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1. Testi AM, Al-Hadad SA, Al-Jadiry MF, Moleti ML, Mandelli F, Foà R: Impact of international collaboration on the prognosis of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia in Iraq. Haematologica; 2006 Apr;91(4):509-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of international collaboration on the prognosis of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia in Iraq.
  • As a consequence of a collaborative project between the Al Mansour Hospital for Pediatrics in Baghdad and the Pediatric Unit of Hematology of "La Sapienza" University, in Rome, in October 2003 a specific all-trans-retinoic acid-based protocol was designed in order to offer a modern therapeutic program for the management of Iraqi children with acute promyelocytic leukemia, adapted to the severe local difficulties.
  • The preliminary encouraging results represent a substantial improvement over the earlier experience in childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia in Iraq.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16533724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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2. Testi AM, Biondi A, Lo Coco F, Moleti ML, Giona F, Vignetti M, Menna G, Locatelli F, Pession A, Barisone E, De Rossi G, Diverio D, Micalizzi C, Aricò M, Basso G, Foa R, Mandelli F: GIMEMA-AIEOPAIDA protocol for the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in children. Blood; 2005 Jul 15;106(2):447-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] GIMEMA-AIEOPAIDA protocol for the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in children.
  • The role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is the topic of several ongoing studies.
  • The results of the Italian pediatric experience with the multicentric Gruppo Italiano per le Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto (GIMEMA)-Italian Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Group (AIEOP) "AIDA" (ATRA and idarubicin) trial are presented.
  • Of the 983 patients with APL enrolled in this protocol between January 1993 and June 2000, 124 (13%) had younger than 18 years.
  • These results highlight the efficacy and feasibility of the AIDA protocol in the pediatric APL population.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15677559.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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3. Kim MH, Choi CS, Lee JW, Jang PS, Chung NG, Cho B, Jeong DC, Kim HK: Outcome of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia treated using a modified AIDA protocol. Korean J Hematol; 2010 Dec;45(4):236-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia treated using a modified AIDA protocol.
  • BACKGROUND: Combination treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline-based chemotherapy has led to major advances in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • METHODS: In this study, we reviewed the outcome of pediatric APL patients treated using a modified AIDA protocol at our institution.
  • RESULTS: Between May 1999 and December 2007, 23 patients were diagnosed with APL at the Department of Pediatrics, Saint Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea.
  • Two patients relapsed and died, and another patient died of pneumonia unrelated to APL.
  • Four patients (17%) were diagnosed with ATRA syndrome, and all patients showed resolution of symptoms.
  • CONCLUSION: A modified AIDA protocol for the treatment of childhood APL leads to improved EFS and OS, with limited ATRA syndrome-associated toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 21253424.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-9129
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3023048
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute promyelocytic leukemia / All-trans-retinoic acid / Anthracycline / Children
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4. Dvorak CC, Agarwal R, Dahl GV, Gregory JJ, Feusner JH: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant for pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2008 Jul;14(7):824-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hematopoietic stem cell transplant for pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • The optimal form of treatment for children with relapsed or refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is unclear.
  • We retrospectively analyzed the results of 32 (11 autologous, 21 allogeneic) hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) performed for children originally treated on either the Eastern Cooperative Group E2491 Trial or the Cancer and Leukemia Group B C9710 Trial and subsequently diagnosed with relapsed or refractory APL.
  • This data demonstrates that autologous and allogeneic HSCT are both effective therapies for treatment of children with relapsed or refractory APL.
  • Autologous HSCT is associated with a low incidence of TRM, whereas allogeneic HSCT is associated with a low incidence of relapse, suggesting a strong GVL effect against residual APL.

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  • (PMID = 18541203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6536
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; None / None / / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS162635; NLM/ PMC2796449
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5. Scheinemann K, Weitzman S, Hitzler J, Doyle J, Abla O: Isolated central nervous system relapse in childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Feb;30(2):160-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated central nervous system relapse in childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • We describe a 13-year-old boy with APL who developed an isolated CNS relapse after first-line treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy.
  • Prognostic factors of CNS relapse in children with APL are needed to define the indications for CNS prophylaxis in this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18376270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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6. Lin CH, Hung GY, Chang CY, Chien JC: Subdural hemorrhage in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia presenting as subtle headache. J Chin Med Assoc; 2005 Sep;68(9):437-40
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  • [Title] Subdural hemorrhage in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia presenting as subtle headache.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is rare in children (< 10% of childhood AML).
  • We report a 12-year-old child with APL who suffered a subdural hemorrhage and initially presented with a subtle headache mistaken as the side effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA).
  • Blood component therapy and a pediatric dosage of ATRA (25 mg/m2/day) combined with idarubicin as induction chemotherapy were administered in the first week, but the bleeding diathesis persisted and DIC profiles showed no improvement.
  • This case suggests that the ATRA dosage for pediatric APL patients must be modified according to clinical condition.
  • Emergency brain imaging should be considered in APL patients with signs of IICP to distinguish intracranial lesions from ATRA complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Headache / etiology. Hematoma, Subdural / etiology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications

