinary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20045840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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42. Hatanaka K, Tanimoto A, Umekita Y, Yoshioka T, Kanekura T: Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report.
  • A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported.
  • The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 x 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining.
  • A mural nodule, measuring 1 x 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells.
  • Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • [Cites] Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001 Jan;26(1):88-92 [11260187.001]
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  • (PMID = 20576161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907321
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43. Presutti L, Alicandri-Ciufelli M, Mattioli F, Marchioni D, Costantini M: A case of syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) involving middle ear, presenting with otomastoiditis and cerebral abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2008 Sep;35(3):401-3
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  • Syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is an uncommon cutaneous adnexal neoplasm of apocrine gland origin.

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  • (PMID = 17870265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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44. Barré C, Lorenzato M, Bourdat B, Quéreux C, Durlach A: [Vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma and hidradenoma papilliferum. Case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Sep;35(9):776-9
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  • We report a case of a vulvar invasive squamous cell carcinoma associated to a benign tumor with apocrine differenciation, the hidradenoma papilliferum, infiltrated by the carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17766164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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45. Shan SJ, Zhang N, Geng SL, Zhou Z, Chen X, Nie T, Guo Z, Li C, Liu Q, Guo Y, Wei H, Chen HD: Expression of survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase in extramammary Paget's disease. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Jun;37(6):635-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm of apocrine gland-bearing skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19788441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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46. Stoeckelhuber M, Matthias C, Andratschke M, Stoeckelhuber BM, Koehler C, Herzmann S, Sulz A, Welsch U: Human ceruminous gland: ultrastructure and histochemical analysis of antimicrobial and cytoskeletal components. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol; 2006 Aug;288(8):877-84
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  • The ceruminous glands in the skin of the human external auditory canal are modified apocrine glands, which, together with sebaceous glands, produce the cerumen, the ear wax.
  • The apocrine secretion mechanism is a special mode of secretion by which the apical part of the cell cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane is pinched off.
  • In addition, we detected proteins involved in the apocrine secretion mode of the ceruminous gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / ultrastructure. Cerumen / metabolism. Ear Canal / metabolism. Ear Canal / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Child. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Cytoskeleton / metabolism. Cytoskeleton / ultrastructure. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunity, Innate. Lactoferrin / metabolism. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Middle Aged. Mucin-1. Mucins / metabolism. Muramidase / metabolism. Secretory Component / metabolism. beta-Defensins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16835926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4884
  • [Journal-full-title] The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Secretory Component; 0 / beta-Defensins; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase; EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
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47. Fischer S, Breuninger H, Metzler G, Hoffmann J: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor. J Craniofac Surg; 2005 Jan;16(1):53-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: an often misdiagnosed, locally aggressive growing skin tumor.
  • Recently it has been proposed that MAC is an apocrine tumor.
  • The authors report the case of a 78-year-old woman in whom a diagnosis of MAC was made when a tumor on the right cheek recurred for the second time.
  • Local recurrences of the tumor occurred, despite histographic surgery because in hematoxylin and eosin stains, small islands of the deceptively benign-appearing small basaloid cells of MAC were not recognized as tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Basal Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15699645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Toyoda Y, Ishikawa T: Pharmacogenomics of human ABC transporter ABCC11 (MRP8): potential risk of breast cancer and chemotherapy failure. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2010 Oct 1;10(8):617-24
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  • This ER-associated degradation of ABCC11 protein underlies the molecular mechanism of affecting the function of apocrine glands.
  • Furthermore we focus on the impact of ABCC11 538G>A on the apocrine phenotype, patients' response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy, and the potential risk of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / secretion. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Pharmacogenetics. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 21182469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5992
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCC11 protein, human; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3319924
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49. Kazakov DV, Kutzner H, Mukensnabl P, Michal M: Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):341-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low-grade adnexal carcinoma of the skin with multidirectional (glandular, trichoblastomatous, spiradenocylindromatous) differentiation.
  • The conjoint occurrence of follicular, sebaceous, or apocrine differentiations in a cutaneous adnexal neoplasm is a known event, more often encountered in benign neoplasms, whereas reports of cutaneous malignant adnexal tumors with bilineage or trilineage differentiation are few.
  • A new case of a cutaneous malignant adnexal neoplasm with multidirectional differentiation is reported here.
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with a long-standing, slowly growing, asymptomatic solitary tumor the size of a large nut in the coccygeal area, which was surgically excised.
  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was located in the dermis with focal extension into the subcutis.
  • We classified this tumor as a well-differentiated adnexal carcinoma demonstrating combined follicular and apocrine differentiation.
  • It differs from previously published cases of malignant adnexal tumors with multidirectional differentiation and further exemplifies the spectrum of diversity encountered in malignant proliferations with differentiation toward the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Shape. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16871040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. López Campos D, Campos Bañales ME, López Aguado D: [Primary pleomorphic adenoma (chondroid syringoma) of the external auditory canal. Case report and literature review]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2008 May;59(5):252-3
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  • Chondroid syringoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare neoplasm, representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.
  • This tumour is thought to derive from the apocrine duct of the folliculo-sebaceous-apocrine unit.

