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1. Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, Cress RD, Bacchetti P, Scheer S: The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non-AIDS-defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol; 2007 May 15;165(10):1143-53
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  • [Title] The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non-AIDS-defining cancers among adults with AIDS.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and increased AIDS survival time, but little is known about its impact on cancer.
  • Data from adults in the San Francisco, California, AIDS surveillance registry were computer matched with the California Cancer Registry.
  • Age-, sex-, and race-adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed, and proportional hazards models evaluated the effect of HAART use on cancer incidence and cancer survival time.
  • Among 14,210 adults with AIDS diagnosed in 1990-2000, 482 non-AIDS-defining cancers were diagnosed.
  • Compared with rates for the general population, significantly increased cancer incidence rates were observed for anal (SIR = 13.4), Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR = 11.5), liver (SIR = 3.6), oral cavity and pharynx (SIR = 2.6), respiratory (SIR = 2.6), leukemia (SIR = 2.4), skin melanoma (SIR = 2.4), and prostate (SIR = 1.7) cancers.
  • Risk of liver cancer was lower with HAART use (relative hazard (RH) = 0.32).
  • Risk of anal cancer increased after 1995 (RH = 2.9).
  • Respiratory cancer (RH = 0.40) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (RH = 0.17) showed increased cancer survival time with HAART use, while anal cancer survival may have been slightly decreased (RH = 1.4).
  • The impact of HAART on non-AIDS-defining cancer incidence rates and survival is not uniform, and the mechanism(s) responsible for these differences should be investigated further.

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  • (PMID = 17344204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9262
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R03-AI055270; United States / PHS HHS / / U62/CCU923549-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Glynne-Jones R, Meadows H, Wan S, Gollins S, Leslie M, Levine E, McDonald AC, Myint S, Samuel L, Sebag-Montefiore D, National Cancer Research Institute Anal Sub Group and Colorectal Clinical Oncology Group: EXTRA--a multicenter phase II study of chemoradiation using a 5 day per week oral regimen of capecitabine and intravenous mitomycin C in anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Sep 1;72(1):119-26
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  • [Title] EXTRA--a multicenter phase II study of chemoradiation using a 5 day per week oral regimen of capecitabine and intravenous mitomycin C in anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) + mitomycin C (MMC)-based chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with epidermoid anal carcinoma.
  • Clinical trials in other cancers have confirmed 5-FU can successfully be replaced by the oral fluoropyrimidine capecitabine.
  • This phase II trial aimed to determine the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of capecitabine, MMC and radiotherapy (RT) in anal cancer patients.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal Cancer Trial (ACT) II trial (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine with MMC and RT in with patients anal carcinoma is well tolerated, with minimal toxicity and acceptable compliance.
  • We recommend testing this schedule in future national Phase III studies in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Capecitabine. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Diarrhea / etiology. Drug Administration Schedule. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Great Britain. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18472366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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3. Matzinger O, Roelofsen F, Mineur L, Koswig S, Van Der Steen-Banasik EM, Van Houtte P, Haustermans K, Radosevic-Jelic L, Mueller RP, Maingon P, Collette L, Bosset JF, EORTC Radiation Oncology and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer Groups: Mitomycin C with continuous fluorouracil or with cisplatin in combination with radiotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase II study 22011-40014). Eur J Cancer; 2009 Nov;45(16):2782-91
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  • [Title] Mitomycin C with continuous fluorouracil or with cisplatin in combination with radiotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase II study 22011-40014).
  • PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and activity of radio-chemotherapy with mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin (CDDP) in locally advanced squamous cell anal carcinoma with reference to radiotherapy (RT) combined with MMC and fluorouracil (5-FU).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19643599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00068744
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2U10 CA11488-31
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Vietharsdóttir H, Moeller PH, Jóhannsson J, Jónasson JG: [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study]. Laeknabladid; 2006 May;92(5):365-72
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  • [Title] [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study].
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare disease.
  • The aim of this study was to describe anal cancer in Iceland in 1987-2003 with respect to incidence, histologic type, treatment, recurrence rate and survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which all malignant anal tumours diagnosed in Iceland in the period 1987-2003 were reviewed with respect to patient outcome.
  • This is a nationwide, population-based study of malignant tumours of the anal region.
  • RESULTS: From 1987-2003 thirty-eight patients were diagnosed with anal cancer, 28 females and 10 males.
  • The average age at diagnosis was 63.4 years.
  • Age standardized incidence rates for anal cancer in Iceland were 0.3 (+/-0.2) of 100.000 males and 0.9 (+/-0.4) of 100.000 females.
  • The remaining histologic types were malignant melanoma (n=3), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), GIST (n=1) and undifferentiated carcinoma (n=2).
  • The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 2 weeks to 96 months (mean value 3.5 months).
  • Twelve patients had recurrent cancer.
  • The mean value of the time from diagnosis of the primary to the recurrent cancer was 15.6 months (range, 5.9-117).
  • Sixteen patients remain with disease and ten have died of anal cancer.
  • The five year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the years 1987 to 1998 is 75% but cancer-specific survival is 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Age-standardized incidence for anal cancer in Iceland is similar to other regions.
  • Average age at diagnosis, male-female ratio and prognosis is similar to reports in other studies.
  • The proportion of adenocarcinoma of the anus is lower in Iceland than elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Defecation. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Pruritus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16741319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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5. Tider DS, Caprio GR, Gaisa M, Klein RS, Goldstone SE: Successful initiation of an anal cancer screening and treatment program at a New York City HIV clinic. AIDS; 2010 Apr 24;24(7):1085-6; author reply 1086-7
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  • [Title] Successful initiation of an anal cancer screening and treatment program at a New York City HIV clinic.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications


6. Lampejo T, Kavanagh D, Clark J, Goldin R, Osborn M, Ziprin P, Cleator S: Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review. Br J Cancer; 2010 Dec 07;103(12):1858-69
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  • [Title] Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: recent decades have seen combination chemoradiotherapy become the standard treatment for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Further insight into tumour characteristics and molecular biology may identify novel therapeutic targets.
  • This systematic review examines current prognostic markers in SCC of the anus.
  • METHODS: an extensive literature search was performed to identify studies reporting on biomarkers in anal cancer in the context of clinical outcome following treatment primarily with chemoradiotherapy.
  • The tumour-suppressor genes p53 and p21 were the only markers shown to be of prognostic value in more than one study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: an array of biomarkers have been identified that correlate with survival following chemoradiotherapy in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genes, p53. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Cancer Resaerch UK.
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  • (PMID = 21063399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3008609
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7. Kreuter A, Jesse M, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Bechara FG, Pfister H, Wieland U: Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):490-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of proliferative biomarkers in anal intraepithelial neoplasia of HIV-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals, especially in men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of AIN might prevent development of anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the expression of 8 promising proliferative biomarkers in anal dysplasia and to compare the efficacy of these markers in diagnosing high-grade AIN.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM3, MCM4, MCM6, and MCM7), p21, Ki-67, p16, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was performed in a total of 49 specimens of normal anal mucosa and high- and low-grade anal dysplasia.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of PCNA and p21 for a high-grade AIN diagnosis were lower.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Biopsy, Needle. DNA, Viral / analysis. HIV Seropositivity. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Viral Load. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
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8. Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring SK, Rady PL, Zuleta JJ, Correa LA, He Q, Wolff JC: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Sep;21(8):1054-60
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 5% imiquimod in HIV-positive male patients with anogenital warts or anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and to elucidate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type and viral load were important for clinical outcome and recurrences.
  • Eighteen patients had a histopathological diagnosis of AIN-1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The assumption that visible perianal warts are benign lesions in HIV-positive patients has to be reevaluated since an important number of such lesions could correspond to low-grade anal disease, which in turn could progress to high-grade anal disease or cancer.
  • Further studies are needed to document its utility to prevent high-grade dysplasia and/or anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Genital Diseases, Male / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy


9. Das P, Crane CH, Ajani JA: Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Jul;19(4):396-400
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  • [Title] Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemoradiation represents the standard of care for most patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This article reviews randomized trials and recent studies on chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • Recent studies have started to evaluate intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer, in an effort to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The role of cisplatin in anal cancer is not completely clear, although an ongoing randomized trial (Anal Cancer Trial II) may help clarify the role of cisplatin.
  • Studies on tumor biology and patient genetics are warranted to identify patients that are most likely to benefit from newer locoregional and systemic therapies.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy appears to be a promising approach for reducing treatment-related toxicity in anal cancer patients.
  • The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) is conducting a phase II trial evaluating the multi-institutional feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17545807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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10. Berton F, Gola G, Wilson SR: Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jun;190(6):1495-504
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  • [Title] Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal.
  • Our purpose is to describe the current status of sonography in the evaluation of rectal and anal tumors and in the staging of rectal cancer.
  • They are considered the reference standard for the preoperative staging of rectal and anal cancers and have relatively high accuracy in categorization of tumors and nodes in TNM staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography. Vagina / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18492898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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11. Lampinen TM, Miller ML, Chan K, Anema A, van Niekerk D, Schilder AJ, Taylor R, Hogg RS: Randomized clinical evaluation of self-screening for anal cancer precursors in men who have sex with men. Cytojournal; 2006;3:4
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  • [Title] Randomized clinical evaluation of self-screening for anal cancer precursors in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Self-collection of anorectal swab specimens could greatly facilitate the completion of prerequisite studies and future implementation of anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Among 12 men with biopsy-confirmed high-grade neoplasia, most had abnormal cytological results (including 6 patient and 9 clinician swabs) but few (2 patient and 1 clinician swab) were high-grade.

