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1. da Costa e Silva IT, Gimenez FS, Guimarães RA, Camelo RT, Melo MN, de Barros FS, Daumas A, Cabral CR, Guimarães EL: [Anal cytology as a screening method for early detection of anal cancer: are hydrophilic cotton smears really unsatisfactory?]. Acta Cir Bras; 2005 Jan-Feb;20(1):109-14
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cytology as a screening method for early detection of anal cancer: are hydrophilic cotton smears really unsatisfactory?].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal como método de rastreamento para a detecção precoce do cancer anal: esfregaços com algodão hidrófilo são mesmo insatisfatórios?
  • METHODS: 318 consecutive patients were examined at the Ambulatório Araújo Lima of Hospital Universitario Getúlio Vargas in the Anal Cancer Prevention Week and were sampled for the performance of analpap.
  • The ability of cotton in producing satisfactory anal cytologic readings as compared to dacron and cytologic brush was analised.

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  • (PMID = 15810472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0102-8650
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cirurgica brasileira
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cir Bras
  • [Language] POR
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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2. Uronis HE, Bendell JC: Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist; 2007 May;12(5):524-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer: an overview.
  • Anal cancer is a rare tumor with an incidence that has been rising over the last 25 years.
  • HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there is a higher incidence in HIV-positive patients but the direct relationship between HIV and anal cancer has been difficult to separate from the prevalence of HPV in this population.
  • HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there are increasing numbers of HIV-positive patients being diagnosed with the disease.
  • Treatment of anal cancer prior to the 1970s involved abdominoperineal resection, but the standard of care is now concurrent chemoradiation therapy, with surgery reserved for those patients with residual disease.
  • We present a case of anal cancer followed by a general discussion of both risk factors and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17522240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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3. Dahl O, Fluge Ø: [Anal cancer]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2008 Jan 17;128(2):198-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is a rare condition in Norway (40-50 new cases annually).
  • Knowledge of symptoms and findings is a prerequisite for providing a diagnosis while it is still possible to offer effective treatment with minimal side effects.
  • RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: General practitioners must routinely examine patients with symptoms from the anal region in order to distinguish anal cancer from common haemorrhoids.
  • Diagnosis and treatment is centralized to cancer clinics at the Universities.
  • The main treatment modality is radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy, while surgery is relevant when the tumour is not controlled or for local side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18202733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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4. Newsom-Davis T, Bower M: HIV-associated anal cancer. F1000 Med Rep; 2010;2:85

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-associated anal cancer.
  • HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes.
  • The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50.
  • Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings.
  • Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiquimod.
  • The development of cost-effective national screening programs for HIV-associated anal cancer remains a challenge.

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  • (PMID = 21283597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-5931
  • [Journal-full-title] F1000 medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] F1000 Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3026623
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5. Palefsky JM: Anal cancer prevention in HIV-positive men and women. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):433-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer prevention in HIV-positive men and women.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancer is unacceptably high among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and possibly in HIV-positive women.
  • Unlike most other malignancies occurring in the HIV-positive population, anal cancer is potentially preventable, using methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer in women.
  • This review discusses the issues around screening to prevent anal cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that the incidence of anal cancer has increased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in this population and now exceeds the highest incidence of cervical cancer among women reported anywhere in the world.
  • SUMMARY: The high incidence of anal cancer among HIV-positive individuals must not be ignored, since it may be preventable.
  • Given the current evidence and analogy with the cervical cancer prevention model, many clinicians believe that identification and treatment of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia to prevent anal cancer are warranted.
  • When the expertise to do so exists, this is a reasonable approach, particularly if coupled with efforts to optimize further screening and treatment approaches, as well as efforts to document the efficacy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia treatment to reduce the incidence of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19587592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-04S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-04S2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS202771; NLM/ PMC3415247
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6. Dandapani SV, Eaton M, Thomas CR Jr, Pagnini PG: HIV- positive anal cancer: an update for the clinician. J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Sep;1(1):34-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV- positive anal cancer: an update for the clinician.
  • Anal cancer used to be a rare cancer traditionally associated with elderly women.
  • The onslaught of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus has led to a change in anal cancer demographics.
  • Anal cancer is on the rise in the U.S and the number of anal cases documented has quadrupled in the past 20 yrs correlating with the rise of the HIV epidemic.
  • The incidence of anal cancer is 40 to 80 fold higher in the HIV positive (HIV+) population when compared to the general population (2).
  • As a consequence non AIDS defining cancers such as anal cancer are on the rise.
  • Factors implicated in the etiology of anal cancer in HIV+ patients include (Human papillomavirus) HPV virus status, sexual habits, and a history of smoking.
  • HPV 16 and receptive anal intercourse (RAI) increase the risk of anal cancer by 33% over the general population.
  • In the general population, the rate of anal cancer is approximately 0.9 cases per 100,000.
  • In patients with a history of RAI, the rate approaches 35 cases per 100,000 which is equivalent to the prevalence of cervical cancer (3).
  • Smokers are eight times more likely to develop anal cancer.
  • There has been much discussion about tailoring treatment decisions in HIV+ patients with anal cancer.
  • This review focuses on squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal which comprise 80 to 90% of all anal cancers diagnosed and highlight key issues in the management of HIV+ anal cancer patients including recent clinical trials.

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  • (PMID = 22811803.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-679X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3397564
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal / Anal cancer / HIV
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7. Durães Lde C, Sousa JB: [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):265-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?].
  • [Transliterated title] Câncer anal e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: qual a correlação?
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare tumor, which incidence is influenced by sexual behavior.
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify the correlation between anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases, such as HPV, HIV, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection, syphilis and others.
  • METHODS: All the internments due to anal cancer, HIV, HPV, syphilis, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in public healthy in Brazil were collected at Datasus site between 1998 and 2007.
  • RESULTS: There was a high correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions (r=0.98, p<0.001).
  • There was negative correlation between anal cancer and Gonococci infection admissions (r=-0.81, p=0.005) and anal cancer and Chlamydia infection (r=-0.74, p=0.014).
  • There was not statistic significant correlation between anal cancer and HIV admissions (r=0.40, p=0.245), between anal cancer and other sexually transmitted diseases (r=0.55, p=0.1), and between anal cancer and syphilis (r=-0.61, p=0.059).
  • CONCLUSION: There was a high positive correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions in Brazil.
  • There were negative correlations between anal cancer and Gonococci infection and between anal cancer and Chlamydia infection admissions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / complications. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21085842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. van Lieshout A, Pronk A: [Increasing incidence of anal cancer in the Netherlands]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A1163
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Increasing incidence of anal cancer in the Netherlands].
  • Anal cancer is a rare malignancy with a rapidly rising incidence.
  • The most important risk factor for anal cancer is persistent infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • In the Netherlands, the incidence of anal cancer increased from 71 to 149 new patients each year over the period 1989-2006.
  • Not enough research has been done to date to clarify why the incidence of anal cancer is increasing.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 20456793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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9. Herat A, Whitfeld M, Hillman R: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;48(3):143-53; quiz 154-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be a precursor lesion of invasive anal cancer.
  • Human papillomaviruses are considered to be an important aetiological agent in both anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
  • Dermatologists are likely to encounter these conditions among the differential diagnoses to be considered in high-risk patients presenting with perianal and anal lesions.
  • Anal cancer rates are also increasing among the HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected population.
  • The successful treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may reduce the risk of subsequent development of anal cancer.
  • However, current therapies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia may be associated with treatment-related morbidity and are not well validated.
  • It is currently not proven that they reduce the likelihood of the development of anal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia is being advocated for high-risk groups and may become standard dermatological care for these patients.
  • In view of recent developments in the understanding of this condition, this article reviews the current understanding of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment from a dermatological perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17680964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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10. Poggi MM, Suh WW, Saltz L, Konski AA, Mohiuddin M, Herman J, Johnstone PA: ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer. J Am Coll Radiol; 2007 Jul;4(7):448-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer.
  • Anal cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm, accounting for roughly 4,500 cases per year.
  • The evolution of the definitive treatment of anal cancer from a surgical to a nonsurgical approach, however, has been viewed as a model disease site in a larger paradigm shift in medicine.
  • Organ preservation, in this case a functional anal sphincter, and durable cure are obtainable goals.
  • To this end, anal cancer is a disease best treated primarily with chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17601586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Fakih MG, Pendyala L, Egorin MJ, Fetterly G, Espinoza-Delgado I, Ross M, Phelan J, Kramer Z, Yirinec B, Diasio R: A phase I clinical trial of vorinostat in combination with sFULV2 in patients with refractory solid tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4083

