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1. Celis JE, Moreira JM, Gromova I, Cabezón T, Gromov P, Shen T, Timmermans V, Rank F: Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Mol Oncol; 2007 Jun;1(1):97-119
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The strategy we have been pursuing to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ.
  • First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature that includes 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a protein that is expressed by all benign apocrine lesions, and markers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas such as MRP14 (S100A9), psoriasin (S100A7), and p53 to identify precancerous lesions in sclerosing adenosis (SA) with apocrine metaplasia.
  • SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher degree of atypical apocrine hyperplasia, and these lesions are believed to be precursors of apocrine carcinoma, in situ and invasive.
  • Analysis of 24 selected SA samples with apocrine metaplasia revealed non-obligate putative apocrine precancerous lesions that displayed some, or in same cases all the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19383289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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2. Celis JE, Gromova I, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Rank F: Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia. FEBS Lett; 2006 May 22;580(12):2935-44
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  • [Title] Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia.
  • Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others.
  • Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.5% of all invasive breast cancers according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are at present no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis.
  • In addition, the relationship between benign apocrine changes and breast carcinoma is unclear and has been a matter of discussion for many years.
  • Recent proteome expression profiling studies of breast apocrine macrocysts, normal breast tissue, and breast tumours have identified specific apocrine biomarkers [15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase)] present in early and advanced apocrine lesions.
  • These biomarkers in combination with proteins found to be characteristically upregulated in pure apocrine carcinomas (psoriasin, S100A9, and p53) provide a protein expression signature distinctive for benign apocrine metaplasias and apocrine cystic lesions.
  • These studies have also presented compelling evidence for a direct link, through the expression of the prostaglandin degrading enzyme 15-PGDH, between early apocrine lesions and pure apocrine carcinomas.
  • Moreover, specific antibodies against the components of the expression signature have identified precursor lesions in the linear histological progression to apocrine carcinoma.
  • Finally, the identification of proteins that characterize the early stages of mammary apocrine differentiation such as 15-PGDH, HMG-CoA reductase, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has opened a window of opportunity for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic manner but also in a chemopreventive setting.
  • Here we review published and recent results in the context of the current state of research on breast apocrine cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16631754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] FEBS letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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3. Wells CA, El-Ayat GA: Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Dec;60(12):1313-20
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  • [Title] Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions.
  • Apocrine metaplasia is a very common finding in the female breast after the age of 25.
  • This, however, is only really the case in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla and in the peri-areolar apocrine glands.
  • The apocrine cell does, however, contribute to a number of different breast lesions, some of which are very taxing diagnostically; apocrine variants of both in-situ and invasive cancer are encountered.
  • This review considers the common apocrine metaplastic lesions seen in fibrocystic change as well as apocrine adenoma, apocrine change within sclerosing adenosis, atypical apocrine lesions and apocrine malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18042688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 62
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095572
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4. Gore CR, Panicker NK, Karve PP: A cytological and histomorphological case study of an uncommon breast carcinoma: Invasive papillary type. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jul-Sep;52(3):411-3
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  • We report one case in a relatively younger woman presenting with a clinically benign breast lump.The tumour showed extensive apocrine metaplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19679978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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5. Tokés AM, Kulka J, Paku S, Szik A, Páska C, Novák PK, Szilák L, Kiss A, Bögi K, Schaff Z: Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study. Breast Cancer Res; 2005;7(2):R296-305
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  • CLDN1 was present in the membrane of normal duct cells and in some of the cell membranes from ductal carcinoma in situ, and was frequently observed in eight out of nine areas of apocrine metaplasia, whereas invasive tumours were negative for CLDN1 or it was present in a scattered distribution among such tumour cells (in 36/39 malignant tumours).
  • However, CLDN4 was highly positive in normal epithelial cells and was decreased or absent in 17 out of 21 ductal carcinoma grade 1, in special types of breast carcinoma (mucinous, papillary, tubular) and in areas of apocrine metaplasia.
  • The loss of CLDN4 expression in areas of apocrine metaplasia and in the majority of grade 1 invasive carcinomas also suggests a particular role for this protein in mammary glandular cell differentiation and carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 15743508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1064136
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6. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;14(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) is a common finding in the breast of postmenopausal women and is seen in a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from microscopic cysts to invasive apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine metaplasia within sclerosing adenosis is known as apocrine adenosis (AA) and is considered a benign lesion of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia and AA have been the subject of many studies; however, little is known about the dynamics of cell turnover in these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Division. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Metaplasia. Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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7. Ogiya A, Horii R, Osako T, Ito Y, Iwase T, Eishi Y, Akiyama F: Apocrine metaplasia of breast cancer: clinicopathological features and predicting response. Breast Cancer; 2010 Oct;17(4):290-7
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  • [Title] Apocrine metaplasia of breast cancer: clinicopathological features and predicting response.
  • From our institutional neoadjuvant experience, apocrine carcinoma showed a high correlation with therapeutic effect against breast cancer.
  • We thus considered that apocrine metaplasia (AM) might represent a predictive marker for breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Apocrine metaplasia appears to offer an effective predictive marker for anticancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Glycoproteins / analysis. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19789945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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8. Kosemehmetoglu K, Guler G: Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway? Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Dec;14(6):425-31
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  • [Title] Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway?
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia (PAM) and columnar cell lesion with atypia (CCL) are considered as candidates of early premalignant breast lesions.
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia and CCL tend to appear in close contact, especially in neoplastic breasts with favorable features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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9. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast. Breast J; 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):475-82
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  • [Title] Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) in the breast has been held as a sign of benignity.
  • The cases were divided into nonpapillary (NAPM) (30 cases) and papillary metaplasia (PAPM) (63 cases).
  • Apocrine cells were negative for p16 while pRb was expressed in all cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies. Cell Cycle. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Metaplasia. Retinoblastoma Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19624419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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10. Bharadwaj G, Nawroz I, O'Regan B: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Jan;45(1):74-6