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  • (PMID = 16549010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1435770
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12. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Tumour size was the main factor driving outcomes, especially survival.
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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13. Kidd EA, Dehdashti F, Siegel BA, Grigsby PW: Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):288-91
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  • [Title] Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate anal cancer uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measured as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) by positron emission tomography (PET) and its correlation with prognostic factors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 77 patients with stages 0-IIIB anal cancer who underwent pre-treatment FDG-PET.
  • Tumor histology included 65 squamous cell, 11 basaloid, and 1 small cell cancers.
  • SUV(max) and clinical tumor size were not associated (R(2)=0.338).
  • Higher SUV(max) was associated with an increased risk of nodal metastasis at diagnosis (p<0.0001).
  • Patients with high anal tumor SUV(max) at diagnosis were at an increased risk of persistent or recurrent disease on post-therapy FDG-PET performed less than 4months after completing therapy (p=0.0402).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SUV(max) is a valuable biomarker of anal cancer prognosis, predicting increased risk of lymph node metastasis and worse disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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14. Patel CB, Ramos-Valadez DI, Haas EM: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer: feasibility and technical considerations. Int J Med Robot; 2010 Dec;6(4):399-404
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  • [Title] Robotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer: feasibility and technical considerations.
  • BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is an emerging technology that may prove advantageous for complex colorectal procedures involving the irradiated pelvis, such as abdominoperineal resection for recurrent anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Over a 6 month period, five abdominoperineal resections were performed using the da Vinci® robot for recurrent anal cancer in patients initially treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for anal cancer was found to be a safe and feasible procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Perineum / surgery. Robotics / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20827795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-596X
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of medical robotics + computer assisted surgery : MRCAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Robot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Lindsey K, DeCristofaro C, James J: Anal Pap smears: Should we be doing them? J Am Acad Nurse Pract; 2009 Aug;21(8):437-43
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  • [Title] Anal Pap smears: Should we be doing them?
  • PURPOSE: To identify the need to perform anal Papanicolau (Pap) smears for diagnosing histologic changes associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in order to provide early intervention for the prevention of anal cancer.
  • To offer the primary care provider information, based on evidence-based research, about identifying the high-risk patient using risk factors, instructions on performing the anal Pap smear, interpreting the results, and initiating treatment interventions and/or referrals for care.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Performing anal Pap smears is a valuable tool to detect cytologic changes associated with some strains of HPV infection.
  • For persons participating in receptive anal intercourse, this diagnostic procedure provides the opportunity for early detection to guide appropriate follow-up and interventions.
  • High-risk groups that would benefit from this screening include men who have sex with men, HIV-infected men and women, immunocompromised men and women, women with a history of cervical or vulvar cancer (or high-grade cervical lesions), and women participating in receptive anal intercourse.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Risk-Taking. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19689440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-7599
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Acad Nurse Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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16. Lukan N, Ströbel P, Willer A, Kripp M, Dinter D, Mai S, Hochhaus A, Hofheinz RD: Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status. Oncology; 2009;77(5):293-9
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  • [Title] Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status.
  • BACKGROUND: No standard chemotherapy regimen can be defined for patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus due to the low incidence of this disease and the high cure rate of localized tumors.
  • Anal cancers universally express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations have not been reported in anal cancer thus far.
  • METHODS: We report on 7 patients with metastatic anal cancer treated with cetuximab - a chimeric antibody against EGFR - on a compassionate use basis along with the results of KRAS mutational analysis.
  • RESULTS: Marked tumor shrinkage was noted in several patients using cetuximab monotherapy or cetuximab/irinotecan combination as first or subsequent treatment line (usually after failure of cisplatin-based regimens).
  • Both patients had progressive disease receiving cetuximab, while the remaining 5 patients had either a partial remission (n = 3), a minor remission (n = 1) or no change lasting > or =6 months after previous rapid tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSION: Cetuximab-based treatment appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients with metastatic KRAS wild-type anal cancer after failure of or as an alternative to cisplatin/5-fluorouracil-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19923868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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17. Reiter PL, Brewer NT, McRee AL, Gilbert P, Smith JS: Acceptability of HPV vaccine among a national sample of gay and bisexual men. Sex Transm Dis; 2010 Mar;37(3):197-203
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  • OBJECTIVE: Due to higher rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and anal cancer among gay and bisexual men, we aimed to characterize their willingness to get HPV vaccine and identify correlates of vaccine acceptability.

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  • (PMID = 20118831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4521
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA057726; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA57726
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS578642; NLM/ PMC4018212
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18. Sato M, Ogawa H, Shibata C, Miura K, Ando T, Saijo F, Haneda S, Kakyo M, Kinouchi M, Fukushima K, Funayama Y, Takahashi K, Sasaki I: [A case of anal cancer with rapidly rising CEA in longstanding perianal Crohn disease after infliximab administration]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Jun;107(6):885-92
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  • [Title] [A case of anal cancer with rapidly rising CEA in longstanding perianal Crohn disease after infliximab administration].
  • However, there is clinical concern about a possible correlation between an increased risk of anorectal cancer and infliximab treatment.
  • We report a case of anorectal cancer in long-standing perianal Crohn disease.
  • We suspected anorectal cancer, so abdominoperineal resection was performed.
  • Monitoring of patients with long-standing perianal Crohn disease is considered essential for early diagnosis of anal cancer after obtaining biopsy samples from perianal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20530924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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19. Meropol NJ, Niedzwiecki D, Shank B, Colacchio TA, Ellerton J, Valone F, Budinger S, Day JM, Hopkins J, Tepper J, Goldberg RM, Mayer RJ: Induction therapy for poor-prognosis anal canal carcinoma: a phase II study of the cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9281). J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 01;26(19):3229-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Induction therapy for poor-prognosis anal canal carcinoma: a phase II study of the cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9281).
  • PURPOSE: Although most patients with anal canal cancer are cured with sphincter-preserving, nonsurgical, combined-modality therapy, those with large tumors and lymph node involvement have a poor prognosis.
  • To establish the safety and efficacy of induction chemotherapy with infusional fluorouracil (FU) plus cisplatin followed by FU plus mitomycin C with concurrent radiation in patients with poor-prognosis squamous cell cancers of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: Patients with previously untreated anal canal cancers with T3 or T4 tumors and/or extensive nodal involvement (bulky N2 or N3) received two 28-day cycles of induction treatment with infusional FU plus cisplatin followed by two 28-day cycles of FU plus mitomycin C with concurrent split-course radiation.
  • A third cycle of FU and cisplatin with radiation boost was given to patients with persistent primary site disease or bulky N2 or N3 disease at presentation.
  • CONCLUSION: A combined-modality approach that includes induction treatment with FU and cisplatin followed by combined-modality therapy with FU, mitomycin C, and concurrent radiation results in long-term disease control in the majority of patients with poor-prognosis anal canal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18490648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04326; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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20. Joseph KJ, Syme A, Small C, Warkentin H, Quon H, Ghosh S, Field C, Pervez N, Tankel K, Patel S, Usmani N, Severin D, Nijjar T, Fallone G, Pedersen J: A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jan;94(1):60-6
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  • [Title] A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: A planning study to compare helical tomotherapy (HT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of anal canal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen (8 males and 8 females) patients with anal cancer previously treated radically were identified.
  • The planning goals were to deliver 54Gy to the tumor (PTV(54Gy)) and 48Gy to the nodes at risk (PTV(Node)) in 30 fractions.
  • Skin: both techniques achieved comparable sparing of the non-target skin (p=NS).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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21. McGhee EM, Cotter PD, Weier JF, Berline JW, Turner MA, Gormley M, Palefsky JM: Molecular cytogenetic characterization of human papillomavirus16-transformed foreskin keratinocyte cell line 16-MT. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jul 1;168(1):36-43
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  • Anogenital cancers are closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV-infected individuals, particularly those with high-grade dysplasias, are at increased risk for cervical and anal cancers.
  • The 16-MT cell line showed losses and gains of DNA due to unbalanced translocations and complex rearrangements of regions containing known tumor suppressor genes.
  • Chromosomal changes in these regions might explain the increased risk of cancer associated with HPV.
  • These results provide the basis for the identification of candidate oncogenes responsible for cervical and anal cancer in amplified regions, and for putative tumor suppressor genes in commonly deleted regions like 11q22-23.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aneuploidy. Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Cell Line, Transformed. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Banding. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Karyotyping. Male. Models, Biological. Penis. Telomerase / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16772119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-05S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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22. Cranston RD, Hart SD, Gornbein JA, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2007 Feb;18(2):77-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prevalence, and predictive value, of abnormal anal cytology to diagnose anal dysplasia in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Due to the increasing incidence of anal cancer in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and the potential to detect and treat high-grade anal dysplasia--the putative anal cancer precursor--we have introduced an anal cytology screening service.
  • Patients with abnormal anal cytology have follow-up high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with biopsy of lesions clinically suspicious for high-grade dysplasia.
  • One hundred and sixty-four (67%) men had abnormal anal cytology, and 93 of them had follow-up HRA and anal biopsy.
  • The positive predictive value for any anal cytological abnormality to predict any degree of anal dysplasia was 95.7+/-2.1%, and for any anal cytological abnormality to predict high-grade anal dysplasia was 55.9+/-5.1%.
  • Abnormal anal cytology was highly predicative of anal dysplasia on biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cytological Techniques. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prevalence