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  • (PMID = 16187602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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7. Wang H, Hao L, Wang X, Li J, Wu Q, Bian S: Retrospective study of arsenic trioxide for childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia in China: a single-center experience. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jun;91(5):820-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retrospective study of arsenic trioxide for childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia in China: a single-center experience.
  • There are very limited reports about childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), especially about arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment in both induction and post-remission regimens.
  • 35 newly diagnosed APL patients received ATO treatment in our center and the clinical course as well as the outcome of them was investigated.
  • The dose of intravenous ATO was 0.15-0.17 mg/kg per day, only one patient got 0.33 mg/kg per day, maximum dose was 10 mg per day in induction therapy with minimal chemotherapy treatment (CT) for hyperleukocytosis.
  • Anthracycline or anthracycline-based CT was used for consolidation therapy and followed by 0.10-0.15 mg/kg per day ATO treatment in maintenance therapy.
  • The continuous detection for morphology of bone marrow and PML-RARa were necessary for administrating CT or not.
  • This regimen of ATO treatment both in induction and post-remission therapy was effective and safe for childhood APL to get long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20461563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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8. Zhou J, Zhang Y, Li J, Li X, Hou J, Zhao Y, Liu X, Han X, Hu L, Wang S, Zhao Y, Zhang Y, Fan S, Lv C, Li L, Zhu L: Single-agent arsenic trioxide in the treatment of children with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood; 2010 Mar 4;115(9):1697-702
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  • [Title] Single-agent arsenic trioxide in the treatment of children with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of treatment of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with single-agent arsenic trioxide (ATO).
  • A total of 19 children (< or = 15 years of age) with newly diagnosed APL were treated with single-agent ATO for remission induction and postremission therapy.
  • With a median follow-up of 53 months (range, 23-76 months), the calculated 5-year overall survival and event-free survival were 83.9% and 72.7%, respectively, which are comparable with results achieved by the use of ATRA plus chemotherapy, which is the standard therapy for APL.
  • The results indicate the high efficacy and safety of single-agent ATO regimens in the treatment of children with de novo APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20029047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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9. Gregory J, Feusner J: Acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 Nov;11(6):439-45
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a relatively rare form of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
  • In the United States, APL in children constitutes only 5% to 10% of AML.
  • Molecularly, the disease is characterized by a fusion protein, promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha that results from a balanced reciprocal translocation between the PML gene on chromosome 15 and the RAR-alpha (RARA) gene on chromosome 17.
  • A major advance in the field of APL treatment has been the use of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA).
  • Advances in the treatment of APL have taken this form of AML from a disease with significant morbidity and mortality to one with an excellent outcome.
  • Recent trials have shown a role for arsenic trioxide in both newly diagnosed and relapsed APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Humans. Prognosis. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19840521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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10. Zhang L, Chen YM, Zou Y, Chen XJ, Yang WY, Wang SC, Wang JX, Zhu XF: [Retrospective analysis of 76 children with acute promyelocytic leukemia]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Sep;47(9):710-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective analysis of 76 children with acute promyelocytic leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: There are very limited data on childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), especially childhood APL treated with arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)).
  • METHOD: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 76 children (< 18 years) with newly diagnosed APL were included.
  • CONCLUSION: As(2)O(3) is an effective and well tolerable therapy for children with APL and it may be used in those who not only cannot bear side effects of ATRA but also the newly diagnosed and relapsed APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20021798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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11. Cheng YF, Zhang LP, Lu AD, Liu GL, Wang B, Liu CF: [Can As2O3 improve the prognosis of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia?--A single center experience]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;29(7):454-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Can As2O3 improve the prognosis of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia?--A single center experience].
  • OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the treatment outcomes and side effects of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or ATRA + arsenic trioxide (As2O3).
  • METHODS: From 1992 to 2006, 45 patients with newly diagnosed APL were enrolled.
  • All of them were PML-RAR alpha positive.
  • 4) The time of PML-RAR alpha fusion gene converting to negative in group A was longer (P=0.026) than that in group B.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ATRA + As2O3 for patients with newly diagnosed childhood APL is a feasible treatment with higher CR rate, less side effects and longer long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19035177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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12. Kim MJ, Yoon HS, Cho SY, Lee HJ, Suh JT, Lee J, Yoon HJ, Lee WI, Park TS: ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) associated with relapse and poor prognosis in a pediatric patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Sep;201(2):116-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) associated with relapse and poor prognosis in a pediatric patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Although acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been regarded as a serious medical emergency associated with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy or subsequent mortality, it is now considered a curable leukemia that is particularly sensitive to treatment with all-trans retinoic acid combined with chemotherapy.
  • However, it is not clear whether additional chromosomal abnormalities in APL patients directly influence the prognosis or treatment response. ider(17)(q10)t(15;17)(q22;q21) has mostly been reported in adult APL patients, and only three cases of pediatric APL associated with ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) showing poor prognosis have been described in the literature.
  • Here, we report the close follow-up (clinical and laboratory) data of a pediatric APL case associated with ider(17)(q10)t(15;17).
  • This patient had APL relapse from the same clone 15 months after morphological remission.
  • Furthermore, despite subsequent chemotherapy, the patient died 16 months after the initial APL diagnosis.
  • Although based on a limited amount of data (four pediatric APL cases), such results in pediatric APL patients may provide important insight into the relationship between ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) and poor prognosis.
  • However, further well-designed case-control studies are necessary to determine the treatment response and prognosis in pediatric or adult APL patients with ider(17)(q10)t(15;17).
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20682396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
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13. Chow J, Feusner J: Isolated central nervous system recurrence of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Jan;52(1):11-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated central nervous system recurrence of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children.
  • The incidence of isolated central nervous system (iCNS) relapse in pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is debated.
  • This incidence does not support the use of intrathecal CNS prophylaxis for all children with APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Aug;53(2):235-6; author reply 237 [19353622.001]
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010 Feb;54(2):336-7; author reply 338 [19847884.001]
  • (PMID = 18816805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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14. Quezada G, Kopp L, Estey E, Wells RJ: All-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide as initial therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jul;51(1):133-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] All-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide as initial therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Treatment of pediatric APL is based on the combination of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), an anthracycline and cytosine arabinoside.
  • Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been studied in adults with newly diagnosed or relapsed APL with excellent response rates both when used as a single agent or in combination with ATRA or ATRA plus chemotherapy.
  • There is little data on combination therapy with ATRA and ATO in pediatric APL.
  • We present a case of an adolescent male with APL who was treated using ATRA and ATO without conventional chemotherapy agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18293388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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15. Avcin T, Silverman ED: Antiphospholipid antibodies in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus; 2007;16(8):627-33
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  • [Title] Antiphospholipid antibodies in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome.
  • The major differences between pediatric and adult APS include absence of common acquired risk factors for thrombosis, absence of pregnancy-related morbidity, increased incidence of infection-induced antibodies, differences in cut-off values for determination of aPL and specific factors regarding long-term therapy in children.
  • The presence of aPL in pediatric SLE can modify the disease expression and may be an important predictor of the development of irreversible organ damage.
  • Two recently established international registries of neonates and children with APS provide a good opportunity to conduct large, prospective studies on the clinical significance of aPL and long-term outcome of pediatric APS.