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  • It is pseudoencapsulated and includes tubuloacinar adenosis with dilated ducts, apocrine metaplasia, epithelial hyperplasia, and cystic changes associated with fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Fibrosis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Ducts / pathology. Sclerosis. Sialadenitis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16054736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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11. Petersson F, Tan PH, Putti TC: Low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive mammary carcinoma with columnar cell morphology arising in a complex fibroadenoma in continuity with columnar cell change and flat epithelial atypia. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):352-7
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  • We describe the clinicopathologic features of a small low-grade invasive mammary carcinoma with cytomorphological columnar cell features arising in a complex fibroadenoma that in addition to sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, and usual ductal hyperplasia also displayed columnar cell change with flat epithelial atypia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ merging with the invasive carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20643672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Lui PC, Lau PP, Tse GM, Tan PH, Lo RC, Tang VW, Ng WK, Somali A, Mak KL, Thomas TM, Chan NH, Hiang TT, Chan NH: Fine needle aspiration cytology of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. Pathology; 2007 Aug;39(4):401-5
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  • METHODS: A series of 20 histologically proven tumours were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the various cytological features, including tumour morules, isolated malignant cells, staghorn epithelial structures, mucinous background and apocrine metaplasia.
  • Mucinous background (2 cases, 10%) and apocrine metaplasia (4 cases, 20%) of the tumour cells were seen in a few cases only and did not appear very helpful.

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  • (PMID = 17676481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Pérez Valcárcel J, Peón Currás G, Sánchez Arca ME, Rodríguez Gómez I, Sousa Escandón A: [Cutaneous ciliated cyst of the scrotal skin. A case report with discussion of pathogenesis]. Actas Urol Esp; 2008 Sep;32(8):843-6

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  • We propose that CCC could represent a morphologic pattern encompassing several pathogenetically different entities.
  • Data we provide support the hypothesis that at least a part of CCC, specially those occurring in males, could have their origin in ciliated metaplasia of apocrine sweat glands.

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  • (PMID = 19013984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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14. Cîmpean AM, Raica M, Nariţa D: Diagnostic significance of the immunoexpression of CD34 and smooth muscle cell actin in benign and malignant tumors of the breast. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(2):123-9
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  • We also found apocrine metaplasia, florid ductal hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia, papilloma and LCIS associated with the malignant tumors.
  • The exceptions were represented by a case of fibroadenoma and the phyllodes tumor, with CD34 positivity and a focal acquisition of SMA; fibrocystic disease with associated apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a squamous carcinoma with loss of CD34 expression and focal acquisition of SMA.