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  • (PMID = 17331275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Oehler-Jänne C, Seifert B, Lütolf UM, Ciernik IF: Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Radiat Oncol; 2006;1:29
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  • [Title] Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the outcome of HIV-seropositive patients under highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with anal cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy (CT).
  • Pattern of care, local disease control (LC), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and toxicity were assessed.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite high response rates to organ preserving treatment with RT with or without CT, local tumor failure seems to be high in HIV-positive patients receiving HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Radiotherapy / methods


24. Goh V, Gollub FK, Liaw J, Wellsted D, Przybytniak I, Padhani AR, Glynne-Jones R: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 1;78(3):715-21
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome?
  • PURPOSE: To describe the MRI appearances of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation and to assess whether MRI features predict for clinical outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-five patients (15 male, 20 female; mean age 60.8 years) with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the anal canal underwent MRI before and 6-8 weeks after definitive chemoradiation.
  • Images were reviewed retrospectively by two radiologists in consensus blinded to clinical outcome: tumor size, signal intensity, extent, and TNM stage were recorded.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Tytherleigh MG, Birtle AJ, Cohen CE, Glynne-Jones R, Livingstone J, Gilbert J: Combined surgery and chemoradiation as a treatment for the Buschke-Löwenstein tumour. Surgeon; 2006 Dec;4(6):378-83
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  • [Title] Combined surgery and chemoradiation as a treatment for the Buschke-Löwenstein tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: The Buschke-Löwenstein tumour (BLT) or giant condyloma acuminata is a rare disease which affects the anogenital region.
  • Although histologically benign, it behaves in a malignant fashion, infiltrating the surrounding tissues.
  • The morbidity and mortality from this tumour is high, as is the risk of recurrence following treatment.
  • Chemoradiation remains the mainstay of treatment for anal cancers but has not been routinely employed in the management of the BLT without squamous cell carcinoma transformation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Abdominal Neoplasms / therapy. Adult. Anus Neoplasms / secondary. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectal Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17152203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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26. Kazama S, Hiramatsu T, Kobayashi R, Takabayashi N, Niwa H, Isono T, Suzuki H, Shimada S, Kimura M, Hara K, Kuriki K: Cancer in the anal canal, and in an anal fistula, that developed during a longstanding course of Crohn's disease. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Oct;40(10):1000-1
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  • [Title] Cancer in the anal canal, and in an anal fistula, that developed during a longstanding course of Crohn's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Crohn Disease / complications. Rectal Fistula / complications


27. Elit L, Voruganti S, Simunovic M: Invasive vulvar cancer in a woman with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):151-4
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  • [Title] Invasive vulvar cancer in a woman with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: : HIV is associated with a decrease in cellular immunity which allows for persistence of high-risk HPV types and this can predispose the woman to dysplasia or cancer of the gynecologic tract.
  • CASE: : We present a case of Stage 3 vulvar cancer in a 33-year-old HIV positive woman.
  • CONCLUSION: : The optimal treatment of advanced vulvar cancer in HIV positive patients remains unclear given the small number of cases reported in the literature.
  • Lessons from the anal cancer literature may help inform the care of vulvar cancer patients given the comparable high prevalence of this disease in the patients infected with HIV.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging


28. Meyer A, Meier Zu Eissen J, Karstens JH, Bremer M: Chemoradiotherapy in patients with anal cancer: impact of length of unplanned treatment interruption on outcome. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(6):728-35
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  • [Title] Chemoradiotherapy in patients with anal cancer: impact of length of unplanned treatment interruption on outcome.
  • The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate feasibility and effectiveness of definitive chemoradiotherapy without split-course technique in anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation

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  • (PMID = 16938816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 13909-09-6 / Semustine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; MMC protocol
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29. Poggi MM, Suh WW, Saltz L, Konski AA, Mohiuddin M, Herman J, Johnstone PA: ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer. J Am Coll Radiol; 2007 Jul;4(7):448-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer.
  • Anal cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm, accounting for roughly 4,500 cases per year.
  • The evolution of the definitive treatment of anal cancer from a surgical to a nonsurgical approach, however, has been viewed as a model disease site in a larger paradigm shift in medicine.
  • Organ preservation, in this case a functional anal sphincter, and durable cure are obtainable goals.
  • To this end, anal cancer is a disease best treated primarily with chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17601586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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30. Albright JB, Bonatti H, Stauffer J, Dickson RC, Nguyen J, Harnois D, Jeanpierre C, Hinder R, Steers J, Chua H, Aranda-Michel J: Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7):657-66
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  • [Title] Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation.
  • Data on neoplasms of the colon, rectum and anus in LT are limited.
  • METHOD: A retrospective evaluation of the incidence and clinical course of colorectal and anal malignancies and colonic polyps in a series of 467 consecutive LTs in 402 individuals between 1998 and 2001 was performed.
  • RESULTS: During a median follow up of 5.2 years, three colon adenocarcinomas, one EBV associated cecal posttransplant lymphoproliferative tumour and two HPV associated anal tumours were identified.
  • No patient died from colorectal/anal malignancy.
  • Viral-associated malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and anal cancer, are important entities in the LT population suggesting that complete screening of the colon, rectum and anus including pre-LT and post-LT colonoscopy should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19508543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Ambinder RF, Bhatia K, Martinez-Maza O, Mitsuyasu R: Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2010 Nov;5(6):531-7
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  • [Title] Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update investigations related to cancer biomarkers in HIV-infected populations.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: CD4 lymphocyte count is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (except perhaps for Burkitt lymphoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
  • HIV load is associated with Burkitt lymphoma and systemic NHL (but not PCNSL), with Kaposi's sarcoma and with anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20978397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274983; NLM/ PMC3055562
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32. Gao L, Zhou F, Li X, Yang Y, Ruan Y, Jin Q: Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China. PLoS One; 2010;5(12):e15256
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  • [Title] Anal HPV infection in HIV-positive men who have sex with men from China.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal HPV infection, which contributes to the development of anal warts and anal cancer, is well known to be common among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially among those HIV positives.
  • However, HIV and anal HPV co-infection among MSM has not been addressed in China.
  • Blood and anal swabs were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping.
  • HIV and anal HPV prevalence were 8.5% and 62.1%, respectively.
  • A strong dose-response relationship was found between HIV seropositivity and multiplicity of HPV genotypes (p<0.001), which is consistent with the observation that anal HPV infection was an independent predictor for HIV infection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HIV and anal HPV co-infection was observed in the MSM community in Beijing and Tianjin, China.
  • Anal HPV infection was found to be independently associated with increased HIV seropositivity, which suggests the application of HPV vaccine might be a potential strategy to reduce the acquisition of HIV infection though controlling the prevalence of HPV.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Anus Diseases / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21151900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997781
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33. Marino G, Laudi M, Capussotti L, Zola P: [Urologic surgical procedures in patients with uterus neoplasm and colon-rectal cancer]. Urologia; 2008 Jan-Mar;75(1):42-8
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  • [Title] [Urologic surgical procedures in patients with uterus neoplasm and colon-rectal cancer].
  • INTRODUCTION. During the last 30 years, the multidisciplinary treatments of colon and uterus neoplasm have yielded an increase in total survival rates, fostering therefore the increase of cases with regional relapse involving the urinary tract.
  • From 1997 to August 2007 we performed altogether 43 pelvic iterative surgeries, with simultaneous urologic surgical procedure because of pelvic tumor relapse in patients with uterus neoplasm and colon and rectal cancer.
  • In 4 cases of anal cancer, the urological procedure were: one radical prostatectomy with continent vesicostomy in the first case, while in the other 3 cases radical pelvectomy with double-barrelled uretero-cutaneostomy.
  • In 23 cases of colon cancer, the urologic procedures were: 9 cases of radical cystectomy with double-barrelled uretero-cutaneostomy, 4 cases of radical cystectomy with uretero-ileo-cutaneostomy according to Bricker- Wallace II procedure, and 9 cases of partial cystectomy with pelvic ureterectomy and ureterocystoneostomy according to Lich-Gregoire technique (7 cases) and Lembo-Boari (2 cases) procedure.
  • In 16 cases of uterus cancer, the urological procedure were: 7 cases of partial cystectomy with pelvic ureterectomy and uretero-cystoneostomy according to Lich-Gregoire procedure; in 3 cases, a radical cystectomy with urinary continent cutaneous diversion according to the Ileal T-pouch procedure; 2 cases of total pelvectomy and double uretero-cutaneostomy, and 4 cases of bilateral uretero-cutaneostomy.
  • The equation: eradication of pelvic neoplasm and urinary tract reconstruction, with acceptable quality of life, will be the future target; nevertheless, it is not possible to establish guidelines beforehand, and the therapy must be adapted to each single case.

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  • (PMID = 21086375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-5603
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):123-9
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) is established as the primary treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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35. Zbar AP, Shenoy RK, Chiappa A: Extended abdominoperineal resection in women: the Barbadian experience. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2007;4:1
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We report our results of a selective approach to primary direct appositional vaginal repair versus transverse rectus abdominis flap repair (TRAM) in patients with extensive rectal/anal cancer or in cases with primary cancer of cervix, vagina or vulva involving the anal canal and anal sphincters.
  • Exenterative procedures were performed in 2 cases of primary vaginal cancer, following Wertheim hysterectomy for carcinoma of the cervix with recurrence after radiation and in 2 further cases of anal cancer with extensive pelvic recurrence after primary chemoradiation.

