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1. Wells CA, El-Ayat GA: Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Dec;60(12):1313-20
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  • [Title] Non-operative breast pathology: apocrine lesions.
  • Apocrine metaplasia is a very common finding in the female breast after the age of 25.
  • It is so common that many people regard it as a normal component of the breast.
  • This, however, is only really the case in apocrine sweat glands of the axilla and in the peri-areolar apocrine glands.
  • The apocrine cell does, however, contribute to a number of different breast lesions, some of which are very taxing diagnostically; apocrine variants of both in-situ and invasive cancer are encountered.
  • This review considers the common apocrine metaplastic lesions seen in fibrocystic change as well as apocrine adenoma, apocrine change within sclerosing adenosis, atypical apocrine lesions and apocrine malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy. Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 18042688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 62
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2095572
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2. Celis JE, Moreira JM, Gromova I, Cabezón T, Gromov P, Shen T, Timmermans V, Rank F: Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia. Mol Oncol; 2007 Jun;1(1):97-119
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  • [Title] Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The identification as well as the molecular characterization of breast precancerous lesions in terms of increased risk of progression and/or recurrence is becoming a critical issue today as improved non-surgical procedures are detecting cancer at an earlier stage.
  • The strategy we have been pursuing to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ.
  • First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature that includes 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a protein that is expressed by all benign apocrine lesions, and markers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas such as MRP14 (S100A9), psoriasin (S100A7), and p53 to identify precancerous lesions in sclerosing adenosis (SA) with apocrine metaplasia.
  • The latter is a benign proliferative lesion of the breast that exhibits an increase in the size of the TDLUs and characterized by retained two-cell lining, and myoepithelial (ME) and stromal hyperplasia.
  • SA with apocrine metaplasia, i.e. apocrine adenosis (AA), presents with a higher degree of atypical apocrine hyperplasia, and these lesions are believed to be precursors of apocrine carcinoma, in situ and invasive.
  • Analysis of 24 selected SA samples with apocrine metaplasia revealed non-obligate putative apocrine precancerous lesions that displayed some, or in same cases all the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19383289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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3. Vranic S, Tawfik O, Palazzo J, Bilalovic N, Eyzaguirre E, Lee LM, Adegboyega P, Hagenkord J, Gatalica Z: EGFR and HER-2/neu expression in invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast. Mod Pathol; 2010 May;23(5):644-53
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  • [Title] EGFR and HER-2/neu expression in invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • This study was undertaken to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)/neu expression in a cohort of apocrine carcinomas of the breast with emphasis on the classification of the breast tumors with apocrine morphology.
  • In total, 55 breast carcinomas morphologically diagnosed as apocrine were evaluated for the steroid receptor expression profile characteristic of normal apocrine epithelium (androgen receptor positive/estrogen receptor (ER) negative/progesterone receptor (PR) negative), and for the expression of EGFR and Her-2/neu proteins, and the copy number ratios of the genes EGFR/CEP7 and HER-2/CEP17.
  • On the basis of the results of steroid receptors expression, 38 (69%) cases were classified as pure apocrine carcinoma (androgen receptor positive/ER negative/PR negative), whereas 17 (31%) were re-classified as apocrine-like carcinomas because they did not have the characteristic steroid receptor expression profile.
  • Her-2/neu overexpression was observed in 54% of the cases (57% pure apocrine carcinomas vs 47% apocrine-like carcinomas).
  • HER-2/neu gene amplification was demonstrated in 52% of all cases (54% pure apocrine carcinomas vs 46% apocrine-like carcinomas).
  • EGFR protein (scores 1 to 3+) was detected in 62% of all cases and was expressed in a higher proportion of pure apocrine carcinomas than in the apocrine-like carcinomas group (76 vs 29%, P=0.006).
  • In the pure apocrine carcinoma group, Her-2/neu and EGFR protein expression were inversely correlated (P=0.006, r=-0.499).
  • EGFR gene amplification was observed in two pure apocrine carcinomas and one apocrine-like carcinoma.
  • Polysomy 7 was commonly present in pure apocrine carcinomas (61 vs 27% of apocrine-like carcinomas; P=0.083) and showed a weak positive correlation with EGFR protein expression (P=0.025, r=0.326).
  • Our study showed that apocrine breast carcinomas are molecularly diverse group of carcinomas.
  • Strictly defined pure apocrine carcinomas are either HER-2-overexpressing breast carcinomas or triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas apocrine-like carcinomas predominantly belong to the luminal phenotype.
  • Pure apocrine carcinomas show consistent overexpression of either EGFR or HER-2/neu, which could have significant therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20208479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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4. Celis JE, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Vejborg IM, Proess G, Rank F, Gromova I: Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2006 Mar;5(3):462-83
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  • [Title] Apocrine cysts of the breast: biomarkers, origin, enlargement, and relation with cancer phenotype.
  • Up to one-third of women aged 30-50 years have cysts in their breasts and are presumed to be at increased risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Here we present an extensive proteomic and immunohistochemistry (IHC) study of breast apocrine cystic lesions aimed at generating specific biomarkers and elucidating the relationship, if existent, of apocrine cysts with cancer phenotype.
  • To this end we compared the expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts obtained from mastectomies from high risk cancer patients with those of cancerous and non-malignant mammary tissue biopsies collected from the same patients.
  • We identified two biomarkers, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, that were expressed specifically by apocrine type I cysts as well as by apocrine metaplastic cells in type II microcysts, terminal ducts, and intraductal papillary lesions.
  • IHC analysis of the corresponding 93 primary tumors indicated that most apocrine changes have little intrinsic malignant potential, although some may progress to invasive apocrine cancer.
  • None of the apocrine lesions examined, however, seemed to be a precursor of invasive ductal carcinomas, which accounted for 81% of the tumors analyzed.
  • Our studies also provided some insight into the origin, development, and enlargement of apocrine cysts in mammary tissue.
  • The successful identification of differentially expressed proteins that characterize specific steps in the progression from early benign lesions to apocrine cancer opens a window of opportunity for designing and testing new approaches for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic setting but also for chemoprevention, to inhibit cyst development as both 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase are currently being targeted for chemoprevention strategies in various malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cysts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16316978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9476
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase
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5. Cashell AW: Apocrine adenoma of the breast. W V Med J; 2008 Mar-Apr;104(2):16-9
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  • [Title] Apocrine adenoma of the breast.
  • A case of apocrine adenoma, a rare benign tumor of the breast is reported.
  • A left breast nodule from a 47-year-old female was found by mammography and excised.
  • The tumor was well circumscribed and composed of tightly packed tubules lined by cells with apocrine features.
  • Apocrine adenomas have been reported arising in a variety of sites including the breast, (1-5) perianal region, (6,7) eyelid, (8) and axilla. (9) Their appearance has similarities to the apocrine metaplasia commonly seen in fibrocystic change of the breast but they are well-circumscribed tumors with closely packed tubular and papillary structures.
  • They are not distinctive by mammography or physical examination and should be managed as any other breast mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18491794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Maury G, Guillot B, Bessis D, Cribier B, Girard C: [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Aug-Sep;137(8-9):555-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Unusual axillary apocrine carcinoma of the skin: histological diagnostic difficulties].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome apocrine cutané axillaire inhabituel : difficultés diagnostiques histologiques.
  • BACKGROUND: Apocrine carcinoma of the skin (ACS) is a rare adnexal neoplasm presenting as an indurated slow-growing dermal or subcutaneous plaque that often occurs in the axilla.
  • Histological distinction between ACS and cutaneous metastases of breast carcinoma may be difficult.
  • The pattern of the tumour and immunohistochemical staining suggested a diagnosis of breast carcinoma metastasis.
  • The differential diagnostic between axillary ACS and metastasis of lobular breast carcinoma has been discussed recently.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a new case of axillary ACS histologically mimicking lobular breast carcinoma metastasis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20804902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Zagorianakou P, Zagorianakou N, Stefanou D, Makrydimas G, Agnantis NJ: The enigmatic nature of apocrine breast lesions. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):525-31
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  • [Title] The enigmatic nature of apocrine breast lesions.
  • Epithelial cells of fetal breast glandular structures, at the third trimester of pregnancy (28 weeks), produce GCDFP-15, in the absence of specific apocrine morphology.
  • Apocrine epithelium of the breast may be a normal process of differentiation rather than a result of metaplasia, and it has been demonstrated that it is estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and bcl-2 negative, but androgen-receptor (AR) positive.
  • The significance of AR expression in apocrine epithelium is uncertain.
  • Apocrine epithelium is seen in a wide spectrum of breast entities, ranging from benign lesions to invasive carcinoma.
  • Breast cancer accounts 32% of all cancer cases among women and is the most common type of cancer in women.
  • Little is known about breast carcinogenesis.
  • Widely, it is accepted that breast cancer, like most other type of cancer, is being developed through the accumulation of genetic aberrations.
  • Apocrine epithelium may reflect instability of the breast epithelium, creating an environment favouring further oncogenic alterations.
  • In the last decade, several lines of evidence support the idea that some breast benign epithelial apocrine lesions are clonal lesions and may be considered as truly pre-malignant or precursors of breast carcinoma.
  • Apocrine changes in many cases do not present any diagnostic difficulty; on the other hand, apocrine proliferations with cytologic atypia can be particularly difficult and challenging.
  • The purpose of this study is to collect and highlight the areas of consensus in the literature as well as the controversial areas concerning the apocrine epithelium of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / cytology. Breast / cytology. Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / cytology