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  • (PMID = 18501163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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51. Choi YD, Cho NH, Park YS, Cho SH, Lee G, Park K: Lymphovascular and marginal invasion as useful prognostic indicators and the role of c-erbB-2 in patients with male extramammary Paget's disease: a study of 31 patients. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):561-5
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  • PURPOSE: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm arising in skin that bears apocrine glands.
  • Dermal invasion depth, tumor margin status, adnexal invasion and lymphovascular invasion were determined from the hematoxylin and eosin stained slides of each case.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Scrotum

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  • [ErratumIn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1505. Park, Kyoungmee [added]
  • (PMID = 16006892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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52. Biernat W: Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Jun;30(3):284-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous mixed tumor of the skin.
  • An unusual tumor of the neck in a 56-year-old female is reported.
  • The tumor was composed of tubules and small cords of epithelial cells dispersed in the fibromyxoid and adipose stroma.
  • At the periphery, the tumor was not encapsulated and its border was intermingled with the subcutaneous fat.
  • Lack of decapitation secretion and the absence of long tubules suggested an eccrine origin; however, in some of the tumor areas, the cells showed brightly eosinophilic copious cytoplasm that may indicate an apocrine differentiation.
  • As an area of chondroid metaplasia was identified, the diagnosis of a mixed tumor was rendered.
  • This unusual type of skin adnexal neoplasm with unique relation of the epithelial component to the surrounding adipose tissue requires differentiation with the primary cutaneous and metastatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18496435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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53. Teschner M, Buhr T, Donnerstag F, Lenarz T, Majdani O: [Expansion of an ceruminous adenoma into the middle ear]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2006 Jun;85(6):444-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cerumen. Ear Canal / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Connective Tissue / pathology. Connective Tissue / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural / diagnosis. Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural / surgery. Humans. Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastoid / pathology. Mastoid / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tympanic Membrane Perforation / diagnosis. Tympanic Membrane Perforation / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16770841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Barberis M, Pellegrini C, Cannone M, Arizzi C, Coggi G, Bosari S: Quantitative PCR and HER2 testing in breast cancer: a technical and cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Apr;129(4):563-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / economics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis / economics. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 18343783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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55. Knoedler D, Susnik B, Gonyo MB, Osipov V: Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):91-3
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  • [Title] Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an 8.0-cm tumor of the left breast.
  • The tumor was clinically and radiologically suspicious for malignancy.
  • The pathologic evaluation of the core biopsy and the subsequent excision specimen revealed a benign sclerosing, cystic, and papillary adnexal tumor with apocrine and clear cell morphology.
  • The final diagnosis was apocrine hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17214802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Ko CJ, Cochran AJ, Eng W, Binder SW: Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Nov;33(11):726-30
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  • The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm.
  • Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases.
  • In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17083691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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57. Apostolou G, Apostolou N, Chatzipantelis P, Biteli M: Spiradenocylindrocarcinoma. Report of a case with a low-grade component of spiradenocarcinoma and an immunohistochemical study. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Aug;31(6):594-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Spiradenocylindrocarcinoma is a very rare malignant cutaneous neoplasm of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit.
  • We report a case of this hybrid tumor in a 42-year-old woman.
  • The tumor consisted of 2 circumscribed nodules with areas of cylindrocarcinoma and low-grade spiradenocarcinoma.
  • Expansion of the tumor beyond the fibrous pseudocapsule into the adjacent tissue was present.
  • Furthermore, tumor cells were demonstrating mild to moderate pleomorphism and an increased mitotic index. p53 and ki-67 were among the positive immunohistochemical markers.