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  • (PMID = 16286998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Smad Proteins
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15. Kazakov DV, Bisceglia M, Sima R, Michal M: Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):43-6
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  • Several histological patterns within the same tumor mass were recognizable: sclerosing adenosis-like changes, variably sized microcysts and cysts, some with rare short papillary projections having hyalinized cores, rare tubular structures exhibiting epithelial features reminiscent of simple ductal hyperplasia, areas with oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia, and clear cell epithelial changes resembling mucinous metaplasia.
  • The cells in the oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia areas stained for mitochondrial antigen and Bcl-2.

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  • (PMID = 16441411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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16. Itoh H, Miyajima Y, Kato N, Serizawa A, Machida T, Umemura S, Osamura RY: Fine needle aspiration cytology of ductal adenoma of the breast with intracellular mucin: a report of three cases. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):753-8
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  • Epithelial cells formed cohesive clusters, consisting of biphasic luminal and myoepithelial cells accompanied by apocrine metaplasia with occasional high nuclear atypia.
  • CONCLUSION: To avoid overdiagnosis of ductal adenomas as malignant lesions, it is important to recognize that both intracytoplasmic mucin and atypical apocrine features can be usual cytologic findings of this disease.

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  • (PMID = 21053534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
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17. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Ben Slama A, Chargui R, Ben Dhiab T, Khomsi F, Gamoud A, Boussen H, Rahal K: Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations. Tunis Med; 2007 Oct;85(10):891-5
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  • In two cases, fibroadenomas was complex, containing cysts, adenosis and apocrine metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Cyst / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18236815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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18. Visscher DW: Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ involving a sclerosing lesion with adenosis: report of a case. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Nov;133(11):1817-21
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  • [Title] Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ involving a sclerosing lesion with adenosis: report of a case.
  • Apocrine metaplasia is a ubiquitous component of the mammary fibrocystic change spectrum.
  • Although mostly associated with cysts, apocrine metaplasia can also present as a proliferative lesion, rarely with cytologic atypism.
  • Apocrine atypia is characterized by 3-fold nuclear enlargement, multiple nucleoli, and hyperchromatism and generally arises in florid adenosis or radial sclerosing lesions.
  • Dramatic apocrine atypia may be very difficult to distinguish from apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • The latter is distinguished from apocrine atypia by greater extent of the lesion (>0.4 cm) and the presence of greater nuclear pleomorphism with nuclear membrane irregularity.
  • The clinical significance of apocrine atypia is poorly understood and reflects the lack of published outcome studies.
  • Herein, I report a case in which apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ presented as "atypical apocrine adenosis" in a needle core breast biopsy.
  • It illustrates the problem of assessing apocrine atypia and apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ in small samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19886717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Papantoniou V, Tsiouris S, Koutsikos J, Sotiropoulou M, Mainta E, Lazaris D, Valsamaki P, Melissinou M, Zerva C, Antsaklis A: Scintimammographic detection of usual ductal breast hyperplasia with increased proliferation rate at risk for malignancy. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Nov;27(11):911-7
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  • OBJECTIVES: To estimate whether breast uptake of (99m)Tc-(V)DMSA and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in usual ductal epithelial breast hyperplasia (UDH) and apocrine metaplasia is related to cell proliferation rate (Ki-67) and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, both of which are associated with the potential risk of evolving to malignancy.
  • METHODS: Among patients referred for suspicious breast findings on palpation and/or mammography and evaluated preoperatively with both radiopharmaceuticals, we retrospectively studied 17 (10 with UDH: group I; and seven with apocrine metaplasia: group II).

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  • (PMID = 17021432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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20. Böcker W, Hungermann D, Tio J, Weigel S, Decker T: [Flat epithelial atypia]. Pathologe; 2009 Feb;30(1):36-41
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  • The differential diagnosis should include atypical ductal hyperplasia, low-grade clinging ductal carcinoma in situ, blunt duct adenosis and apocrine metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Cell Nucleolus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Metaplasia

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  • (PMID = 19165486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Nariţa D, Raica M, Anghel A, Suciu C, Cîmpean A: Immunohistochemical localization of prostate-specific antigen in benign and malignant breast conditions. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(1):41-5
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  • The lesions with apocrine metaplasia were intense and constantly positive, the cystic dilated ducts and the areas with mastopathy were negative.