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  • (PMID = 16570182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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8. Celis JE, Gromova I, Gromov P, Moreira JM, Cabezón T, Friis E, Rank F: Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia. FEBS Lett; 2006 May 22;580(12):2935-44
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  • [Title] Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas: a protein expression signature specific for benign apocrine metaplasia.
  • Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others.
  • Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.5% of all invasive breast cancers according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are at present no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis.
  • In addition, the relationship between benign apocrine changes and breast carcinoma is unclear and has been a matter of discussion for many years.
  • Recent proteome expression profiling studies of breast apocrine macrocysts, normal breast tissue, and breast tumours have identified specific apocrine biomarkers [15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase)] present in early and advanced apocrine lesions.
  • These biomarkers in combination with proteins found to be characteristically upregulated in pure apocrine carcinomas (psoriasin, S100A9, and p53) provide a protein expression signature distinctive for benign apocrine metaplasias and apocrine cystic lesions.
  • These studies have also presented compelling evidence for a direct link, through the expression of the prostaglandin degrading enzyme 15-PGDH, between early apocrine lesions and pure apocrine carcinomas.
  • Moreover, specific antibodies against the components of the expression signature have identified precursor lesions in the linear histological progression to apocrine carcinoma.
  • Finally, the identification of proteins that characterize the early stages of mammary apocrine differentiation such as 15-PGDH, HMG-CoA reductase, and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has opened a window of opportunity for pharmacological intervention, not only in a therapeutic manner but also in a chemopreventive setting.
  • Here we review published and recent results in the context of the current state of research on breast apocrine cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16631754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] FEBS letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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9. Knoedler D, Susnik B, Gonyo MB, Osipov V: Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):91-3
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  • [Title] Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an 8.0-cm tumor of the left breast.
  • The pathologic evaluation of the core biopsy and the subsequent excision specimen revealed a benign sclerosing, cystic, and papillary adnexal tumor with apocrine and clear cell morphology.
  • The final diagnosis was apocrine hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17214802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. O'Malley FP, Bane A: An update on apocrine lesions of the breast. Histopathology; 2008 Jan;52(1):3-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An update on apocrine lesions of the breast.
  • Apocrine change occurs in a spectrum of benign lesions in the female breast and is also demonstrated in a subgroup of in situ and invasive carcinomas.
  • Recent research has focused on the molecular phenotype of both benign and malignant apocrine lesions.
  • This review will briefly summarize the morphological characteristics and risk associations of the spectrum of apocrine proliferations, but will focus on the updated molecular studies of both in situ and invasive apocrine carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Cyst / genetics. Breast Cyst / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18171412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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11. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;14(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Cell turnover in apocrine metaplasia and apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) is a common finding in the breast of postmenopausal women and is seen in a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from microscopic cysts to invasive apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine metaplasia within sclerosing adenosis is known as apocrine adenosis (AA) and is considered a benign lesion of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia and AA have been the subject of many studies; however, little is known about the dynamics of cell turnover in these lesions.
  • The results showed that all cases studied by immunohistochemistry were positive for the expression of Bak, Mcl-1, Bcl-x, and Bcl-x(L) showing a pattern of staining similar to that seen in the normal breast epithelium.
  • There was no statistical significance between the AI of these 2 groups and that of the normal breast epithelium (0.3%).
  • There was no statistical significance between the AI of these 2 groups and that of the normal breast epithelium (0.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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12. Bezić J, Forempoher G, Poljicanin A, Gunjaca G: Apocrine adenoma of the breast coexistent with invasive carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(11):809-12
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  • [Title] Apocrine adenoma of the breast coexistent with invasive carcinoma.
  • We describe a case of apocrine adenoma with simultaneous occurrence of invasive ductal carcinoma in the breast of a 53-year-old woman.
  • Apocrine adenoma affecting the breast is very rare.
  • The lesion is composed of back-to-back ducts and papillary fronds covered with apocrine cells, and it is sharply demarcated from the surrounding breast tissue.
  • The patient presented with a palpable nodule with skin retraction in her right breast, where ultrasound examination identified a 5-mm hypoechogenic nodule.
  • The ultrasound also revealed in the surrounding breast parenchyma an additional abnormal finding suggestive of carcinoma.
  • Histologic examination of the excised specimen showed that the hypoechogenic nodule represented an apocrine adenoma in proximity to the invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
  • This is the first report that describes the simultaneous occurrence of these two lesions in the same breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17936522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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13. Gercovich N, Gil Deza E, Russo M, Garcia Gerardi C, Diaz C, Morgenfeld E, Rolnik B, Emina J, Rivarola E, Gercovich FG: Early-stage male breast cancer: A 10-year experience. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e11630

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  • [Title] Early-stage male breast cancer: A 10-year experience.
  • : e11630 Introduction: Male breast cancer is very rare, representing only between 0.7% and 1% of all breast cancers, and only half of them are early stage cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The present study has been designed with the aim of studying retrospectively the clinical onset and evolution of male invasive breast cancer patients (stages I and II) treated at IOHM between 1997 and 2008.
  • METHODS: The records of 3,000 breast cancer cases followed between 1997 and 2008 were searched, looking for male stage I and II breast cancer patients.
  • Tumoral subtype= NOS 9 pt (75%) Apocrine 2 pt (17%) Micropapillar 1 pt (8%).
  • Twelve stage I and II male breast cancer patients were identified out of 3000 (0.4%) breast cancer cases diagnosed and followed in the past 10 years at the IOHM.

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  • (PMID = 27961181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Farmer P, Bonnefoi H, Becette V, Tubiana-Hulin M, Fumoleau P, Larsimont D, Macgrogan G, Bergh J, Cameron D, Goldstein D, Duss S, Nicoulaz AL, Brisken C, Fiche M, Delorenzi M, Iggo R: Identification of molecular apocrine breast tumours by microarray analysis. Oncogene; 2005 Jul 7;24(29):4660-71
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  • [Title] Identification of molecular apocrine breast tumours by microarray analysis.
  • Previous microarray studies on breast cancer identified multiple tumour classes, of which the most prominent, named luminal and basal, differ in expression of the oestrogen receptor alpha gene (ER).
  • We report here the identification of a group of breast tumours with increased androgen signalling and a 'molecular apocrine' gene expression profile.
  • Tumour samples from 49 patients with large operable or locally advanced breast cancers were tested on Affymetrix U133A gene expression microarrays.
  • Principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering split the tumours into three groups: basal, luminal and a group we call molecular apocrine.
  • All of the molecular apocrine tumours have strong apocrine features on histological examination (P=0.0002).
  • The molecular apocrine group is androgen receptor (AR) positive and contains all of the ER-negative tumours outside the basal group.
  • Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing indicates that oestrogen signalling is most active in the luminal group, and androgen signalling is most active in the molecular apocrine group.
  • ERBB2 amplification is commoner in the molecular apocrine than the other groups.
  • Correlation of the average expression profile of these genes in our data with the expression profile of individual tumours in four published breast cancer studies suggest that molecular apocrine tumours represent 8-14% of tumours in these studies.
  • Our data show that it is possible with microarray data to divide mammary tumour cells into three groups based on steroid receptor activity: luminal (ER+ AR+), basal (ER- AR-) and molecular apocrine (ER- AR+).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics


15. Shim HS, Jung WH, Kim H, Park K, Cho NH: Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions. APMIS; 2006 May;114(5):352-8
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  • [Title] Expression of androgen receptors and inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits in breast apocrine lesions.
  • We investigated the role of these hormones in breast apocrine lesions (BAL) using immunohistochemistry to study androgen receptors (AR) and the inhibin/activin alpha and betaA subunits.
  • Forty-two cases of BAL were evaluated, including 22 cases of fibrocystic disease (FCD) showing prominent apocrine changes, 10 intraductal papillomas with extensive apocrine metaplasia, 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 5 cases of apocrine carcinoma.
  • Fifty non-apocrine lesions were included as controls: 20 cases of FCD, 5 cases of DCIS, and 25 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • AR was more frequently expressed in BAL than in non-apocrine lesions (p=0.001).
  • As the expression of the alpha and betaA subunits reflects inhibin and activin A, respectively, AR and activin A may be implicated in apocrine morphogenesis, but not in tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Metaplasia / metabolism. Papilloma, Intraductal / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16725011.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 93443-12-0 / Inhibin-beta Subunits
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16. Honma N, Takubo K, Akiyama F, Kasumi F, Sawabe M, Arai T, Hosoi T, Yoshimura N, Harada N, Younes M, Sakamoto G: Expression of oestrogen receptor-beta in apocrine carcinomas of the breast. Histopathology; 2007 Mar;50(4):425-33
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  • [Title] Expression of oestrogen receptor-beta in apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • AIMS: Apocrine carcinoma of the breast seldom expresses oestrogen receptors (ER) or progesterone receptors (PR), but frequently expresses androgen receptors (AR).
  • Because of this unusual hormone receptor status, it has been suggested that oestrogens have a less important role in the pathogenesis of apocrine carcinoma.
  • The ER status of apocrine carcinoma has been studied for one kind of ER, the classic receptor now named ER-alpha; however, the status of ER-beta, a secondary oestrogen receptor, has not been examined systematically in apocrine carcinoma.
  • The aim was to study ER-beta status in apocrine carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of ER-beta was examined immunohistochemically in 48 apocrine carcinomas and compared with clinicopathological factors and ER-alpha, PR and AR status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significance of oestrogens in apocrine carcinoma should not be dismissed at present when the role of ER-beta remains to be determined.
  • Studying the action of oestrogen or antioestrogen in apocrine carcinoma may reveal a role for ER-beta independent of ER-alpha and raise the potential of hormonal therapy for these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17448017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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17. Magro G, Floridia F, Geraci G, Marino B: Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Jun;36(6):692-6
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  • [Title] Lipomatous apocrine mixed tumor of the skin: an unusual giant lesion occurring in the breast.
  • We describe an unusual case of a giant MT measuring 9 cm in its greatest diameter, occurring as a slowly growing pedunculated mass on the breast of a 74-year-old woman.
  • Although MT may rarely occur outside the head and neck region, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case described in the breast.
  • Based on the histological features, the term 'lipomatous mixed tumor, apocrine type' was proposed for such a lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lipoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19515050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Masood S, Rosa M: The challenge of apocrine proliferations of the breast: a morphologic approach. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(3):155-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The challenge of apocrine proliferations of the breast: a morphologic approach.
  • Apocrine phenotype in breast is common and can be seen in a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from simple cyst to infiltrating carcinoma.
  • The majority of apocrine lesions of the breast are benign in nature and do not represent a diagnostic challenge; however, there are a few that can cause diagnostic problems, such as the case of apocrine proliferations with atypia and low-grade apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Furthermore, the role of atypical apocrine proliferations in the pathway to infiltrating carcinoma is still uncertain, and studies with long-term clinical follow-up are necessary to clarify and understand the significance of these apocrine lesions of the breast.
  • The purpose of this article is to review the most recent literature concerning apocrine lesions, with emphasis on borderline apocrine proliferations.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Breast Diseases / genetics. Breast Diseases / metabolism. Breast Diseases / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19147303.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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19. Tanaka K, Imoto S, Wada N, Sakemura N, Hasebe K: Invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: clinicopathologic features of 57 patients. Breast J; 2008 Mar-Apr;14(2):164-8
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  • [Title] Invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: clinicopathologic features of 57 patients.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is a rare, unique, and morphologically distinctive type of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
  • The features of invasive apocrine carcinoma (IAC) and their possible prognostic implications have not been fully investigated.
  • Out of 2,055 breast cancer patients who had undergone breast surgery between 1995 and 2005, 57 patients of IAC and 1,583 patients of IDC were analyzed.
  • Three (5%) patients with IAC and 125 (8%) patients with IDC died of recurrent breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen. Receptors, Progesterone. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18248561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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20. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Cell cycle alterations and their relationship to proliferation in apocrine adenosis of the breast. Histopathology; 2009 Feb;54(3):348-54
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  • [Title] Cell cycle alterations and their relationship to proliferation in apocrine adenosis of the breast.
  • AIMS: Apocrine adenosis (AA) is generally considered a benign disease of the breast.
  • The aim was to investigate the status of cell cycle proteins previously reported to be deregulated in breast cancer to identify their possible role in AA.
  • Furthermore, proliferation in AA (4.5%) was significantly higher than that of normal breast epithelium (1%).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Proliferation. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19236511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins
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21. Ogiya A, Horii R, Osako T, Ito Y, Iwase T, Eishi Y, Akiyama F: Apocrine metaplasia of breast cancer: clinicopathological features and predicting response. Breast Cancer; 2010 Oct;17(4):290-7
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  • [Title] Apocrine metaplasia of breast cancer: clinicopathological features and predicting response.
  • From our institutional neoadjuvant experience, apocrine carcinoma showed a high correlation with therapeutic effect against breast cancer.
  • We thus considered that apocrine metaplasia (AM) might represent a predictive marker for breast cancer.
  • METHODS: A total of 210 primary invasive breast cancers from Japanese patients were scored according to the size of cytoplasmic granules and abundance of cytoplasm, then classified into three categories: non-AM, incomplete AM and complete AM.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Apocrine metaplasia appears to offer an effective predictive marker for anticancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19789945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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22. Watanabe K, Nomura M, Hashimoto Y, Hanzawa M, Hoshi T: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine adenosis of the breast: report on three cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):296-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine adenosis of the breast: report on three cases.
  • Apocrine adenosis is a distinctive breast lesion, which can sometimes be misdiagnosed as malignant histologically.
  • We report fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of three cases of apocrine adenosis.
  • Apocrine metaplasia with nuclear atypia mimicking apocrine carcinoma was prominent in one case, whereas one case lacked definite apocrine features.
  • Although FNA cytology of apocrine adenosis has the potential to be misinterpreted as malignant, the naked nuclei of background and less hyperchromatic nuclear features may be useful in distinguishing apocrine adenosis from carcinoma.
  • Being familiar with these distinctive breast lesions is also important in decreasing false positives.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427223.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Kaya H, Bozkurt SU, Erbarut I, Djamgoz MB: Apocrine carcinomas of the breast in Turkish women: hormone receptors, c-erbB-2 and p53 immunoexpression. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(6):367-71
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinomas of the breast in Turkish women: hormone receptors, c-erbB-2 and p53 immunoexpression.
  • The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to determine the occurrence frequency of apocrine carcinoma of the breast (ApBCa) in Turkish breast cancer (BCa) patients; and (ii) to evaluate the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), gross cystic disease protein-15 (GCDFP-15), c-erbB-2, and p53 in these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Female. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18342452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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24. Usui K, Ochiai T, Abe I, Nishio H, Togo K, Yamagata M: Apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon. J Dermatol; 2010 Apr;37(4):350-4
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  • [Title] Apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon.
  • We reported a 52-year-old woman with an apocrine gland carcinoma of the mammary skin concomitant with pagetoid phenomenon.
  • She had a 23-year history of a small nodular lesion on the lower left part of her right breast with a 1-year history of the pigmented plaque spreading peripherally around the nodule.
  • Our diagnosis revealed that the nodule was an apocrine gland carcinoma and the intraepidermal neoplastic cells with pagetoid spread in the pigmented plaque were derived from the apocrine gland carcinoma.
  • They showed that both intraepidermal neoplastic cells with pagetoid spread and tumor cells of the apocrine gland carcinoma were positive with cytokeratin-7 and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)/neu overexpression.
  • The results of the present study conclude that the intraepithelial spread of tumor cells in the mammary skin distant from the nipple occurred as a pagetoid phenomenon, and that HER-2 may have a key role in pagetoid phenomenon of an underlying apocrine gland carcinoma, as well as in mammary Paget's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20507405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-7; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Haji BE, Das DK, Al-Ayadhy B, Pathan SK, George SG, Mallik MK, Abdeen SM: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jul;35(7):408-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary.
  • Recognition of special types of breast cancers by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology may have prognostic implications but some difficulties still exist in the ability of cytopathologists to determine the tumor subtypes.
  • Detailed cytomorphological features were studied in the four special and unusual types of breast cancer cases (8 cases of mucinous, 9 medullary, 9 apocrime, and 11 papillary) and compared between themselves and with those of 32 duct cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • In mucinous carcinoma, the frequency of signet ring cells (62.5%), and background pools of mucin (87.5%) were significantly higher than those of duct cell carcinoma (NOS), medullary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0408 to < 0.0001).
  • In medullary carcinomas, lymphomononuclear cell infiltration (100.0%) was observed in significantly higher number of cases than in papillary, mucinous, and apocrine types (P < 0.0001).
  • Abnormal apocrine cells and papillary formation, characterizing all the apocrine carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, respectively, were present in significantly lower number in other variants and in duct cell carcinoma (NOS) (P = 0.0002 to <0.0001).
  • Glycogen vacuoles (63.6%) were observed in a significantly higher number of papillary carcinoma as compared to duct cell carcinoma (NOS), apocrine, and medullary carcinomas (P = 0.0047 to 0.0022).
  • Thus, special and unusual variants of duct cell carcinomas like mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary have specific cytomorphological features, which differentiate them from one another and from duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17580344.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Celis JE, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Gromov P, Gromova I, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Iwase T, Akiyama F, Honma N, Rank F: Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort. Mol Oncol; 2009 Jun;3(3):220-37
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort.
  • Invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs), as defined by morphological features, correspond to 0.3-4% of all invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and despite the fact that they are histologically distinct from other breast lesions there are currently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and no unequivocal information as to their prognosis.
  • In an effort to address these concerns we have been using protein expression profiling technologies in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to discover specific biomarkers that could allow us to molecularly characterize these lesions as well as to dissect some of the steps in the processes underlying breast apocrine metaplasia and development of precancerous apocrine lesions.
  • Establishing these apocrine-specific markers as best practice for the routine pathology evaluation of breast cancer, however, will require their validation in large cohorts of patients.
  • Towards this goal we have composed a panel of antibodies against components of an apocrine protein signature that includes probes against the apocrine-specific markers 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), and acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1), in addition to a set of categorizing markers that are consistently expressed (AR, CD24) or not expressed (ERα, PgR, Bcl-2, and GATA-3) by apocrine metaplasia in benign breast lesions and apocrine sweat glands.
  • This panel was used to analyze a well-defined cohort consisting of 14 apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (ADCIS), and 33 IACs diagnosed at the Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo between 1997 and 2001.
  • Samples were originally classified on the basis of cellular morphology with all cases having more than 90% of the tumour cells exhibiting cytological features typical of apocrine cells.
  • Using the expression of 15-PGDH and/or ACSM1 as the main criterion, but taking into account the expression of other markers, we were able to identify unambiguously 13 out of 14 ADCIS (92.9%) and 20 out of 33 (60.6%) IAC samples, respectively, as being of apocrine origin.
  • Our results demonstrate that IACs correspond to a distinct, even if heterogeneous, molecular subgroup of breast carcinomas that can be readily identified in an unbiased way using a combination of markers that recapitulate the phenotype of apocrine sweat glands (15-PGDH(+), ACSM1(+), AR(+), CD24(+), ERα(-), PgR(-), Bcl-2(-), and GATA-3(-)).
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19393583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0261
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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27. Alex G: Apocrine adenocarcinoma of the nipple: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):88