16. Zhang L, Zhao H, Zhu X, Chen Y, Zou Y, Chen X: Retrospective analysis of 65 Chinese children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a single center experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Aug;51(2):210-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of 65 Chinese children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a single center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: There are very limited data reported about childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), especially with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) treatment.
  • We review the clinical course and treatment outcome of 65 children APL.
  • PROCEDURE: Between January 1999 and December 2005, 65 children (<18 years) with newly diagnosed APL were treated.
  • Forty patients were given ATRA alone (group 1, G1), 8 patients were given As2O3 alone (group 2, G2), 15 patients (group 3, G3) were treated with combination of ATRA and As2O3.
  • CONCLUSION: As2O3 is an effective and well tolerable therapy for children with APL and it may be used in those who have dose limiting side effects of ATRA, but also for those with newly diagnosed or relapsed APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18428427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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17. da Costa Moraes CA, Trompieri NM, Cavalcante Felix FH: Pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia: all-transretinoic acid therapy in a Brazilian pediatric hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 May;30(5):387-90
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  • [Title] Pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia: all-transretinoic acid therapy in a Brazilian pediatric hospital.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an uncommon form of pediatric acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
  • It is characterized by clinical (refractory coagulopathy), morphologic (promyelocytic differentiation arrest), and cytogenetic t(15;17) hallmarks.
  • To show the results of APL treatment in our hospital, we reviewed the information about 15 patients less than 18 years old, newly diagnosed with APL between November 2002 and November 2006.
  • Preliminary results are encouraging and confirm that ATRA is safe and efficacious as first choice therapy for APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Brazil. Female. Hospitals, Pediatric. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18458575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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18. Cimaz R, Descloux E: Pediatric antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheum Dis Clin North Am; 2006 Aug;32(3):553-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric antiphospholipid syndrome.
  • APS is rare in the pediatric age, but it represents an interesting phenomenon because most of the known "second hit" risk factors such as atherosclerosis, smoking, hypertension, contraceptive hormonal treatment, and pregnancy are not present in childhood.
  • On the other hand, the increased frequency of infectious processes in the childhood age is likely responsible for the relatively high prevalence of non-pathogenic and transient aPL.
  • Such points raise the problem of a different diagnosis or monitoring approach in pediatric APS.
  • Of particular interest is the special entity of neonatal APS, which represents an in vivo model of acquired autoimmune disease, in which transplacentally acquired aPL cause thrombosis in the newborn.
  • International registries for pediatric and neonatal APS are currently in place; epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory re-search will help to shed light on all the still obscure aspects of this fascinating but rare disorder in the very young.
  • Finally, treatment is less aggressive overall in pediatric APS, given the reluctance to anticoagulate children over the long term.
  • Studies on the outcome of pediatric APS and the relative risks of prolonged anticoagulation in children are necessary to determine the type and duration of anticoagulation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 16880084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-857X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • [Number-of-references] 139
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19. Luo XQ, Ke ZY, Huang LB, Guan XQ, Zhang YC, Zhang XL: Improved outcome for Chinese children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a comparison of two protocols. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Sep;53(3):325-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improved outcome for Chinese children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a comparison of two protocols.
  • OBJECTIVE: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is now highly curable, except in many developing countries.
  • Introduction of current treatment strategies may improve the outcome for children with APL in these countries.
  • METHODS: The diagnosis was based on the FAB classification and detection of PML-RAR alpha rearrangement.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with the less intensive protocol based on the PETHEMA LPA99 study of childhood APL successfully reduced chemotherapy toxicity and lowered hospitalization costs without increasing relapses.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Sep;53(3):303-5 [19544375.001]
  • (PMID = 19422024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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20. Xu XJ, Shi SW, Tang YM, Song H, Yang SL, Wei J, Xu WQ, Pan BH, Chen YH, Zhao FY, Shen HQ, Qian BQ, Zhang LY, Ning BT: [Long-term follow-up of treatment outcome and prognosis on 46 children with acute promyelocytic leukemia]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Feb;9(1):28-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long-term follow-up of treatment outcome and prognosis on 46 children with acute promyelocytic leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a specific type of hematopoietic malignancy, accounting for 10% of the de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The data on long-term outcome of APL in children are limited.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical biological features, diagnosis, prognosis and long-term survival of childhood APL.
  • METHODS: A total of 46 children with newly diagnosed APL from April 1998 to October 2005 were enrolled into this study.
  • Five patients with RT-PCR positive for PML/RARalpha S (short) subtype died eventually although all of them achieved CR, but none of the 13 patients with PML/RARalpha L (long) subtype died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Remission induction therapy with ATRA + DNR or THP is effective and safe for newly diagnosed childhood APL.
  • The remission induction therapy combined with chemotherapy containing high/intermediate dose Ara-C can improve the long-term survival rates of APL patients.
  • High WBC count and S subtype of PML-RARa are two poor prognostic factors for children with APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17306073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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21. Hunt BJ: Pediatric antiphospholipid antibodies and antiphospholipid syndrome. Semin Thromb Hemost; 2008 Apr;34(3):274-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric antiphospholipid antibodies and antiphospholipid syndrome.
  • In contrast with adults, however, transient nonthrombogenic antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies are seen more commonly, usually after childhood infections.
  • In those with "true" aPL antibodies, recurrent thrombotic events seem less frequent than in adults, perhaps reflecting the less prothrombotic hemostatic state of childhood.
  • A pediatric APS registry such as the Ped-APS Register is more easy to organize and can yield informative data.

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  • (PMID = 18720307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-6176
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Thromb. Hemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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22. von Scheven E, Elder ME: Association between beta2-glycoprotein I gene polymorphisms and pediatric SLE and antiphospholipid antibodies. Lupus; 2005;14(6):440-4
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  • [Title] Association between beta2-glycoprotein I gene polymorphisms and pediatric SLE and antiphospholipid antibodies.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify associations between beta2GPI mutations and both antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and their associated clinical manifestations in a pediatric and adolescent cohort and to search for novel mutations.
  • Genetic analysis of beta2GPI was performed in 58 youths with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or aPL, to identify known polymorphisms at amino acids 247 and 306 as well as novel mutations in exon 7 of the beta2GPI gene, and their association with aPL-associated clinical manifestations.
  • Our results demonstrate an association between substitution of Val for Leu at AA247 (L247V) of beta2GPI and both the development of aPL (P = 0.05) and aPL-associated clinical manifestations (P = 0.03) among pediatric patients.
  • The odds ratio associated with risk of aPL-associated clinical manifestations for the homozygous VV polymorphism was 5.5 (CI 1.3-23, P = 0.03) for the overall cohort, and 4.75 (CI 0.66-55.49, P = 0.06) after adjusting for ethnicity.
  • Neither novel exon 7 beta2GPI mutations or the previously described C306G polymorphism was identified in this pediatric cohort.