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  • (PMID = 17214895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1779795
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36. Trautmann TG, Zuger JH: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol; 2005 Jul-Aug;7(4):309-13
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  • [Title] Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: In recent years, combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy and radiation has replaced surgery as the preferred treatment for cancer of the anal canal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 1999 to August 2002, 21 patients with cancer of the anal canal were studied prospectively.
  • Nine patients had minimal residual PET activity at the primary site on the one-month follow-up PET study, but only three of these subsequently developed local recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET, in conjunction with CT scanning, provides additional staging information in cancer of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16028002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. D'Souza G, Wiley DJ, Li X, Chmiel JS, Margolick JB, Cranston RD, Jacobson LP: Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Aug 1;48(4):491-9
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  • [Title] Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study).
  • RESULTS: There were 28 cases of anal cancer among the 6,972 men who were evaluated.
  • Among HIV-positive men, anal cancer incidence was higher in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era than the pre-HAART era (incidence rate = 137 vs 30 per 100,000 person-years).
  • In multivariate analysis restricted to the HAART era, anal cancer risk increased significantly with HIV infection (relative hazard = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.3 to 17) and increasing number of unprotected receptive anal sex partners at the first 3 study visits (P trend = 0.03).
  • Among HIV-positive men, current HAART use did not decrease anal cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive men had increased risk of anal cancer.
  • Improved survival of HIV-positive individuals after HAART initiation may allow for sufficient time for human papillomavirus-associated anal dysplasias to develop into malignancies, thus explaining the increased incidence of anal cancer in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18614927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-MO1-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37613
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS562648; NLM/ PMC3991563
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38. Shvetsov YB, Hernandez BY, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, Ning L, Killeen J, Kamemoto L, Goodman MT: Duration and clearance of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women: the Hawaii HPV cohort study. Clin Infect Dis; 2009 Mar 1;48(5):536-46
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  • [Title] Duration and clearance of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women: the Hawaii HPV cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: The association of anal cancer with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well established; however, little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV in healthy women.
  • We investigated patterns of duration and clearance of anal HPV infection in a cohort of healthy women in Hawaii.
  • METHODS: Viral and nonviral determinants of anal HPV clearance were examined in a longitudinal cohort study of 431 sexually active women.
  • At baseline and at 4-month intervals, interviews were conducted and cervical and anal cell specimens were obtained for detection of HPV DNA.
  • RESULTS: Of the 431 women, 50% experienced a total of 414 incident anal HPV infections, reported at 1 clinic visits from baseline through a follow-up period of average duration of 1.2 years.
  • The clearance rate for a high-risk anal infection was 9.2 per 100 woman-months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-11.9 per 100 woman-months), with a median duration of 150 days (95% CI, 132-243 days).
  • The median clearance times for HPV-16 and HPV-18, the predominant types associated with anal cancer, were 132 days and 212 days, respectively.
  • Nonviral factors that delayed clearance of anal HPV included douching, long-term tobacco smoking, and anal sex.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of anal HPV infections resolve in a relatively short time.
  • Although anal HPV is commonly acquired in healthy women, its rapid clearance suggests limited efficacy of HPV testing as an anal cancer screening tool.

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  • (PMID = 19191636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA077318-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077318-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-077318
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96919; NLM/ PMC2756215
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39. Jhawer M, Mani S, Lefkopoulou M, Hahn RG, Harris J, Catalano PJ, Haller D: Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282. Invest New Drugs; 2006 Sep;24(5):447-54
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282.
  • Metastatic anal cancer is a rare disease in the Western hemisphere and current treatment modalities are not effective.
  • In this study, patients with advanced epithelial cancer of the anal canal received MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU upon progression of disease.
  • The combination therapy of MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU for patients with advanced anal cancer, not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery, results in a moderate objective response but with moderate toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BLEOMYCIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LOMUSTINE .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .
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  • (PMID = 16763788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25988
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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40. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Weissenborn SJ, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Sep;128(9):2316-24
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  • [Title] Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia.
  • These patients have a strongly increased risk of HPV-induced anal cancer and its precursor lesion, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and a moderately increased risk for penile cancer.
  • Only limited data exist on penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in HIV+MSM.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. HIV Infections. Homosexuality, Male. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology


41. James R, Meadows H, Wan S: ACT II: the second UK phase III anal cancer trial. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 Aug;17(5):364-6
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  • [Title] ACT II: the second UK phase III anal cancer trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16097568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Dittrich R, Mueller A, Binder H, Oppelt PG, Renner SP, Goecke T, Hoffmann I, Beckmann WM: First retransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue following cancer therapy in Germany. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 2008 Apr;105(15):274-8
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  • [Title] First retransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue following cancer therapy in Germany.
  • INTRODUCTION: New anticancer treatments have increased survival rates for cancer patients but often at the cost of sterility.
  • METHODS: Immediately following the diagnosis of anal cancer, ovarian tissue was removed laparoscopically, and cryopreserved.
  • After the 2.5 year period of cancer remission, the cryopreserved ovarian tissue was retransplanted orthotopically.

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  • (PMID = 19629232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1866-0452
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsches Ärzteblatt international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch Arztebl Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2696858
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cancer / cryopreservation / fertility protection / ovarian tissue / transplantation
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43. Abdulkareem FB, Abudu EK, Awolola NA, Elesha SO, Rotimi O, Akinde OR, Atoyebi AO, Adesanya AA, Daramola AO, Banjo AA, Anunobi CC: Colorectal carcinoma in Lagos and Sagamu, Southwest Nigeria: a histopathological review. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Nov 14;14(42):6531-5
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  • Cases of anal cancer were excluded from this study.
  • The recto-sigmoid colon was the most common site (58.6%).
  • CONCLUSION: CRC is the commonest malignant gastrointestinal (GIT) tumor most commonly located in the recto-sigmoid region.

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  • (PMID = 19030207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA094143
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2773341
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44. Tarasov VA, Larin IA, Sharov IuK, Bogdanovich AS, Litvinov AIu: [Use of high-energy intraluminal brachytherapy in radio- and radiochemotherapy for anal cancer]. Vopr Onkol; 2010;56(3):307-11
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  • [Title] [Use of high-energy intraluminal brachytherapy in radio- and radiochemotherapy for anal cancer].
  • Complete local response to radio- and chemoradiation for anal cancer was improved due to use of high-energy dosage of intraluminal brachytherapy (complete clinical regression (chemoradiation)--85.7%; combined irradiaton--75%).
  • No signs of tumor progression have been reported in 20 survivors (median duration--21.6 months) (mean recurrence-free survival--12.5 months).
  • Intrapelvic lymph nodes were involved in 2 cases of previously morphologically confirmed regression of primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colostomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Pilot Projects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20804052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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45. da Costa e Silva IT, Gimenez FS, Guimarães RA, Camelo RT, Melo MN, de Barros FS, Daumas A, Cabral CR, Guimarães EL: [Anal cytology as a screening method for early detection of anal cancer: are hydrophilic cotton smears really unsatisfactory?]. Acta Cir Bras; 2005 Jan-Feb;20(1):109-14
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology as a screening method for early detection of anal cancer: are hydrophilic cotton smears really unsatisfactory?].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal como método de rastreamento para a detecção precoce do cancer anal: esfregaços com algodão hidrófilo são mesmo insatisfatórios?
  • METHODS: 318 consecutive patients were examined at the Ambulatório Araújo Lima of Hospital Universitario Getúlio Vargas in the Anal Cancer Prevention Week and were sampled for the performance of analpap.
  • The ability of cotton in producing satisfactory anal cytologic readings as compared to dacron and cytologic brush was analised.