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  • Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that vorinostat down-regulates intra-tumor TS in a dose-dependent fashion and augments 5-FU antitumor activity in xenograft models.
  • METHODS: Vorinostat was escalated in a standard 3 x 3 design in combination with a fixed dose of 5-FU and LV (simplified de Gramont regimen, sFULV2).
  • 21 pts had colorectal cancer (CRC), 1 had gastric, 1 had esophageal, and 1 had anal cancer.
  • Cycle 1 grade 3/4 toxicities consisted of thrombocytopenia, GI bleeding, fatigue, and H&F in 2 pts at the 2000 mg DL and a non-DLT G3 diarrhea (lasted <24 hrs) in 1 pt at the 1700 mg DL.
  • 12/21 CRC pts had a confirmed SD (11) or PR (1).
  • An expanded MTD cohort is accruing to investigate 5-FU-vorinostat PK interaction and intra-tumor TS down-regulation. (This work was supported by a grant from CTEP and the ACS.

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  • (PMID = 27961640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. You YN, Larson DW, Dozois EJ, Nelson H, Antpack Filho E, Klein K, Miller RC: Multimodality salvage therapy for anal cancer failing standard chemoradiation. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15635

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality salvage therapy for anal cancer failing standard chemoradiation.
  • : e15635 Background: Most squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCC) respond to chemoradiation, but effective therapy for locally-invasive(T4) or recurrent disease that fails standard chemoradiation and/or salvage abdominoperineal resection (APR) has not been clearly delineated.
  • Fifteen patients reported long-term complications (>grade3): bowel obstruction in 8 (1 requiring operation), perineal wound fistula/non-healing in 9, leg paresthesia in 5, hydronephrosis in 3.

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  • (PMID = 27962742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Yap JC, Yang GY, Fakih M, Mashtare T, Bullard Dunn K, Kuvshinoff BW, Smith J, Khushalani NI, Gibbs JF: Primary adenocarcinoma of the anus: a 22-year SEER population database analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15072

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  • [Title] Primary adenocarcinoma of the anus: a 22-year SEER population database analysis.
  • : e15072 Background: Most anal canal cancers consist of squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA).
  • Adenocarcinoma (AdenoCa) is rare and accounts for approximately 10% of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: The search of the SEER database revealed 1,008 pts who had pathologically confirmed anal cancers with either SCCA or AdenoCa.
  • All pts had single diagnosis of anal cancer with localized disease without nodal involvement.
  • Within the SCCA group, 14 (1.5%) had abdominoperineal resection (APR) in combination with external beam RT, and 795 (83.3%) had RT only with non-APR local surgical treatment inclusive of excision.
  • Remaining 145 SCCA pts (15.2%) had non-APR local surgical treatment only without RT or had no treatment.
  • Within the AdenoCa group, 10 (18.5%) had APR in combination with external beam RT, and 21 (38.9%) had RT only with non-APR local surgical treatment inclusive of excision.
  • Remaining 23 AdenoCa pts (42.6%) had non-APR local surgical treatment only without RT.
  • On the other hand, among the AdenoCa subset, pts who had APR had better 10-yr OS than RT pts (53.8% vs. 0%, p=0.03) Conclusions: For localized anal SCCA, RT yielded equivalent overall survival as compared to APR.
  • On the other hand, pts with localized anal adenoCa appeared to do worse when APR was omitted.
  • Omission of APR in pts with anal canal adenoCa should be cautiously weighed.

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  • (PMID = 27964572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Eng C, Chang GJ, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas M, Skibber JM, Qiao W, Rosner GL, Ukegbu LT, Wolff RA, Crane CH: Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4116

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  • [Title] Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • : 4116 Background: Definitive therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal consists of external beam radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C or cisplatin.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of XELOX-XRT as definitive treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically proven SCC of the anal canal, AJCC Stage II-IIIB (T<sub>2-4</sub> or N+M<sub>0</sub>), ECOG PS 0-1, HIV<sup>-</sup>, and no prior therapy were eligible for XELOX-based chemoradiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) is effective for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27961220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Swampillai A, Williams M, Osborne M, Mawdsley S, Hughes R, Harrison M, Glynne-Jones R: A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4117

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT).
  • : 4117 Background: SCCAg is a tumour marker expressed by ECACM, measured by microparticle enzyme immunoassay; normal range 0-150ng/dl.
  • Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal cancer Trial (ACT II).
  • 30 had neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by CRT and 3 pts had planned surgery followed by CRT.
  • Clinical stage at diagnosis- Tx (6) T1 (28), T2 (80), T3 (65), T4 (16), N0 (126), N+ (66) Nx (3).
  • The mean baseline SCCAg for pts achieving CR was 408 and non CR was 513 (p = 0.13).

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  • (PMID = 27961219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Subramonia Iyer S, Akl A: A review of the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry: 1987-2004. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15131

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  • [Title] A review of the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry: 1987-2004.
  • : e15131 Background: This paper describes the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry.
  • The Hurley cancer registry was searched using diagnosis codes for anal cancer.
  • The records retrieved, were reviewed for demographic and pathologic details,cancer recurrence, and vital status at last follow up.
  • RESULTS: Over a period of 18 years (1987 - 2004), there were 36 patients enrolled in the registry, with a diagnosis of anal cancer.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 59.3 (SD 17.6) years for males, and 64.6 (SD 13.8) years for females.
  • Squamous cell cancers were the most common: 27 / 36 (75%).
  • Three of the five (60%) recurrent cancers were associated with HIV infection.
  • Cumulative survival functions for the cohort were derived for the time points of 3-yrs and 5-yrs after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among patients in the Hurley Cancer Registry, 1.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the commonest (75%) anal cancer.
  • 2. The risk of recurrence of anal cancer was 14% over 6-years, and 80% of recurrence was localised to the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27960904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Moe MM, Askill C: Stridor: an unexpected complication from chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer. J R Coll Physicians Edinb; 2009 Dec;39(4):313-4

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  • [Title] Stridor: an unexpected complication from chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • The treatment of choice for anal cancer is chemoradiotherapy.
  • We report a patient who developed stridor as a result of chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer and discuss the pathogenesis and potential consequences.