  • A relatively small number of tumor cells expressed estrogen receptors.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of this rare tumor of the skin appendages.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19590412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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58. Bratthauer GL, Saenger JS, Strauss BL: Antibodies targeting p63 react specifically in the cytoplasm of breast epithelial cells exhibiting secretory differentiation. Histopathology; 2005 Dec;47(6):611-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This reaction was not seen in cells undergoing apocrine differentiation or in other cells containing secretory vacuoles.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / metabolism. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Phosphoproteins. Trans-Activators
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16324199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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59. Iwenofu OH, Samie FH, Ralston J, Cheney RT, Zeitouni NC: Extramammary Paget's disease presenting as alopecia neoplastica. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Aug;35(8):761-4
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  • Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare malignant neoplasm with a predilection for the apocrine-rich anogenital skin and less commonly for the axilla.
  • The tumor rarely occurs in non-apocrine bearing regions where it is referred to as ectopic EMPD.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells stained positively for mucicarmine, periodic acid schiff, cytokeratin-7, polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, gross cystic disease fluid protein, androgen receptor and Her-2-neu; and negatively for S-100, HMB-45, CDX-2, thyroid transcription factor-1, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, thus, establishing the diagnosis of ectopic EMPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia Areata / metabolism. Alopecia Areata / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2009 Aug;36(8):917-8 [19586507.001]
  • (PMID = 18422977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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60. Weigelt B, Geyer FC, Natrajan R, Lopez-Garcia MA, Ahmad AS, Savage K, Kreike B, Reis-Filho JS: The molecular underpinning of lobular histological growth pattern: a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of invasive lobular carcinomas and grade- and molecular subtype-matched invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type. J Pathol; 2010 Jan;220(1):45-57
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  • Expression profiling studies have demonstrated that classic ILCs preferentially display a luminal phenotype, whereas PLCs may be of luminal, HER2 or molecular apocrine subtypes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Caveolin 1 / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Humans. Multigene Family. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 19877120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CAV1 protein, human; 0 / Caveolin 1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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61. Schmaltz R, Müller CS, Vogt T: [Sudden growth of previously indolent scalp nodule]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jun;61(6):518-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cylindromas are benign adnexal tumors with eccrine and apocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2001 Oct;145(4):653-6 [11703297.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2003 Jun;29(6):647-9 [12786711.001]
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  • (PMID = 20490442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Jayaram G, Elsayed EM, Yaccob RB: Papillary breast lesions diagnosed on cytology. Profile of 65 cases. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jan-Feb;51(1):3-8
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  • STUDY DESIGN: The study group consisted of FNA smears and/or nipple discharge smears from 65 breast lesions diagnosed on cytology as duct papilloma, papillary lesion, fibrocystic condition, fibroadenoma, papillary neoplasm or papillary carcinoma.
  • Cytomorphologic features assessed included cellularity, cell pattern (clusters, papillary, 3-dimensionality, etc.) and cell characteristics (monomorphism, pleomorphism, apocrine change, plasmacytoid features).

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  • (PMID = 17328487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Filipovski V, Banev S, Janevska V, Dukova B: Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature. Cases J; 2009;2:8551

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  • [Title] Granular cell tumor of the breast: a case report and review of literature.
  • Histological evaluation revealed a rare benign neoplasm - granular cell tumor.Granular cell tumor is rare neoplasm that may arise in virtually any body site, and in 5% it occurs in the breast.
  • The histogenesis of this tumor is still rather controversial and currently the most acceptable theory is a Schwann cell origin.
  • The main histological feature is granular cytoplasm of the tumor cells.From a clinical point of view there is a similarity between granular cell tumor and mammary carcinoma on mammography and ultrasound.
  • Pathohistologically, sometimes, differential diagnostic difficulties exist concerning apocrine carcinoma, histiocytic lesions and metastatic neoplasms.

