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1. Vranic S, Tawfik O, Palazzo J, Bilalovic N, Eyzaguirre E, Lee LM, Adegboyega P, Hagenkord J, Gatalica Z: EGFR and HER-2/neu expression in invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast. Mod Pathol; 2010 May;23(5):644-53
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  • [Title] EGFR and HER-2/neu expression in invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • This study was undertaken to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu expression in a cohort of apocrine carcinomas of the breast with emphasis on the classification of the breast tumors with apocrine morphology.
  • In total, 55 breast carcinomas morphologically diagnosed as apocrine were evaluated for the steroid receptor expression profile characteristic of normal apocrine epithelium (androgen receptor positive/estrogen receptor (ER) negative/progesterone receptor (PR) negative), and for the expression of EGFR and Her-2/neu proteins, and the copy number ratios of the genes EGFR/CEP7 and HER-2/CEP17.
  • On the basis of the results of steroid receptors expression, 38 (69%) cases were classified as pure apocrine carcinoma (androgen receptor positive/ER negative/PR negative), whereas 17 (31%) were re-classified as apocrine-like carcinomas because they did not have the characteristic steroid receptor expression profile.
  • Her-2/neu overexpression was observed in 54% of the cases (57% pure apocrine carcinomas vs 47% apocrine-like carcinomas).
  • HER-2/neu gene amplification was demonstrated in 52% of all cases (54% pure apocrine carcinomas vs 46% apocrine-like carcinomas).
  • EGFR protein (scores 1 to 3+) was detected in 62% of all cases and was expressed in a higher proportion of pure apocrine carcinomas than in the apocrine-like carcinomas group (76 vs 29%, P=0.006).
  • In the pure apocrine carcinoma group, Her-2/neu and EGFR protein expression were inversely correlated (P=0.006, r=-0.499).
  • EGFR gene amplification was observed in two pure apocrine carcinomas and one apocrine-like carcinoma.
  • Polysomy 7 was commonly present in pure apocrine carcinomas (61 vs 27% of apocrine-like carcinomas; P=0.083) and showed a weak positive correlation with EGFR protein expression (P=0.025, r=0.326).
  • Our study showed that apocrine breast carcinomas are molecularly diverse group of carcinomas.
  • Strictly defined pure apocrine carcinomas are either HER-2-overexpressing breast carcinomas or triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas apocrine-like carcinomas predominantly belong to the luminal phenotype.
  • Pure apocrine carcinomas show consistent overexpression of either EGFR or HER-2/neu, which could have significant therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / genetics. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20208479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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2. Wells CA, El-Ayat GA: Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Dec;60(12):1313-20
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  • [Title] Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions.
  • Apocrine metaplasia is a very common finding in the female breast after the age of 25.
  • It is so common that many people regard it as a normal component of the breast.
  • This, however, is only really the case in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla and in the peri-areolar apocrine glands.
  • The apocrine cell does, however, contribute to a number of different breast lesions, some of which are very taxing diagnostically; apocrine variants of both in-situ and invasive cancer are encountered.
  • This review considers the common apocrine metaplastic lesions seen in fibrocystic change as well as apocrine adenoma, apocrine change within sclerosing adenosis, atypical apocrine lesions and apocrine malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18042688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 62
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095572
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3. Celis JE, Moreira JM, Gromova I, Cabezón T, Gromov P, Shen T, Timmermans V, Rank F: Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Mol Oncol; 2007 Jun;1(1):97-119
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The identification as well as the molecular characterization of breast precancerous lesions in terms of increased risk of progression and/or recurrence is becoming a critical issue today as improved non-surgical procedures are detecting cancer at an earlier stage.
  • The strategy we have been pursuing to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ.
  • First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature that includes 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a protein that is expressed by all benign apocrine lesions, and markers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas such as MRP14 (S100A9), psoriasin (S100A7), and p53 to identify precancerous lesions in sclerosing adenosis (SA) with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The latter is a benign proliferative lesion of the breast that exhibits an increase in the size of the TDLUs and characterized by retained two-cell lining, and myoepithelial (ME) and stromal hyperplasia.
  • SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher degree of atypical apocrine hyperplasia, and these lesions are believed to be precursors of apocrine carcinoma, in situ and invasive.
  • Analysis of 24 selected SA samples with apocrine metaplasia revealed non-obligate putative apocrine precancerous lesions that displayed some, or in same cases all the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19383289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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4. Vamre TB, Stalsberg H, Thomas DB, WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives: Extra-tumoral breast tissue in breast cancer patients: variations with steroid contraceptive use. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jun 1;118(11):2827-31
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Diseases.

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  • [Title] Extra-tumoral breast tissue in breast cancer patients: variations with steroid contraceptive use.