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  • (PMID = 21152467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-2715
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Coll Physicians Edinb
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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18. Allison RR, Sheng C, Cuenca R, Bagnato VS, Austerlitz C, Sibata CH: Photodynamic therapy for anal cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Jun;7(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for anal cancer.
  • Invasive anal cancers are generally successfully treated by combined chemotherapy with radiation therapy (XRT).
  • We examined the treatment and outcome of Photofrin based photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a cohort of patients with anal cancer who failed locally despite chemo-radiation (N=6) and two patients with positive margins of resection after excision of small T(1) squamous cell anal cancers who refused further surgery or chemo-radiation.
  • Red light (630 nm) illumination was delivered by a 5 cm diffusing fiber, treating transphincterally at 300 J/cm followed by microlens illumination at 200 J/cm(2) to the perianal tumor bed with 2 cm margin.
  • All patients completed PDT without incident and all have maintained local control of disease in the anal region for the length of follow up (18-48 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dihematoporphyrin Ether / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 97067-70-4 / Dihematoporphyrin Ether
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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19. Mariani P, Ghanneme A, De la Rochefordière A, Girodet J, Falcou MC, Salmon RJ: Abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Oct;51(10):1495-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Following initial radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer, patients who present with either persistent or locally recurrent disease are treated by abdominoperineal resection.
  • METHODS: Over a 34-year period (1969-2003), 422 patients with nonmetastatic anal cancer were treated with a curative intent.
  • Using univariate analysis, patients below 55 years, females, T1-2 tumors, N0-N1 lymphadenopathy and the absence of locally advanced tumor were associated with significantly improved survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abdominoperineal resection for nonmetastatic anal cancer is associated with a high morbidity rate but may result in long-term survival regardless of the indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Perineum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18521675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Wilkes G, Hartshorn K: Colon, rectal, and anal cancers. Semin Oncol Nurs; 2009 Feb;25(1):32-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colon, rectal, and anal cancers.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence, risk factors, staging, diagnosis, and treatment of colon, rectal, and anal cancers, as well as nursing care associated with managing patients diagnosed with these malignancies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Significant advances in the management of colon, rectal, and anal cancers in the past decade have extended patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Colonic Neoplasms. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19217504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0749-2081
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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21. D'Souza G, Wiley DJ, Li X, Chmiel JS, Margolick JB, Cranston RD, Jacobson LP: Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Aug 1;48(4):491-9
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  • [Title] Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study).
  • RESULTS: There were 28 cases of anal cancer among the 6,972 men who were evaluated.
  • Among HIV-positive men, anal cancer incidence was higher in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era than the pre-HAART era (incidence rate = 137 vs 30 per 100,000 person-years).
  • In multivariate analysis restricted to the HAART era, anal cancer risk increased significantly with HIV infection (relative hazard = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.3 to 17) and increasing number of unprotected receptive anal sex partners at the first 3 study visits (P trend = 0.03).
  • Among HIV-positive men, current HAART use did not decrease anal cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive men had increased risk of anal cancer.
  • Improved survival of HIV-positive individuals after HAART initiation may allow for sufficient time for human papillomavirus-associated anal dysplasias to develop into malignancies, thus explaining the increased incidence of anal cancer in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18614927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-MO1-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37613
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS562648; NLM/ PMC3991563
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22. Rödel C: [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer]. Onkologie; 2010;33 Suppl 4:24-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiochemotherapie des lokal fortgeschrittenen Analkarzinoms.
  • Standard treatment for anal canal cancer is definitive radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin C.
  • Because anal cancer overexpresses the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a KRAS wild type is usually present, treatment with the EGFR antibody cetuximab is potentially interesting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Clinical Trials as Topic. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / adverse effects. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20431309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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23. Nguyen BT, Joon DL, Khoo V, Quong G, Chao M, Wada M, Joon ML, See A, Feigen M, Rykers K, Kai C, Zupan E, Scott A: Assessing the impact of FDG-PET in the management of anal cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):376-82
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessing the impact of FDG-PET in the management of anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the utility of FDG-PET in anal cancer for staging and impact on radiotherapy planning (RTP), response and detection of recurrent disease.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty histopathological anal cancer patients were reviewed between 1996 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: The non-PET staging was Stage I(8), Stage II(18), Stage III(22), and Stage IV(2)s.
  • The primary was strongly FDG avid in 98% with non-excised tumors compared to CT (58%).
  • Post-treatment PETs at median 17 weeks (range 9-28) showed complete responses in 20 (80%) and 5 (20%) partial responses (PR).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal cancer is FDG-PET avid.
  • PET can aid in anal cancer staging and identification of residual disease, recurrent/metastatic disease but warrants further prospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 18453023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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24. Abramowitz L, Rémy V, Vainchtock A: Economic burden of anal cancer management in France. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique; 2010 Oct;58(5):331-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Economic burden of anal cancer management in France.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer has increased over the last 25 years.
  • No organized screening exists for the precursors of anal cancer (anal intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma in situ) and diagnosis is often delayed.
  • Treatment for precursor lesions is of limited success, while cancer management is traumatic for the patient.
  • Like cancers of the cervix, most cases of anal cancer are associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • With increases in the incidence of anal cancer, and in light of the availability of prevention strategies such as screening and HPV vaccination, it is important, from a public health perspective, to assess the economic burden of anal cancer in France.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis based on data extracted from a French hospital database - the Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information (PMSI) - to assess the number and management of patients hospitalized for anal cancer in 2006.
  • Data on radiotherapy sessions performed in private hospitals were obtained from the Statistiques annuelles des établissements de santé (SAE) database.
  • Costs of hospitalization, from the healthcare-payer perspective, were obtained from official diagnosis-related group tariffs for public and private hospitals.
  • RESULTS: In 2006, 3,711 patients with anal cancer were treated in hospitals in France.
  • The annual cost of hospital treatment for anal cancer was estimated at € 20,326,868.
  • CONCLUSION: This study, the first to investigate the economic burden of anal cancer in France, shows that the management costs of anal cancer are high and comparable to cervical cancer management costs (€ 44 million).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / economics. Health Care Costs

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20869182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0398-7620
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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25. Zucchini C, Concu M, Martini F, Morelli C, Salfi N, Carinci P, Tognon M, Caramelli E: FHIT oncosuppressor gene expression profile in human anal cancers. Int J Biol Markers; 2007 Jan-Mar;22(1):39-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FHIT oncosuppressor gene expression profile in human anal cancers.
  • The FHIT gene, a member of the histidine triad gene family, is a tumor suppressor gene exhibiting deletions in the majority of human cancers.
  • Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of the lining cells of the anus.
  • In this study FHIT gene expression was investigated in this particular kind of human cancer.
  • FHIT expression was comparatively analyzed at the mRNA level, by RT-PCR, in squamous anal cancers, normal anal tissue and peripheral blood samples. cDNA analyses showed variability in FHIT transcripts, without apparent effects on the predicted amino acid sequence.
  • Our data indicate that the FHIT mRNA detected in anal cancers and in normal samples is heterogeneous.
  • Immunohistochemical data suggest that the Fhit protein is expressed only in a fraction of the tumor cells, while it is strongly expressed in the epithelial cells of glands of the normal anal mucosa.
  • The absence or poor expression of the Fhit protein in anal cancers suggests a role for this tumor suppressor gene product, as a risk factor, in the onset of this human cancer, as reported before for other human gastrointestinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / biosynthesis. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17393360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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26. Doniec JM, Schniewind B, Kovács G, Kahlke V, Loehnert M, Kremer B: Multimodal therapy of anal cancer added by new endosonographic-guided brachytherapy. Surg Endosc; 2006 Apr;20(4):673-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodal therapy of anal cancer added by new endosonographic-guided brachytherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The most appropriate therapy for anal cancer is external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with chemotherapy (CTX).
  • We report on our experience of combined modality therapy of anal cancer and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided high-dose rate (HDR) afterloading therapy, referring to results of a study published in 1998 by the coauthors.
  • METHODS: From 1993 to 2001, 50 patients with anal cancer were treated.
  • RESULTS: In five patients (10%), tumor recurrence occurred or the tumor did not respond to therapy, and four (8%) developed distant lymph nodes or organ metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TRUS-guided brachytherapy permits excellent local tumor control and results in minimal treatment-related morbidity.
  • Consequently, TRUS-guided brachytherapy may be a useful addition to current combined modality treatment regimens for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy. Endosonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Fecal Incontinence / epidemiology. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retreatment. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Wu M, Zhang SW, Han RQ, Zhou JY, Zou XN, Chen WQ: [Analysis on the mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in China during 2004 - 2005]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 May;44(5):403-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Analysis on the mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in China during 2004 - 2005].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in the Chinese population during 2004 - 2005.
  • METHODS: Mortality of colorectal and anal cancer from The 3rd National Death Retrospective Sampling Survey (2004 - 2005) were analyzed, with that the total population was 142 660 482 person-year and the number of death cases was 10 586.
  • Crude death rate, age-standardized death rate by Chinese standard population (CASR) and world standard population (WASR), the constitute proportion to all cancer deaths and rank of cancer death were calculated and compared with The 1st (during 1973 - 1975) and The 2nd (during 1990 - 1992) National Death Retrospective Surveys.
  • RESULTS: The mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in China was 7.42/100 000 (10 586/142 660 482) during 2004 - 2005, accounting for 5.46% of total cancer deaths and ranked the 5th leading cause of death from cancer.
  • Compared to the crude death rate 5.30/100 000 and CASR 4.54/100 000 during 1990 - 1992, the crude death rate and CASR from colorectal and anal cancer increased by 40.00% and 5.51%, whereas compared to the crude death rate 4.17/100 000 and CASR 4.27/100 000 during 1973 - 1975, the crude death rate and CASR had increased by 77.94% and 12.18% respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The mortality of colorectal and anal cancer has been increasing rapidly in China.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20654228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-9624
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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28. Contu SS, Agnes G, Damin AP, Contu PC, Rosito MA, Alexandre CO, Damin DC: Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 28;15(36):4566-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk.
  • AIM: To investigate the potential role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for development of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients with invasive anal carcinoma and 103 healthy blood donors were included in the study. p53 codon 72 polymorphism was analyzed in blood samples through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing.
  • RESULTS: The relative frequency of each allele was 0.60 for Arg and 0.40 for Pro in patients with anal cancer, and 0.61 for Arg and 0.39 for Pro in normal controls.
  • CONCLUSION: These results do not support a role for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in anal carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53