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  • (PMID = 15810472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0102-8650
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cirurgica brasileira
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cir Bras
  • [Language] POR
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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46. Rouquie D, Lasser P, Castaing M, Boige V, Goéré D, Pignon JP, Ducreux M, Elias D, Pocard M: [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Jul-Aug;145(4):335-40
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  • [Title] [Complete (R0) resection is the only valid prognostic factor in abdominoperineal resection for recurrent cancer of the anal canal (a consecutive series of 95 patients)].
  • [Transliterated title] Résection R0, seul facteur pronostique dans les amputations abdominopérinéales de rattrapage des cancers du canal anal (série consécutive de 95 patients).
  • INTRODUCTION: When radiation therapy fails to control cancer of the anal canal, the only therapeutic alternative is salvage abdomino-perineal resection (APR).
  • CONCLUSION: When anal cancer recurs after radiation therapy, a salvage APR is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18955923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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47. Veit-Haibach P, Treyer V, Strobel K, Soyka JD, Husmann L, Schaefer NG, Tschopp A, Hany TF: Feasibility of integrated CT-liver perfusion in routine FDG-PET/CT. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Oct;35(5):528-36
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six consecutive patients (mean age: 60 (34-82) years; 20 f, 26 m) with known liver lesions (colorectal metastases (n = 34), primary liver cancer (n = 4), breast cancer (n = 3), anal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, GIST, duodenal cancer (all: n = 1) who were referred for staging or therapy follow-up by [18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron-emission-tomography/computed-tomography imaging (FDG-PET/CT) were included.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Radiopharmaceuticals. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19593563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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48. Zeller JL, Lynm C, Glass RM: JAMA patient page. Anal cancer. JAMA; 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1980
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  • [Title] JAMA patient page. Anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18430917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Patient Education Handout
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Roach SC, Hulse PA, Moulding FJ, Wilson R, Carrington BM: Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer. Clin Radiol; 2005 Oct;60(10):1111-9
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary and recurrent anal carcinoma, and to demonstrate the commonest patterns of local and distant disease spread.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 27 cases of biopsy-proven anal carcinoma, where MRI was used for primary staging (9 patients) or suspected recurrence (18 patients).
  • The size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumour were documented.
  • Lymph node metastases were of similar signal intensity to the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16179172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Stelzer MK, Pitot HC, Liem A, Lee D, Kennedy GD, Lambert PF: Rapamycin inhibits anal carcinogenesis in two preclinical animal models. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2010 Dec;3(12):1542-51
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  • [Title] Rapamycin inhibits anal carcinogenesis in two preclinical animal models.
  • The incidence of anal cancer is increasing especially among HIV-infected persons in the HAART era.
  • Treatment of this cancer is based upon traditional chemoradiotherapeutic approaches, which are associated with high morbidity and of limited effectiveness for patients with high-grade disease.
  • The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in several human cancers, and is being investigated as a potential therapeutic target.
  • In archival human anal cancers, we observed mTOR pathway activation.
  • To assess response of anal cancer to mTOR inhibition, we utilized two newly developed mouse models, one in which anal cancers are induced to arise in HPV16 transgenic mice and the second a human anal cancer xenograft model.
  • We saw significant changes in the overall incidence of tumors, and tumor growth rate was also reduced.
  • Using both the transgenic mouse and human anal xenograft mouse models, we studied the therapeutic effect of rapamycin on preexisting anal cancer.
  • Rapamycin was found to significantly slow, if not stop, the growth of both mouse and human anal cancers.
  • As has been seen in other cancers, rapamycin treatment led to an activation of the MAPK pathway.
  • These results provide us cause to pursue further the evaluation of rapamycin as a therapeutic agent in the control of anal cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 21149330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141583; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA141583-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA141583-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141583-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141583-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA141583-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-05; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141583-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS249482; NLM/ PMC3058330
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51. Schulte T, Kahlke V: [Mass of the pelvis minor--the coloproctological point of view]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):389-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Raumforderung im kleinen Becken--Sicht des Coloproktologen.
  • It contains the pelvic organs like the inner genital organs of women, the urinary bladder the rectum and parts of the anus.
  • The rectum is the origin of benign and malign tumors.
  • Most frequently you find under these tumors the benign adenoma and hamartoma and the malign like the rectal and anal cancer.
  • The further diagnostic work up and following therapy relates to the histology and the anatomical location of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Pelvic Neoplasms. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colonoscopy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endosonography. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Proctoscopy. Rectum / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17948756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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52. Van As N, Calonje E, Andrews V, Griffiths WA, Leslie MD: Complete resolution of anal cancer after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. Lancet Oncol; 2005 Nov;6(11):908-9
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  • [Title] Complete resolution of anal cancer after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16257800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Hoots BE, Palefsky JM, Pimenta JM, Smith JS: Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions. Int J Cancer; 2009 May 15;124(10):2375-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions.
  • A systematic review was conducted of HPV type distribution in anal cancer and anal high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL).
  • A total of 1,824 cases were included: 992 invasive anal cancers, 472 HSIL cases and 360 LSIL cases.
  • Crude HPV prevalence in anal cancer, HSIL, and LSIL was 71, 91 and 88%, respectively.
  • HPV16/18 prevalence was 72% in invasive anal cancer, 69% in HSIL and 27% in LSIL.
  • The HPV 16 and/or 18 prevalence in invasive anal cancer cases was similar to that reported in invasive cervical cancer.
  • If ongoing clinical trials show efficacy in preventing anal HPV infection and associated anal lesions, prophylactic HPV vaccines may play an important role for the primary prevention of these cancers in both genders.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Species Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19189402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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54. Nyitray A: Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses in heterosexual men. Curr Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(5):204-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses in heterosexual men.

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  • (PMID = 19008993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-0052
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2582514
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55. Meyer A, Bruns F, Richter K, Grünwald V, Karstens JH: Small cell cancer of the anal canal--case report of a rare tumor. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):1047-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell cancer of the anal canal--case report of a rare tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: We report on a rare case of small cell cancer located at the anal canal.
  • CASE REPORT: A 41-year old woman presented with locally advanced small cell anal cancer and simultaneous hepatic and pulmonal deposits.
  • The patient died 10 months after initial diagnosis due to rapid tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with metastatic small cell anal cancer chemotherapy remains the mainstay of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17465242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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56. Devon KM, Brown CJ, Burnstein M, McLeod RS: Cancer of the anus complicating perianal Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):211-6
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  • [Title] Cancer of the anus complicating perianal Crohn's disease.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to review the clinical and pathologic findings, treatment, and outcomes of patients who have a cancer that complicates perianal Crohn's disease.
  • METHODS: Charts of patients who had documented perianal Crohn's disease and a pathologic diagnosis of anal carcinoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: There were 14 patients (6 men; mean age, 49 years) who had evidence of perianal Crohn's disease (mean, 6.9 (range, 1-20) years) before their cancer diagnosis.
  • The diagnosis often was delayed despite increasing pain, multiple biopsies, and imaging studies.
  • Ten patients had preoperative diagnoses of cancer; however, none of the eight magnetic resonance imaging studies were diagnostic.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should have a high level of suspicion of cancer in patients with longstanding perianal Crohn's disease who have a change in symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Crohn Disease / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Diseases / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19279414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Palefsky JM: Human papillomavirus-related disease in men: not just a women's issue. J Adolesc Health; 2010 Apr;46(4 Suppl):S12-9
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  • The most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is cervical cancer.
  • HPV is associated with a variety of cancers in men, including anal cancer and a subset of penile and oral cancers.
  • The incidence of anal and oral cancers related to HPV is increasing in the general population and is growing even faster among individuals who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
  • Likewise, anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia are very common throughout a wide range of ages in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Adolesc Health. 2010 Jun;46(6):614
  • (PMID = 20307839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1972
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Adolesc Health
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 91
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS180665; NLM/ PMC2871537
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58. Mariani P, Ghanneme A, De la Rochefordière A, Girodet J, Falcou MC, Salmon RJ: Abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Oct;51(10):1495-501
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  • [Title] Abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Following initial radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer, patients who present with either persistent or locally recurrent disease are treated by abdominoperineal resection.
  • METHODS: Over a 34-year period (1969-2003), 422 patients with nonmetastatic anal cancer were treated with a curative intent.
  • Using univariate analysis, patients below 55 years, females, T1-2 tumors, N0-N1 lymphadenopathy and the absence of locally advanced tumor were associated with significantly improved survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abdominoperineal resection for nonmetastatic anal cancer is associated with a high morbidity rate but may result in long-term survival regardless of the indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Perineum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18521675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Park J, Neuman HB, Weiser MR, Wong WD: Randomized clinical trials in rectal and anal cancers. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2010 Jan;19(1):205-23
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  • [Title] Randomized clinical trials in rectal and anal cancers.
  • This article reviews randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published between April 2001 and November 2008 on the management of patients with rectal cancer.
  • In total, the authors reviewed 78 RCTs on therapy for rectal cancer.
  • The article discusses the major RCTs and relevant findings that have impacted clinical management most and includes most but not all RCTs on therapy for rectal cancer published during this period.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19914567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-5042
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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60. Lin A, Ben-Josef E: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2007 Nov;6(10):716-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 9-field, non-coplanar, 1-cm beamlet IMRT plan was designed for 9 patients who were previously treated for anal cancer with conventional field arrangements.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 18039425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Palefsky JM, Tyring S, El Serag H: Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jul 15;43(2):223-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review.
  • Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.
  • We have conducted a systematic review of the indirect evidence in the literature regarding the utility of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening of HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Although there are no published studies evaluating the efficacy of anal Pap smear screening for preventing squamous cell cancer of the anus or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, we reviewed data regarding the burden of disease, anal Pap smear sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of anal dysplasia, and 1 cost effectiveness study.
  • The available evidence demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This review identifies important areas for further study before routine anal Pap smear screening can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Papillomaviridae


62. D'Souza G, Cook RL, Ostrow D, Johnson-Hill LM, Wiley D, Silvestre T: Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men. J Gen Intern Med; 2008 Sep;23(9):1452-7
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  • [Title] Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer has increased in the past decade, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected individuals.
  • There is controversy about whether to routinely screen for anal cancer in MSM.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether current anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern differ by HIV serostatus and to identify characteristics of men who intend to seek anal cancer screening.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported anal cancer screening history, attitudes, and intentions.
  • RESULTS: A history of anal warts was relatively common in these men (39%), whereas having a recent anal Pap test (5%), intention to seek anal cancer screening in the next 6 months (12%), and concern about anal cancer (8.5%) were less common.
  • Intention to seek anal cancer screening was associated with enabling factors (screening availability, health insurance), need factors (HIV-infection, history of anal warts), concern about anal cancer, and recent sexual risk taking.
  • Among four large US cities, there was significant regional variability in anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern (all p<0.001).
  • Most MSM (76%) indicated they would go to their primary care physician for an anal health problem or question.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a low rate of anal cancer screening and intention to screen among MSM.
  • As more evidence emerges regarding screening, primary care physicians should be prepared to discuss anal cancer screening with their patients.