  • The association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and benign breast changes in extra-tumoral breast tissue was studied histologically in 1,503 breast cancer patients from The WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives.
  • The occurrence of ductal hyperplasia, ductal atypia, sclerosing adenosis, cysts, apocrine metaplasia, apocrine hyperplasia, apocrine atypia, adenosis, lobular atypia, duct ectasia, calcifications, inflammatory reaction, lactational metaplasia and a high epithelial-stromal ratio was graded semi-quantitatively.
  • Age > 35 years at first use was associated with increased prevalence of ductal carcinoma in situ (POR 2.15 (1.05-4.40)), but not of atypical ductal hyperplasia.
  • Our results show that the effects of OC use on ductal hyperplasia in non-neoplastic breast tissue of breast cancer patients are similar to what others have found in patients with benign breast disease only.
  • The increased prevalence of extra-tumoral ductal carcinoma in situ in breast cancer patients who started OC use at high age may possibly be explained by a longer preinvasive phase in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / etiology. Contraceptives, Oral / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16380999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCIPC CDC HHS / CE / NICHD-CE-84-16
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral
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5. O'Malley FP, Bane A: An update on apocrine lesions of the breast. Histopathology; 2008 Jan;52(1):3-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An update on apocrine lesions of the breast.
  • Apocrine change occurs in a spectrum of benign lesions in the female breast and is also demonstrated in a subgroup of in situ and invasive carcinomas.
  • Recent research has focused on the molecular phenotype of both benign and malignant apocrine lesions.
  • This review will briefly summarize the morphological characteristics and risk associations of the spectrum of apocrine proliferations, but will focus on the updated molecular studies of both in situ and invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Cyst / genetics. Breast Cyst / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18171412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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6. Chen YY, Hwang ES, Roy R, DeVries S, Anderson J, Wa C, Fitzgibbons PL, Jacobs TW, MacGrogan G, Peterse H, Vincent-Salomon A, Tokuyasu T, Schnitt SJ, Waldman FM: Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1683-94
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  • [Title] Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast.
  • The clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ (PLCIS) and the relationship of PLCIS to classic LCIS (CLCIS) are poorly defined.
  • In this study, we analyzed 31 cases of PLCIS (13 apocrine and 18 nonapocrine subtypes) and compared the clinical, pathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic characteristics of these cases with those of 24 cases of CLCIS.
  • Apocrine PLCIS had significantly more genomic alterations than CLCIS and nonapocrine PLCIS.

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  • (PMID = 19701073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207-150013; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA58207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058207; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058207-150013; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058207-15
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS139806; NLM/ PMC2783988
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7. Celis JE, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Gromov P, Gromova I, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Iwase T, Akiyama F, Honma N, Rank F: Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort. Mol Oncol; 2009 Jun;3(3):220-37
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort.
  • Invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs), as defined by morphological features, correspond to 0.3-4% of all invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and despite the fact that they are histologically distinct from other breast lesions there are currently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and no unequivocal information as to their prognosis.
  • In an effort to address these concerns we have been using protein expression profiling technologies in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to discover specific biomarkers that could allow us to molecularly characterize these lesions as well as to dissect some of the steps in the processes underlying breast apocrine metaplasia and development of precancerous apocrine lesions.
  • Establishing these apocrine-specific markers as best practice for the routine pathology evaluation of breast cancer, however, will require their validation in large cohorts of patients.
  • Towards this goal we have composed a panel of antibodies against components of an apocrine protein signature that includes probes against the apocrine-specific markers 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), and acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), in addition to a set of categorizing markers that are consistently expressed (AR, CD24) or not expressed (ERα, PgR, Bcl-2, and GATA-3) by apocrine metaplasia in benign breast lesions and apocrine sweat glands.
  • This panel was used to analyze a well-defined cohort consisting of 14 apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (ADCIS), and 33 IACs diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo between 1997 and 2001.
  • Samples were originally classified on the basis of cellular morphology with all cases having more than 90% of the tumour cells exhibiting cytological features typical of apocrine cells.
  • Using the expression of 15-PGDH and/or ACSM1 as the main criterion, but taking into account the expression of other markers, we were able to identify unambiguously 13 out of 14 ADCIS (92.9%) and 20 out of 33 (60.6%) IAC samples, respectively, as being of apocrine origin.
  • Our results demonstrate that IACs correspond to a distinct, even if heterogeneous, molecular subgroup of breast carcinomas that can be readily identified in an unbiased way using a combination of markers that recapitulate the phenotype of apocrine sweat glands (15-PGDH(+), ACSM1(+), AR(+), CD24(+), ERα(-), PgR(-), Bcl-2(-), and GATA-3(-)).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19393583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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8. Alex G: Apocrine adenocarcinoma of the nipple: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):88

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  • [Title] Apocrine adenocarcinoma of the nipple: a case report.