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  • (PMID = 19777616.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2752002
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29. Joseph DA, Miller JW, Wu X, Chen VW, Morris CR, Goodman MT, Villalon-Gomez JM, Williams MA, Cress RD: Understanding the burden of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancers in the US. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):2892-900
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Understanding the burden of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancers in the US.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy in the US; up to 93% of anal cancers are associated with human papillomavirus.
  • METHODS: Cases diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 from 39 population-based cancer registries were analyzed.
  • The following anal cancer histologies were included in the analysis: squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, and small cell/neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: From 1998 through 2003, the annual age-adjusted invasive anal cancer incidence rate was 1.5 per 100,000 persons.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common histology overall, accounting for 18,105 of 21,395 (84.6%) cases of anal cancer.
  • Incidence rates of anal SCC increased 2.6% per year on average.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rates of anal SCC varied by sex, race, and ethnicity.
  • Continued surveillance and additional research are needed to assess the potential impact of the HPV vaccine on the anal cancer burden in the US.

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  • [Cites] Dan Med Bull. 2002 Aug;49(3):194-209 [12238281.001]
  • (PMID = 18980293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / N01 PC035137; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01 PC035137; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS104103; NLM/ PMC2729501
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30. Czito BG, Pepek JM, Meyer JJ, Yoo S, Willett CG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park); 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1082-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • The contemporary treatment of anal cancer is combined-modality therapy with radiation therapy, fluorouracil, and mitomycin.
  • Tempering these positive results is the high rate of treatment-related morbidity associated with chemoradiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1092, 1094, 1096 [20017292.001]
  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1096, 1098 [20017293.001]
  • (PMID = 20017291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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31. Young SC, Solomon MJ, Hruby G, Frizelle FA: Review of 120 anal cancer patients. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Nov;11(9):909-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Review of 120 anal cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Chemoradiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with anal cancer, with abdominoperineal resection reserved for salvage.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate our results after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, and/or surgery in terms of overall survival and colostomy free survival in patients with anal cancer.
  • METHOD: A review of patients diagnosed with anal cancer between 1991 and 2004 was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemoradiation is effective organ preserving treatment for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colostomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Colorectal Dis. 2009 Nov;11(9):914-6 [19832863.001]
  • (PMID = 19175651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Patel HS, Silver AR, Northover JM: Anal cancer in renal transplant patients. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Jan;22(1):1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer in renal transplant patients.
  • PURPOSE: A comprehensive literature review was performed to examine the prevalence of anal cancer, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in renal transplant recipients who are at risk of anal cancer due to iatrogenic immunosuppression.
  • METHODS: Pertinent articles were identified from searches performed on the National Center for Biotechnology Information database using the following keywords: anal cancer, AIN, screening, renal transplant (or kidney transplant), organ transplant recipients and post-transplant malignancies.
  • The prevalence of anal HPV infection in established transplant patients is 47%, and the prevalence of anal HPV infection in new transplant patients is 23%.
  • The relative risk for anal cancer in renal transplant patients is 10.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As compared to HIV-positive male patients who practise anal intercourse, renal transplant patients showed a modest rise in relative risk for anal cancer.
  • Screening programmes to detect AIN in HIV-positive patients who practise anal intercourse have been introduced on a preliminary basis in sexual health clinics in the US and may become standard practise in this population.
  • The case for screening in renal transplant patients is unclear and would merit further investigation, especially with reference to the prevalence of anal HPV infection in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Kidney Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Humans. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16133005.001).
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33. Gervaz P, Buchs N, Morel P: Diagnosis and management of anal cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2008 Oct;10(5):502-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of anal cancer.
  • During the past three decades, anal cancer has served as a paradigm for the successful application of chemoradiation to solid tumors.
  • Since the early 1990s, the increasing incidence of anal cancer in homosexual men has highlighted the causative role of oncogenic human papilloma-virus infection.
  • This review focuses on significant trends and developments in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, emphasizing three major aspects of diagnosis and treatment: routine screening and eradication of premalignant lesions in high-risk individuals; outcome of chemoradiation therapy in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy; and potential improvements in chemoradiation protocols through improved radiation delivery technique and the combination of mitomycin with cisplatin in current prospective randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18799127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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34. Crum-Cianflone NF, Hullsiek KH, Marconi VC, Ganesan A, Weintrob A, Barthel RV, Agan BK, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program HIV Working Group: Anal cancers among HIV-infected persons: HAART is not slowing rising incidence. AIDS; 2010 Feb 20;24(4):535-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancers among HIV-infected persons: HAART is not slowing rising incidence.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence rates of anal cancer over the HIV epidemic and assess the impact of HAART use on anal cancer events.
  • METHODS: We evaluated the incidence of and factors associated with anal cancer using longitudinal data from the prospective U.S.
  • RESULTS: Among 4506 HIV-infected men with 37 806 person-years of follow-up, anal cancer rates (per 100 000 person-years) increased five-fold, from 11 in the pre-HAART to 55 in the HAART era (P = 0.02).
  • At cancer diagnosis (n = 19), median age was 42 years, median CD4 cell count was 432 cells/microl, 74% had a CD4 nadir cell count less than 200 cells/microl, 42% had a prior AIDS event, and 74% had received HAART.
  • From separate models, prior AIDS event (hazard ratio 3.88, P = 0.01) and lower CD4 nadir (hazard ratio 0.85 per 50 cell, P = 0.03) were associated with anal cancer, with a trend for a history of gonorrhea (hazard ratio 2.43, P = 0.07).
  • Duration of HAART use was not associated with a reduced risk of anal cancer (hazard ratio 0.94, P = 0.42).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidence rates of anal cancer have progressively increased during the HIV epidemic.
  • Persons with a longer duration of HIV infection have a substantially higher rate of anal cancer.
  • As HIV-infected persons are experiencing longer life expectancies and HAART does not appear protective of anal cancer, studies on preventive strategies are needed.