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992 Feb;116(2):206-8 [1733419.001]
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  • (PMID = 19918386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769456
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64. Rammeh-Rommani S, Fezaa B, Chelbi E, Kammoun MR, Ben Jilani SB, Zermani R: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: report of 8 cases. Pathologica; 2006 Jun;98(3):178-80
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  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) is a rare cutaneous adnexal neoplasm with variable clinical appearance and characteristic histology.
  • The SCAP observed in the eyelid was associated with an apocrine cystadenoma without features of SH.

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  • (PMID = 17036946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-2983
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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65. Strauss BL, Bratthauer GL, Tavassoli FA: STAT 5a expression in the breast is maintained in secretory carcinoma, in contrast to other histologic types. Hum Pathol; 2006 May;37(5):586-92
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  • No expression was seen in apocrine metaplasia or in other specialized breast carcinomas, such as mucinous or clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / secretion. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16647957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT5A protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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66. Emms SG: Anal sac tumours of the dog and their response to cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Aust Vet J; 2005 Jun;83(6):340-3

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  • Of 21 dogs with tumours of the anal sacs 19 had apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin, one had a benign papillary cystadenoma and another had a malignant melanoma.
  • Ten of the 19 dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin had sublumbar lymphadenopathy.
  • Fourteen dogs with apocrine gland adenocarcinomas of anal sac origin were treated by surgical cytoreduction and chemotherapy with melphalan.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenoma, Papillary / veterinary. Dogs. Female. Male. Melanoma / veterinary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Records as Topic / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Victoria / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15986909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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67. Al-Faky YH, Al-Mosallam AR, Al-Sohaibani MO: Periocular hidradenoma papilliferum. Saudi J Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;23(3-4):211-3

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  • Hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm originating from the apocrine sweat gland, and is almost exclusively detectable in the skin of the anogenital area of middle-aged white females after puberty.
  • Ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, which involves the skin away from the anogenital region, is exceedingly rare, and can also affect males.

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  • (PMID = 23960862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-4534
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of ophthalmology : official journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3729807
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Childhood / Ectopic / Hidradenoma papilliferum
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68. von Bomhard W, Goldschmidt MH, Shofer FS, Perl L, Rosenthal KL, Mauldin EA: Cutaneous neoplasms in pet rabbits: a retrospective study. Vet Pathol; 2007 Sep;44(5):579-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A total of 23 different tumor types and 1 tumorlike lesion were diagnosed.
  • Common nonviral epithelial tumors included trichoblastoma (59), squamous cell carcinoma (5), squamous papilloma (4), trichoepithelioma (3), and apocrine carcinoma (3).
  • Common mesenchymal tumors were lipoma (10), liposarcoma (3), myxosarcoma (9), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (8), fibrosarcoma (7), and leiomyosarcoma (4).
  • One malignant melanoma (1 of 3) and one poorly differentiated round cell neoplasm recurred (1 of 1).
  • This is the first comprehensive retrospective analysis on skin neoplasia in pet rabbits.
  • [MeSH-major] Rabbits. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / veterinary. Animals. Biopsy / veterinary. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Female. Hamartoma / pathology. Hamartoma / veterinary. Lipoma / pathology. Lipoma / veterinary. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / veterinary. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / veterinary. Tumor Virus Infections / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17846230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Shoieb AM, Hanshaw DM: Anal sac gland carcinoma in 64 cats in the United kingdom (1995-2007). Vet Pathol; 2009 Jul;46(4):677-83
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  • Apocrine gland origin was confirmed in a subset of these tumors by immunohistochemistry and the use of the glandular cytokeratin antibody (CAM 5.2).
  • Anal sac gland carcinoma accounted for 0.5% of all feline skin neoplasms.
  • More than three quarters of the affected cats for which postsurgical outcome was known were euthanatized or died as a direct consequence of the neoplasm, with a median survival of 3 months.