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  • (PMID = 16286983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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22. Singh P, Misra V, Singh PA, Mehrotra R: Multiple intraductal papillomas of breast clinically masquerading as malignancy. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):112-4
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  • Fine needle aspiration smears showed benign cellular changes with apocrine metaplasia.

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  • (PMID = 20090236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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23. Abdalla F, Boder J, Buhmeida A, Hashmi H, Elzagheid A, Collan Y: Nuclear morphometry in FNABs of breast disease in Libyans. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):3985-9
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  • Apocrine metaplasia was excluded.

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  • (PMID = 19192660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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24. Cashell AW: Apocrine adenoma of the breast. W V Med J; 2008 Mar-Apr;104(2):16-9
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  • [Title] Apocrine adenoma of the breast.
  • A case of apocrine adenoma, a rare benign tumor of the breast is reported.
  • The tumor was well circumscribed and composed of tightly packed tubules lined by cells with apocrine features.
  • Apocrine adenomas have been reported arising in a variety of sites including the breast, (1-5) perianal region, (6,7) eyelid, (8) and axilla. (9) Their appearance has similarities to the apocrine metaplasia commonly seen in fibrocystic change of the breast but they are well-circumscribed tumors with closely packed tubular and papillary structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18491794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Watanabe K, Nomura M, Hashimoto Y, Hanzawa M, Hoshi T: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine adenosis of the breast: report on three cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):296-9

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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine adenosis of the breast: report on three cases.
  • Apocrine adenosis is a distinctive breast lesion, which can sometimes be misdiagnosed as malignant histologically.
  • We report fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of three cases of apocrine adenosis.
  • Apocrine metaplasia with nuclear atypia mimicking apocrine carcinoma was prominent in one case, whereas one case lacked definite apocrine features.
  • Although FNA cytology of apocrine adenosis has the potential to be misinterpreted as malignant, the naked nuclei of background and less hyperchromatic nuclear features may be useful in distinguishing apocrine adenosis from carcinoma.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427223.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Celis JE, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Gromov P, Gromova I, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Iwase T, Akiyama F, Honma N, Rank F: Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort. Mol Oncol; 2009 Jun;3(3):220-37
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort.
  • Invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs), as defined by morphological features, correspond to 0.3-4% of all invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and despite the fact that they are histologically distinct from other breast lesions there are currently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and no unequivocal information as to their prognosis.
  • In an effort to address these concerns we have been using protein expression profiling technologies in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to discover specific biomarkers that could allow us to molecularly characterize these lesions as well as to dissect some of the steps in the processes underlying breast apocrine metaplasia and development of precancerous apocrine lesions.
  • Establishing these apocrine-specific markers as best practice for the routine pathology evaluation of breast cancer, however, will require their validation in large cohorts of patients.
  • Towards this goal we have composed a panel of antibodies against components of an apocrine protein signature that includes probes against the apocrine-specific markers 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), and acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), in addition to a set of categorizing markers that are consistently expressed (AR, CD24) or not expressed (ERα, PgR, Bcl-2, and GATA-3) by apocrine metaplasia in benign breast lesions and apocrine sweat glands.
  • This panel was used to analyze a well-defined cohort consisting of 14 apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (ADCIS), and 33 IACs diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo between 1997 and 2001.
  • Samples were originally classified on the basis of cellular morphology with all cases having more than 90% of the tumour cells exhibiting cytological features typical of apocrine cells.
  • Using the expression of 15-PGDH and/or ACSM1 as the main criterion, but taking into account the expression of other markers, we were able to identify unambiguously 13 out of 14 ADCIS (92.9%) and 20 out of 33 (60.6%) IAC samples, respectively, as being of apocrine origin.
  • Our results demonstrate that IACs correspond to a distinct, even if heterogeneous, molecular subgroup of breast carcinomas that can be readily identified in an unbiased way using a combination of markers that recapitulate the phenotype of apocrine sweat glands (15-PGDH(+), ACSM1(+), AR(+), CD24(+), ERα(-), PgR(-), Bcl-2(-), and GATA-3(-)).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19393583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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27. Shim HS, Jung WH, Kim H, Park K, Cho NH: Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions. APMIS; 2006 May;114(5):352-8
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  • [Title] Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions.
  • We investigated the role of these hormones in breast apocrine lesions (BAL) using immunohistochemistry to study androgen receptors (AR) and the inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits.
  • Forty-two cases of BAL were evaluated, including 22 cases of fibrocystic disease (FCD) showing prominent apocrine changes, 10 intraductal papillomas with extensive apocrine metaplasia, 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma.
  • Fifty non-apocrine lesions were included as controls: 20 cases of FCD, 5 cases of DCIS, and 25 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • AR was more frequently expressed in BAL than in non-apocrine lesions (p=0.001).
  • As the expression of the alpha and betaA subunits reflects inhibin and activin A, respectively, AR and activin A may be implicated in apocrine morphogenesis, but not in tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Metaplasia / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16725011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits
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28. Vamre TB, Stalsberg H, Thomas DB, WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives: Extra-tumoral breast tissue in breast cancer patients: variations with steroid contraceptive use. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jun 1;118(11):2827-31
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  • The occurrence of ductal hyperplasia, ductal atypia, sclerosing adenosis, cysts, apocrine metaplasia, apocrine hyperplasia, apocrine atypia, adenosis, lobular atypia, duct ectasia, calcifications, inflammatory reaction, lactational metaplasia and a high epithelial-stromal ratio was graded semi-quantitatively.