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  • (PMID = 19926961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / HU0001-05-2-0011; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / Y01 AI005072; United States / PHS HHS / / HU0001-05-2-0011
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS203436; NLM/ PMC3132114
  • [Investigator] Banks S; Bavaro M; Chun H; Decker C; Eberly L; Eggleston C; Hairston H; Hawkes C; Johnson A; Landrum M; Lifson A; Merritt S; O'Connell R; Okulicz J; Peel S; Polis M; Powers J; Tramont E; Whitman T; Wortmann G; Zapor M
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35. Buchs NC, Allal AS, Morel P, Gervaz P: Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2009 Apr;9(4):483-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer.
  • Management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) has remained virtually unchanged since the 1980s.
  • By contrast, the demographics of SCCA are evolving, with the emergence of a high-risk group of patients: HIV-positive male homosexuals are prone to develop anal intra-epithelial neoplasia and rapidly progress towards invasive SCCA.
  • By many aspects, anal cancer is similar to uterine cervix cancer - a sexually transmitted disease driven by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

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  • (PMID = 19374601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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36. Monsonego J: [Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses: a perspective based on the cervical cancer model]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2010 Apr;38(4):250-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer and human papillomaviruses: a perspective based on the cervical cancer model].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer anal et papillomavirus humains: une pathologie en miroir de celle du cancer du col utérin.
  • Anal cancer is a rare pathology in the general population but the incidence of this cancer has been on the rise for certain high-risk groups, such as homosexual men and immunodepressed subjects.
  • The incidence of anal cancer is 10 times higher in the HIV-positive population than in the female population in general.
  • Moderate to severe dysplasias (AIN2-3) are types of precancerous lesions that usually precede the appearance of the cancer.
  • In anal cancer, HPV16 is present in over 75% of the cases.
  • The prevalence of HPV in anal cancer is higher in women (90%) than in men (75%).
  • Squamous cervical and anal cancers have strong similarities founded on the causal association to HPV, in particular HPV16.
  • Recent data indicate that anti-HPV vaccination has a significant potential in preventing HPV infections, precancerous lesions, and anal cancer in the general population as well as in the high-risk groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Human papillomavirus 16. Human papillomavirus 18. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6682
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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37. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Palefsky JM, Tyring S, El Serag H: Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jul 15;43(2):223-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review.
  • Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.
  • We have conducted a systematic review of the indirect evidence in the literature regarding the utility of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening of HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Although there are no published studies evaluating the efficacy of anal Pap smear screening for preventing squamous cell cancer of the anus or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, we reviewed data regarding the burden of disease, anal Pap smear sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of anal dysplasia, and 1 cost effectiveness study.
  • The available evidence demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This review identifies important areas for further study before routine anal Pap smear screening can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Papillomaviridae


38. Dunleavey R: The role of viruses and sexual transmission in anal cancer. Nurs Times; 2005 Mar 1-7;101(9):38-41
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  • [Title] The role of viruses and sexual transmission in anal cancer.
  • Research has focused on the link between sexual activity, viral infection and cervical cancer.
  • However, a parallel situation can be seen with anal cancer.
  • Although less common than cervical cancer, anal cancer is a significant problem among certain groups.
  • In the male homosexual population it occurs in 35 out of every 100,000 men, a figure comparable with the rate of cervical cancer in women before cervical screening programmes were instigated (Klenke and Palefsky, 2003).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Homosexuality, Male. Virus Diseases / transmission
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Causality. Female. Great Britain / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mass Screening / methods. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15783159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-7762
  • [Journal-full-title] Nursing times
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nurs Times
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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39. Abramowitz L, Mathieu N, Roudot-Thoraval F, Lemarchand N, Bauer P, Hennequin C, Mitry E, Romelaer C, Aparicio T, Sobhani I: Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Aug 15;30(4):414-21
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a poor prognosis of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ patients.
  • AIM: To investigate the long-term outcome of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ and HIV- patients in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era.
  • METHODS: We included all patients with epidermoid anal cancer referred to six hospitals from 1998 to 2004.
  • No significant differences were observed in the tumour stage, pelvic radiotherapy dose or concomitant chemotherapy, according to the HIV status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcome of HIV+ patients with epidermoid anal cancer is similar to that of HIV- patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


40. Kauh J, Koshy M, Gunthel C, Joyner MM, Landry J, Thomas CR Jr: Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Nov;19(12):1634-8; discussion 1638-40, 1645 passim
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population.
  • Squamous cell anal cancer remains an uncommon entity; however, the incidence appears to be increasing in at-risk populations, especially those infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Given the ability to cure this cancer using synchronous chemoradiotherapy, management practices of this disease are critical.
  • This article considers treatment strategies for HIV-positive patients with anal cancer, including the impact on chemoradiation-induced toxicities and the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of this patient population.
  • Additional changes to the chemotherapy dosing, such as giving 5-FU continuously and decreasing mitomycin dose, are evaluated and considered in relation to radiation field sizes in an effort to reduce toxicity, maintain local tumor control, and limit need for colostomy.
  • The impact of the immune system in patients with HIV and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and the associated response to therapy remains unknown.
  • Continued studies and phase III trials will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus to determine which treatment protocols provide the greatest benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


41. Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S: Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):692-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe?
  • This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the Intergroup RTOG 98-11 trial, which aimed to investigate both the potential role of cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also its role concurrently in combination with radiotherapy, for anal-canal carcinoma.
  • Although chemoradiotherapy has had an important effect on the treatment of anal cancer, and allows preservation of anorectal function with survival rates similar to or better than those of surgical treatment, overall survival rates for advanced tumors are still in the region of 50-60% at 5 years.
  • A strong theoretical rationale for cisplatin-based treatment in anal cancer exists; several phase II trials have demonstrated a high response rate with reduced colostomy rates.

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  • (PMID = 18852720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Hoots BE, Palefsky JM, Pimenta JM, Smith JS: Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions. Int J Cancer; 2009 May 15;124(10):2375-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions.
  • A systematic review was conducted of HPV type distribution in anal cancer and anal high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL).
  • A total of 1,824 cases were included: 992 invasive anal cancers, 472 HSIL cases and 360 LSIL cases.
  • Crude HPV prevalence in anal cancer, HSIL, and LSIL was 71, 91 and 88%, respectively.
  • HPV16/18 prevalence was 72% in invasive anal cancer, 69% in HSIL and 27% in LSIL.
  • The HPV 16 and/or 18 prevalence in invasive anal cancer cases was similar to that reported in invasive cervical cancer.
  • If ongoing clinical trials show efficacy in preventing anal HPV infection and associated anal lesions, prophylactic HPV vaccines may play an important role for the primary prevention of these cancers in both genders.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Species Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19189402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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43. Karandikar SS, Borley A, Crosby T, Williams G, Reynolds S, Radcliffe AG: A five-year audit of anal cancer in Wales. Colorectal Dis; 2006 May;8(4):266-72
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  • [Title] A five-year audit of anal cancer in Wales.
  • OBJECTIVES: A retrospective audit has been undertaken of Squamous (epidermoid) type of anal cancer diagnosed and treated in the principality of Wales over a five-year period (1995-99) with follow-up until 2005.
  • METHODS: Patients were identified from the Welsh Cancer Registry and the pathology databases of the 17 acute hospitals in Wales.
  • Twenty-six anal cancers were diagnosed per year in the region.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is a unique regional audit of anal cancer.
  • This study concurs that Human Papilloma Virus appears to predispose to Squamous anal cancer.
  • As recommended by NICE all patients should be referred to a multidisciplinary anal cancer team, which can provide individual treatment plans.
  • Increased specialization could mean specialist regional MDTs for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Wales / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16630228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Ferenschild FT, Vermaas M, Hofer SO, Verhoef C, Eggermont AM, de Wilt JH: Salvage abdominoperineal resection and perineal wound healing in local recurrent or persistent anal cancer. World J Surg; 2005 Nov;29(11):1452-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection and perineal wound healing in local recurrent or persistent anal cancer.
  • The primary treatment for anal cancer is chemoradiation (CRT).
  • A major problem of surgery in the anal area is poor healing of the perineal wound.
  • Between 1985 and 2000, 129 patients treated for anal cancer were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 59 (range: 41-83) years.
  • In the present study salvage APR in recurrent or persistent anal cancer results in good local control and 5-year overall survival of 30%.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Salvage Therapy