  • Apocrine adenocarcinomas are rare malignant skin adnexal tumours.
  • Apocrine carcinoma of the nipple is extremely rare and this case to the author's knowledge is only the third reported case worldwide and the first with associated ductal carcinoma in situ elsewhere in the breast.
  • A seventy one year old caucasian female presented to the breast clinic with a growth on her nipple which proved on histopathological analysis to be an apocrine carcinoma.
  • Recommended treatment for apocrine carcinoma includes surgery in the form of wide local excision.

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  • (PMID = 18700029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2526981
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9. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;14(1):1-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) is a common finding in the breast of postmenopausal women and is seen in a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from microscopic cysts to invasive apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine metaplasia within sclerosing adenosis is known as apocrine adenosis (AA) and is considered a benign lesion of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia and AA have been the subject of many studies; however, little is known about the dynamics of cell turnover in these lesions.
  • The results showed that all cases studied by immunohistochemistry were positive for the expression of Bak, Mcl-1, Bcl-x, and Bcl-x(L) showing a pattern of staining similar to that seen in the normal breast epithelium.
  • There was no statistical significance between the AI of these 2 groups and that of the normal breast epithelium (0.3%).
  • There was no statistical significance between the AI of these 2 groups and that of the normal breast epithelium (0.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Division. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Metaplasia. Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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10. Visscher DW: Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ involving a sclerosing lesion with adenosis: report of a case. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Nov;133(11):1817-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ involving a sclerosing lesion with adenosis: report of a case.
  • Apocrine metaplasia is a ubiquitous component of the mammary fibrocystic change spectrum.
  • Although mostly associated with cysts, apocrine metaplasia can also present as a proliferative lesion, rarely with cytologic atypism.
  • Apocrine atypia is characterized by 3-fold nuclear enlargement, multiple nucleoli, and hyperchromatism and generally arises in florid adenosis or radial sclerosing lesions.
  • Dramatic apocrine atypia may be very difficult to distinguish from apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • The latter is distinguished from apocrine atypia by greater extent of the lesion (>0.4 cm) and the presence of greater nuclear pleomorphism with nuclear membrane irregularity.
  • The clinical significance of apocrine atypia is poorly understood and reflects the lack of published outcome studies.
  • Herein, I report a case in which apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ presented as "atypical apocrine adenosis" in a needle core breast biopsy.
  • It illustrates the problem of assessing apocrine atypia and apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ in small samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19886717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Shim HS, Jung WH, Kim H, Park K, Cho NH: Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions. APMIS; 2006 May;114(5):352-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions.
  • We investigated the role of these hormones in breast apocrine lesions (BAL) using immunohistochemistry to study androgen receptors (AR) and the inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits.
  • Forty-two cases of BAL were evaluated, including 22 cases of fibrocystic disease (FCD) showing prominent apocrine changes, 10 intraductal papillomas with extensive apocrine metaplasia, 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma.
  • Fifty non-apocrine lesions were included as controls: 20 cases of FCD, 5 cases of DCIS, and 25 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • AR was more frequently expressed in BAL than in non-apocrine lesions (p=0.001).
  • As the expression of the alpha and betaA subunits reflects inhibin and activin A, respectively, AR and activin A may be implicated in apocrine morphogenesis, but not in tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Metaplasia / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16725011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits
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12. Obaidat NA, Awamleh AA, Ghazarian DM: Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma of the peri-anal region. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Sep-Oct;16(5):576-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma of the peri-anal region.
  • Histologically, the excised lesion showed features of tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma, with an area showing features of carcinoma in situ.
  • The lesion also had papillary and cribriform growth patterns, reminiscent of breast lesions.
  • Similar to vulvar lesions, peri-anal apocrine tumours are believed to arise in mammary like glands (MLGs).
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a peri-anal adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17101482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Honma N, Takubo K, Akiyama F, Kasumi F, Sawabe M, Arai T, Hosoi T, Yoshimura N, Harada N, Younes M, Sakamoto G: Expression of oestrogen receptor-beta in apocrine carcinomas of the breast. Histopathology; 2007 Mar;50(4):425-33
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  • [Title] Expression of oestrogen receptor-beta in apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • AIMS: Apocrine carcinoma of the breast seldom expresses oestrogen receptors (ER) or progesterone receptors (PR), but frequently expresses androgen receptors (AR).
  • Because of this unusual hormone receptor status, it has been suggested that oestrogens have a less important role in the pathogenesis of apocrine carcinoma.