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  • (PMID = 16380999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCIPC CDC HHS / CE / NICHD-CE-84-16
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral
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29. Kollur SM, El Hag IA: FNA of breast fibroadenoma: observer variability and review of cytomorphology with cytohistological correlation. Cytopathology; 2006 Oct;17(5):239-44
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  • Causes of diagnostic errors included marked dissociation, pleomorphism, poorly cellular smears from hyalinized fibrodenoma, lacational changes and apocrine metaplasia with cystic changes.

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  • (PMID = 16961651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Jensen KC, Schaeffer DF, Cheang M, Montgomery K, West RB, Gilks CB, Ross D, Turashvili G, Schnitt S, van de Rijn M: Characterization of a novel anti-fatty acid synthase (FASN) antiserum in breast tissue. Mod Pathol; 2008 Dec;21(12):1413-20
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  • In addition to staining a subset of basal and suprabasal cells, the antiserum highlighted apocrine differentiation, and stained 106/144 (74%) cases of columnar cell lesions and five of five cases of flat epithelial atypia.
  • In addition, FASN expression is described in apocrine metaplasia, columnar cell lesions, and flat epithelial atypia.

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  • (PMID = 18820672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases
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31. Ashbeck EL, Rosenberg RD, Stauber PM, Key CR: Benign breast biopsy diagnosis and subsequent risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Mar;16(3):467-72
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  • Among low-risk histologic diagnoses, the strongest associations with subsequent breast cancer development included adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, calcifications, and ductal hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 17337650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA69976
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Strauss BL, Bratthauer GL, Tavassoli FA: STAT 5a expression in the breast is maintained in secretory carcinoma, in contrast to other histologic types. Hum Pathol; 2006 May;37(5):586-92
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  • No expression was seen in apocrine metaplasia or in other specialized breast carcinomas, such as mucinous or clear cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16647957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT5A protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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33. Scurry J, van der Putte SC, Pyman J, Chetty N, Szabo R: Mammary-like gland adenoma of the vulva: review of 46 cases. Pathology; 2009;41(4):372-8
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  • AIMS: Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) of the anogenital region, which was previously thought to be an apocrine tumour, is now believed to be derived from anogenital mammary-like glands (MLG) and is more accurately termed MLG adenoma.
  • The most common epithelial cell, the ductal cell, was seen alone in 43% or associated with apocrine metaplasia (57%) and/or foam cells (13%) and/or squamous cells (13%).