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  • [Title] Apocrine adenocarcinoma of the nipple: a case report.
  • Apocrine adenocarcinomas are rare malignant skin adnexal tumours.
  • Apocrine carcinoma of the nipple is extremely rare and this case to the author's knowledge is only the third reported case worldwide and the first with associated ductal carcinoma in situ elsewhere in the breast.
  • A seventy one year old caucasian female presented to the breast clinic with a growth on her nipple which proved on histopathological analysis to be an apocrine carcinoma.
  • Recommended treatment for apocrine carcinoma includes surgery in the form of wide local excision.

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  • (PMID = 18700029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2526981
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28. Japaze H, Emina J, Diaz C, Schwam RJ, Gercovich N, Demonty G, Morgenfeld E, Rivarola E, Gil Deza E, Gercovich FG: 'Pure' invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: a new clinicopathological entity? Breast; 2005 Feb;14(1):3-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 'Pure' invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: a new clinicopathological entity?
  • Invasive apocrine carcinoma (IAC) of the breast has a similar prognosis to infiltrating ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS).
  • PIAC may be a distinct clinicopathological entity with a less aggressive behavior than high-grade IDC-NOS and might be regarded as an independent prognostic factor in early breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Breast. 2005 Feb;14(1):1-2 [15695073.001]
  • (PMID = 15695074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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29. Charfi S, Sevestre H, Dumont F, Regimbeau JM, Chatelain D: Atypical apocrine proliferation involving anogenital mammary-like glands of the perianal region. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:52-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical apocrine proliferation involving anogenital mammary-like glands of the perianal region.
  • Anogenital mammary-like glands (MLGs) are a normal constituent of the anogenital area showing similarities to breast glands.
  • Histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed atypical apocrine proliferation arising in a complex lesion with features of fibroadenoma, adenosis and hyperplastic and cystic change.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19775395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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30. Amonkar GP, Amonkar PP, Rege JD: Bilateral axillary apocrine nevi--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Jan;48(1):22-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral axillary apocrine nevi--a case report.
  • Apocrine glands are tubular glands, which function as scent glands.
  • They are present as modified glands in the external ear canal (ceruminous glands), in the eyelid (Moll's glands) and in the breast (mammary glands).
  • Occasionally, apocrine glands are found on the face, in the scalp and on the abdomen where they are usually small and non-functional.
  • Apocrine glands develop their secretory portion and become functional only at puberty.
  • Tumours of these glands involving only apocrine tissue are very rare.
  • We present an uncommon case of benign apocrine nevi of the axilla, which occurred bilaterally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Axilla / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16758779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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31. Honma N, Takubo K, Akiyama F, Sawabe M, Arai T, Younes M, Kasumi F, Sakamoto G: Expression of GCDFP-15 and AR decreases in larger or node-positive apocrine carcinomas of the breast. Histopathology; 2005 Aug;47(2):195-201
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  • [Title] Expression of GCDFP-15 and AR decreases in larger or node-positive apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • AIMS: Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is typically, though not always, positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15).
  • In order to clarify the clinical significance of GCDFP-15 in apocrine carcinomas, GCDFP-15 expression was examined in apocrine carcinomas of different stages and compared with clinicopathological factors.
  • Apocrine lesions reportedly exhibit an unusual immunohistochemical status, expressing androgen receptors (AR) instead of oestrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or bcl-2.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-two apocrine carcinomas were examined immunohistochemically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: GCDFP-15 positivity is transient and should not be considered a definitive marker of apocrine carcinomas.
  • Cases which have apocrine features but lack GCDFP-15 expression should rather be considered as advanced apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER/PR/bcl-2 negativity will sometimes be helpful to confirm the diagnosis of apocrine carcinoma, because it is more consistent than GCDFP-15/AR positivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16045781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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32. Obaidat NA, Awamleh AA, Ghazarian DM: Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma of the peri-anal region. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Sep-Oct;16(5):576-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma of the peri-anal region.
  • Histologically, the excised lesion showed features of tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma, with an area showing features of carcinoma in situ.
  • The lesion also had papillary and cribriform growth patterns, reminiscent of breast lesions.
  • Similar to vulvar lesions, peri-anal apocrine tumours are believed to arise in mammary like glands (MLGs).
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a peri-anal adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma.