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  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
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45. Patel CB, Ramos-Valadez DI, Haas EM: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer: feasibility and technical considerations. Int J Med Robot; 2010 Dec;6(4):399-404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Robotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer: feasibility and technical considerations.
  • BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is an emerging technology that may prove advantageous for complex colorectal procedures involving the irradiated pelvis, such as abdominoperineal resection for recurrent anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Over a 6 month period, five abdominoperineal resections were performed using the da Vinci® robot for recurrent anal cancer in patients initially treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for anal cancer was found to be a safe and feasible procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Perineum / surgery. Robotics / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20827795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-596X
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of medical robotics + computer assisted surgery : MRCAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Robot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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46. Meyer J, Willett C, Czito B: Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2010 May;12(3):168-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer.
  • Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C) is established as a sphincter-preserving treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • However, there is room for improvement in rates of tumor control as well as a need to reduce treatment-induced toxicity.
  • This review discusses the evolution of therapy for anal cancer, from early clinical trials establishing the current standard to more recent studies evaluating cisplatin, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and cetuximab.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20425076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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47. D'Souza G, Cook RL, Ostrow D, Johnson-Hill LM, Wiley D, Silvestre T: Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men. J Gen Intern Med; 2008 Sep;23(9):1452-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer has increased in the past decade, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected individuals.
  • There is controversy about whether to routinely screen for anal cancer in MSM.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether current anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern differ by HIV serostatus and to identify characteristics of men who intend to seek anal cancer screening.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported anal cancer screening history, attitudes, and intentions.
  • RESULTS: A history of anal warts was relatively common in these men (39%), whereas having a recent anal Pap test (5%), intention to seek anal cancer screening in the next 6 months (12%), and concern about anal cancer (8.5%) were less common.
  • Intention to seek anal cancer screening was associated with enabling factors (screening availability, health insurance), need factors (HIV-infection, history of anal warts), concern about anal cancer, and recent sexual risk taking.
  • Among four large US cities, there was significant regional variability in anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern (all p<0.001).
  • Most MSM (76%) indicated they would go to their primary care physician for an anal health problem or question.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a low rate of anal cancer screening and intention to screen among MSM.
  • As more evidence emerges regarding screening, primary care physicians should be prepared to discuss anal cancer screening with their patients.

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  • [ISSN] 1525-1497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of general internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gen Intern Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35043; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-M01-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-37613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2518019
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48. Midtgaard J, Hansen MJ, Grandjean B: Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer. Support Care Cancer; 2009 Sep;17(9):1213-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is a rare disease within the cancer spectrum.
  • AIM: The objective of this study was to describe the lived experiences of recovery from anal cancer, including which and how resources may help survivors of anal cancer to resist and to manage potentially complex stressors encountered in the recovery from the disease.
  • Sixteen individuals (11 women and five men; average age 52 years), who had completed therapy for anal cancer (average 31 months ago), participated in the study.
  • FINDINGS: The analysis revealed two concepts, modesty and recognition, which describe the essence of the lived experience of anal cancer, and which each appear to be important resistance resources.
  • DISCUSSION: Anal cancer appears to lack attention and deserved recognition from professional and social services, which in itself may lead to mistrust and devaluation of the individual seeking support.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Interpersonal Relations. Stress, Psychological. Survivors / psychology

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  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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49. Das P, Crane CH, Eng C, Ajani JA: Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointest Cancer Res; 2008 Jan;2(1):10-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal cancer.
  • However, some heterogeneity exists among anal cancer patients in their outcomes.
  • This article reviews some of the clinical factors, treatment-related factors, and biologic factors that affect outcomes in patients with squamous cell anal cancer.
  • A better understanding of molecular biology is required to characterize the inherent heterogeneity of anal cancer and thereby develop optimal therapies.