  • The ER status of apocrine carcinoma has been studied for one kind of ER, the classic receptor now named ER-alpha; however, the status of ER-beta, a secondary oestrogen receptor, has not been examined systematically in apocrine carcinoma.
  • The aim was to study ER-beta status in apocrine carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of ER-beta was examined immunohistochemically in 48 apocrine carcinomas and compared with clinicopathological factors and ER-alpha, PR and AR status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significance of oestrogens in apocrine carcinoma should not be dismissed at present when the role of ER-beta remains to be determined.
  • Studying the action of oestrogen or antioestrogen in apocrine carcinoma may reveal a role for ER-beta independent of ER-alpha and raise the potential of hormonal therapy for these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Estrogen Receptor alpha / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17448017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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14. Masood S, Rosa M: The challenge of apocrine proliferations of the breast: a morphologic approach. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(3):155-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The challenge of apocrine proliferations of the breast: a morphologic approach.
  • Apocrine phenotype in breast is common and can be seen in a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from simple cyst to infiltrating carcinoma.
  • The majority of apocrine lesions of the breast are benign in nature and do not represent a diagnostic challenge; however, there are a few that can cause diagnostic problems, such as the case of apocrine proliferations with atypia and low-grade apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Furthermore, the role of atypical apocrine proliferations in the pathway to infiltrating carcinoma is still uncertain, and studies with long-term clinical follow-up are necessary to clarify and understand the significance of these apocrine lesions of the breast.
  • The purpose of this article is to review the most recent literature concerning apocrine lesions, with emphasis on borderline apocrine proliferations.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / genetics. Breast Diseases / metabolism. Breast Diseases / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19147303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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15. Iqbal J, He G, Biesecker LG, Rosen P, Duray PH, Schwartzentruber D, Beg M, Kahn E: Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(4):469-74
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  • [Title] Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • We report the first case of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a 28-yr-old woman with PS who underwent a mastectomy for asymmetric overgrowth.
  • The former consisted of multiple intraductal papillomas and low-grade intraductal papillary, solid, and cribriform carcinoma.
  • The non-neoplastic changes were characterized by cysts of various sizes, lined by cuboidal or apocrine cells, focally with epithelial papillary proliferation; the lumens contained eosinophilic, mucicarmine-positive, and PAS-positive material.
  • The carcinoma was positive for ER, PR, CK7, and MIB-1 (40%), and negative for p53 and CK20 staining.
  • This case highlights the difficulty of recognizing small foci of carcinoma in an asymmetrical overgrowth of the breast in a young woman with PS.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Proteus Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17127737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Petersson F, Tan PH, Putti TC: Low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive mammary carcinoma with columnar cell morphology arising in a complex fibroadenoma in continuity with columnar cell change and flat epithelial atypia. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):352-7
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  • [Title] Low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive mammary carcinoma with columnar cell morphology arising in a complex fibroadenoma in continuity with columnar cell change and flat epithelial atypia.
  • We describe the clinicopathologic features of a small low-grade invasive mammary carcinoma with cytomorphological columnar cell features arising in a complex fibroadenoma that in addition to sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, and usual ductal hyperplasia also displayed columnar cell change with flat epithelial atypia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ merging with the invasive carcinoma.
  • There were strong cytomorphological similarities between the invasive carcinoma and the low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ, which also showed significant overlap in the immunohistochemical findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20643672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Vargas AC, Lakhani SR, Simpson PT: Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast: molecular pathology and clinical impact. Future Oncol; 2009 Mar;5(2):233-43
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast: molecular pathology and clinical impact.
  • Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast is a recently described morphological variant of classic invasive lobular carcinoma with an aggressive behavior.
  • Morphologically, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma elicits a similar pattern of infiltrative growth as invasive lobular carcinoma, yet neoplastic cells have marked nuclear atypia and pleomorphism.
  • Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma and the in situ counterpart, pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ, are frequently hormone receptor (estrogen-, progesterone- and androgen-receptor)-positive and E-cadherin and beta-catenin-negative, attaining to their lobular nature.
  • Recent gene-expression profiling classified pleomorphic lobular carcinoma as 'molecular apocrine' tumors reflecting the frequent apocrine differentiation of the tumors.
  • In support for the aggressive biological features described for pleomorphic lobular carcinoma, accumulating clinical data demonstrate that it has an aggressive clinical course.
  • It is now important to define the most appropriate management strategy for patients diagnosed with pleomorphic lobular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology


18. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Ben Slama A, Chargui R, Ben Dhiab T, Khomsi F, Gamoud A, Boussen H, Rahal K: Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations. Tunis Med; 2007 Oct;85(10):891-5
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  • [Title] Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations.