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  • (PMID = 17101482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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33. Zelger BG, Stelzmueller I, Dunst KM, Zelger B: Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Mar;35(3):332-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm mimicking lobular breast carcinoma.
  • The differentiation between apocrine and eccrine neoplasms remains difficult.
  • Skin tumors of the axilla are often suspected to be metastasis of other neoplasms in particular breast cancer.
  • A 71-year-old man presented with a morphea-like plaque of the right axilla which in punch biopsy was first suspected as metastasis of primary lobular breast carcinoma.
  • After further clinical and laboratory work up including immunohistochemistry the original diagnosis of a breast cancer had to be changed to solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin.
  • Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin is a rare variant with apocrine differentiation.
  • A survey of the stereotypical presentation of this lesion and a comparison with lobular breast carcinoma and other types of apocrine carcinoma of the skin is given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18251751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Visscher DW: Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ involving a sclerosing lesion with adenosis: report of a case. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Nov;133(11):1817-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ involving a sclerosing lesion with adenosis: report of a case.
  • Apocrine metaplasia is a ubiquitous component of the mammary fibrocystic change spectrum.
  • Although mostly associated with cysts, apocrine metaplasia can also present as a proliferative lesion, rarely with cytologic atypism.
  • Apocrine atypia is characterized by 3-fold nuclear enlargement, multiple nucleoli, and hyperchromatism and generally arises in florid adenosis or radial sclerosing lesions.
  • Dramatic apocrine atypia may be very difficult to distinguish from apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • The latter is distinguished from apocrine atypia by greater extent of the lesion (>0.4 cm) and the presence of greater nuclear pleomorphism with nuclear membrane irregularity.
  • The clinical significance of apocrine atypia is poorly understood and reflects the lack of published outcome studies.
  • Herein, I report a case in which apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ presented as "atypical apocrine adenosis" in a needle core breast biopsy.
  • It illustrates the problem of assessing apocrine atypia and apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ in small samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19886717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Yang AH: Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Jun;29(3):274-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Facial apocrine fibroadenoma in man: a rare finding.
  • Apocrine fibroadenoma (AFA), considered a counterpart of fibroadenoma of breast, is a rare cutaneous apocrine neoplasm occurring almost exclusively in women.
  • The cytokeratin profiles of our case were similar to those of apocrine or eccrine neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17519626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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36. Seal M, Wilson C, Naus GJ, Chia S, Bainbridge TC, Hayes MM: Encapsulated apocrine papillary carcinoma of the breast--a tumour of uncertain malignant potential: report of five cases. Virchows Arch; 2009 Dec;455(6):477-83
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  • [Title] Encapsulated apocrine papillary carcinoma of the breast--a tumour of uncertain malignant potential: report of five cases.
  • Five cases of an unusual encapsulated apocrine papillary tumour are reported.
  • All presented as cystic masses in the breast of women aged 44-84 years.
  • All were pure apocrine in type and showed variable degrees of cytological atypia and mitotic activity.
  • All lacked evidence of malignancy in the breast tissue outside of the lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammography. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19862552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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37. Somasundaram SK, Balasubramanian RK, Aref F, Karim S, Vashisht R: A rare and unusual case of bilateral, axillary, metachronous apocrine carcinoma. Int Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;92(6):335-8
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  • [Title] A rare and unusual case of bilateral, axillary, metachronous apocrine carcinoma.
  • Apocrine carcinoma is a rare sweat gland neoplasm with very few cases reported in the published literature.
  • We report a case of primary axillary apocrine carcinoma with later recurrences in both axillae.
  • A 55-year-old man was clinically diagnosed with hydradenitis suppurativa in the right axilla, and after excision of lesion, histology showed metastatic adenocarcinoma of probable breast origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18402127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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38. Honma N, Saji S, Kurabayashi R, Aida J, Arai T, Horii R, Akiyama F, Iwase T, Harada N, Younes M, Toi M, Takubo K, Sakamoto G: Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma of the breast. APMIS; 2008 Oct;116(10):923-30
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  • [Title] Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • Apocrine carcinoma of the breast, which frequently expresses oestrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) in the absence of ER-alpha and only infrequently is treated endocrinologically, gives an opportunity to investigate the clinicopathological role of ER-beta in breast cancer independent of ER-alpha expression or tamoxifen treatment.
  • Several isotypes of ER-beta, ER-beta1-5 etc., have been identified thus far; however, the clinicopathological importance of each ER-beta isotype in breast cancer is still uncertain.
  • Here we aimed to clarify the clinicopathological importance of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx (ER-beta2) in apocrine carcinomas, immunohistochemically examining expressions of ER-beta1 and ER-betacx in 47 apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER-beta1 positivity was also associated with favorable clinical outcome in 24 so-called triple-negative (ER-alpha-negative/PR-negative/HER2-negative) apocrine carcinomas.
  • ER-beta1 itself, independent of ER-alpha expression and tamoxifen treatment, seems to have a tumor-suppressive effect, at least in apocrine carcinomas.
  • Further study of ER-beta1 is desired to optimize breast cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Estrogen Receptor beta / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19132986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Protein Isoforms
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39. Francisco JS, Alfaro SE, Oliveira DC, Tonon S, Dias EP: Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Mar-Apr;71(2):224-7
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region.
  • The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
  • Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors.
  • We report a case of a 51-year-old black woman who developed apocrine carcinoma lesions in the head and neck region.
  • Based on cutaneous apocrine carcinoma compatibility of the microscopic aspects, we concluded that the tumor in the submandibular skin was probably the primary neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Carcinoma / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16446921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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40. Robson A, Lazar AJ, Ben Nagi J, Hanby A, Grayson W, Feinmesser M, Granter SR, Seed P, Warneke CL, McKee PH, Calonje E: Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic analysis of 24 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):682-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma: a clinico-pathologic analysis of 24 cases.
  • Primary cutaneous apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignancy.
  • This study of 24 examples suggests that the prognosis is not always poor and that grading criteria devised for breast carcinoma may have utility in this group of malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2009 Jan;33(1):155-7 [18971780.001]
  • (PMID = 18347508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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41. Fernandez-Flores A: Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma. Cesk Patol; 2009 Oct;45(4):108-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammaglobin immunostaining in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis from breast carcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis between cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (CAC) and cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma is commonly difficult.
  • We used the antibody mammaglobin in order to study 10 cases of cutaneous metastasis of ductal breast carcinoma, and 2 cases of CAC.
  • Four cases of metastatic breast carcinoma also showed scattered positive cells.
  • One case of metastatic breast carcinoma did not show any expression of mammaglobin at all.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Uteroglobin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20301838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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42. Bhargava R, Beriwal S, Striebel JM, Dabbs DJ: Breast cancer molecular class ERBB2: preponderance of tumors with apocrine differentiation and expression of basal phenotype markers CK5, CK5/6, and EGFR. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Mar;18(2):113-8
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  • [Title] Breast cancer molecular class ERBB2: preponderance of tumors with apocrine differentiation and expression of basal phenotype markers CK5, CK5/6, and EGFR.
  • This is a study of 205 consecutive invasive breast carcinomas.
  • The invasive breast carcinomas were classified using semiquantitative immunohistochemical results for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, (PR), and HER2 into following classes: Luminal A (strong ER+, HER2 negative), Luminal B (weak to moderate ER/PR+, HER2 negative), Triple Negative (TN; ER/PR negative, HER2 negative), ERBB2 (ER/PR negative, HER2 positive), Luminal A-HER2 Hybrid (strong ER+, HER2 positive), Luminal B-HER2 Hybrid (weak to moderate ER/PR+, HER2 positive).
  • The most striking morphologic feature associated with ERBB2 tumors was the presence of apocrine differentiation seen in 7 of 8 (88%) cases.
  • We conclude that tumors with apocrine differentiation are most often of ERBB2 type.