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  • (PMID = 19259318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-7820
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest Cancer Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2630809
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50. Stelzer MK, Pitot HC, Liem A, Schweizer J, Mahoney C, Lambert PF: A mouse model for human anal cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2010 Dec;3(12):1534-41
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  • [Title] A mouse model for human anal cancer.
  • Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers.
  • As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers.
  • We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer.
  • HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including, but not limited to, their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively.
  • Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice.
  • To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites.
  • Histopathologic analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions.
  • Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer.
  • This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20947489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-330006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141583; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-320006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-330006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA141583-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141583-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA141583-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-320006; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE017315-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CI T32 CA090217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA141583-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS211621; NLM/ PMC3006089
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51. Christensen AF, Nielsen MB, Svendsen LB, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1527-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In our center since 2001, follow-up examination has included three-dimensional endosonography in all patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: This prospective study included 38 consecutive patients who have had anal carcinoma and were investigated using three-dimensional endosonography in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination at Rigshospitalet from July 2001 to January 2005 under suspicion of local recurrence.
  • The observers scored each examination according to a five-point scale in which a score from 1 to 3 was regarded as benign endosonographic findings and a score from 4 to 5 was regarded as malignant endosonographic findings.
  • The endosonographic diagnosis for each examination was compared with histologic evaluation or when no biopsy had been taken with a follow-up period of at least six months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that three-dimensional endosonography surpasses two-dimensional endosonography in the evaluation of patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer especially in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16988854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Roach SC, Hulse PA, Moulding FJ, Wilson R, Carrington BM: Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer. Clin Radiol; 2005 Oct;60(10):1111-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary and recurrent anal carcinoma, and to demonstrate the commonest patterns of local and distant disease spread.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 27 cases of biopsy-proven anal carcinoma, where MRI was used for primary staging (9 patients) or suspected recurrence (18 patients).
  • The size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumour were documented.
  • Lymph node metastases were of similar signal intensity to the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16179172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Karnon J, Jones R, Czoski-Murray C, Smith KJ: Cost-utility analysis of screening high-risk groups for anal cancer. J Public Health (Oxf); 2008 Sep;30(3):293-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost-utility analysis of screening high-risk groups for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cost-utility analysis of screening for anal cancer in high-risk groups from a UK perspective.
  • METHODS: Criteria for the assessment of screening programmes were combined in a Markov model representing the natural history of anal cancer and HIV infection in the UK population of men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Sensitivity analyses identified two important parameters: regression from low-grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and utility effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening / economics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Public Health (Oxf). 2009 Mar;31(1):194
  • (PMID = 18559368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1741-3850
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of public health (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Public Health (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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54. Mai SK, Welzel G, Hermann B, Bohrer M, Wenz F: Long-term outcome after combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer - retrospective analysis of efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity. Onkologie; 2008 May;31(5):251-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome after combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer - retrospective analysis of efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity.
  • BACKGROUND: This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity of combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer.
  • Tumor stage, nodal status, age, sex, tumor site, tumor resection, and radiation dose were analyzed for prognostic value.
  • Higher T category was associated with inferior prognosis for colostomy-free survival (p = 0.000), male sex for local control (p = 0.004) and diseasespecific survival (p = 0.002), and tumor site at the anal margin for local control (p = 0.03).
  • 4 of 7 patients with recurrent anal margin tumors had human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer is a highly effective therapy with pronounced acute and minor late toxicity.
  • In the case of higher T stage, male sex, and cancer at the anal margin, treatment intensification should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18497514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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55. Jeffreys M, Rachet B, McDowell S, Habib AG, Lepage C, Coleman MP: Survival from rectal and anal cancers in England and Wales, 1986-2001. Eur J Cancer; 2006 Jul;42(10):1434-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival from rectal and anal cancers in England and Wales, 1986-2001.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tumour and patient characteristics on trends in the survival of patients with cancer of the anus or rectum in England and Wales.
  • Relative survival up to 5 years after diagnosis was estimated, using deprivation-specific life tables.
  • Generalised linear models were used to estimate relative excess risks of death, adjusted for patient and tumour characteristics.
  • The results showed that 5-year relative survival was higher in women, younger patients and more affluent patients, and higher for anal cancer than rectal cancer.
  • This trend was not explained by changes in the distribution of age, anatomical site, morphology or deprivation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. England / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Wales / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16600590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Jiménez W, Paszat L, Kupets R, Wilton A, Tinmouth J: Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario.
  • OBJECTIVE: The oncogenic HPV subtypes responsible for gynecologic malignancies have also been implicated in the development of squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCAC).
  • SCAC is more common in women, typically presenting at an older age than gynecologic cancers.
  • The aim of this study was determine whether women diagnosed with anal cancer are more likely to have a history of HPV-related gynecological cancer as compared to a matched control group.
  • All women diagnosed with SCAC between 1992 and 2005, identified using ICD-9 codes (154.2, 154.3, 154.8) for anatomic site and ICD-O codes (8070-8075, 8120, 8123, 8124) for histologic subtype, were included as cases.
  • The exposure of interest was previous HPV-related gynecologic cancer, specifically cervical cancer, vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer.
  • Amongst the cases, there were 7 cervical, 3 vulvar and 1 vaginal cancers compared with 5 cervical, 0 vulvar and vaginal cancers in the 3264 controls.
  • Previous HPV-related gynecological cancer (cervical, vaginal or vulvar cancer) was significantly associated with SCAC (OR: 10.5, 95% C.I.: 3.6 to 30.3).
  • The median time between the diagnosis of anal cancer and previous cervical cancer was 20 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Previous HPV-related gynecological cancers are strongly associated with anal cancer and may occur decades before the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19501390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Bringman D, Anton-Culver H: Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis; 2005 May;32(5):314-20
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) corresponded with changes in anal squamous cell cancer rates among men with AIDS.
  • STUDY: We linked cancer registry data from 1988-2000 and AIDS registry data from 1981-July/2003 for San Diego County.
  • RESULTS: The annual incidence of invasive anal cancer increased from zero per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-226) in 1991 to 224 per 100,000 (95% CI, 102-425) in the year 2000.
  • Pre-HAART, the average annual incidence of invasive anal cancer was 49 per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% CI, 16-114) versus 144 per 100,000 (95% CI, 93-212) post-HAART.
  • The relative risk of invasive anal cancer among men with AIDS compared with men without known HIV/AIDS was 98 (95% CI, 36-264) pre-HAART and 352 (95% CI, 186-669) post-HAART.
  • The increased incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS resulted in an increase in the overall rate of anal cancer among men in San Diego County.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rising incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS may be related to increased longevity with HAART and the consequent increased time at risk for the development of malignancy and/or the result of greater use of cytologic screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15849533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K07CA096480-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Mistrangelo M, Bellò M, Mobiglia A, Beltramo G, Cassoni P, Milanesi E, Cornaglia S, Pelosi E, Giunta F, Sandrucci S, Mussa A: Feasibility of the sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Feb;53(1):3-8
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  • [Title] Feasibility of the sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer.
  • AIM: Anal cancer is a rare neoplasm.
  • According to a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer multivariate analysis, synchronous inguinal lymph node metastasis occurs in 10-25% of patients and constitutes an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality.
  • METHODS: Inguinal lymph node status was assessed using the sentinel node technique in 35 patients with anal cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given the correlation between prognosis and node involvement, sentinel node biopsy can be considered a simple method for adequate pretreatment staging of anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Inguinal Canal / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 18337684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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59. Hatzaras I, Abir F, Kozol R, Sullivan P, Longo WE: The demographics, histopathology and patterns of treatment of anal cancer in Connecticut: 1980-2000. Conn Med; 2005 May;69(5):261-5
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  • [Title] The demographics, histopathology and patterns of treatment of anal cancer in Connecticut: 1980-2000.
  • OBJECTIVES: Examine the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of anal cancer in the State of Connecticut.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Department of Health Connecticut Tumor Registry resources were utilized for the years 1980-2000.
  • RESULTS: A total of 646 anal cancers (410 females, 236 males) were diagnosed (mean age: 63.4 years).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal cancer incidence in Connecticut increased in the 21-year period 1980 to 2000, affecting the rate for African-American men more than other race-specific and gender-specific population subgroups.
  • Anal cancer affects women more often than men.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colectomy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Connecticut / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16114640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0010-6178
  • [Journal-full-title] Connecticut medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conn Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Lukan N, Ströbel P, Willer A, Kripp M, Dinter D, Mai S, Hochhaus A, Hofheinz RD: Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status. Oncology; 2009;77(5):293-9
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  • [Title] Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status.
  • BACKGROUND: No standard chemotherapy regimen can be defined for patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus due to the low incidence of this disease and the high cure rate of localized tumors.
  • Anal cancers universally express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations have not been reported in anal cancer thus far.
  • METHODS: We report on 7 patients with metastatic anal cancer treated with cetuximab - a chimeric antibody against EGFR - on a compassionate use basis along with the results of KRAS mutational analysis.
  • RESULTS: Marked tumor shrinkage was noted in several patients using cetuximab monotherapy or cetuximab/irinotecan combination as first or subsequent treatment line (usually after failure of cisplatin-based regimens).
  • Both patients had progressive disease receiving cetuximab, while the remaining 5 patients had either a partial remission (n = 3), a minor remission (n = 1) or no change lasting > or =6 months after previous rapid tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSION: Cetuximab-based treatment appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients with metastatic KRAS wild-type anal cancer after failure of or as an alternative to cisplatin/5-fluorouracil-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19923868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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61. Piketty C, Selinger-Leneman H, Grabar S, Duvivier C, Bonmarchand M, Abramowitz L, Costagliola D, Mary-Krause M, FHDH-ANRS CO 4: Marked increase in the incidence of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS; 2008 Jun 19;22(10):1203-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Marked increase in the incidence of invasive anal cancer among HIV-infected patients despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the cases of anal cancer that appeared in the French Hospital Database on HIV between 1992 and 2004 and to study risk factors of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: We examined the incidence rates of anal cancer between 1992 and 2004 and the risk associated among 86,322 HIV-infected patients included in the French Hospital Database on HIV.
  • RESULTS: We identified 132 cases of anal cancer, including 124 cases in men (94%), of whom 75% had sex with men.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 42.8 years (interquartile range: 36.9-49.4).
  • At diagnosis, 103 patients (78%) were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy for a median of 37.1 months (interquartile range: 4.5-59.8).
  • Median survival after anal cancer diagnosis was 5 years.
  • The respective overall incidence rates of anal cancer per 100,000 person-years between 1992 and March 1996, April 1996 to 1998 and between 1999 and 2004 were 11 (95% confidence interval, 4-17), 18 (95% confidence interval, 10-27) and 40 (95% confidence interval, 32-47).
  • The risk of anal cancer was higher among men who have sex with men.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of anal cancer has increased among HIV-infected patients in France since 1996.
  • Although an ascertainment bias cannot be excluded, data indicate that combination antiretroviral therapy does not prevent anal cancer in these patients.
  • This supports the urgent need for developing anal cancer screening programs for HIV-infected men who have sex with men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. HIV Infections / mortality. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18525266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Investigator] Abgrall S; Barin F; Bentata M; Billaud E; Boué F; Burty C; Cabié A; Costagliola D; Cotte L; De Truchis P; Duval X; Duvivier C; Enel P; Fredouille-Heripret L; Gasnault J; Gaud C; Gilquin J; Grabar S; Khuong MA; Lang JM; Lascaux AS; Launay O; Mahamat A; Mary-Krause M; Matheron S; Meynard JL; Pavie J; Pialoux G; Pilorgé F; Poizot-Martin I; Pradier C; Reynes J; Rouveix E; Simon A; Tattevin P; Tissot-Dupont H; Viard JP; Viget N; Aronica E; Pariente-Khayat A; Jacquemet N; Rivet A; Abgrall S; Costagliola D; Grabar S; Guiguet M; Lanoy E; Selinger-Leneman H; Liévre L; Mary-Krause M; Potard V; Bouvet E; Crickx B; Ecobichon JL; Leport C; Matheron S; Picard-Dahan C; Yeni P; Tisne-Dessus D; Weiss L; Salmon D; Sicard D; Auperin I; Gilquin J; Roudiére L; Viard JP; Boué F; Fior R; Delfraissy JF; Goujard C; Jung C; Lesprit PH; Desplanque N; Meynard JL; Meyohas MC; Picard O; Cadranel J; Mayaud C; Pialoux G; Bricaire F; Herson S; Katlama C; Simon A; Clauvel JP; Decazes JM; Gerard L; Molina JM; Diemer M; Sellier P; Berthé H; Dupont C; Chandemerle C; Mortier E; de Truchis P; Bentata M; Honoré P; Jeantils V; Tassi S; Mechali D; Taverne B; Gourdon F; Laurichesse H; Fresard A; Lucht F; Eglinger P; Faller JP; Bazin C; Verdon R; Boibieux A; Peyramond D; Livrozet JM; Touraine JL; Cotte L; Trepo C; Ravaux I; Tissot-Dupont H; Delmont JP; Moreau J; Gastaut JA; Poizot-Martin I; Retornaz F; Soubeyrand J; Allegre T; Blanc TA; Galinier A; Ruiz JM; Lepeu G; Granet-Brunello P; Esterni JP; Pelissier L; Cohen-Valensi R; Nezri M; Chadapaud S; Laffeuillade A; Reynes J; May T; Rabaud C; Billaud E; Raffi F; Pugliese P; Pradier C; Arvieux C; Michelet C; Borsa-Lebas F; Caron F; Fraisse P; Lang JM; Rey D; Arlet-Suau E; Cuzin L; Massip P; Thiercelin Legrand MF; Gustave Dron CF; Yasdanpanah Y; Pradinaud R; Sobesky M; Gaud C; Contant M
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62. Vietharsdóttir H, Moeller PH, Jóhannsson J, Jónasson JG: [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study]. Laeknabladid; 2006 May;92(5):365-72
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  • [Title] [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study].
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare disease.
  • The aim of this study was to describe anal cancer in Iceland in 1987-2003 with respect to incidence, histologic type, treatment, recurrence rate and survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which all malignant anal tumours diagnosed in Iceland in the period 1987-2003 were reviewed with respect to patient outcome.
  • This is a nationwide, population-based study of malignant tumours of the anal region.
  • RESULTS: From 1987-2003 thirty-eight patients were diagnosed with anal cancer, 28 females and 10 males.
  • The average age at diagnosis was 63.4 years.
  • Age standardized incidence rates for anal cancer in Iceland were 0.3 (+/-0.2) of 100.000 males and 0.9 (+/-0.4) of 100.000 females.
  • The remaining histologic types were malignant melanoma (n=3), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), GIST (n=1) and undifferentiated carcinoma (n=2).
  • The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 2 weeks to 96 months (mean value 3.5 months).
  • Twelve patients had recurrent cancer.
  • The mean value of the time from diagnosis of the primary to the recurrent cancer was 15.6 months (range, 5.9-117).
  • Sixteen patients remain with disease and ten have died of anal cancer.
  • The five year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the years 1987 to 1998 is 75% but cancer-specific survival is 82%.
  • CONCLUSION: Age-standardized incidence for anal cancer in Iceland is similar to other regions.
  • Average age at diagnosis, male-female ratio and prognosis is similar to reports in other studies.
  • The proportion of adenocarcinoma of the anus is lower in Iceland than elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Defecation. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Pruritus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16741319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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63. Christensen AF, Nielsen BM, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer. Acta Radiol; 2008 Mar;49(2):132-7
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: New techniques using image guidance other than computed tomography (CT) and traditional two-dimensional (2D) endosonography might improve interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with anal carcinoma were referred to interstitial brachytherapy under 3D endosonographic guidance after external radiotherapy.
  • The procedure was initiated by anal endosonography performed with a 10-MHz rotating endoprobe.
  • Cross-sectional images of the anal sphincters were stored on a 3D system during retraction of the endoprobe through the anal canal.
  • The needles were inserted through holes in an externally fixated anal template.
  • A repeated endosonography assured that optimal tumor coverage could be obtained by adjusting the number, dwell positions, and/or position of the needles.
  • CONCLUSION: 3D endosonography guidance of interstitial brachytherapy in anal carcinoma seems to optimize the implant procedure and offer better information for dose planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Brachytherapy / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 18300134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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64. Chin-Hong PV, Vittinghoff E, Cranston RD, Browne L, Buchbinder S, Colfax G, Da Costa M, Darragh T, Benet DJ, Judson F, Koblin B, Mayer KH, Palefsky JM: Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Jun 15;97(12):896-905
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  • [Title] Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study.
  • BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally linked to the development of anal and cervical cancer.
  • In the United States, the incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) is higher than the incidence of cervical cancer among women.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are anal cancer precursors comprising low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs).
  • The prevalence of cervical cancer precursor lesions peaks at around 30 years of age.
  • Anal cytology and behavioral data were obtained.
  • Anal HPV infection status was assessed by polymerase chain reaction.
  • In a multivariable analysis, the risk of LSILs was associated with having more than five male receptive anal sex partners (P = .03), any use of poppers (alkyl nitrites) in the previous 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1 to 2.5; P = .03] or use of injection drugs two or more times per month during the previous 6 months [OR = 19, 95% CI = 1.3 to 277; P = .03], older age at first receptive anal intercourse (P = .004), and infection with a greater number of HPV types (P < .001 for linear trend).
  • The risk of HSILs was associated with any anal HPV infection (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1 to 9.4; P = .039) and infection with an increasing number of HPV types (P < .001 for linear trend).
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15956651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5 U01 AI46749; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI35176; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI45200; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI47995; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI48016; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI48040
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Das P, Bhatia S, Eng C, Ajani JA, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Bhosale P, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jul 1;68(3):794-800
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  • [Title] Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate patterns of locoregional failure, and predictors of recurrence and survival in patients treated with chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between September 1992 and August 2004, 167 patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal carcinoma were treated with definitive chemoradiation.
  • Among the patients who had locoregional failure, 18 (75%) had failure involving the anus or rectum, 5 (21%) had other pelvic recurrences, and 1 (4%) had inguinal recurrence.
  • The majority of locoregional failures involve the anus and rectum, whereas inguinal recurrences occur rarely.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17379452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Abbas A, Yang G, Fakih M: Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 15;24(4):364-9
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 1: Overview, screening, and diagnosis.
  • Although anal cancer is a rare disease, its incidence is increasing in men and women worldwide.
  • Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men.
  • Meta-analysis suggests that 80% of anal cancers could be avoided by vaccination against HPV 16/18.
  • Nearly half of all patients with anal cancer present with rectal bleeding.
  • Pain or sensation of a rectal mass is experienced in 30% of patients, whereas 20% have no tumor-specific symptoms.
  • According to the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, 50% of patients with anal cancer have disease localized to the anus, 29% have regional lymph node involvement or direct spread beyond the primary, and 12% have metastatic disease, while 9% have an unknown stage.
  • Clinical staging of anal carcinoma requires a digital rectal exam and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
  • The 5-year relative survival rates are 80.1% for localized anal cancer, 60.7% for regional disease, and 29.4% for metastatic disease.
  • Part 2 of this two-part review will address the treatment of anal cancer, highlighting studies of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Mass Screening