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  • (PMID = 19276061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. de Koning HD, Bovenschen HJ: Two adjacent nodules on the leg. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(6):13

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  • Poroma is a rare benign neoplasm (derived from the intraepidermal part of the eccrine or apocrine duct), which may clinically mimic malignant tumors such as (amelanotic) malignant melanoma and porocarcinoma.
  • Despite a clinical differential diagnosis of melanoma, histopathology showed the typical characteristics of a poroma, a rare but much more favorable tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20579468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Welsch U, Oppermann T, Mortezza M, Höfter E, Unterberger P: Secretory phenomena in the non-lactating human mammary gland. Ann Anat; 2007;189(2):131-41
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  • At the EM-level secretory phenomena operating by exocytosis and by means of the apocrine mechanism have been observed.
  • Cytoskeletal components presumably play a role in apocrine secretion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenomedullin / secretion. Antigens, Neoplasm. Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / secretion. Defensins / secretion. Female. Humans. Lactalbumin / secretion. Lactation. Lactoferrin / secretion. Mammaplasty. Mucin-1. Mucin-4. Mucins / secretion. Premenopause. Tubulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17419546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-9602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Anat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / Defensins; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Tubulin; 143108-26-3 / CAP18 lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; 148498-78-6 / Adrenomedullin; 9013-90-5 / Lactalbumin; EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
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72. Pornpanich K, Chindasub P: Eyelid tumors in Siriraj Hospital from 2000-2004. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Nov;88 Suppl 9:S11-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • These 32 malignant eyelid tumors included 13 sebaceous gland carcinomas, 12 basal cell carcinomas, 3 malignant melanomas, 2 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 apocrine adenocarcinoma and 1 metastatic carcinoma.
  • Sebaceous gland carcinoma was the most common eyelid tumor found in their present study that was consistent with other studies from Asian countries.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Thailand / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16681045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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73. Lui PC, Lau PP, Tse GM, Tan PH, Lo RC, Tang VW, Ng WK, Somali A, Mak KL, Thomas TM, Chan NH, Hiang TT, Chan NH: Fine needle aspiration cytology of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. Pathology; 2007 Aug;39(4):401-5
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  • METHODS: A series of 20 histologically proven tumours were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the various cytological features, including tumour morules, isolated malignant cells, staghorn epithelial structures, mucinous background and apocrine metaplasia.
  • Mucinous background (2 cases, 10%) and apocrine metaplasia (4 cases, 20%) of the tumour cells were seen in a few cases only and did not appear very helpful.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Aggregation. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phenotype. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17676481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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74. Bulgaresi P, Cariaggi MP, Bonardi L, Carozzi MF, Confortini M, Galanti L, Maddau C, Matucci M, Rubeca T, Turco P, Ciatto S, Miccinesi G: Analysis of morphologic patterns of fine-needle aspiration of the breast to reduce false-negative results in breast cytology. Cancer; 2005 Jun 25;105(3):152-7
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  • Enlarged nuclear size, a hyperchromatic nucleus, the absence of naked nuclei, and the absence of apocrine metaplasia were reported more frequently in carcinoma cases, although not to a significant extent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / pathology. Cohort Studies. Confidence Intervals. Cytodiagnosis / standards. Cytodiagnosis / trends. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Odds Ratio. ROC Curve. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 15861428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Papantoniou V, Tsiouris S, Koutsikos J, Sotiropoulou M, Mainta E, Lazaris D, Valsamaki P, Melissinou M, Zerva C, Antsaklis A: Scintimammographic detection of usual ductal breast hyperplasia with increased proliferation rate at risk for malignancy. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Nov;27(11):911-7
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  • OBJECTIVES: To estimate whether breast uptake of (99m)Tc-(V)DMSA and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in usual ductal epithelial breast hyperplasia (UDH) and apocrine metaplasia is related to cell proliferation rate (Ki-67) and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, both of which are associated with the potential risk of evolving to malignancy.
  • METHODS: Among patients referred for suspicious breast findings on palpation and/or mammography and evaluated preoperatively with both radiopharmaceuticals, we retrospectively studied 17 (10 with UDH: group I; and seven with apocrine metaplasia: group II).
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17021432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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76. Grin A, Colgan T, Laframboise S, Shaw P, Ghazarian D: "Pagetoid" eccrine carcinoma of the vulva: report of an unusual case with review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2008 Apr;12(2):134-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sweat gland carcinoma of the vulva is rare and may be classified as being of eccrine, apocrine, or mixed origin.
  • Most reported cases of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas associated with extramammary Paget disease describe a tumor of apocrine origin.