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  • (PMID = 16038107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0961-2033
  • [Journal-full-title] Lupus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lupus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR 20684; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR01271
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / beta 2-Glycoprotein I
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23. Zou Y, Wang H, Chen XJ, Wang SC, Zhang L, Chen YM, Zhu XF: [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;27(9):621-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical outcome and the prognostic factor of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: Disease-free survival (DFS), event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox regression with SPSS in 141 childhood AML in our hospital from August 1995 to July 2004.
  • The patients were divided into 2 groups: acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as group A and AML other than APL as group B.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher bone marrow blast cell percentage at diagnosis, CR after more than one course of chemotherapy and less than six courses of consolidation chemotherapy were risk prognostic factors in childhood AML other than APL (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of childhood APL is better, while of childhood t(8;21) AML is no better than other FAB subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17278430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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24. Muscal E, Bloom DR, Hunter JV, Myones BL: Neurocognitive deficits and neuroimaging abnormalities are prevalent in children with lupus: clinical and research experiences at a US pediatric institution. Lupus; 2010 Mar;19(3):268-79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurocognitive deficits and neuroimaging abnormalities are prevalent in children with lupus: clinical and research experiences at a US pediatric institution.
  • There is a paucity of similar data in childhood-onset disease.
  • We reviewed patient neurocognitive evaluations performed at a large United States pediatric institution during the period 2001 to 2008.
  • Data from 15 children enrolled in a prospective structure-function association study were also analyzed.
  • Subjects were predominantly African-American and Hispanic adolescent girls of average intelligence. aPL positivity and aspirin use was prevalent.

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  • (PMID = 20026519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0962
  • [Journal-full-title] Lupus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lupus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD041648-07; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS063883-02; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD041648-07; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / L40 NS063883-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242415; NLM/ PMC2980849
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25. Rigante D, Gaspari S, Bersani G, Stabile A: Anti-phospholipid syndrome: clinical spectrum and therapeutical/prophylactic strategies in the pediatric population. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci; 2008 Jan-Feb;12(1):47-53
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  • [Title] Anti-phospholipid syndrome: clinical spectrum and therapeutical/prophylactic strategies in the pediatric population.
  • Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is a potentially life-threatening autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) giving rise to increased hypercoagulability, which induces venous or arterial thrombotic events at whatever age and recurrent fetal loss in the fertile age.
  • Antigens that are targeted by aPL include cardiolipin and beta2-glycoprotein I.

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  • (PMID = 18401972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1128-3602
  • [Journal-full-title] European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / beta 2-Glycoprotein I
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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26. Harel L, Sandborg C, Lee T, von Scheven E: Neuropsychiatric manifestations in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and association with antiphospholipid antibodies. J Rheumatol; 2006 Sep;33(9):1873-7
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  • [Title] Neuropsychiatric manifestations in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and association with antiphospholipid antibodies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using the 1999 American College of Rheumatology case definitions for NP syndromes in SLE, and their association with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL).
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 106 pediatric and adolescent SLE patients at 2 academic medical centers.
  • All aPL testing was performed in standard clinical laboratories.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (23.6%) had NP manifestations, including seizures (9.4%), headaches (4.7%), mood disorders (4.7%), cognitive dysfunction (4.7%), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), psychosis and pseudotumor (2.8% each), aseptic meningitis (0.9%), acute confusional state (0.9%), anxiety (0.9%), and cranial neuropathy (0.9%).
  • NP events were not necessarily accompanied by an SLE flare. aPL were positive in 70% of all SLE patients, including anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) in 64%, aCL IgG in 56%, aCL IgM in 35%, rapid plasma reagin or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test in 13%, and lupus anticoagulant (LAC) in 18%.
  • The only significant association between NP manifestations and aPL was for CVA and IgM aCL (p=0.03).
  • Although aPL are common, their association with NP events, unlike in adults, is weak, except for CVA, suggesting a different pathogenic mechanism for NP manifestations in pediatric SLE.


27. Ravelli A, Martini A: Antiphospholipid syndrome in pediatrics. Rheum Dis Clin North Am; 2007 Aug;33(3):499-523
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • APS is recognized increasingly as a leading cause of vascular thrombosis in the pediatric population.
  • Because the coincident prothrombotic factors that are common in adults have little or no impact in children, pediatric patients with APS constitute a suitable sample to investigate the relationship of aPL with the associated clinical manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, chorea, and livedo reticularis, and the specificities of aPL that are more linked to thrombosis.
  • On the other hand, because of the high frequency of infectious processes in early life, children may have a greater prevalence of nonpathogenic and transient aPL.
  • For these reasons, the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to APS in childhood may be different from that for adults.
  • Because of the rarity of aPL-related thrombosis in children, the natural history and optimal management can be defined only through large, multicenter, controlled studies.
  • A internet-based registry for pediatric patients with APS (Ped-APS Register) has been recently established as part of the activities of the Euro-aPL Forum and the Lupus Working Group of the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society.
  • This registry is aimed to obtain information on APS in childhood, particularly regarding association of aPL with clinical manifestations, specificity of aPL, impact of treatment and long-term outcome (http://www.med.ub.es/MIMMUN/FORUM/PEDIATRIC.HTM).

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  • [ReprintOf] Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005 Apr;52(2):469-91, vi [15820376.001]
  • (PMID = 17936175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-857X
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Ravelli A, Martini A: Antiphospholipid syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am; 2005 Apr;52(2):469-91, vi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by a combination of arterial or venous thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss, accompanied by elevated titers of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL).
  • The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to APS in childhood may be different from that for adults and because of the rarity of aPL-related thrombosis in children, the natural history and optimal management of APS can be defined only through large, multicenter, controlled studies.

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  • [ReprintIn] Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;33(3):499-523 [17936175.001]
  • (PMID = 15820376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3955
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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29. Frauenknecht K, Lackner K, von Landenberg P: Antiphospholipid antibodies in pediatric patients with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time during infection. Immunobiology; 2005;210(10):799-805
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antiphospholipid antibodies in pediatric patients with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time during infection.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the close association between different antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) caused by infection and their appearance together with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).
  • CONCLUSION: During commonly acquired infections elevation of aPL of nearly all types seems to be a common process.
  • Mild prolongation of aPTT might reflect this presence of aPL in the course of the infectious disease.
  • Our data suggest that there exists no differences in specificity in comparison to the "pathogenic" aPL but the presence over time might be the trigger for the autoimmune activity to begin.