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  • (PMID = 19404851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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34. Joksimović I, Bojanić V, Janćić S, Bojanić Z, Zivanov-Curlis J, Perić S, Janćić S: Precancerous morphologic and functional aberrations in the rat mammary glands carcinogenesis. Gen Physiol Biophys; 2009;28 Spec No:162-7
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  • [Title] Precancerous morphologic and functional aberrations in the rat mammary glands carcinogenesis.
  • The fibrosclerosis, lobular hyperplasia, cystic ductal dilatation and apocrine metaplasia of ductal epithelium were found.
  • The keratocysts with the squamous epithelial metaplasia were present in three of the animals.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ(A)ANTHRACENE .
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  • (PMID = 19893095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0231-5882
  • [Journal-full-title] General physiology and biophysics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen. Physiol. Biophys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
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35. Okamoto Y, Liu X, Suzuki N, Okamoto K, Kim HJ, Laxmi YR, Sayama K, Shibutani S: Equine estrogen-induced mammary tumors in rats. Toxicol Lett; 2010 Apr 1;193(3):224-8
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  • Histological examination revealed premalignant lesions such as apocrine metaplasia in whole-mount preparations of mammary gland from the equilin-treated rats.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20096754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3169
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012408-05; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES012408; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012408; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES012408-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS177456; NLM/ PMC2837116
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36. Berg WA: Sonographically depicted breast clustered microcysts: is follow-up appropriate? AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Oct;185(4):952-9
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  • Of the 13 lesions biopsied, five (38%) showed apocrine metaplasia; five (38%), fibrocystic changes; two (15%), cysts; and one (8%), a microscopic fibroadenoma and cysts.

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  • (PMID = 16177414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Chen JH, Nalcioglu O, Su MY: Fibrocystic change of the breast presenting as a focal lesion mimicking breast cancer in MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2008 Dec;28(6):1499-505
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  • In pathology, all 11 patients showed the typical pathological features of fibrocystic change, with mixed components of stromal fibrosis, cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, adenosis, and/or focal sclerosing adenosis.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19025938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA90437; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA121568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090437; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA090437-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121568-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090437-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA062203; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA121568-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS64002; NLM/ PMC2597344
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38. Bulgaresi P, Cariaggi MP, Bonardi L, Carozzi MF, Confortini M, Galanti L, Maddau C, Matucci M, Rubeca T, Turco P, Ciatto S, Miccinesi G: Analysis of morphologic patterns of fine-needle aspiration of the breast to reduce false-negative results in breast cytology. Cancer; 2005 Jun 25;105(3):152-7
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  • [Title] Analysis of morphologic patterns of fine-needle aspiration of the breast to reduce false-negative results in breast cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: The identification of specific morphologic diagnostic criteria is of paramount importance to optimize the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and to reduce the rate of false-negative results.
  • The main objective of the current study was to identify a morphologic pattern that may permit the reduction of false-negative findings while maintaining the specificity of FNAC.
  • METHODS: A blind review of a set of 41 consecutive false-negative and 49 true-negative breast aspiration samples was performed by a panel of 10 expert cytologists who were asked to give a final report and to classify the samples according to classic morphologic parameters.
  • Enlarged nuclear size, a hyperchromatic nucleus, the absence of naked nuclei, and the absence of apocrine metaplasia were reported more frequently in carcinoma cases, although not to a significant extent.
  • Detailed analysis of a single morphologic characteristic was found to be of limited diagnostic value, suggesting that operators do perceive abnormalities but cannot translate these findings into distinct morphologic categories.

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  • (PMID = 15861428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Terada T: Ductal adenoma of the breast: immunohistochemistry of two cases. Pathol Int; 2008 Dec;58(12):801-5
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  • Patient 1 had extensive apocrine metaplasia.


40. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • [Title] Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus.
  • Reported here are 18 cases of hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia.
  • Microscopically, in addition to classic histopathological features, in every case there was oxyphilic metaplasia of the constituent epithelial cells.
  • This finding could be likened to apocrine metaplasia, a term used in breast pathology.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry inferred that in the majority of cases oxyphilic metaplasia resulted from more lysosomes, whereas numerous mitochondria were detected in only 3 cases.
  • Using 2 different PCR methods we identified HPV in 4 of 15 cases of hidradenoma with oxyphilic metaplasia.
  • Oxyphilic metaplasia, areas with solid growth, and changes simulating atypical apocrine adenosis are rare and poorly recognized in hidradenoma papilliferum and may cause diagnostic difficulties; in our cases several submitting pathologists suspected malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Choi YD, Gong GY, Kim MJ, Lee JS, Nam JH, Juhng SW, Choi C: Clinical and cytologic features of papillary neoplasms of the breast. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):35-40
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  • The cytologic features evaluated were as follows: bloody background, row of tall columnar cells, naked bipolar nuclei, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, myoepithelial cells, single scattered atypical cells, cellularity, nuclear atypia, nuclear grade, apocrine metaplasia, eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules, papillary clusters, small papillae, cell balls and large sheets.

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  • (PMID = 16514838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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