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  • (PMID = 18369309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Zibly Z, Haik J, Khaikin M, Barshack I, Zmora O: Perianal Paget's disease. J Cutan Med Surg; 2006 Jul-Aug;10(4):197-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Perianal Paget's disease is an uncommon intraepithelial neoplasm that involves areas affluent with apocrine glands, most frequently in the female external genitalia, but may also affect the perianal region.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17234119.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Fulciniti F, Mansueto G, Vetrani A, Accurso A, Fortunato A, Palombini L: Metaplastic breast carcinoma on fine-needle cytology samples: a report of three cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Sep;33(3):205-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • One of these cases showed a peculiar mixture of malignant ductal, apocrine type, and squamous epithelial cells with fascicles of spindle cells with variable degree of atypia and was diagnosed as metaplastic carcinoma of the carcino-sarcomatous type.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16078244.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Amano K, Kumamoto K, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Ishibashi K, Inokuma S, Nakada H, Yokoyama M, Haga N, Ishida H: [The prognosis and immunohistochemical evaluation of five perianal Paget's disease cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2653-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Perianal Paget's disease is categorized as Paget's disease, which is epidermotropic neoplasm arising from the apocrine glands of perianal region, or Pagetoid spread invaded from rectal or anal canal cancer.
  • It has been reported that the immunohistochemical staining of GCDFP15, the marker of the apocrine epithelium, and CK20 is used to be distinguished between Paget's disease and Pagetoid spread.
  • All cases presented the redness around perianal regions, and 2 cases were recognized a tumor at the anal canal.
  • We preoperatively diagnosed these cases as Pagetoid spread and others without tumor regions as Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Keratin-20 / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21224669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / PIP protein, human
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80. Tirumalae R, Böer A: Calcification and ossification in eccrine mixed tumors: underrecognized feature and diagnostic pitfall. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Dec;31(8):772-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine mixed tumors of the skin are rare adnexal neoplasms, and their morphological spectrum is not well established.
  • METHODS: Among 70, 000 skin biopsies, 5 were diagnosed as eccrine mixed tumors.
  • The stroma was mucinous and chondroid, calcification ranging from little to extensive with bone formation in 3 examples giving the impression of a chondroid or osseous neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Eccrine mixed tumors are distinctive tumors that should not be lumped together with their apocrine counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Eccrine Glands / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calcinosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19730221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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81. Cecchi R, Pavesi M, Bartoli L, Brunetti L, Rapicano V: Perineal extramammary Paget disease responsive to topical imiquimod. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Jan;8(1):38-40
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  • Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm that arises in skin rich in apocrine glands, such as the axillae and anogenital region and usually affects the elderly.
  • In most cases, EMPD is an apocrine carcinoma in situ, but it can be associated with internal malignancy spreading to overlying skin.
  • Because of the location and extent of the tumor, any surgical approach would have been problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20096058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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82. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • RESULTS: We have found normal breast tissue, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenomas, fibrocystic diseases, phyllodes tumor, DCIS, ductal invasive, lobular, squamous, medullary, mucinous, and papillary carcinomas.
  • We also found apocrine metaplasia, florid ductal hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, papilloma and LCIS associated with the malignant tumors.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Smad Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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83. Lopez-Garcia MA, Geyer FC, Lacroix-Triki M, Marchió C, Reis-Filho JS: Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways. Histopathology; 2010 Aug;57(2):171-92
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  • The ER-negative group is more complex and heterogeneous, comprising distinct molecular entities, including basal-like, HER2 and molecular apocrine lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Keratins / metabolism. Metaplasia / genetics. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20500230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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84. Tokés AM, Kulka J, Paku S, Szik A, Páska C, Novák PK, Szilák L, Kiss A, Bögi K, Schaff Z: Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study. Breast Cancer Res; 2005;7(2):R296-305
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  • CLDN1 was present in the membrane of normal duct cells and in some of the cell membranes from ductal carcinoma in situ, and was frequently observed in eight out of nine areas of apocrine metaplasia, whereas invasive tumours were negative for CLDN1 or it was present in a scattered distribution among such tumour cells (in 36/39 malignant tumours).
  • However, CLDN4 was highly positive in normal epithelial cells and was decreased or absent in 17 out of 21 ductal carcinoma grade 1, in special types of breast carcinoma (mucinous, papillary, tubular) and in areas of apocrine metaplasia.
  • The loss of CLDN4 expression in areas of apocrine metaplasia and in the majority of grade 1 invasive carcinomas also suggests a particular role for this protein in mammary glandular cell differentiation and carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Claudin-1. Claudin-3. Claudin-4. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Tight Junctions