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  • (PMID = 16325500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
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30. Akiyama M, Yamada O, Yanagisawa T, Fujisawa K, Eto Y, Yamada H: Analysis of telomerase activity and RNA expression in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):506-11
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  • [Title] Analysis of telomerase activity and RNA expression in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid.
  • In this study, we show that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment leads to a rapid decrease in telomerase activity, which was associated with the reduction in myeloblasts and occurs before the appearance of myelocytes, in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Microarray analysis by ATRA treatment for 48 hr in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vivo) and in cultured bone marrow mononuclear cells (in vitro) from a patient with APL revealed upregulation of CD11b, CD11c, CCAAT enhancer binding protein epsilon, Rb1, Mad, and tumor necrosis factor-related genes; and downregulation of hTERT, c-Myc, WT1, bcl-2, and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1alpha2.
  • The results might offer the potential to define the molecular mechanism underlying ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in patients with APL, and provide clues to identify novel molecular therapeutic targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic / drug effects. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / enzymology. Telomerase / metabolism. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15770638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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31. Fox E, Razzouk BI, Widemann BC, Xiao S, O'Brien M, Goodspeed W, Reaman GH, Blaney SM, Murgo AJ, Balis FM, Adamson PC: Phase 1 trial and pharmacokinetic study of arsenic trioxide in children and adolescents with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia, including acute promyelocytic leukemia or lymphoma. Blood; 2008 Jan 15;111(2):566-73
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  • [Title] Phase 1 trial and pharmacokinetic study of arsenic trioxide in children and adolescents with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia, including acute promyelocytic leukemia or lymphoma.
  • Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces remission in 85% of adults with refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • We conducted a phase 1 trial of ATO in children (median age 13 y, range, 2-19) with refractory leukemia.
  • Patients with APL (n=13) received 0.15 mg/kg per day, and patients with other types of leukemia received 0.15 mg/kg per day (n=2) or 0.2 mg/kg per day (n=4).
  • At 0.15 mg/kg per day, 2 of 15 patients experienced dose-limiting corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, pneumonitis, or neuropathic pain.
  • At 0.15 mg/kg per day, the median (range) plasma arsenic maximum concentration (Cmax) was 0.28 microM (0.11-0.37 microM) and at 0.2 mg/kg per day, Cmax was 0.40 and 0.46 microM; area under the concentration times time curve (AUC0-24) was 2.50 microM-hr (1.28-3.85 microM-hr) and 4.37 microM-hr and 4.69 microM-hr, respectively.
  • Morphologic complete response (CR) was achieved in 85% of patients with APL; no responses were observed in non-APL patients.
  • ATO is well-tolerated in children at the recommended dose of 0.15 mg/kg per day.
  • The response rate in children with relapsed APL is similar to the response rate in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Arsenicals / pharmacokinetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Oxides / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 17959855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00020111
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA097452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UM1 CA097452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97452; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2200837
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32. Mantadakis E, Samonis G, Kalmanti M: A comprehensive review of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children. Acta Haematol; 2008;119(2):73-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A comprehensive review of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children.
  • The outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has substantially improved since the successful introduction of tretinoin, and nowadays combining tretinoin with chemotherapy is potentially curative for at least 70-75% of patients with newly diagnosed APL.
  • In most pediatric series, APL represents < or = 10% of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • APL in children is more common in girls and in obese children.
  • It is characterized by a higher incidence of hyperleukocytosis, an increased incidence of microgranular morphology and by more frequent occurrence of the PML/RARalpha isoforms bcr 2 and bcr 3 compared to adults.
  • Tretinoin-based therapy is curative for the majority of children with APL.
  • Recent data indicate that > or = 2 negative RT-PCR assays for PML/RARalpha on bone marrow performed at least 1 month apart after completing therapy are strongly associated with long-term remissions, while conversion to PCR positivity for PML/RARalpha during remission is highly predictive of impending relapse.
  • Data from recent studies in adults and limited data from children show that arsenic trioxide is the single most effective agent in APL and deserves immediate study in newly diagnosed children in an effort to further improve prognosis and to limit exposure to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18285695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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33. Rajpurkar M, Alcasabas P, Warrier I, Valentini RP, Fassinger N, Frattarelli DA, Ravindranath Y: Effect of dialysis on all trans retinoic acid levels in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia and renal failure. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7):994-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of dialysis on all trans retinoic acid levels in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia and renal failure.
  • All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with chemotherapy has become the mainstay of treatment for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Renal dysfunction (RD) is commonly seen in patients with APL.
  • We describe a patient with APL and multi-organ failure, who was on chronic veno-venous hemofiltration followed by hemodialysis (HD) and later peritoneal dialysis (PD), who received ATRA.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Renal Dialysis. Renal Insufficiency / complications. Tretinoin / blood

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 16609947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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34. McNall-Knapp RY: Thrombolysis in antiphospholipid syndrome: current hematologic perspectives. Curr Rheumatol Rep; 2008 Jan;10(1):62-6
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  • Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can cause thromboembolic events, but the reason for the thrombogenesis has not been fully elucidated.
  • Studies show that the true pathogenic targets of aPL are plasma proteins involved in hemostasis (eg, beta(2)-glycoprotein I and prothrombin).
  • This review examines host genetic factors important in predisposition to thrombosis associated with aPL and concentrates on how antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome interact with our natural anticoagulants and lead to thrombosis.