  • BACKGROUND: Fibroadenoma is a frequent benign breast tumor affecting young woman.
  • The incidence of a carcinoma within adenofibromas is estimated at 0.1 to 0.3%.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with breast carcinoma arising within adenofibroma and to determine the clinical characteristics and the prognosis of this rare entity.
  • In two cases, fibroadenomas was complex, containing cysts, adenosis and apocrine metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Cyst / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18236815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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19. Kuroda N, Ohara M, Inoue K, Mizuno K, Fujishima N, Hamaguchi N, Lee GH: The majority of triple-negative breast cancer may correspond to basal-like carcinoma, but triple-negative breast cancer is not identical to basal-like carcinoma. Med Mol Morphol; 2009 Jun;42(2):128-31
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  • [Title] The majority of triple-negative breast cancer may correspond to basal-like carcinoma, but triple-negative breast cancer is not identical to basal-like carcinoma.
  • Recently, the concept of basal-like carcinoma has been proposed.
  • However, there are only a few reports about the relationship between triple-negative cancer and basal-like carcinoma.
  • Eight tumors (4 metaplastic carcinomas, 2 invasive ductal carcinomas, 1 invasive papillary carcinoma, and 1 medullary carcinoma) were positive for more than three markers among cytokeratins 5, 14, and 17, and p63.
  • Three tumors (2 invasive ductal carcinomas and 1 apocrine carcinoma) were completely negative for all markers.
  • Finally, we conclude that the majority of triple-negative cancer may correspond to basal-like carcinoma, but the two entities are not identical.
  • The use of combination immunohistochemistry including cytokeratins 5, 14, and 17 and p63 may contribute to the detection of basal-like carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers / analysis. Estrogen Receptor alpha / analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Genes, erbB-2 / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Keratin-14 / analysis. Keratin-17 / analysis. Keratin-5 / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Middle Aged. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19536621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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20. Fulciniti F, Losito NS, Ionna F, Longo F, Aversa C, Botti G, Foschini MP: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland: report of one case diagnosed by fine-needle cytology with in situ malignant transformation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):368-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland: report of one case diagnosed by fine-needle cytology with in situ malignant transformation.
  • In line with numerous other pathological analogies between breast and salivary gland lesions, SPA shares with fibrocystic disease of the breast many histopathological features, i.e., fibrosis, oncocytic (apocrine) changes, hyperplasia of ductal and acinar epithelium, cystic dilation of ducts, and, often, atypical epithelial changes.
  • Most of the described cases have followed a benign clinical course, despite the frequent possibility of atypical hyperplasia in more than 50% of the cases and of the more than occasional in situ malignant transformation.
  • In this article, we introduce a new case occurring in the parotid gland of a 57-year-old male showing atypical epithelial hyperplasia and low-grade in situ mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • The spectrum of pathological lesions entering differential diagnosis comprised sebaceous adenoma, Warthin's tumors with presence of sebaceous remnants, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Histopathological examination disclosed SCA with intraductal neoplastic transformation resembling noninvasive low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • The cytological diagnosis of SPA should be entertained whenever a polymorphous picture is found on FNC samples comprising oncocytic/apocrine changes, sebaceous cells, cystic background, and epithelial hyperplasia with low-grade cytological atypias.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19937766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Moriya T, Kozuka Y, Kanomata N, Tse GM, Tan PH: The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):68-76
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Immunohistochemistry may be helpful in the diagnosis of various breast lesions.
  • They are employed to verify myoepithelial cell lining in intraductal papillary lesions, or to recognise peripheral myoepithelial cells for non-invasive carcinoma, although their staining results are not always excellent.
  • High molecular weight cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14, 34betaE12) typically show a mosaic-like pattern of expression in benign papillary/hyperplastic lesions, and are mostly negative in ductal in situ carcinoma, but some exceptions exist.
  • The significance of immunohistochemical evaluation of apocrine lesions is still controversial.
  • Negative E-cadherin staining is used for making confirmative diagnosis of lobular carcinoma, with a specificity and sensitivity of approximately 90%.
  • Cytokeratins, especially the antibody 34betaE12, are of value to differentiate spindle cell carcinoma from phyllodes tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Myoepithelioma / diagnosis. Myoepithelioma / metabolism. Myoepithelioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19089742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Strauss BL, Bratthauer GL, Tavassoli FA: STAT 5a expression in the breast is maintained in secretory carcinoma, in contrast to other histologic types. Hum Pathol; 2006 May;37(5):586-92
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  • [Title] STAT 5a expression in the breast is maintained in secretory carcinoma, in contrast to other histologic types.