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  • (PMID = 15743508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1064136
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85. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • This finding could be likened to apocrine metaplasia, a term used in breast pathology.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • Oxyphilic metaplasia, areas with solid growth, and changes simulating atypical apocrine adenosis are rare and poorly recognized in hidradenoma papilliferum and may cause diagnostic difficulties; in our cases several submitting pathologists suspected malignancy.
  • The exact role of the HPV in etiology and pathogenesis of this neoplasm has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Chaudhry IH, Zembowicz A: Adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis: clinicopathologic analysis of 12 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Nov;131(11):1655-64
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  • The periphery of the tumor nests was formed by squamoid cells merging with centrally located clear cell areas containing foci of comedonecrosis.
  • No ductal, cuticular, or apocrine differentiation was seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adnexal clear cell carcinoma with comedonecrosis appears to be a distinctive adnexal neoplasm that has to be distinguished from more indolent squamous cell and tricholemmal carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 May;135(5):532; author reply 533 [21526948.001]
  • (PMID = 17979483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1
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87. Fernandez-Flores A, Pol A, Juanes F, Crespo LG: Immunohistochemical phenotype of cutaneous cribriform carcinoma with a panel of 15 antibodies. Med Mol Morphol; 2007 Dec;40(4):212-7
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  • Owing to the cribriform pattern of the tumor, we also looked for a metastasis from other sites, mainly breast, vulva, and salivary glands, but all these were clinically excluded.
  • The tumor was negative for iron stain.
  • In spite of these characteristics, which are, for some authors, indicative of an apocrine phenotype, the immunohistochemical study revealed some differences with the profile that has been described in cases of apocrine adenocarcinoma.
  • The tumor did not express GCDFP-15 or CD 15.
  • Other markers expressed by the tumor were EMA, ER, c-erbB-2, p53, and S-100.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18085381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm
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88. Magro G, Floridia F, Geraci G, Marino B: Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jun;36(6):692-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast.
  • Apart this unusual clinical presentation, another intriguing feature of tumor was the histological picture, being composed of an extensive mature fatty stromal component closely intermingling with the epithelial structures.
  • As adipocytes were variable in size and focally showed a lipoblast-like appearance, some tumor areas were reminiscent of a well-differentiated liposarcoma, lipoma-like.
  • Based on the histological features, the term 'lipomatous mixed tumor, apocrine type' was proposed for such a lesion.
  • Histogenetic considerations about the lipomatous stromal component of the tumor are provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19515050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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89. Chen YY, Hwang ES, Roy R, DeVries S, Anderson J, Wa C, Fitzgibbons PL, Jacobs TW, MacGrogan G, Peterse H, Vincent-Salomon A, Tokuyasu T, Schnitt SJ, Waldman FM: Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1683-94
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  • In this study, we analyzed 31 cases of PLCIS (13 apocrine and 18 nonapocrine subtypes) and compared the clinical, pathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic characteristics of these cases with those of 24 cases of CLCIS.
  • Histologically, the tumor cells were dyshesive and showed pleomorphic nuclei, and there was often associated necrosis and microcalcifications.
  • Apocrine PLCIS had significantly more genomic alterations than CLCIS and nonapocrine PLCIS.