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  • [Cites] Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Dec;52(12):4018-27 [16320350.001]
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  • (PMID = 18457614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6307
  • [Journal-full-title] Current rheumatology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Rheumatol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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35. Worch J, Ritter J, Frühwald MC: Presentation of acute promyelocytic leukemia as granulocytic sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):657-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presentation of acute promyelocytic leukemia as granulocytic sarcoma.
  • This extramedullary tumor can present before, concurrent with or after the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • GS is extremely uncommon in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / etiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17437290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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36. Xu XJ, Tang YM, Song H, Yang SL, Shi SW, Wei J: Long-term outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a developing country: experience from a children's hospital in China. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Dec;51(12):2262-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a developing country: experience from a children's hospital in China.
  • Data on childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in developing countries are limited.
  • Herein we report the outcome of childhood AML treated with modified NPCLC-AML97 in our institution from 1997 to 2005.
  • APL was more curable than non-APL (7-year EFS: 63.5 ± 7.9% vs. 35.9 ± 6.3%, p = 0.005).
  • Thirty-one patients (25.2%) relapsed, but no central nervous system leukemia was observed.
  • Although the cure rate of childhood AML in China was low, the treatment outcome for patients who could adhere to the treatment protocol was satisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Developing Countries. Hospitals, Pediatric / statistics & numerical data. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy


37. Constantin T, Kálovics T, Ponyi A, Nagy E, Sallai K, Szabó L, Garami M, Müller J, Gergely P, Dankó K, Fekete G, Kálmánchey R: Prevalence of antiphospholipid and antinuclear antibodies in children with epilepsy. Med Sci Monit; 2009 Apr;15(4):CR164-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical relevance of aPL tests in childhood are difficult to explain.
  • The wide spectrum of detected immunological alterations highlight the importance of the participation of pediatric rheumatologists in the management of patients with idiopathic epilepsy or with secondary induced autoimmune disease due to antiepileptic medications.

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  • (PMID = 19333200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
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38. Işık P, Çetin I, Tavil B, Azik F, Kara A, Yarali N, Tunc B: All-transretinoic acid (ATRA) treatment-related pancarditis and severe pulmonary edema in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Nov;32(8):e346-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] All-transretinoic acid (ATRA) treatment-related pancarditis and severe pulmonary edema in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Use of all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been shown to cause the differentiation of abnormally granulated specific blast cells into mature granulocytes by acting on the t(15;.
  • 17) fusion gene product.
  • The complete remission rate is increased and survival time is prolonged in APL patients who receive chemotherapy plus ATRA, whereas ATRA syndrome and other ATRA-related adverse effects including pseudo tumor cerebri, headache, severe bone pain, mucosal and skin dryness, hypercholesterolemia, and cheilitis may be observed especially during induction phase of the treatment.
  • In this paper, we report a 9-year-old girl with APL who developed pancarditis while receiving the APL-93 treatment protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Myocarditis / chemically induced. Pulmonary Edema / chemically induced. Tretinoin / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20881874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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39. Gru A, Dehner LP: Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in a child with trisomy 21. An acquired thrombopathy with a discussion of thrombopathies in childhood. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2010 May-Jun;13(3):178-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in a child with trisomy 21. An acquired thrombopathy with a discussion of thrombopathies in childhood.
  • Catastrophic APLS (CAPLS), a rare accelerated form of APLS, leads to acute multisystem organ failure, with microthrombi in multiple organs and a mortality rate of 50% or greater.
  • All major criteria for the diagnosis of CAPLS were met, including the involvement of 3 or more organ systems, precipitous clinical deterioration, positive serology for APL, and noninflammatory microthrombi in at least one organ which, in this case, included multiple sites: skin, lungs, intestinal tract with necrotizing enterocolitis, and spleen, with multiple infarcts all documented at autopsy.


40. Unal S, Gümrük F, Cetin M, Hiçsönmez G: Genital ulcers after treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Jul-Aug;22(5):357-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genital ulcers after treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid in a child with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to improve the outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • The authors report genital ulcers that developed in a child with APL after ATRA treatment.
  • An 8-year-old girl with APL was treated with ATRA for 21 days and after discontinuation of ATRA treatment she developed genital ulcers.
  • Systemic and local antibiotic pomades were applied and the lesions improved within 15 days.
  • In conclusion, genital ulcers may develop in children with APL as a complication of ATRA treatment and physicians should be alert to this possibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Skin Ulcer / drug therapy. Tretinoin / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16020125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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41. Park JA, Yun JH, Kang HJ, Shin HY, Ahn HS: Acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction after induction treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia with arsenic trioxide. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Apr;50(4):872-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ARSENIC TRIOXIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction after induction treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia with arsenic trioxide.
  • Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an effective agent for the treatment of relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • We report a patient with intestinal pseudo-obstruction, which occurred while treating relapsed APL with As(2)O(3).
  • A 6-year-old female with relapsed APL developed paralytic ileus, hyperleukocytosis, and a high fever while being treated with As(2)O(3).
  • Pathologic findings revealed APL cells involving the entire intestinal layers.
  • This case history suggests that As(2)O(3) when used for reinduction therapy for APL may adversely affect the intestine and cause acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Arsenicals / adverse effects. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction / chemically induced. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17635008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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42. Bakshi M, Khemani C, Vishwanathan V, Anand RK, Khubchandani RP: Mycoplasma pneumonia with antiphospholipid antibodies and a cardiac thrombus. Lupus; 2006;15(2):105-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A case is reported of a four-year old child with mycoplasma pueumonia with a left atrial thrombus secondary to aPL antibodies.

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  • (PMID = 16539282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0961-2033
  • [Journal-full-title] Lupus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lupus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M
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43. Yarali N, Tavil B, Kara A, Ozkasap S, Tunç B: Acute renal failure during ATRA treatment. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Mar;25(2):115-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUCONAZOLE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute renal failure during ATRA treatment.
  • All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which is used in acute promyelocytic leukemia, is usually well tolerated, but some side effects can be observed.
  • Here, the authors report a case of APL who developed acute renal failure during ATRA and concurrent use of fluconazole.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Tretinoin / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18363177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
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44. Tomizawa D, Tabuchi K, Kinoshita A, Hanada R, Kigasawa H, Tsukimoto I, Tsuchida M, Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group: Repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine are effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: long-term outcome of the children with AML treated on two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Aug;49(2):127-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine are effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: long-term outcome of the children with AML treated on two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Various methods of intensive chemotherapy have contributed to an improved survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Among patients without Down syndrome (DS) or acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the presence of t(8;21) or inv(16) was a significant good prognostic factor both in the univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • Children with DS (N = 10) and APL (N = 14) also showed a good survival exceeding 70% in 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that repetitive use of HD-Ara-C was effective and safe for childhood AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Down Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Infant. Infection / etiology. Infection / mortality. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage


45. Gregory J, Kim H, Alonzo T, Gerbing R, Woods W, Weinstein H, Shepherd L, Schiffer C, Appelbaum F, Willman C, Wiernik P, Rowe J, Tallman M, Feusner J: Treatment of children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: results of the first North American Intergroup trial INT0129. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec;53(6):1005-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: results of the first North American Intergroup trial INT0129.
  • BACKGROUND: This report focuses on the children enrolled on the first North American Intergroup study of APL (INT0129).
  • This study was designed to compare the rates of CR, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity of therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) for remission induction and/or maintenance compared to conventional chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated APL.
  • PROCEDURE: Fifty-three patients who were documented to have the t(15;17) translocation were able to be evaluated for toxicity of treatment, outcome of induction, and survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most important finding of our study is that a significant DFS advantage exists for children with APL who received ATRA during induction or maintenance or both compared to children who received no ATRA.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19743516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA114737
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS183904; NLM/ PMC3508725
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46. Termuhlen AM, Klopfenstein K, Olshefski R, Rosselet R, Yeager ND, Soni S, Gross TG: Mobilization of PML-RARA negative blood stem cells and salvage with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Oct;51(4):521-4
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mobilization of PML-RARA negative blood stem cells and salvage with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Relapsed acute promyleocytic leukemia (APL) is treated with re-induction chemotherapy, commonly arsenic trioxide, and stem cell transplantation (SCT).
  • PROCEDURE: Five pediatric patients with relapsed APL had PML-RARA negative peripheral blood stem cells mobilized (four after arsenic trioxide) and underwent autologous SCT after cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg x 2) and total body irradiation (TBI-fractionated 1,200 cGy) conditioning.
  • CONCLUSION: Autologous SCT performed during molecular remission is a treatment option for pediatric patients with relapsed APL and may provide durable leukemia-free survival without the complications of allogeneic transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / surgery. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18493994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein
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47. Liang DC, Chan TT, Lin KH, Lin DT, Lu MY, Chen SH, Liu HC, Lin MT, Lee MT, Shu SG, Chang TK, Chen JS, Hsiao CC, Hung IJ, Hsieh YL, Chen RL, Cheng SN, Chang WH, Lee CH, Lin KS: Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan. Leukemia; 2006 Jan;20(1):136-41
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  • [Title] Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
  • To improve treatment results for children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we introduced a novel protocol, Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-AML-97A, for AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), for which modified conventional protocols were used.
  • From January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002, 141 children younger than 17 years old with de novo AML were enrolled.
  • In total, 117 patients with non-APL AML were treated with induction therapy of idarubicin and cytarabine (Ara-C), postremission therapy with high-dose Ara-C - containing regimens for four monthly courses, and moderate-dose therapy with idarubicin and Ara-C for four monthly courses.
  • The first 19 patients with APL were treated with all-trans retinoic acid, idarubicin and Ara-C, with the remaining five patients receiving all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin, followed by maintenance therapy for 2 years.
  • The remission rate in the AML-97A study was 90%, the 5-year survival 51 +/- 5.3% (s.e.) and the 5-year event-free survival 50 +/- 4.8%; for APL, these were 100%, 86 +/- 7.0, and 75 +/- 9.8%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 16281075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. Cockrell E, Espinola RG, McCrae KR: Annexin A2: biology and relevance to the antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus; 2008 Oct;17(10):943-51
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  • Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the majority of which are directed against beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI), are associated with an increased incidence of venous and arterial thrombosis.
  • We also observed that annexin A2 plays a critical role in endothelial cell activation induced by anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies, and others have described direct endothelial activation by anti-annexin A2 antibodies in patients with aPL .
  • In this article, we review the role of these interactions in the activation of endothelial cells by aPL .

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  • (PMID = 18827060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0961-2033
  • [Journal-full-title] Lupus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lupus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P50 HL081011
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A2; 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / beta 2-Glycoprotein I
  • [Number-of-references] 87
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS392500; NLM/ PMC3417102
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49. Pilarska E, Lemka M, Bakowska A: Prothrombotic risk factors in ischemic stroke and migraine in children. Acta Neurol Scand; 2006 Jul;114(1):13-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Stroke.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and thrombomodulin (Thm) in the pathogenesis of stroke and migraine in children.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety children were included in the study: 30 children (4-15 years) after an ischemic stroke of an unknown etiology; 30 migrainous patients (8-15 years), who were hospitalized in the Department of Developmental Neurology, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland, and 30 healthy children of the same age.
  • CONCLUSION: The possible role of prothrombotic factors in individual cases of pediatric stroke and migraine cannot be excluded.

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  • (PMID = 16774621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6314
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol. Scand.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Anticardiolipin; 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Thrombomodulin; 0 / beta 2-Glycoprotein I
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50. Zhang JY, Lü T, Yang JC, Pan L, Luo JM, Yang L, Yao L, Dong ZR, Xu SR: Comparative study of expressions of cytoplasmic CD79a and other B-lymphoid immunomarkers in acute leukemic cells. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Dec;13(6):954-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative study of expressions of cytoplasmic CD79a and other B-lymphoid immunomarkers in acute leukemic cells.
  • To evaluate the expression of cytoplasmic CD79a (CyCD79a) and other commonly used B-lymphoid immunomarkers including cytoplasmic CD22 (CyCD22), CD19, CD20 and CD10 in various acute leukemia cells and to define the most sensitive and specific markers in the diagnosis of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pB-ALL), the immunophenotypic data from 221 de novo adult and pediatric acute leukemia patients as studied using multi-parameter flow cytometry in addition to routine morphologic and enzyme cytochemical assay, were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Cytogenetic and/or molecular biological data in all 45 cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and 13 cases of acute leukemia suspected as AML with the fusion genes such as AML1/ETO and CBFbeta/MYH11 were investigated.
  • At the same time, none (0%) of all 147 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 15 cases of precursor T-cell acute leukemia (pT-ALL) was positive for CyCD22.