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  • (PMID = 19801938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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43. Honma N, Takubo K, Arai T, Younes M, Kasumi F, Akiyama F, Sakamoto G: Comparative study of monoclonal antibody B72.3 and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 as markers of apocrine carcinoma of the breast. APMIS; 2006 Oct;114(10):712-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative study of monoclonal antibody B72.3 and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 as markers of apocrine carcinoma of the breast.
  • Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) is a commonly used apocrine marker; however, its expression was recently found to decrease in infiltrating, larger, or metastasizing apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • In the breast, monoclonal antibody (MAb) B72.3 has been reported to be useful as an apocrine marker although it is used for that purpose much less frequently than GCDFP-15.
  • In the search for a more consistent apocrine marker, immunoreactivity for MAb B72.3 was examined in apocrine carcinomas at different stages and compared with GCDFP-15.
  • 47 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (92%) and 9 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (15%) were MAb B72.3 positive, while 39 of 51 apocrine carcinomas (76%) and 13 of 62 ordinary carcinomas (21%) were GCDFP-15 positive.
  • The combined usage of MAb B72.3 with GCDFP-15 was useful to confirm the diagnosis of apocrine carcinoma, especially for advanced tumors, with only two cases being negative for both MAb B72.3 and GCDFP-15.
  • Whether these two cases should be differentiated from ordinary apocrine carcinomas remains to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / secondary. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human
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44. Banneau G, Guedj M, MacGrogan G, de Mascarel I, Velasco V, Schiappa R, Bonadona V, David A, Dugast C, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Ingster O, Vabres P, Caux F, de Reynies A, Iggo R, Sevenet N, Bonnet F, Longy M: Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(4):R63
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  • [Title] Molecular apocrine differentiation is a common feature of breast cancer in patients with germline PTEN mutations.
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast carcinoma is the main malignant tumor occurring in patients with Cowden disease, a cancer-prone syndrome caused by germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN characterized by the occurrence throughout life of hyperplastic, hamartomatous and malignant growths affecting various organs.
  • The absence of known histological features for breast cancer arising in a PTEN-mutant background prompted us to explore them for potential new markers.
  • METHODS: We first performed a microarray study of three tumors from patients with Cowden disease in the context of a transcriptomic study of 74 familial breast cancers.
  • A subsequent histological and immunohistochemical study including 12 additional cases of Cowden disease breast carcinomas was performed to confirm the microarray data.
  • RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering of the 74 familial tumors followed the intrinsic gene classification of breast cancer except for a group of five tumors that included the three Cowden tumors.
  • The gene expression profile of the Cowden tumors shows considerable overlap with that of a breast cancer subgroup known as molecular apocrine breast carcinoma, which is suspected to have increased androgenic signaling and shows frequent ERBB2 amplification in sporadic tumors.
  • The histological and immunohistochemical study showed that several cases had apocrine histological features and expressed GGT1, which is a potential new marker for apocrine breast carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that activation of the ERBB2-PI3K-AKT pathway by loss of PTEN at early stages of tumorigenesis promotes the formation of breast tumors with apocrine features.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20712882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2949656
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45. Alsaad KO, Obaidat N, Dube V, Chapman W, Ghazarian D: Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):131-5
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  • [Title] Vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma: a case with nodal metastasis and intranodal mucinous differentiation.
  • They are classified into extramammary Paget's disease, sweat gland carcinomas, and "breast-like" adenocarcinomas of the vulva.
  • The latter resemble adenocarcinomas arising in the breast morphologically and immunophenotypically.
  • Rare cases of adenocarcinoma with apocrine features have been reported, and whether these neoplasms originate from the "native apocrine" sweat glands or from "anogenital mammary-like" glands are still debatable.
  • The presence of normal mammary-like glands in the vicinity of the tumor, the transitional malignant morphological features from normal mammary-like glands and the tumor, the breast-like histological features of the tumor, and the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors generally suggest an origin from anogenital mammary-like glands.
  • Absence of these features points toward native apocrine sweat glands as the source of these neoplasms.
  • In this report, we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Paget's disease of the right vulva, which was treated by hemi-vulvectomy, and who later presented with primary vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes and intranodal mucinous/colloidal differentiation: a feature, to the best of our knowledge, not reported before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18842349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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46. Weinreb I, Tabanda-Lichauco R, Van der Kwast T, Perez-Ordoñez B: Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland: report of 3 cases with marked apocrine differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Aug;30(8):1014-21
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  • [Title] Low-grade intraductal carcinoma of salivary gland: report of 3 cases with marked apocrine differentiation.
  • Low-grade intraductal carcinomas (LG-IDCs) of salivary gland are rare neoplasms that resemble atypical ductal hyperplasia or LG-IDCs of the breast.
  • The intraductal component in all cases exhibited a remarkable degree of apocrine differentiation.
  • Extensive apocrine differentiation, expression of ARs, CK7, and CK19, and progression to a widely invasive carcinoma after a long clinical latency have not been reported in LG-IDCs previously.
  • These tumors share some histopathologic features with salivary duct carcinoma including apocrine differentiation, and expression of ARs and BRST-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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47. Kosemehmetoglu K, Guler G: Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway? Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Dec;14(6):425-31
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  • [Title] Papillary apocrine metaplasia and columnar cell lesion with atypia: is there a shared common pathway?
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia (PAM) and columnar cell lesion with atypia (CCL) are considered as candidates of early premalignant breast lesions.
  • We selected 93 neoplastic and nonneoplastic cases with both PAM and CCL among 477 breast specimens and reevaluated sections by measuring the distance between these lesions.
  • Ninety-three (19.4%) of 477 breast specimens contained both PAM and CCL; in 73.1% of the cases, the 2 lesions were in continuity with or adjacent to each other.
  • Papillary apocrine metaplasia and CCL tend to appear in close contact, especially in neoplastic breasts with favorable features.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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48. Niemeier LA, Dabbs DJ, Beriwal S, Striebel JM, Bhargava R: Androgen receptor in breast cancer: expression in estrogen receptor-positive tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative tumors with apocrine differentiation. Mod Pathol; 2010 Feb;23(2):205-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgen receptor in breast cancer: expression in estrogen receptor-positive tumors and in estrogen receptor-negative tumors with apocrine differentiation.
  • Androgens exert growth inhibitory effects on estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer cell lines that show androgen receptor expression.
  • These laboratory findings may be translated into inexpensive alternative therapies for hormone receptor-negative invasive breast cancers.
  • Our aim was to systematically evaluate androgen receptor expression by immunohistochemistry in invasive breast cancers.
  • Androgen receptor (clone AR441, Dako) expression was analyzed on 189 well-characterized consecutive invasive breast carcinomas represented with threefold redundancy on tissue microarrays.
  • Of the 189 consecutive invasive breast cancers, 151 (80%) were positive and 38 (20%) were negative for androgen receptor.
  • Six of eight estrogen receptor-negative/androgen receptor-positive cases showed apocrine differentiation.
  • Androgen receptor expression in estrogen receptor-negative tumors was associated with lower Nottingham grade (P=0.005) and apocrine differentiation (P=0.039).
  • In conclusion, most estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors also express androgen receptor.
  • Androgen receptor expression in estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-negative/HER2+ tumors (which commonly show apocrine differentiation) and a subset of triple - negative apocrine tumors suggest that these tumors together comprises the 'molecular apocrine' group described previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19898421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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49. Elayat G, Selim AG, Wells CA: Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast. Breast J; 2009 Sep-Oct;15(5):475-82
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  • [Title] Alterations of the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1, cyclin A, p27, p21, p16, and pRb in apocrine metaplasia of the breast.
  • Apocrine metaplasia (APM) in the breast has been held as a sign of benignity.
  • We currently investigate the role of some of the cell cycle proteins, previously reported to be de-regulated in breast cancer, in an attempt to assess their significance in APM.
  • NAPM was generally similar to normal breast epithelium.
  • Apocrine cells were negative for p16 while pRb was expressed in all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Cyclin A / analysis. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19624419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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50. Gupta RK: Liesegang rings in fine needle aspirate of breast cysts with predominance of apocrine cells: a study of 14 cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Oct;36(10):701-4
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  • [Title] Liesegang rings in fine needle aspirate of breast cysts with predominance of apocrine cells: a study of 14 cases.
  • Fine needle aspirate (FNA) from 14 cases (age range 17-84 years), with Liesegang rings (LR's) in breast cysts seen over a period of 26 years comprised the material of this study from more than 38,000 FNA's of the breast which had been done for a variety of breast lesions.
  • Seen also were several apocrine cells and some macrophages and the LR's were found to be negative on immunostains for EMA and CK, and a panel of other special stains (Table I).
  • Since LR's can be mistaken for ova, larvae, or parasites, it is important to be aware of their potential presence in aspirate samples of breast cysts to avoid a misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Cyst / diagnosis. Breast Cyst / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18773436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Naderi A, Liu J: Inhibition of androgen receptor and Cdc25A phosphatase as a combination targeted therapy in molecular apocrine breast cancer. Cancer Lett; 2010 Dec 1;298(1):74-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inhibition of androgen receptor and Cdc25A phosphatase as a combination targeted therapy in molecular apocrine breast cancer.
  • Molecular apocrine breast cancer is an estrogen receptor negative subtype characterized by the over-expression of steroid response genes.
  • Moreover, using a xenograft molecular apocrine model we demonstrate that the combination therapy results in a significantly better therapeutic response compared to monotherapy and control groups manifesting as reductions in tumor growth, proliferation index, and cellularity.
  • This study demonstrates that the combined application of AR and Cdc25A inhibitors is a promising therapeutic strategy in molecular apocrine breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology. Androgen Receptor Antagonists. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Flutamide / pharmacology. cdc25 Phosphatases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20605569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgen Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / cdc25 Phosphatases
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52. Celis JE, Gromov P, Cabezón T, Moreira JM, Friis E, Jirström K, Llombart-Bosch A, Timmermans-Wielenga V, Rank F, Gromova I: 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Mol Cell Proteomics; 2008 Oct;7(10):1795-809
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma.
  • Established histopathological criteria divide invasive breast carcinomas into defined groups.
  • The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous, papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas.
  • Molecular profiling technologies, on the other hand, subdivide breast tumors into five subtypes, basal-like, luminal A, luminal B, normal breast tissue-like, and ERBB2-positive, that have different prognostic characteristics.
  • An additional subclass termed "molecular apocrine" has recently been described, but these lesions did not exhibit all the histopathological features of classical invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs).
  • IACs make up 0.5-3% of the invasive ductal carcinomas, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are presently no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis and as a result no precise information as to their prognosis.
  • By comparing the protein expression profiles of apocrine macrocysts and non-malignant breast epithelial tissue we have previously reported the identification of a few proteins that are specifically expressed by benign apocrine lesions as well as by the few IACs that were available to us at the time.
  • Here we reiterate our strategy to reveal apocrine cell markers and present novel data, based on the analysis of a considerably larger number of samples, establishing that IACs correspond to a distinct molecular subtype of breast carcinomas characterized by the expression of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase alone or in combination with a novel form of acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 1 (ACSM1).
  • Moreover we show that 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase is not expressed by other breast cancer types as determined by gel-based proteomics and immunohistochemistry analysis and that antibodies against this protein can identify IACs in an unbiased manner in a large breast cancer tissue microarray making them potentially useful as a diagnostic aid.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / enzymology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism. Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18632593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-9484
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.141 / 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase; EC 6.2.1.- / ACSM1 protein, human; EC 6.2.1.- / Coenzyme A Ligases
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53. Murali R, Salisbury E, Pathmanathan N: Histiocytoid change in breast carcinoma: a report of 3 cases with an unusual cytomorphologic pattern of apocrine change. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):548-52
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  • [Title] Histiocytoid change in breast carcinoma: a report of 3 cases with an unusual cytomorphologic pattern of apocrine change.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast carcinomas composed predominantly or exclusively of cells with foamy and/or granular cytoplasm have been termed histiocytoid breast carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: HBC represents an unusual morphologic pattern of apocrine change that may be seen in lobular and ductal breast carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Histiocytes / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Cytol. 2006 Nov-Dec;50(6):158A
  • (PMID = 17017444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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54. Sanga S, Broom BM, Cristini V, Edgerton ME: Gene expression meta-analysis supports existence of molecular apocrine breast cancer with a role for androgen receptor and implies interactions with ErbB family. BMC Med Genomics; 2009;2:59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene expression meta-analysis supports existence of molecular apocrine breast cancer with a role for androgen receptor and implies interactions with ErbB family.
  • We use the Molecular Apocrine subtype of breast cancer to demonstrate our ability to infer pathways directly from patients' gene expression data with pattern analysis algorithms.
  • METHODS: We combine data from two studies that propose the existence of the Molecular Apocrine phenotype.
  • We use hierarchical clustering, principal components analysis, and comparison of gene signatures derived from Significance Analysis of Microarrays to establish the existence of the Molecular Apocrine subtype and the equivalence of its molecular phenotype across both institutions.
  • RESULTS: We demonstrate that the two separately introduced ER- breast cancer subsets represent the same tumor type, called Molecular Apocrine breast cancer.
  • Analysis of Molecular Apocrine breast cancer implies that therapies targeting AR might be hampered if interactions with ErbB family members are not addressed.


55. McGrath KG: Apocrine sweat gland obstruction by antiperspirants allowing transdermal absorption of cutaneous generated hormones and pheromones as a link to the observed incidence rates of breast and prostate cancer in the 20th century. Med Hypotheses; 2009 Jun;72(6):665-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine sweat gland obstruction by antiperspirants allowing transdermal absorption of cutaneous generated hormones and pheromones as a link to the observed incidence rates of breast and prostate cancer in the 20th century.
  • Breast and prostate cancer share similarities and likely represent homologous cancers in females and males, respectively.
  • Personal care products containing estrogens or xenoestrogens have raised concern as a breast cancer risk, especially in young African-American women.
  • In the United States (US) there is a parallel rise in the incidence in breast and prostate cancer compared to selected non-hormone dependent tumors.
  • Observed US and global breast and prostate cancer incidence increases were occurring before exogenous hormone replacement and xenoestrogen exposure were commonplace.
  • An unintentional, inadvertent, and long term hormone exposure may occur from transdermal absorption of sex hormones and pheromones (androgens) from axillary apocrine sweat gland obstruction by aluminum-based antiperspirants.
  • The global rise in antiperspirant use parallels rises in breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates.
  • A multi-disciplinary literature based set of evidence is presented on how such a link is possible, to prompt confirmatory investigations in the pursuit of unmet needs in breast and prostate cancer etiology and prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiperspirants / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Pheromones / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Risk Assessment / methods. Skin Absorption / drug effects


56. Fernandez-Flores A: Toker cell related to the folliculo-sebaceous-apocrine unit: a study of horizontal sections of the nipple. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2008;49(3):339-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Toker cell related to the folliculo-sebaceous-apocrine unit: a study of horizontal sections of the nipple.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Nipples / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18758638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-7
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57. Page DL: Apocrine carcinomas of the breast. Breast; 2005 Feb;14(1):1-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands. Cytoplasm. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • [CommentOn] Breast. 2005 Feb;14(1):3-10 [15695074.001]
  • (PMID = 15695073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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58. Tsung JS, Wang TY, Wang SM, Yang PS: Cytological and biochemical studies of breast cyst fluid. Breast; 2005 Feb;14(1):37-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytological and biochemical studies of breast cyst fluid.
  • We determined the biochemical composition of fluid aspirated from 52 breast cysts and classified the cysts into types I and II on the basis of the potassium-to-sodium (K/Na) ratio in the fluid.
  • In this study, we confirmed the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in some breast cyst fluids, regardless of whether cysts were type 1 or type 2, or benign or malignant.
  • In addition, apocrine cells were observed in both type 1 and type 2 cysts.
  • Therefore, breast cyst type cannot predict the natural history of cystic changes or indicate the likelihood of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Cyst / chemistry. Breast Cyst / pathology. Potassium / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Sodium / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apocrine Glands / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms / etiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis