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  • (PMID = 19701073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207-150013; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA58207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058207-150013; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058207-15
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS139806; NLM/ PMC2783988
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90. de Longueville F, Lacroix M, Barbuto AM, Bertholet V, Gallo D, Larsimont D, Marcq L, Zammatteo N, Boffe S, Leclercq G, Remacle J: Molecular characterization of breast cancer cell lines by a low-density microarray. Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):881-92
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  • We designed a low-density microarray carrying 132 DNA capture sequences highly specific for genes known to be differentially expressed among breast tumors and BCC lines or associated with specific tumor properties (cell-cycle alteration, proteolysis, adhesion, hormone sensitivity, etc).
  • A few genes that are highly and specifically expressed in one cell line were identified, such as MGB1 (mammaglobin 1) in Evsa-T cells, and PIP (prolactin-inducible protein) in MDA-MB-453 BCC, suggesting an apocrine origin for these latter cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biotinylation. Blotting, Northern. Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cluster Analysis. DNA, Complementary / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Phenotype. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Time Factors. Uteroglobin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16142302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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91. Volmar KE, Cummings TJ, Wang WH, Creager AJ, Tyler DS, Xie HB: Clear cell hidradenoma: a mimic of metastatic clear cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):e113-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a benign skin appendage tumor that may mimic conventional-type renal cell carcinoma.
  • Histologically, clear cell hidradenoma contains small ductular lumens, focal apocrine and squamoid change, and a less prominent vascular pattern than renal cell carcinoma.
  • Knowing the cytologic features of primary skin adnexal neoplasms helps distinguish them from cutaneous metastases, which are more commonly referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsy evaluation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15859654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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92. Hobson HP, Brown MR, Rogers KS: Surgery of metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma in five dogs. Vet Surg; 2006 Apr;35(3):267-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify survival and morbidity information after surgery for metastases from apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas (AGACA).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Lymph Node Excision / veterinary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postoperative Complications / veterinary. Records as Topic / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Texas / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2008 Feb;30(2):69, 72 [23713167.001]
  • (PMID = 16635006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-3499
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Aldewereld W, Blanken R: [Extra-mammary Paget's disease of the scrotum]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:A919

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • EMPD is an intra-epidermal adenocarcinoma, found in areas with apocrine sweat glands.
  • In secondary EMPD (25%) there is epidermal invasion of malignant cells of skin adnexal adenocarcinomas, or there is an association with adenocarcinomas of nearby internal organs.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20051181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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94. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Huang CH: Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of poroid hidradenoma. Arch Dermatol Res; 2006 Jan;297(7):319-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Poroid hidradenoma (PH), a less common subtype of poroid neoplasm (PN) than eccrine poroma (EP), has not been immunohistochemically studied before.
  • Sebaceous differentiation in two PH lesions suggested the possibility of an apocrine origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanins / analysis. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16283345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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95. Barbarino S, McCormick SA, Lauer SA, Milman T: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 May-Jun;25(3):185-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To describe 6 patients with syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid and to review the literature regarding this rare eyelid tumor.
  • The PubMed database was searched for reported cases of syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the eyelid (keywords: syringocystadenoma, eyelid, apocrine, eccrine).
  • Nine lesions (64%) were associated with apocrine, eccrine, or sebaceous tumors or malformations.
  • None of the lesions was associated with a malignant neoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum can rarely affect eyelid skin.
  • The evidence suggests that this tumor should be managed with conservative complete excision.

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  • (PMID = 19454927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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96. Choi YD, Gong GY, Kim MJ, Lee JS, Nam JH, Juhng SW, Choi C: Clinical and cytologic features of papillary neoplasms of the breast. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):35-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The cytologic features evaluated were as follows: bloody background, row of tall columnar cells, naked bipolar nuclei, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, myoepithelial cells, single scattered atypical cells, cellularity, nuclear atypia, nuclear grade, apocrine metaplasia, eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules, papillary clusters, small papillae, cell balls and large sheets.
  • The average diameter of a benign papillary neoplasm was 1.8 cm, and that of an atypical or malignant papillary neoplasm was 2.2 cm (p = 0.042).
  • Naked bipolar nuclei were found in 27 cases of benign papillary neoplasm (93.1%) versus 19 cases of atypical or malignant papillary neoplasm (73.1%) (p = 0.050).

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  • (PMID = 16514838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Fernandez-Flores A: Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Dec;18(6):573-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Podoplanin immunostaining in cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and in cutaneous metastasis from the breast.

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  • (PMID = 20697264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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98. Bowling JC, Powles A, Nasiri N, Searle A, Bunker CB: Spontaneous regression of extramammary Paget's disease after excision of primary apocrine carcinoma, in an immunosuppressed patient. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Sep;153(3):676-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of extramammary Paget's disease after excision of primary apocrine carcinoma, in an immunosuppressed patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Immunocompromised Host. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16120170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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