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  • (PMID = 16403258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD79; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2
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51. Yeh TC, Liu HC, Wang LY, Chen SH, Lin WY, Liang DC: The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Dec;29(12):826-31
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  • [Title] The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan.
  • From November 1, 1995 to July 31, 2004, 49 children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were treated at our institution.
  • Forty-two patients with AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (non-APL) were treated consecutively with 2 novel protocols: Mackay Memorial Hospital (MMH)-AML-96, designed as a pilot phase, and Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-AML-97A, on the basis of MMH-AML-96 with minor modifications.
  • Six patients with APL were treated consecutively with 2 protocols, TPOG-APL-97 and APL-2001.
  • The 5-year overall survival was 64%+/-6.9% (SE), and the 5-year event-free survival was 60%+/-7.1%; for non-APL AML, the rates were 62%+/-7.5% and 59%+/-7.6%; for APL, 83+/-15.2 and 67+/-19.3%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use


52. Jain D, Singh T, Arora P: Down syndrome with microgranular variant of acute promyelocytic leukemia in a child: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007;1:147

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Down syndrome with microgranular variant of acute promyelocytic leukemia in a child: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) accounts for less than 10% of pediatric AML.
  • Cases of APL in Down syndrome (DS) have been described in the literature rarely and it is rarer still to find the microgranular variant (M3v) of APL in trisomy 21 patients.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a five-year-old female with Down syndrome diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Based on this morphology and cytochemistry, a diagnosis of APL microgranular variant (M3v) was made.
  • CONCLUSION: This case report emphasizes the importance of a high index of suspicion in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia microgranular variant in Down syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 18036234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2211491
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53. Ghosh I, Kumar L, Seth R, Thavraj V: Sustained remission achieved with ATRA and chemotherapy in second relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in Down syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Aug;31(8):539-40
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sustained remission achieved with ATRA and chemotherapy in second relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in Down syndrome.
  • Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk of developing acute leukemia.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia predominates among DS children below 4 years of age but acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has rarely been reported in DS.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia in DS is extremely sensitive to treatment but the optimum treatment of de novo or relapsed APL in DS is not known.
  • We describe a child with DS and APL, who despite having a multiply relapsing course, achieved a third remission with ATRA and chemotherapy, which is sustained with maintenance therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Down Syndrome / complications. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / prevention & control. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19636277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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54. Miranda C, Prates LH, Vieira Rde S, Calvo MC: Shear bond strength of different adhesive systems to primary dentin and enamel. J Clin Pediatr Dent; 2006;31(1):35-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Specimens were randomly assigned into two groups (adhesion to enamel and adhesion to dentin) and then subdivided into four subgroups according to the adhesive system (n=15).
  • Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SMP)--Single Bond (SB)--Clearfil SE Bond (and Adper Prompt L-Pop (APL)--SBS tests were performed and the obtained values were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05).
  • SBS mean values on enamel were [MPa (SD)]: SMP--2789 (749); SB--23.92 (8.8); CSB--24.36 (6.69), APL--25.96 (4.08); and on dentin: SMP--17.29 (4.25) SB--18.2 (8.74); CSB--16.13 (714); APL--6.

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  • (PMID = 17091656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4628
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Pediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Clearfil SE Bond; 0 / Dentin-Bonding Agents; 0 / Prompt L-Pop; 0 / Resin Cements; 0 / Scotchbond Multi-Purpose; 0 / single bond; 454I75YXY0 / Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate
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55. Tabuchi K: [Acute myeloid leukemia]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Feb;34(2):156-61
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  • [Title] [Acute myeloid leukemia].
  • The annual incident rate of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is now 10 per million in Japan, against 5 to 9 per million in the USA and Europe.
  • Overall long-term survival has now been achieved for more than 50% of pediatric patients with AML in the USA and in Europe.
  • The prognostic factors of pediatric AML were analyzed,and patients with AML were classified according to prognostic factors.
  • The t(15;17), inv(16) and t(8;21) have emerged as predictors of good prognosis in children with AML.
  • In addition to chromosomal deletions, FLT 3/ITD identifies pediatric patients with a particularly poor prognosis.
  • APL can be distinguished from other subtypes of AML by virtue of its excellent response and overall outcome as a result of differentiation therapy with ATRA.
  • With the consideration of quality of life (QOL), risk-adapted therapy was introduced in the AML 99 trial conducted by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • A high survival rate of 79% at 3 years was achieved for childhood de novo AML in the AML 99 trial.
  • To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment strategy according to risk stratification based on leukemia cell biology and response to the initial induction therapy in children with AML, the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) has organized multi-center phase II trials in children with newly diagnosed AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Protocols. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17301520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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56. Ganor Y, Goldberg-Stern H, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y, Dobrynina LA, Kalashnikova L, Levite M: Antibodies to glutamate receptor subtype 3 (GluR3) are found in some patients suffering from epilepsy as the main disease, but not in patients whose epilepsy accompanies antiphospholipid syndrome or Sneddon's syndrome. Autoimmunity; 2005 Sep;38(6):417-24
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  • We tested 77 pediatric patients whose epilepsy is their main disease; 31 adult patients whose epilepsy accompanies APS (primary or SLE-associated) or SNS; 45 epilepsy-free APS and SNS patients; and 90 healthy controls.
  • Yet, all the APS and SNS patients harbored the characteristic anti-phospholipid Ab's (aPL), directed against cardiolipin and beta2-glycoprotein I, and had lupus anti-coagulant.
  • Thus, anti-GluR3B Ab's are not crossreactive with aPL, and not produced as a non-specific consequence of seizures on the one hand, or autoimmune-diseases on the other.

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  • (PMID = 16278146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Autoimmunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Autoimmunity
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid; 0 / Receptors, AMPA; 0 / glutamate receptor ionotropic, AMPA 3
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57. Ribeiro R: Update on the management of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol; 2006 Apr;4(4):263-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC ACID .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update on the management of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood Component Transfusion. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hemorrhage / blood. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hemorrhage / mortality. Hemorrhage / therapy. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2006 Nov;4(11):854-5; author reply 855-6 [17193721.001]
  • (PMID = 16728936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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58. Feusner J, Gregory JJ Jr: Update on the management of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol; 2006 Nov;4(11):854-5; author reply 855-6
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update on the management of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood Component Transfusion. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hemorrhage / blood. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hemorrhage / mortality. Hemorrhage / therapy. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2006 Apr;4(4):263-5 [16728936.001]
  • (PMID = 17193721.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Hao LC, Wang H, Zhang LZ: [Clinical observation and follow-up study on acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood treated mainly with arsenic trioxide]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Jul;43(7):534-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ARSENIC TRIOXIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical observation and follow-up study on acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood treated mainly with arsenic trioxide].
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16083560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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