  • STAT 5a is activated through a variety of mechanisms; in the breast, this is predominantly through binding of prolactin to its receptor.
  • Previously, we showed that STAT 5a expression is decreased in atypical and malignant breast ductal epithelial cells.
  • In contrast to usual in situ or invasive ductal carcinoma, which lacked STAT 5a expression, all secretory carcinomas (11 invasive and 7 in situ, including 4 cases with both) expressed STAT 5a.
  • No expression was seen in apocrine metaplasia or in other specialized breast carcinomas, such as mucinous or clear cell carcinoma.
  • Alternatively, STAT 5a expression may be related to the t(12;15)(p13;q25) chromosomal translocation, associated with certain pediatric tumors and recently demonstrated in many secretory carcinomas of the breast, which results in the expression of a tyrosine kinase through ETV6 and NTRK3 fusion.
  • Breast cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality, and, regardless of the mechanism for retention of STAT 5a expression in this uncommon variant, the examination of STAT 5a will aid our understanding of normal and abnormal breast tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. STAT5 Transcription Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16647957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / STAT5 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT5A protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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23. Provenzano E, Pinder SE: Pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer in screening: problems and pitfalls. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):3-17
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  • [Title] Pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer in screening: problems and pitfalls.
  • The widespread use of mammographic breast screening and the introduction of even more sensitive radiological techniques have placed increasing demands upon the pathologist for the accurate diagnosis and histological categorisation of screen-detected lesions.
  • Needle core biopsy (NCB) has become the mainstay of non-operative diagnosis in many Breast Units.
  • This may be because they can mimic invasive carcinoma or because there is a risk of associated carcinoma.
  • Troublesome lesions include atypical epithelial proliferations, sclerosing lesions and radial scars, papillary, columnar cell and apocrine lesions and lobular in situ neoplasia.
  • Good communication between clinician, radiologist and pathologist is especially important in the breast screening setting, in order to avoid misdiagnosis, ensure correct categorisation of NCB samples and to ensure optimum patient care.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Mass Screening / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19089735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Fahim L, Weinreb I, Alexander C, Perez Ordoñez B: Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):213-7
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  • [Title] Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.
  • Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented.
  • The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells.
  • The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens.
  • Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells.
  • Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma.
  • Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Salivary Ducts / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratin-19 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Male. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20614317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807557
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cystadenocarcinoma / Cystadenoma / Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma / Salivary glands
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25. Barberis M, Pellegrini C, Cannone M, Arizzi C, Coggi G, Bosari S: Quantitative PCR and HER2 testing in breast cancer: a technical and cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Apr;129(4):563-70
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  • [Title] Quantitative PCR and HER2 testing in breast cancer: a technical and cost-effectiveness analysis.
  • We performed a technical and cost-effectiveness analysis of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) for the assessment of HER2 in breast cancer.
  • We evaluated 44 frozen and 55 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by Q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemical analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
  • Our data support the use of Q-RT-PCR for testing breast cancer specimens to select patients for HER2 inhibitory therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / economics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis / economics. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 18343783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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26. Konska G, Guerry M, Caldefie-Chezet F, De Latour M, Guillot J: Study of the expression of Tn antigen in different types of human breast cancer cells using VVA-B4 lectin. Oncol Rep; 2006 Feb;15(2):305-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Study of the expression of Tn antigen in different types of human breast cancer cells using VVA-B4 lectin.
  • VVA-B4 lectin was used to investigate the differences in Tn antigen expression in tissues of different types of human breast cancer (benign lesions, carcinoma in situ, invasive carcinoma) and in normal tissues neighboring lobular carcinoma.
  • Benign proliferative changes including fibroadenoma, apocrine and cylindrical metaplasia showed a very weak positive reaction, although strongly positive cells were also observed.
  • A majority (up to 80%) of ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ showed very strong or moderate staining.
  • In normal tissues in the direct neighborhood of carcinoma in situ, the cytoplasm of 40% of cells was strongly labeled.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Lectins
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / metabolism. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16391846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Tn antigen
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27. Lopez-Garcia MA, Geyer FC, Lacroix-Triki M, Marchió C, Reis-Filho JS: Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways. Histopathology; 2010 Aug;57(2):171-92
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  • [Title] Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways.
  • Increasingly more coherent data on the molecular characteristics of benign breast lesions and breast cancer precursors have led to the delineation of new multistep pathways of breast cancer progression through genotypic-phenotypic correlations.
  • It has become apparent that oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive and -negative breast lesions are fundamentally distinct diseases.
  • Within the ER-positive group, histological grade is strongly associated with the number and complexity of genetic abnormalities in breast cancer cells.