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  • (PMID = 18618198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of general internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gen Intern Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35043; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-M01-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-37613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2518019
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63. Das P, Cantor SB, Parker CL, Zampieri JB, Baschnagel A, Eng C, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Cancer; 2010 Feb 15;116(4):822-9
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  • [Title] Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with localized squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 80 patients treated with definitive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy, for anal cancer, with a minimum 2-year interval after the completion of radiotherapy.
  • The questionnaire included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sexual Problems Scale, and questions regarding demographic characteristics and comorbidities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with radiotherapy for anal cancer reported acceptable overall QoL scores, but poor sexual function scores.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 20041481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. de Jong JS, Beukema JC, van Dam GM, Slart R, Lemstra C, Wiggers T: Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2656-62
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  • [Title] Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Selection of patients with anal cancer for groin irradiation is based on tumor size, palpation, ultrasound, and fine needle cytology.
  • Current staging of anal cancer may result in undertreatment in small tumors and overtreatment of large tumors.
  • This study reports the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with anal cancer and whether this improves the selection for inguinal radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: A total of 50 patients with squamous anal cancer were evaluated prospectively.
  • Patients without a SLNB (n = 29) received irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes based on lymph node status, tumor size, and location of the primary tumor.
  • However, 2 patients with a tumor-free SLN and no inguinal irradiation developed lymph node metastases after 12 and 24 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that SLNB in anal cancer is technically feasible.
  • However, because of the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastases after a tumor-negative SLNB, introduction of this procedure as standard of care in all patients with anal carcinoma should be done with caution to avoid undertreatment of patient who otherwise would benefit from inguinal radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20865825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941712
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65. Palefsky JM, Rubin M: The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2009 Mar;36(1):187-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia.
  • The relationship between cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known.
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by a series of precancerous changes, raising the possibility that like cervical cancer, anal cancer can be prevented.
  • Further, given the known risk factors for anal cancer, prevention efforts could be targeted to high-risk groups, providing a unique example of a screening program targeted to high-risk individuals.
  • This article describes the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer among men and women, as well as current efforts to prevent anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonoscopy / methods. Human papillomavirus 11. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19344856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0474
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 085178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR02413,1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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66. Cranston RD: Anal cancer prevention: how we are failing men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Infect; 2008 Nov;84(6):417-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer prevention: how we are failing men who have sex with men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Condylomata Acuminata / prevention & control. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 19028938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-3263
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Hashibe M, Straif K, Tashkin DP, Morgenstern H, Greenland S, Zhang ZF: Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk. Alcohol; 2005 Apr;35(3):265-75
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  • [Title] Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk.
  • On the other hand, marijuana smoke contains several of the same carcinogens and co-carcinogens as the tar from tobacco, raising concerns that smoking of marijuana may be a risk factor for tobacco-related cancers.
  • We reviewed two cohort studies and 14 case-control studies with assessment of the association of marijuana use and cancer risk.
  • In the cohort studies, increased risks of lung or colorectal cancer due to marijuana smoking were not observed, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among non-tobacco smokers, as well as adult-onset glioma among tobacco and non-tobacco smokers, were observed.
  • The 14 case-control studies included four studies on head and neck cancers, two studies on lung cancer, two studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one study on anal cancer, one study on penile cancer, and four studies on childhood cancers with assessment of parental exposures.
  • Zhang and colleagues reported that marijuana use may increase risk of head and neck cancers in a hospital-based case-control study in the United States, with dose-response relations for both frequency and duration of use.
  • However, Rosenblatt and co-workers reported no association between oral cancer and marijuana use in a population-based case-control study.
  • An eightfold increase in risk among marijuana users was observed in a lung cancer study in Tunisia.
  • In summary, sufficient studies are not available to adequately evaluate marijuana impact on cancer risk.
  • Recommendations for future studies are to (1) focus on tobacco-related cancer sites;.
  • Despite the challenges, elucidation of the association between marijuana use and cancer risk is important in weighing the benefits and risks of medical marijuana use and to clarify the impact of marijuana use on public health.

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  • (PMID = 16054989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0741-8329
  • [Journal-full-title] Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Alcohol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113157; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA/CA11386; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA03018; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009142; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90833; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES 011667; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA09142
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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68. Gee R: Primary care health issues among men who have sex with men. J Am Acad Nurse Pract; 2006 Apr;18(4):144-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • As a group, MSM are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections, anal cancer, and mental health disorders.
  • Focus areas in this article will address health issues that the primary care nurse practitioner (NP) may encounter in clinical practice: anal carcinoma, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), high-risk sexual practices, depression, and substance abuse were topics chosen for inclusion in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Depression / diagnosis. Homosexuality, Male. Primary Health Care / methods. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / diagnosis. Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis


69. Lin K, Doolan K, Hung CF, Wu TC: Perspectives for preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines. J Formos Med Assoc; 2010 Jan;109(1):4-24
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  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several human cancers, including cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal and anal cancer, and a subset of head and neck cancers.
  • However, these are unlikely to impact upon HPV prevalence and cervical cancer rates for many years.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Vaccination / trends. Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20123582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114425; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098252; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA118790; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114425-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118790; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098252-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA114425-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 161
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS220701; NLM/ PMC2908016
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70. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Bouvet E, Duval X: [Anal condyloma prevalence among HIV infected patients]. Med Mal Infect; 2005 May;35(5):299-301
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  • [Title] [Anal condyloma prevalence among HIV infected patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Prévalence des condylomes anaux chez les patients infectés par le VIH.
  • BACKGROUND: In the general HIV-infected population, there are few data on the prevalence and risk factors for anal condyloma, precursor lesions for anal cancer.
  • Overall, 108 (23%) pts had histologically-confirmed anal condyloma (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) pts with only endoanal localisation.
  • Intraepithelial neoplasia of grade I was noted in 59 patients, of grade II in 10 and of grade III in 2 and an invasive endoanal cancer in 1.
  • In multivariate regression analysis, condyloma independent risk factor were history of gonococcia or syphilis (OR=0.54 (0.29-0.99)), and history of previous anal condyloma (OR=2.05 (1.07-3.92) in homosexual men, history of previous penis condyloma (OR=26.8 (2.3-309.6), and unprotected sexual intercourse (OR=7.5 (2.1-26.3)) in heterosexual men and CD4 cell count below 200/mm(3), (OR=8.9 (1.5-51.6)), receptive anal intercourse (OR=6.7 (1.7-25.8)) and history of previous anal condyloma (OR=25.4 (3.4-188.2)) in women.
  • INTERPRETATION: In the HAART era, systematic screening revealed a high rate of anal condyloma in all HIV positive pts (not only in homosexual men).
  • Anal examination should be proposed systematically to all HIV-infected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Sexual Behavior


71. Poizot-Martin I, Henry M, Benhaim S, Obry-Roguet V, Figarella D, Tamalet C: High level of HPV 16 and 18 DNA load in anal swabs from male and female HIV-1 infected patients. J Clin Virol; 2009 Apr;44(4):314-7
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  • [Title] High level of HPV 16 and 18 DNA load in anal swabs from male and female HIV-1 infected patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite HAART, the prevalence and incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals have increased.
  • Recently, the relationship between the severity of cervical lesions and oncogenic HPV load was demonstrated; however, few studies have assessed the level and the significance of oncogenic HPV load in patients at risk for anal neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess HPV genotypes and HPV 16/18 DNA load in HIV-1 infected patients at risk for anal neoplasia.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study from male and female HIV-1 infected individuals at risk for anal neoplasia in an outpatient HIV Clinical Unit of Marseilles university Hospitals.
  • RESULTS: Anal HPV was found in 79% of the patients whereas high-risk (HR) HPV types and infection with multiple HPV types were found in 83% and 61% of the patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the link between high anal HPV DNA load and progression to anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. HIV Infections / complications. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19269245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5967
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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72. von Knebel Doeberitz M, Reuschenbach M: [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):13-20
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  • [Title] [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus].
  • [Transliterated title] Humane Papillomviren in der Pathogenese der intraepithelialen Neoplasien (AIN) und Karzinome des Anus.
  • HPV infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anal cancers.
  • The mode of infection and subsequent transformation resembles very much the pathogenesis of cervical and other HPV-associated cancers.
  • Since effective antiretroviral therapy allows for possible long-term survival of HIV-infected individuals who are at very high risk to develop HPV-associated cancers in the anogenital tract, these new developments have become increasingly relevant for practicing dermatologists and proctologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • (PMID = 20033115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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73. Cameron JE, Hagensee ME: Human papillomavirus infection and disease in the HIV+ individual. Cancer Treat Res; 2007;133:185-213
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  • Fortunately, the rates of cervical cancer and anal cancer are relatively low and not related to CD4 cell count.