59. Khalbuss WE: Cytomorphology of rare malignant tumors of the breast. Clin Lab Med; 2005 Dec;25(4):761-75, vii
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytomorphology of rare malignant tumors of the breast.
  • This article reviews cytomorphology of rare malignant tumors of the breast: squamous carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, lipid-rich carcinoma, and carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous features.
  • It is important to bear in mind the cytomorphology and diagnosis of rare malignant tumors of the breast in analysis of breast fine needle aspiration smears.
  • Although rare, these malignant tumors can be diagnosed by the cytomorphological characteristics, and should be included in the differential diagnoses of breast neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16308090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-2712
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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60. Suzuki T, Miki Y, Takagi K, Hirakawa H, Moriya T, Ohuchi N, Sasano H: Androgens in human breast carcinoma. Med Mol Morphol; 2010 Jun;43(2):75-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Androgens in human breast carcinoma.
  • Sex steroids play important roles in the development of human breast carcinoma.
  • Androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in a majority of breast carcinoma tissues.
  • However, the significance of androgen actions remains largely unclear in breast carcinoma, differing from estrogen actions.
  • Therefore, in this review, we summarized recent studies on androgens in breast carcinoma.
  • Concentration of a potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), was significantly higher in breast carcinoma tissue than in plasma, and DHT is considered to be locally produced from circulating androstenedione by 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 and 5alpha-reductase.
  • Androgens predominantly show antiproliferative effects in breast carcinoma cells, but association between AR status and the clinical outcome of the patient remains controversial, perhaps partly because AR status does not necessarily reflect androgenic action in breast carcinoma.
  • Recently, molecular apocrine breast carcinoma was identified by microarray analysis.
  • Molecular apocrine carcinoma was characterized by being estrogen receptor (ER) negative and AR positive and by being associated with increased androgen signaling and apocrine features.
  • Therefore, androgenic actions may also be involved in apocrine features in breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20683693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1499
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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61. Toyoda Y, Ishikawa T: Pharmacogenomics of human ABC transporter ABCC11 (MRP8): potential risk of breast cancer and chemotherapy failure. Anticancer Agents Med Chem; 2010 Oct 1;10(8):617-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacogenomics of human ABC transporter ABCC11 (MRP8): potential risk of breast cancer and chemotherapy failure.
  • This ER-associated degradation of ABCC11 protein underlies the molecular mechanism of affecting the function of apocrine glands.
  • On the other hand, the wild type (Gly180) of ABCC11 is associated with wet-type earwax, axillary osmidrosis, colostrum secretion from the mammary gland, and the potential susceptibility of breast cancer.
  • Furthermore we focus on the impact of ABCC11 538G>A on the apocrine phenotype, patients' response to nucleoside-based chemotherapy, and the potential risk of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / secretion. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Pharmacogenetics. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 21182469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5992
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Agents Med Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCC11 protein, human; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3319924
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62. Ohri A, Jetly D, Shukla K, Bansal R: Cytological grading of breast neoplasia and its correlation with histological grading. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Apr;49(2):208-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytological grading of breast neoplasia and its correlation with histological grading.
  • Cytological grading of breast cancer is not well established despite histological grading having gained a strong foothold.
  • In our study we have analyzed 50 cases of breast carcinoma which included invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, stromal sarcoma, apocrine carcinoma, papillary carcinoma.
  • Simplified Black grading system has been recommended for cytological grading of breast neoplasia because of its lucidity and its reproducibility.
  • Cytological grading of breast neoplasia is important for neo adjuvant chemotherapy and also for predicting the prognosis of the patient on FNAC alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16933716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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63. Vamre TB, Stalsberg H, Thomas DB, WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives: Extra-tumoral breast tissue in breast cancer patients: variations with steroid contraceptive use. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jun 1;118(11):2827-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extra-tumoral breast tissue in breast cancer patients: variations with steroid contraceptive use.
  • The association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and benign breast changes in extra-tumoral breast tissue was studied histologically in 1,503 breast cancer patients from The WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives.
  • The occurrence of ductal hyperplasia, ductal atypia, sclerosing adenosis, cysts, apocrine metaplasia, apocrine hyperplasia, apocrine atypia, adenosis, lobular atypia, duct ectasia, calcifications, inflammatory reaction, lactational metaplasia and a high epithelial-stromal ratio was graded semi-quantitatively.
  • Our results show that the effects of OC use on ductal hyperplasia in non-neoplastic breast tissue of breast cancer patients are similar to what others have found in patients with benign breast disease only.
  • The increased prevalence of extra-tumoral ductal carcinoma in situ in breast cancer patients who started OC use at high age may possibly be explained by a longer preinvasive phase in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / etiology. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / etiology. Contraceptives, Oral / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16380999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCIPC CDC HHS / CE / NICHD-CE-84-16
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral
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64. Mannello F, Tonti GA, Darbre PD: Concentration of aluminium in breast cyst fluids collected from women affected by gross cystic breast disease. J Appl Toxicol; 2009 Jan;29(1):1-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concentration of aluminium in breast cyst fluids collected from women affected by gross cystic breast disease.
  • Gross cystic breast disease (GCBD) is the most common benign breast disorder, but the molecular basis of cyst formation remains to be identified.
  • If the use of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts is involved in the etiology of gross breast cyst formation, it might be expected that aluminium would be at elevated levels in human breast cyst fluid (BCF).
  • Aluminium was measured by ICP-MS in 48 samples of BCF, 30 samples of human blood serum and 45 samples of human breast milk at different stages of lactation (colostrum, intermediate, mature).
  • The median level of aluminium in apocrine type I BCF (n = 27, 150 microg l(-1)) was significantly higher than in transudative type II BCF (n = 21, 32 microg l(-1); P < 0.0001).
  • By comparison, aluminium measurements gave a median concentration of 6 microg l(-1) in human serum and 25 microg l(-1) in human breast milk, with no difference between colostrum, intermediate and mature milk.
  • However when compared with human breast milk, aluminium levels were only significantly higher in apocrine type I BCF (P < 0.0001) and not in transudative type II BCF (P = 0.152).
  • It remains to be identified why such high levels of aluminium were found in the apocrine type I BCF and from where the aluminium originated.
  • However, if aluminium-based antiperspirants are found to be the source and to play any causal role in development of breast cysts, then it might become possible to prevent this common breast disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Aluminum / analysis. Breast Cyst / chemistry. Cyst Fluid / chemistry. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18785682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0260-437X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiperspirants; CPD4NFA903 / Aluminum
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65. Carvalho J, Fullen D, Lowe L, Su L, Ma L: The expression of CD23 in cutaneous non-lymphoid neoplasms. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Sep;34(9):693-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In our routine practice, we observed that CD23 reacted strongly with eccrine and apocrine secretory coils.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining of CD23 was performed in a total of 131 cases of apocrine, eccrine, follicular and other cutaneous non-lymphoid tumors.
  • RESULTS: CD23 expression was detected in all benign apocrine tumors and in half of benign eccrine tumors, particularly those derived from secretory coils.
  • In addition, CD23 reacted diffusely with cutaneous mucinous eccrine carcinoma in a manner similar to breast or colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: CD23 appears to be a reliable immunohistochemical marker of the eccrine/apocrine secretory coil and helpful in identifying sweat gland tumors of such origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Eccrine Glands / metabolism. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17696916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, IgE
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66. Ashbeck EL, Rosenberg RD, Stauber PM, Key CR: Benign breast biopsy diagnosis and subsequent risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Mar;16(3):467-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign breast biopsy diagnosis and subsequent risk of breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: We examine benign breast biopsy diagnoses as reported by community pathologists in New Mexico and investigate associations with future breast cancer development.
  • METHODS: Using data collected between 1992 and 2000 by the New Mexico Mammography Project and cancer data through 2003 from the New Mexico Tumor Registry, we calculated breast cancer rates following 14,602 benign breast biopsies for women ages 30 to 89 years.
  • For comparison, we also calculated the breast cancer rate following 215,283 normal screening mammograms.
  • RESULTS: We identified 480 subsequent breast cancer diagnoses among 14,602 women with benign breast biopsies and 4,402 breast cancer diagnoses among 215,283 women with mammograms assigned a "negative" or "benign finding" assessment.
  • Among low-risk histologic diagnoses, the strongest associations with subsequent breast cancer development included adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, calcifications, and ductal hyperplasia.
  • Fibroadenoma, inflammation, and cysts did not exhibit an association with breast cancer development.
  • Women with low-risk diagnoses and breast tissue characterized as fatty or with scattered densities had a HR of 2.09 (95% CI, 1.68-2.60), whereas women with low-risk histologic diagnoses and dense breasts had a HR of 3.36 (95% CI, 2.83-3.99).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The observed breast cancer occurrence contributes to evidence of increased risk following benign biopsy.
  • The risk associated with histologic diagnoses in absence of atypia was twice the risk experienced by women with normal mammogram evaluations and may be modified by breast density.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Risk

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  • (PMID = 17337650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U01 CA69976
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Singh P, Misra V, Singh PA, Mehrotra R: Multiple intraductal papillomas of breast clinically masquerading as malignancy. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):112-4
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  • [Title] Multiple intraductal papillomas of breast clinically masquerading as malignancy.
  • A case of multiple intraductal papillomas of breast with ulceration of overlying skin and large lump leading to clinical diagnosis of malignancy is documented here.
  • CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old female presented with ulcerated mass of six months duration in the left breast.
  • No family history of carcinoma breast was present.
  • Fine needle aspiration smears showed benign cellular changes with apocrine metaplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: The case highlights the problem in differentiating marked papillomatosis from a malignant lesion of breast and importance of biopsy with immunohistochemistry in such cases for proper management.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20090236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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68. Berg WA: Sonographically depicted breast clustered microcysts: is follow-up appropriate? AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Oct;185(4):952-9
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  • [Title] Sonographically depicted breast clustered microcysts: is follow-up appropriate?
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of lesions prospectively classified on breast sonography as clustered microcysts without a discrete solid component.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Over a 4-year interval during which 1,900 consecutive breast sonography examinations were obtained at the University of Maryland, 110 examinations (5.8%) yielded 123 lesions so classified.
  • Of the 13 lesions biopsied, five (38%) showed apocrine metaplasia; five (38%), fibrocystic changes; two (15%), cysts; and one (8%), a microscopic fibroadenoma and cysts.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast clustered microcysts are relatively common, seen in 5.8% of breast sonograms.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Fibroadenoma / ultrasonography. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 16177414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Abdalla F, Boder J, Buhmeida A, Hashmi H, Elzagheid A, Collan Y: Nuclear morphometry in FNABs of breast disease in Libyans. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):3985-9
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  • [Title] Nuclear morphometry in FNABs of breast disease in Libyans.
  • There were 23 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and 17 of benign breast disease.
  • Apocrine metaplasia was excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19192660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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70. Gutermuth J, Audring H, Voit C, Haas N: Primary carcinoma of ectopic axillary breast tissue. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Feb;20(2):217-21
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoma of ectopic axillary breast tissue.
  • The presence of ectopic breast tissue is reported in 2-6% of the general population with most cases being located in the axillary region.
  • Although the same pathology occurs in both eutopic and ectopic breast tissue, primary carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue has been reported only in a small number of cases.
  • Histological diagnosis can also be delayed if ectopic breast tissue is not present or screened for in the biopsy specimens as apocrine glands of the breast and skin, respectively, exhibit striking similarities and immunohistochemistry is of limited help.
  • Diagnostic delay is demonstrated by the case of a 56-year-old patient who underwent a series of four surgical excisions of a primary ectopic breast carcinoma and developed local lymph node metastasis until treatment with tamoxifen was started.
  • As two-thirds of reported cases of primary ectopic breast carcinoma arose within the axillae, this case underlines the importance of a search for ectopic breast tissue in the context of axillary ductal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16441639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Weigelt B, Horlings HM, Kreike B, Hayes MM, Hauptmann M, Wessels LF, de Jong D, Van de Vijver MJ, Van't Veer LJ, Peterse JL: Refinement of breast cancer classification by molecular characterization of histological special types. J Pathol; 2008 Oct;216(2):141-50
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  • [Title] Refinement of breast cancer classification by molecular characterization of histological special types.
  • Most invasive breast cancers are classified as invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC NOS), whereas about 25% are defined as histological 'special types'.
  • These special-type breast cancers are categorized into at least 17 discrete pathological entities; however, whether these also constitute discrete molecular entities remains to be determined.
  • Current therapy decision-making is increasingly governed by the molecular classification of breast cancer (luminal, basal-like, HER2+).
  • We aimed to refine the breast cancer classification systems by analysing a series of 11 histological special types [invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), tubular, mucinous A, mucinous B, neuroendocrine, apocrine, IDC with osteoclastic giant cells, micropapillary, adenoid cystic, metaplastic, and medullary carcinoma] using immunohistochemistry and genome-wide gene expression profiling.
  • When classified by expression profiling, IDC NOS and ILC contain all molecular breast cancer types (ie luminal, basal-like, HER2+), whereas histological special-type cancers, apart from apocrine carcinoma, are homogeneous and only belong to one molecular subtype.
  • Taken together, our results imply that the correct classification of breast cancers of special histological type will allow a more accurate prognostication of breast cancer patients and facilitate the identification of optimal therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / classification. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic


72. Terada T: Ductal adenoma of the breast: immunohistochemistry of two cases. Pathol Int; 2008 Dec;58(12):801-5
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  • [Title] Ductal adenoma of the breast: immunohistochemistry of two cases.
  • The author reports herein two cases of ductal adenoma of the breast with an emphasis on immunohistochemistry.
  • Patient 1 had extensive apocrine metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis


73. Bulgaresi P, Cariaggi MP, Bonardi L, Carozzi MF, Confortini M, Galanti L, Maddau C, Matucci M, Rubeca T, Turco P, Ciatto S, Miccinesi G: Analysis of morphologic patterns of fine-needle aspiration of the breast to reduce false-negative results in breast cytology. Cancer; 2005 Jun 25;105(3):152-7
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  • [Title] Analysis of morphologic patterns of fine-needle aspiration of the breast to reduce false-negative results in breast cytology.
  • METHODS: A blind review of a set of 41 consecutive false-negative and 49 true-negative breast aspiration samples was performed by a panel of 10 expert cytologists who were asked to give a final report and to classify the samples according to classic morphologic parameters.
  • Enlarged nuclear size, a hyperchromatic nucleus, the absence of naked nuclei, and the absence of apocrine metaplasia were reported more frequently in carcinoma cases, although not to a significant extent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study confirm that breast FNAC false-negative results are at least partially the result of underreporting of abnormalities that may be noted at review.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Diseases / pathology. Cohort Studies. Confidence Intervals. Cytodiagnosis / standards. Cytodiagnosis / trends. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Odds Ratio. ROC Curve. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 15861428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Hirose M, Hashizume T, Seino N, Kubota H, Nobusawa H, Gokan T: Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol; 2007 Mar-Apr;36(2):51-65
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  • [Title] Atlas of breast magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has become important not only for assessing the extent of breast cancer for breast-conserving surgery but also for the evaluation and diagnosis of other benign and malignant pathologies.
  • We radiologists therefore need to know the appropriate indications for performing breast MRI and understand the MRI features of breast disease.
  • We herein review and discuss the application of current pulse sequences and the imaging strategies for MRI of breast pathologies.
  • We will illustrate the MRI features of various breast pathologies including malignant tumors such as invasive and noninvasive ductal carcinoma, special types of invasive carcinoma (mucinous, apocrine, lobular carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and so on), inflammatory carcinoma, semimalignant tumor (phyllodes tumor), benign tumors (fibroadenoma, intraductal and intracystic papilloma), inflammatory conditions, and postsurgical changes.
  • We will also demonstrate three-dimensional fusion images of MR ductography and breast MRI of patients with nipple discharge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17331837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-0188
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in diagnostic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Diagn Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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75. Lopez-Garcia MA, Geyer FC, Lacroix-Triki M, Marchió C, Reis-Filho JS: Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways. Histopathology; 2010 Aug;57(2):171-92
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  • [Title] Breast cancer precursors revisited: molecular features and progression pathways.
  • Increasingly more coherent data on the molecular characteristics of benign breast lesions and breast cancer precursors have led to the delineation of new multistep pathways of breast cancer progression through genotypic-phenotypic correlations.
  • It has become apparent that oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive and -negative breast lesions are fundamentally distinct diseases.
  • Within the ER-positive group, histological grade is strongly associated with the number and complexity of genetic abnormalities in breast cancer cells.
  • Genomic analyses of high-grade ER-positive breast cancers have revealed that a substantial proportion of these tumours harbour the characteristic genetic aberrations found in low-grade ER-positive disease, suggesting that at least a subgroup of high-grade ER-positive breast cancers may originate from low-grade lesions.
  • The ER-negative group is more complex and heterogeneous, comprising distinct molecular entities, including basal-like, HER2 and molecular apocrine lesions.
  • Here, we review the available molecular data on breast cancer risk indicator and precursor lesions, the putative mechanisms of progression from in situ to invasive disease, and propose a revised model of breast cancer evolution based on the molecular characteristics of distinct subtypes of in situ and invasive breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20500230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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76. Bharadwaj G, Nawroz I, O'Regan B: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Jan;45(1):74-6

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  • It is pseudoencapsulated and includes tubuloacinar adenosis with dilated ducts, apocrine metaplasia, epithelial hyperplasia, and cystic changes associated with fibrosis.
  • The histological appearance of the lesion is similar to that of fibrocystic disease of the breast.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Fibrosis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Salivary Ducts / pathology. Sclerosis. Sialadenitis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16054736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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77. Ben Hassouna J, Damak T, Ben Slama A, Chargui R, Ben Dhiab T, Khomsi F, Gamoud A, Boussen H, Rahal K: Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations. Tunis Med; 2007 Oct;85(10):891-5
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  • [Title] Breast carcinoma arising within fibroadenomas. Report of four observations.
  • BACKGROUND: Fibroadenoma is a frequent benign breast tumor affecting young woman.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with breast carcinoma arising within adenofibroma and to determine the clinical characteristics and the prognosis of this rare entity.
  • In two cases, fibroadenomas was complex, containing cysts, adenosis and apocrine metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenofibroma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Cyst / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18236815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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78. Iwase H, Kurebayashi J, Tsuda H, Ohta T, Kurosumi M, Miyamoto K, Yamamoto Y, Iwase T: Clinicopathological analyses of triple negative breast cancer using surveillance data from the Registration Committee of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):118-24
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological analyses of triple negative breast cancer using surveillance data from the Registration Committee of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society.
  • BACKGROUND: Triple negative (TN) breast cancer is defined as a subtype that is negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).
  • To clarify the characteristics of TN breast cancer, surveillance data of the Registration Committee of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society were analyzed.
  • Apocrine carcinoma was also found very frequently in the TN group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although TN types are similar to basal-like breast tumor, as determined by gene profiling, their diagnosis needs verification by determination of the level of epidermal growth factor receptor or cytokeratin 5/6 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism


79. Nariţa D, Raica M, Anghel A, Suciu C, Cîmpean A: Immunohistochemical localization of prostate-specific antigen in benign and malignant breast conditions. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2005;46(1):41-5
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical localization of prostate-specific antigen in benign and malignant breast conditions.
  • We studied 24 selected breast tumors and 3 lymph nodes metastasis from patients with breast carcinoma.
  • PSA was detected in 7% of normal breast tissues, in 54.5% of benign tumors and 46.5% of malignant tumors.
  • The lesions with apocrine metaplasia were intense and constantly positive, the cystic dilated ducts and the areas with mastopathy were negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / cytology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 16286983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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80. Jayaram G, Elsayed EM, Yaccob RB: Papillary breast lesions diagnosed on cytology. Profile of 65 cases. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jan-Feb;51(1):3-8
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  • [Title] Papillary breast lesions diagnosed on cytology. Profile of 65 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cytologic features of nipple discharge and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic smears from breast lesions reported as showing papillary features and to correlate them with histopathologic features.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The study group consisted of FNA smears and/or nipple discharge smears from 65 breast lesions diagnosed on cytology as duct papilloma, papillary lesion, fibrocystic condition, fibroadenoma, papillary neoplasm or papillary carcinoma.
  • Cytomorphologic features assessed included cellularity, cell pattern (clusters, papillary, 3-dimensionality, etc.) and cell characteristics (monomorphism, pleomorphism, apocrine change, plasmacytoid features).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Papilloma, Intraductal / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17328487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Kollur SM, El Hag IA: FNA of breast fibroadenoma: observer variability and review of cytomorphology with cytohistological correlation. Cytopathology; 2006 Oct;17(5):239-44
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  • [Title] FNA of breast fibroadenoma: observer variability and review of cytomorphology with cytohistological correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the observer variability in reporting fibroadenoma of the breast by fine needle aspiration (FNA) and to review the cytomorphological features of the lesion with cytohistological correlation.
  • Two pathologists were asked to categorize smears from 67 cases of breast lesions while blinded to the clinical finding as fibroadenoma, epithelial hyperplasia (usual and atypical) and malignant.
  • Causes of diagnostic errors included marked dissociation, pleomorphism, poorly cellular smears from hyalinized fibrodenoma, lacational changes and apocrine metaplasia with cystic changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroadenoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16961651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Iqbal J, He G, Biesecker LG, Rosen P, Duray PH, Schwartzentruber D, Beg M, Kahn E: Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ. Ann Clin Lab Sci; 2006;36(4):469-74
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  • [Title] Morphological characterization of the breast in Proteus syndrome complicated by ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • The non-neoplastic changes were characterized by cysts of various sizes, lined by cuboidal or apocrine cells, focally with epithelial papillary proliferation; the lumens contained eosinophilic, mucicarmine-positive, and PAS-positive material.
  • This case highlights the difficulty of recognizing small foci of carcinoma in an asymmetrical overgrowth of the breast in a young woman with PS.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Proteus Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17127737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-7370
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical and laboratory science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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83. Vargas AC, Lakhani SR, Simpson PT: Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast: molecular pathology and clinical impact. Future Oncol; 2009 Mar;5(2):233-43
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast: molecular pathology and clinical impact.
  • Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast is a recently described morphological variant of classic invasive lobular carcinoma with an aggressive behavior.
  • Recent gene-expression profiling classified pleomorphic lobular carcinoma as 'molecular apocrine' tumors reflecting the frequent apocrine differentiation of the tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology


84. Barberis M, Pellegrini C, Cannone M, Arizzi C, Coggi G, Bosari S: Quantitative PCR and HER2 testing in breast cancer: a technical and cost-effectiveness analysis. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Apr;129(4):563-70
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  • [Title] Quantitative PCR and HER2 testing in breast cancer: a technical and cost-effectiveness analysis.
  • We performed a technical and cost-effectiveness analysis of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) for the assessment of HER2 in breast cancer.
  • We evaluated 44 frozen and 55 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by Q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemical analysis, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
  • Our data support the use of Q-RT-PCR for testing breast cancer specimens to select patients for HER2 inhibitory therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apocrine Glands / metabolism. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / genetics. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / economics. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis / economics. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 18343783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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85. Fahim L, Weinreb I, Alexander C, Perez Ordoñez B: Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):213-7
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  • [Title] Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.
  • Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented.
  • The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells.
  • The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens.
  • Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells.
  • Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Cystadenoma / pathology. Salivary Ducts / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20614317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807557
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cystadenocarcinoma / Cystadenoma / Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma / Salivary glands
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86. Saad RS, Kanbour-Shakir A, Syed A, Kanbour A: Sclerosing papillary lesion of the breast: a diagnostic pitfall for malignancy in fine needle aspiration biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Feb;34(2):114-8
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  • [Title] Sclerosing papillary lesion of the breast: a diagnostic pitfall for malignancy in fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Papillary neoplasms of breast constitute a group of lesions that show broad spectrum of morphological changes, ranging from benign to malignant and posing challenges at all diagnostic levels.
  • In conclusion, FNA cytology of this proliferative lesions may be highly cellular and may display cellular atypia similar to breast carcinoma and thus leads to false-positive interpretation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Sclerosis / diagnosis. Sclerosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Epithelial Cells / pathology. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16511846.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Maruyama N, Miyoshi Y, Taguchi T, Tamaki Y, Monden M, Noguchi S: Clinicopathologic analysis of breast cancers with PIK3CA mutations in Japanese women. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jan 15;13(2 Pt 1):408-14
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic analysis of breast cancers with PIK3CA mutations in Japanese women.
  • PURPOSE: Somatic mutations of PIK3CA, which encodes the p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, have recently been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of human breast cancers.
  • In this study, the frequency of PIK3CA mutations and their relationship with clinicopathologic and biological variables were investigated in Japanese breast cancers.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Mutational analysis of PIK3CA was done in 188 primary breast cancers of Japanese women.
  • RESULTS: Missense mutations of PIK3CA were found in 44 of 158 invasive ductal carcinomas, 4 of 10 invasive lobular carcinomas, 1 of 4 mucinous carcinomas, 2 of 2 squamous carcinomas, and 2 of 2 apocrine carcinomas, but no mutation was found in 12 noninvasive ductal carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PIK3CA mutations in Japanese breast cancers is similar to that of Caucasian breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. DNA Mutational Analysis. Mutation. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17202311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human
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88. Bratthauer GL, Saenger JS, Strauss BL: Antibodies targeting p63 react specifically in the cytoplasm of breast epithelial cells exhibiting secretory differentiation. Histopathology; 2005 Dec;47(6):611-6

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  • [Title] Antibodies targeting p63 react specifically in the cytoplasm of breast epithelial cells exhibiting secretory differentiation.
  • AIMS: The nuclear detection of p63 in myoepithelial cells of the breast has been useful in identifying possibly invasive carcinomas.
  • The aim was to determine whether this reaction is specific for p63 and indicative of all breast secretory cells.
  • METHODS: Thirty breast specimens were tested immunohistochemically for p63 protein.
  • This reaction was not seen in cells undergoing apocrine differentiation or in other cells containing secretory vacuoles.
  • The detection of p63 protein continues to have considerable value for the identification of myoepithelial cells and thus the determination of invasion, but will also have value in the determination of secretory carcinomas of the breast and in understanding their development.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies / metabolism. Breast / cytology. Breast / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Phosphoproteins. Trans-Activators
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / metabolism. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytoplasm / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16324199.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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89. Moriya T, Kozuka Y, Kanomata N, Tse GM, Tan PH: The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):68-76
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  • [Title] The role of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions.
  • Immunohistochemistry may be helpful in the diagnosis of various breast lesions.
  • The significance of immunohistochemical evaluation of apocrine lesions is still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods

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  • (PMID = 19089742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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90. Ma CX, Luo J, Ellis MJ: Molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancer. Breast Dis; 2010;32(1-2):73-84
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  • [Title] Molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancer.
  • Genome-wide analysis is particularly relevant to the study of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), as effective targeted therapy would make a considerable impact.
  • However other less common subtypes, including "Claudin-low", "HER2-enriched but without HER2 gene amplification", "Luminal B", "Luminal A" and "Molecular apocrine'' subtypes have also been described in TNBC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics


91. Erbas H, Erten O, Irfanoglu ME: Prostatic acid phosphatase in breast cyst fluid. Malays J Pathol; 2007 Dec;29(2):95-9
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  • [Title] Prostatic acid phosphatase in breast cyst fluid.
  • Gross cystic breast disease is the commonest benign breast condition and several studies have shown that women with palpable breast cysts may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  • There are two types of breast cyst and women with apocrine breast cyst may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than women with breast cysts lined by flattened epithelium.
  • The growth inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on epithelial cells suggests a potential protective role in breast cancer.
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been found in breast cyst fluid (BCF) and it may have a protective effect on the development of several carcinomas by activating TGF-beta.
  • The presence of PAP in BCF may suggest its possible role in the development of breast cancer from cystic breast diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Cyst / enzymology. Breast Cyst / pathology. Cyst Fluid / enzymology. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19108401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
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92. Provenzano E, Pinder SE: Pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer in screening: problems and pitfalls. Pathology; 2009 Jan;41(1):3-17
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  • [Title] Pre-operative diagnosis of breast cancer in screening: problems and pitfalls.
  • The widespread use of mammographic breast screening and the introduction of even more sensitive radiological techniques have placed increasing demands upon the pathologist for the accurate diagnosis and histological categorisation of screen-detected lesions.
  • Needle core biopsy (NCB) has become the mainstay of non-operative diagnosis in many Breast Units.
  • Troublesome lesions include atypical epithelial proliferations, sclerosing lesions and radial scars, papillary, columnar cell and apocrine lesions and lobular in situ neoplasia.
  • Good communication between clinician, radiologist and pathologist is especially important in the breast screening setting, in order to avoid misdiagnosis, ensure correct categorisation of NCB samples and to ensure optimum patient care.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Mass Screening / methods

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  • (PMID = 19089735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Choi YD, Gong GY, Kim MJ, Lee JS, Nam JH, Juhng SW, Choi C: Clinical and cytologic features of papillary neoplasms of the breast. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):35-40
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  • [Title] Clinical and cytologic features of papillary neoplasms of the breast.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the cytologic features benign and malignant papillary breast lesions.
  • The cytologic features evaluated were as follows: bloody background, row of tall columnar cells, naked bipolar nuclei, hemosiderin-laden macrophages, myoepithelial cells, single scattered atypical cells, cellularity, nuclear atypia, nuclear grade, apocrine metaplasia, eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules, papillary clusters, small papillae, cell balls and large sheets.
  • When papillary neoplasms of the breast are suspected in a cytologic smear, the combination of clinical examination, mammography and cytologic features should be considered to make the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Papilloma, Intraductal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16514838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Suciu V, Menet E, Guinebretière JM, Trassard M, Vielh P: [Apocrine lesions in breast pathology]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Nov;29 Spec No 1:S112-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Apocrine lesions in breast pathology].
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Humans. Metaplasia

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  • (PMID = 19887237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 5
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95. Bhargava R, Striebel J, Beriwal S, Flickinger JC, Onisko A, Ahrendt G, Dabbs DJ: Prevalence, morphologic features and proliferation indices of breast carcinoma molecular classes using immunohistochemical surrogate markers. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(5):444-55
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  • [Title] Prevalence, morphologic features and proliferation indices of breast carcinoma molecular classes using immunohistochemical surrogate markers.
  • There is dearth of studies that provide a practical working formulation of breast cancer gene expression analysis for the surgical pathologist.
  • ER, PR, HER2 were used as surrogate markers to classify 205 breast carcinomas into molecular classes.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analyses found the following associations: ERBB2 tumors with apocrine differentiation (p=0.0031); Triple negative tumors with high Ki-67 index (p<0.0001) and CK5 positivity (p<0.0001); HER2 negative-low receptor positive tumors (luminal B) with increased lymph node involvement (p=0.0141).
  • Immunohistochemistry is a reliable surrogate tool to classify breast carcinoma according to the gene expression profile classification.

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  • (PMID = 19294003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2655155
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ki-67 / Molecular classes / breast carcinoma / immunohistochemical surrogate markers
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96. Kuroki-Suzuki S, Kuroki Y, Nasu K, Nawano S, Moriyama N, Okazaki M: Detecting breast cancer with non-contrast MR imaging: combining diffusion-weighted and STIR imaging. Magn Reson Med Sci; 2007;6(1):21-7
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  • [Title] Detecting breast cancer with non-contrast MR imaging: combining diffusion-weighted and STIR imaging.
  • We combined diffusion-weighted (DWI) and short TI inversion recovery (STIR) imaging to evaluate the diagnostic capability of non-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to detect breast cancer.
  • Seventy women patients underwent mammography and MR imaging with combined DWI (b factor: 1000) and STIR that revealed malignancy, and postoperative pathological examination confirmed breast cancer.
  • Two cases, an intraductal and an apocrine carcinoma, were incorrectly diagnosed by MR imaging.
  • Precise diagnosis of breast cancer is possible with combined DWI and STIR, even in non-contrast MR imaging, regardless of the diameter or background density of mammary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Image Enhancement / methods. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 17510539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-3182
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance in medical sciences : MRMS : an official journal of Japan Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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97. Lui PC, Lau PP, Tse GM, Tan PH, Lo RC, Tang VW, Ng WK, Somali A, Mak KL, Thomas TM, Chan NH, Hiang TT, Chan NH: Fine needle aspiration cytology of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast. Pathology; 2007 Aug;39(4):401-5
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast.
  • AIM: To determine the pathognomonic diagnostic cytological features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast which is a poor prognostic subtype of infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A series of 20 histologically proven tumours were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate the various cytological features, including tumour morules, isolated malignant cells, staghorn epithelial structures, mucinous background and apocrine metaplasia.
  • Mucinous background (2 cases, 10%) and apocrine metaplasia (4 cases, 20%) of the tumour cells were seen in a few cases only and did not appear very helpful.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17676481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Vaos G, Pierrakou P: Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: a rare breast tumor in a young boy. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2006 Sep-Oct;9(5):381-3
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  • [Title] Syringocystadenoma papilliferum: a rare breast tumor in a young boy.
  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum of the breast is extremely rare in children.
  • These findings support apocrine differentiation in this case.
  • Although syringocystadenoma papilliferum is rare in children, it should not be summarily ruled out during examinations of masses found in the pediatric male breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Papilloma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16953682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Papantoniou V, Tsiouris S, Koutsikos J, Sotiropoulou M, Mainta E, Lazaris D, Valsamaki P, Melissinou M, Zerva C, Antsaklis A: Scintimammographic detection of usual ductal breast hyperplasia with increased proliferation rate at risk for malignancy. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Nov;27(11):911-7
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  • [Title] Scintimammographic detection of usual ductal breast hyperplasia with increased proliferation rate at risk for malignancy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To estimate whether breast uptake of (99m)Tc-(V)DMSA and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in usual ductal epithelial breast hyperplasia (UDH) and apocrine metaplasia is related to cell proliferation rate (Ki-67) and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, both of which are associated with the potential risk of evolving to malignancy.
  • METHODS: Among patients referred for suspicious breast findings on palpation and/or mammography and evaluated preoperatively with both radiopharmaceuticals, we retrospectively studied 17 (10 with UDH: group I; and seven with apocrine metaplasia: group II).
  • This could prove useful in identifying women with benign but high-risk breast pathologies who might benefit from chemoprophylaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Hyperplasia / radionuclide imaging. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Precancerous Conditions / radionuclide imaging. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Risk Assessment / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17021432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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100. Erbas H, Erten O, Irfanoglu ME: Breast cyst fluid plasmin activity and its effect on TGF-beta2 activation. Cancer Invest; 2008 Feb;26(1):22-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Breast Diseases.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cyst fluid plasmin activity and its effect on TGF-beta2 activation.
  • There are two types of breast cyst and women with apocrine breast cyst may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than cyst lined by flattened epithelium.
  • Transforming growth factor-beta's growth inhibitory effect on epithelial cells suggests a potential protective role in breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmin in both breast cyst groups and the possible role of plasmin on transforming growth factor beta activation.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Cyst / metabolism. Fibrinolysin / metabolism. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta2 / metabolism. alpha-2-Antiplasmin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18181041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-4192
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta2; 0 / alpha-2-Antiplasmin; 0 / plasmin-plasmin inhibitor complex; EC 3.4.21.7 / Fibrinolysin
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