  • Genomic analyses of high-grade ER-positive breast cancers have revealed that a substantial proportion of these tumours harbour the characteristic genetic aberrations found in low-grade ER-positive disease, suggesting that at least a subgroup of high-grade ER-positive breast cancers may originate from low-grade lesions.
  • The ER-negative group is more complex and heterogeneous, comprising distinct molecular entities, including basal-like, HER2 and molecular apocrine lesions.
  • Here, we review the available molecular data on breast cancer risk indicator and precursor lesions, the putative mechanisms of progression from in situ to invasive disease, and propose a revised model of breast cancer evolution based on the molecular characteristics of distinct subtypes of in situ and invasive breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / genetics. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Keratins / metabolism. Metaplasia / genetics. Metaplasia / metabolism. Metaplasia / pathology. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / genetics. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20500230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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28. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • In our routine practice, we observed that CD23 reacted strongly with eccrine and apocrine secretory coils.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of CD23 was performed in a total of 131 cases of apocrine, eccrine, follicular and other cutaneous non-lymphoid tumors.
  • RESULTS: CD23 expression was detected in all benign apocrine tumors and in half of benign eccrine tumors, particularly those derived from secretory coils.
  • CD23 staining was seen in 42% (8/19) of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC), while no staining was observed in tumor cells of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma, morpheaform basal cell carcinoma and syringoma.
  • In comparison, pagetoid Bowen's disease, melanoma in situ and sebaceous carcinoma exhibited negative staining.
  • In addition, CD23 reacted diffusely with cutaneous mucinous eccrine carcinoma in a manner similar to breast or colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CD23 appears to be a reliable immunohistochemical marker of the eccrine/apocrine secretory coil and helpful in identifying sweat gland tumors of such origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Eccrine Glands / metabolism. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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29. Ishida M, Katsura K, Nagata A, Kijima K, Kushima R, Okabe H: [A case of primary mucinous carcinoma with endocrine differentiation of the skin]. Rinsho Byori; 2008 Jun;56(6):455-8
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  • [Title] [A case of primary mucinous carcinoma with endocrine differentiation of the skin].
  • Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (MCS) is a rare skin appendage tumor and only a few cases of MCS with endocrine differentiation have been reported.
  • This tumor did not accompany carcinoma in situ or invasive non-mucinous carcinoma and was difficult to differentiate from metastatic mucinous carcinoma of the skin.
  • MCS resembles mammary mucinous carcinoma not only in morphological appearance but also in immunohistochemical phenotypes, such as positive immunoreactivity to gross cystic disease protein fluid-15, MUC2, MUC6, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor.
  • It is presumed that MCS is derived from the apocrine gland, which is closely related to the mammary gland.
  • Although endocrine differentiation is not uncommon in pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast, there have been only a few reports published on endocrine differentiation in MCS.
  • To clarify the difference and/or similarity between mucinous carcinoma of the breast and MCS, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic analyses of additional cases of MCS are required.

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  • (PMID = 18646630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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30. Tokés AM, Kulka J, Paku S, Szik A, Páska C, Novák PK, Szilák L, Kiss A, Bögi K, Schaff Z: Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study. Breast Cancer Res; 2005;7(2):R296-305
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  • [Title] Claudin-1, -3 and -4 proteins and mRNA expression in benign and malignant breast lesions: a research study.
  • INTRODUCTION: We compared levels of protein and mRNA expression of three members of the claudin (CLDN) family in malignant breast tumours and benign lesions.
  • METHODS: Altogether, 56 sections from 52 surgically resected breast specimens were analyzed for CLDN1, CLDN3 and CLDN4 expression by immunohistochemistry. mRNA was also analyzed using real-time PCR in 17 of the 52 cases.
  • CLDN1 was present in the membrane of normal duct cells and in some of the cell membranes from ductal carcinoma in situ, and was frequently observed in eight out of nine areas of apocrine metaplasia, whereas invasive tumours were negative for CLDN1 or it was present in a scattered distribution among such tumour cells (in 36/39 malignant tumours).
  • However, CLDN4 was highly positive in normal epithelial cells and was decreased or absent in 17 out of 21 ductal carcinoma grade 1, in special types of breast carcinoma (mucinous, papillary, tubular) and in areas of apocrine metaplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significant loss of CLDN1 protein in breast cancer cells suggests that CLDN1 may play a role in invasion and metastasis.
  • The loss of CLDN4 expression in areas of apocrine metaplasia and in the majority of grade 1 invasive carcinomas also suggests a particular role for this protein in mammary glandular cell differentiation and carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15743508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN1 protein, human; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-1; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1064136
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31. Zhang XL, Yang GZ, Ding HY: [Pathological study of radial sclerosing lesions]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jan;39(1):10-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathological diagnostic features and the differential diagnosis of radial sclerosing lesions of the breast.