74. Allison RR, Sheng C, Cuenca R, Bagnato VS, Austerlitz C, Sibata CH: Photodynamic therapy for anal cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Jun;7(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for anal cancer.
  • Invasive anal cancers are generally successfully treated by combined chemotherapy with radiation therapy (XRT).
  • We examined the treatment and outcome of Photofrin based photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a cohort of patients with anal cancer who failed locally despite chemo-radiation (N=6) and two patients with positive margins of resection after excision of small T(1) squamous cell anal cancers who refused further surgery or chemo-radiation.
  • Red light (630 nm) illumination was delivered by a 5 cm diffusing fiber, treating transphincterally at 300 J/cm followed by microlens illumination at 200 J/cm(2) to the perianal tumor bed with 2 cm margin.
  • All patients completed PDT without incident and all have maintained local control of disease in the anal region for the length of follow up (18-48 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dihematoporphyrin Ether / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 97067-70-4 / Dihematoporphyrin Ether
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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75. Capdevila J, Ramos FJ, Macarulla T, Elez E, Ruiz-Echarri M, Perez-Garcia J, Tabernero J: Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Jul;21(4):374-80
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  • [Title] Development of new drug strategies in infrequent digestive tumors: esophageal, biliary tract, and anal cancers.
  • The increasing development of new targeted therapies in human cancer has also impacted in these rare gastrointestinal malignancies providing a wide range of possibilities in the design of future clinical trials.
  • The results of the biggest phase III trial in locally advanced anal carcinoma have been recently published.
  • Finally, the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor has also showed promising activity in anal carcinomas.
  • SUMMARY: Recent advances in the knowledge of molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis have led to meaningful changes in the management of gastrointestinal cancers.
  • Although the major advances in targeted therapy have been introduced in the treatment of colorectal cancer, new interesting approaches have been reported in less frequent gastrointestinal tumors such as esophageal, biliary tract, and anal canal carcinoma opening a new hope in the treatment of these rare tumors in the molecular targeted therapy era.
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / blood supply. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / enzymology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / blood supply. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / enzymology. Drug Delivery Systems. Esophageal Neoplasms / blood supply. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / enzymology. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19412097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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76. Guiguet M, Boué F, Cadranel J, Lang JM, Rosenthal E, Costagliola D, Clinical Epidemiology Group of the FHDH-ANRS CO4 cohort: Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Dec;10(12):1152-9
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  • BACKGROUND: The relative roles of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the onset of individual cancers have rarely been examined.
  • We examined the effect of these factors on the risk of specific cancers in patients infected with HIV-1.
  • METHODS: We investigated the incidence of both AIDS-defining cancers (Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung cancer, liver cancer, and anal cancer) in 52 278 patients followed up in the French Hospital Database on HIV cohort during 1998-2006 (median follow-up 4.9 years, IQR 2.1-7.9; 255 353 person-years).
  • FINDINGS: Current CD4 cell count was the most predictive risk factor for all malignancies apart from anal cancer.
  • Compared with patients with CD4 count greater than 500 cells per microL, rate ratios (RR) ranged from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) for CD4 counts 350-499 cells per microL to 25.2 (17.1-37.0) for counts less than 50 cells per microL for Kaposi's sarcoma (p<0.0001), from 1.3 (0.9-2.0) to 14.8 (9.7-22.6) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 1.2 (0.7-2.2) to 5.4 (2.4-12.1) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 2.2 (1.3-3.6) to 8.5 (4.3-16.7) for lung cancer (p<0.0001), and from 2.0 (0.9-4.5) to 7.6 (2.7-20.8) for liver cancer (p<0.0001).
  • For cervical cancer, we noted a strong effect of current CD4 (RR 0.7 per log(2), 95% CI 0.6-0.8; p=0.0002).
  • The risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma increased for current plasma HIV RNA greater than 100 000 copies per mL compared with patients with controlled viral load (RR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.2, p<0.0001; and 2.9, 2.1-3.9, p<0.0001, respectively), whereas cART was independently associated with a decreased incidence (0.3, 0.2-0.4, p<0.0001; and 0.8, 0.6-1.0, p=0.07, respectively).
  • The RR of cervical cancer for those receiving cART was 0.5 (0.3-0.9; p=0.03).
  • The risk of anal cancer increased with the time during which the CD4 count was less than 200 cells per microL (1.3 per year, 1.2-1.5; p=0.0001), and viral load was greater than 100 000 copies per mL (1.2 per year, 1.1-1.4, p=0.005).
  • INTERPRETATION: cART would be most beneficial if it restores or maintains CD4 count above 500 cells per microL, thereby indicating an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection and an earlier treatment initiation.
  • Cancer-specific screening programmes need to be assessed in patients with HIV.
  • FUNDING: Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites (ANRS), INSERM, and the French Ministry of Health.


77. Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S: Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):692-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe?
  • This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the Intergroup RTOG 98-11 trial, which aimed to investigate both the potential role of cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also its role concurrently in combination with radiotherapy, for anal-canal carcinoma.
  • Although chemoradiotherapy has had an important effect on the treatment of anal cancer, and allows preservation of anorectal function with survival rates similar to or better than those of surgical treatment, overall survival rates for advanced tumors are still in the region of 50-60% at 5 years.
  • A strong theoretical rationale for cisplatin-based treatment in anal cancer exists; several phase II trials have demonstrated a high response rate with reduced colostomy rates.

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  • (PMID = 18852720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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78. Ramos-Suzarte M, Pintado AP, Mesa NR, Oliva JP, Iznaga-Escobar N, Aroche LT, Pimentel G, González J, Cordero M, Rodríguezi OT, Crombet RT, Pérez RR: Diagnostic efficacy and safety of 99mtc-labeled monoclonal antibody ior c5 in patients with colorectal and anal carcinomas: final report clinical trial phase I/II. Cancer Biol Ther; 2007 Jan;6(1):22-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic efficacy and safety of 99mtc-labeled monoclonal antibody ior c5 in patients with colorectal and anal carcinomas: final report clinical trial phase I/II.
  • Monoclonal antibody (mAb) ior c5 is an IgG1, which recognizes a glycoprotein tumor specific antigen IOR C2 over expressed in the surface of colon and ovarian cancer cells.
  • METHODS: Eighty six patients with colorectal or anal cancer, mean age 57 +/- 13 yrs, were involved in a phase 1/11 multicentric, open clinical trial to assess the ability of Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) with 99mTc- mAb ior c5 to detect those tumors.
  • Seventy-four patients received 1 mg of c5 labeled with 1480-1850 MBq to determinate diagnosis efficacy and safety of murine mAb by intravenously (i.v.) bolus injection (group 1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled mAb ior c5 could be a useful procedure for the diagnosis and follow-up of the patients with colorectal tumors, its metastasis and recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Colorectal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17224642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / ior c5 monoclonal antibody
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79. Ho KS, Cranston RD: Anal cytology screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: what's new and what's now? Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2010 Feb;23(1):21-5
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  • [Title] Anal cytology screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men: what's new and what's now?
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will discuss current and future anal cytology screening programs to detect anal dysplasia in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), in addition to other interventions aimed at early detection of anal cancer in this population.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence of progression from high-grade anal dysplasia to anal cancer has been recently demonstrated and strengthens the clinical imperative to diagnose and treat this lesion in at-risk populations.
  • The use of adjunct molecular techniques that improve specificity of anal cytology screening may have the potential to rationalize current screening referral pathways and focus resources on those at highest risk of progressing to cancer.
  • SUMMARY: Anal cytology, although sensitive for the detection of any anal dysplastic abnormality, has poor specificity to detect high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • As new molecular techniques are evolving, the most important immediate clinical intervention is to educate HIV-positive MSM in order to increase awareness of both risk and clinical symptoms suggestive of progression to anal cancer.
  • In the absence of high-resolution anoscopic expertise, it is recommended that regular digital rectal examinations are performed as most early cancers are palpable even in the absence of clinical symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. HIV Infections / pathology. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 19935419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6527
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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80. Christensen AF, Nielsen BM, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer. Acta Radiol; 2008 Mar;49(2):132-7
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: New techniques using image guidance other than computed tomography (CT) and traditional two-dimensional (2D) endosonography might improve interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with anal carcinoma were referred to interstitial brachytherapy under 3D endosonographic guidance after external radiotherapy.
  • The procedure was initiated by anal endosonography performed with a 10-MHz rotating endoprobe.
  • Cross-sectional images of the anal sphincters were stored on a 3D system during retraction of the endoprobe through the anal canal.
  • The needles were inserted through holes in an externally fixated anal template.
  • A repeated endosonography assured that optimal tumor coverage could be obtained by adjusting the number, dwell positions, and/or position of the needles.
  • CONCLUSION: 3D endosonography guidance of interstitial brachytherapy in anal carcinoma seems to optimize the implant procedure and offer better information for dose planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Brachytherapy / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 18300134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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81. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Wu QJ, Yoo S, Clough RW, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 1;78(5):1413-9
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicities associated with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • This study reports the results of using IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Records of patients with anal malignancies treated with IMRT at Duke University were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal malignancy (89% canal, 11% perianal skin) were treated with IMRT between August 2006 and September 2008.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer results in significant reductions in normal tissue dose and acute toxicities versus historic controls treated without IMRT, leading to reduced rates of toxicity-related treatment interruption.
  • IMRT is emerging as a standard therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Barbaro G, Barbarini G: HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review). Oncol Rep; 2007 May;17(5):1121-6
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  • [Title] HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review).
  • The majority of cancers affecting HIV-infected subjects are those established as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).
  • However, other types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease (HD), anal cancer, lung cancer and testicular germ cell tumors appear to be more common among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population.
  • The mechanisms by which depressed immunity could increase the risk for cancer are unclear, except for in KS and most subtypes of NHL, where it is strictly associated with a low CD4 count.
  • Studies of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS-associated cancers provided contrasting data.
  • While a significant decrease in the incidence of KS has been observed, HAART has not had a significant impact on NHL incidence, particularly systemic NHL, or on ICC, HD, anal cancers and other non-AIDS-defining cancers.
  • Regardless of whether these cancers are directly related to HIV-induced immunodeficiency, treating cancer in HIV-infected patients remains a challenge because of drug interactions, compounded side effects, and the potential effect of chemotherapy on CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load.


83. Clifford GM, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A, Rapiti E, Levi F, Jundt G, Fisch T, Bordoni A, De Weck D, Franceschi S, Swiss HIV Cohort: Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Mar 16;97(6):425-32
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  • [Title] Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for several cancers, but the influences of behavioral risk factors, such as smoking and intravenous drug use, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on cancer risk are not clear.
  • METHODS: Patient records were linked between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and Swiss cantonal cancer registries.
  • Observed and expected numbers of incident cancers were assessed in 7304 persons infected with HIV followed for 28,836 person-years.
  • Relative risks for cancer compared with those for the general population were determined by estimating cancer registry-, sex-, age-, and period-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).
  • RESULTS: Highly elevated SIRs were confirmed in persons infected with HIV for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) (SIR = 192, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 170 to 217) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 76.4, 95% CI = 66.5 to 87.4).
  • Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were also observed for anal cancer (SIR = 33.4, 95% CI = 10.5 to 78.6); Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 17.3, 95% CI = 10.2 to 27.4); cancers of the cervix (SIR = 8.0, 95% CI = 2.9 to 17.4); liver (SIR = 7.0, 95% CI = 2.2 to 16.5); lip, mouth, and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1 to 7.4); trachea, lung, and bronchus (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.4); and skin, nonmelanomatous (SIR = 3.2, 95% CI = 2.2 to 4.5).
  • In HAART users, SIRs for KS (SIR = 25.3, 95% CI = 10.8 to 50.1) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 24.2, 95% CI = 15.0 to 37.1) were lower than those for nonusers (KS SIR = 239, 95% CI = 211 to 270; non-Hodgkin lymphoma SIR = 99.3, 95% CI = 85.8 to 114).
  • Among HAART users, however, the SIR (although not absolute numbers) for Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 36.2, 95% CI = 16.4 to 68.9) was comparable to that for KS and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • No clear impact of HAART on SIRs emerged for cervical cancer or non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • Cancers of the lung, lip, mouth, or pharynx were not observed among nonsmokers.
  • CONCLUSION: In persons infected with HIV, HAART use may prevent most excess risk of KS and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but not that of Hodgkin lymphoma and other non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining cancers.
  • No cancers of the lip, mouth, pharynx, or lung were observed in nonsmokers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphocyte Count. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papillomaviridae. Prospective Studies. Registries. Research Design. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Switzerland / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


84. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Bringman D, Anton-Culver H: Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis; 2005 May;32(5):314-20
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) corresponded with changes in anal squamous cell cancer rates among men with AIDS.
  • STUDY: We linked cancer registry data from 1988-2000 and AIDS registry data from 1981-July/2003 for San Diego County.
  • RESULTS: The annual incidence of invasive anal cancer increased from zero per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-226) in 1991 to 224 per 100,000 (95% CI, 102-425) in the year 2000.
  • Pre-HAART, the average annual incidence of invasive anal cancer was 49 per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% CI, 16-114) versus 144 per 100,000 (95% CI, 93-212) post-HAART.
  • The relative risk of invasive anal cancer among men with AIDS compared with men without known HIV/AIDS was 98 (95% CI, 36-264) pre-HAART and 352 (95% CI, 186-669) post-HAART.
  • The increased incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS resulted in an increase in the overall rate of anal cancer among men in San Diego County.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rising incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS may be related to increased longevity with HAART and the consequent increased time at risk for the development of malignancy and/or the result of greater use of cytologic screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology


85. Nilsson PJ, Svensson C, Goldman S, Ljungqvist O, Glimelius B: Epidermoid anal cancer: a review of a population-based series of 308 consecutive patients treated according to prospective protocols. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jan 1;61(1):92-102
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  • [Title] Epidermoid anal cancer: a review of a population-based series of 308 consecutive patients treated according to prospective protocols.
  • PURPOSE: The primary therapy in epidermoid anal cancer is radiotherapy, generally with chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1985 and 2000, 308 patients with invasive epidermoid anal cancer were diagnosed in the Stockholm Health Care Region.
  • The results further suggest a significant therapeutic gain from including neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15629599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Northover J, Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, James R, Meadows H, Wan S, Jitlal M, Ledermann J: Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I). Br J Cancer; 2010 Mar 30;102(7):1123-8
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  • [Title] Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I).
  • BACKGROUND: The first UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (1996) demonstrated the benefit of chemoradiation over radiotherapy (RT) alone for treating epidermoid anal cancer, and it became the standard treatment.
  • RESULTS: Twelve years after treatment, for every 100 patients treated with chemoradiation, there are an expected 25.3 fewer patients with locoregional relapse (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.5-32.0 fewer) and 12.5 fewer anal cancer deaths (95% CI: 4.3-19.7 fewer), compared with 100 patients given RT alone.
  • There was a 9.1% increase in non-anal cancer deaths in the first 5 years of chemoradiation (95% CI +3.6 to +14.6), which disappeared by 10 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clear benefit of chemoradiation outweighs an early excess risk of non-anal cancer deaths, and can still be seen 12 years after treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20354531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 9893; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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87. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):52-6
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased among people with HIV infection compared with the general population.
  • This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, new data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising.
  • Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and the mouth.
  • Treatment methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia have been described and show reasonable efficacy.
  • SUMMARY: New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the antiretroviral therapy era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia will prevent development of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19339939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94538; NLM/ PMC2756707
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88. Bedimo RJ, McGinnis KA, Dunlap M, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Justice AC: Incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected versus noninfected patients in the HAART era: impact of immunosuppression. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Oct 1;52(2):203-8
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  • [Title] Incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected versus noninfected patients in the HAART era: impact of immunosuppression.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies (non-ADMs) is reported as unchanged or increasing in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Whether incidence of non-ADM is significantly higher in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected patients remains unclear.
  • For HIV-infected patients, CD4 counts closest to first observation date were compared between those with and without cancer.
  • Incidence rate ratio for individual cancers was highest for anal cancer (14.9; confidence interval: 10.1 to 22.1).
  • Among HIV-infected patients, median CD4 counts were lower for those with non-ADM (249 vs. 270, P = 0.02), anal cancer (156 vs. 270; P < 0.001), and Hodgkin lymphoma (217 vs. 269; P = 0.03).
  • Prostate cancer was associated with a higher CD4 count (311 vs. 266; P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, the incidence of non-ADMs is higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected patients, adjusting for age, race, and gender.
  • Some non-ADMs do not seem to be associated with significantly lower CD4 counts.


89. Ulrich S, Sterzing F, Nill S, Schubert K, Herfarth KK, Debus J, Oelfke U: Comparison of arc-modulated cone beam therapy and helical tomotherapy for three different types of cancer. Med Phys; 2009 Oct;36(10):4702-10
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  • [Title] Comparison of arc-modulated cone beam therapy and helical tomotherapy for three different types of cancer.
  • In this planning study, the authors assess the dosimetric properties of single-arc therapy in comparison to helical tomotherapy for three different tumor types.
  • METHODS: Treatment plans for three patients with prostate carcinoma, three patients with anal cancer, and three patients with head and neck cancer were optimized for helical tomotherapy and AMCBT.
  • RESULTS: For prostate cancer, the quality of dose distributions calculated for AMCBT was of equal quality as that generated for tomotherapy with the additional benefits of a faster delivery and a lower integral dose.

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  • (PMID = 19928101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-2405
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Bharucha AE, Wald A, Enck P, Rao S: Functional anorectal disorders. Gastroenterology; 2006 Apr;130(5):1510-8
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  • Functional anorectal pain syndromes include proctalgia fugax (fleeting pain) and chronic proctalgia; chronic proctalgia may be subdivided into levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, which are defined by arbitrary clinical criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Defecation. Fecal Incontinence / diagnosis. Rectal Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16678564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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91. Grigsby PW: FDG-PET/CT: new horizons in anal cancer. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 May;33(5):456-8
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT: new horizons in anal cancer.
  • Anal cancer is an uncommon tumor with an incidence of about one case per 100,000 in most countries.
  • Current treatment guidelines include fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography integrated with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) as part of the standard pretreatment workup of patients diagnosed with anal cancer.
  • At diagnosis, FDG-PET/CT is used to evaluate primary tumor size, lymph node status and to evaluate for distant metastases.
  • FDG-PET/CT can also be used for radiation therapy treatment planning by clearly defining sites of metabolically active tumor.
  • FDG-PET/CT is an imaging modality which greatly affects the management of patients with anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19394179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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92. Shalev N, Olender SA, Chiasson MA: Targeted anal cancer screening in HIV-infected patients: prevalence of screening indicators. AIDS; 2009 Jul 31;23(12):1613-5
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  • [Title] Targeted anal cancer screening in HIV-infected patients: prevalence of screening indicators.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications


93. Ben-Josef E, Moughan J, Ajani JA, Flam M, Gunderson L, Pollock J, Myerson R, Anne R, Rosenthal SA, Willett C: Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec 1;28(34):5061-6
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  • [Title] Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether increased duration of radiation therapy (RT) and overall treatment (RX) time has a detrimental effect in anal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Total treatment time, but not duration of radiation therapy, seems to have a detrimental effect on local failure and colostomy rate in anal cancer.