  • METHODS: Morphological observation and immunohistochemistry were applied to forty-four cases of radial sclerosing lesions of the breast.
  • In the 31 consultation cases, 13 were misdiagnosed as carcinoma.
  • Dilated tubules and proliferated ducts or lobules were seen radically arranged at the periphery accompanied sometimes with the apocrine glands or columnar cell metaplasia and hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radial sclerosing lesions of the breast possess characteristic histological features, and may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma.
  • The lesions should be differentiated from ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular neoplasia, tubular carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Sclerosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratin-14 / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20388392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Keratin-5; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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32. Leeborg N, Thompson M, Rossmiller S, Gross N, White C, Gatter K: Diagnostic pitfalls in syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum: case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Aug;134(8):1205-9
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  • We report the first case, to our knowledge, of syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum with p63-verified squamous differentiation and extensive dermal invasion accompanying in situ components.
  • An 86-year-old woman presented with a neoplasm on the neck, and the intralesional heterogeneity typical of these neoplasms led to an initial diagnosis on needle biopsy favoring squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Excision illustrated diverse morphology, raising a broad differential diagnosis, including more common extracutaneous malignancies, such as breast, gastrointestinal, and ovarian primary tumors.
  • Fortuitous sectioning revealed a focal connection to the skin surface with evidence of apocrine differentiation allowing final diagnosis as syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum.
  • We describe our findings and diagnostic pitfalls to help pathologists encountering this unusual apocrine neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20670144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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33. Liegl B, Horn LC, Moinfar F: Androgen receptors are frequently expressed in mammary and extramammary Paget's disease. Mod Pathol; 2005 Oct;18(10):1283-8
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  • Mammary Paget's disease is almost exclusively associated with underlying invasive breast carcinoma or high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS G3).
  • Extramammary Paget's disease arises in areas rich in apocrine glands and is suspected to have apocrine gland origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget's Disease, Mammary / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15920545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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34. Subramanian A, Birch H, McAvinchey R, Stacey-Clear A: Pagets disease of uncertain origin: case report. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2007;4:12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Pagets disease of the nipple presents as an eczematous lesion, occurs in 1 - 4% of all female breast carcinoma cases and is invariably associated with underlying malignancy either overt or occult.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 39 year old lady presented to our unit with a palpable lump in the right breast.
  • Radiological and histological investigation proved this to be an extensive area of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) for which she underwent a simple mastectomy and immediate latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction.
  • Histology revealed high grade DCIS with 2 small foci of invasive carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In the absence of underlying breast or apocrine tissue this case details a case of Paget's disease of uncertain origin.

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  • (PMID = 17480238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1876465
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35. Böcker W, Hungermann D, Tio J, Weigel S, Decker T: [Flat epithelial atypia]. Pathologe; 2009 Feb;30(1):36-41
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  • Currently available data suggest that the risk of subsequent breast carcinoma in the ipsilateral breast is very low following the diagnosis of FEA.
  • The differential diagnosis should include atypical ductal hyperplasia, low-grade clinging ductal carcinoma in situ, blunt duct adenosis and apocrine metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Cell Nucleolus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Metaplasia

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  • (PMID = 19165486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Kunju LP, Kleer CG: Significance of flat epithelial atypia on mammotome core needle biopsy: Should it be excised? Hum Pathol; 2007 Jan;38(1):35-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We evaluated the correlation of FEA in core biopsies with follow-up excision biopsies to predict the likelihood of upgrade to carcinoma.
  • We also investigated the utility of Ki-67 in predicting which lesions were associated with carcinoma in the excisional biopsies.
  • The most common architectural pattern of FEA resembled blunt duct adenosis (52%), followed by cystically dilated ducts with secretions (38%) and apocrine features (10%).
  • Excisional biopsies in 48 of 56 patients demonstrated ductal carcinoma in situ and/or invasive carcinoma in 10 patients (21%), lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical lobular hyperplasia in 5 (11%), residual ADH in 11 (23%), and no atypia in 24 patients (50%).
  • Three (21%) of 14 pure FEA upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ and/or invasive carcinoma on excisional biopsy.
  • The staining for Ki-67 in FEA/ADH was similar regardless of whether they were upgraded to carcinoma or not.
  • Flat epithelial atypia shows a risk of upgrade to carcinoma similar to that of ADH and, hence, should be recognized and warrants a follow-up excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / etiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / etiology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / etiology. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Epithelial Cells / chemistry. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mammography. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2008 Nov;39(11):1713; author reply 1713-4 [18760823.001]
  • (PMID = 17095049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08CA090876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA107469
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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