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  • (PMID = 20464850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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67. Caricato M, Ausania F, Marangi GF, Cipollone I, Flammia G, Persichetti P, Trodella L, Coppola R: Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jun 21;15(23):2918-9
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery.
  • We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation.
  • This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Transsexualism / surgery

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  • [Cites] Ann Plast Surg. 2007 Aug;59(2):168-72 [17667411.001]
  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 1980 Sep;66(3):401-6 [6999512.001]
  • (PMID = 19533817.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699013
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68. Christensen AF, Nyhuus B, Nielsen MB: Interobserver and intraobserver variation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional anal endosonography in the evaluation of recurrent anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Mar;52(3):484-8
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  • [Title] Interobserver and intraobserver variation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional anal endosonography in the evaluation of recurrent anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver agreement of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) anal endosonography for the detection of local recurrence anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients were treated for anal carcinoma, and seven had recurrent disease.
  • The observers scored each examination according to the following scale regarding presence of local recurrence: 1 = no finding/benign findings; 2 = properly benign findings; 3 = suspicious findings/malignant findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional endosonography proved to have significantly better interobserver and intraobserver agreement than 2-D endosonography concerning detection of recurrent anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19333050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Fox P: Anal cancer screening in men who have sex with men. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):64-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Anal cancer screening in men who have sex with men.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To determine whether current evidence and expert opinion support the routine use of anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy in men who have sex with men.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Most recently published guidelines do not recommend routine anal cytology, but anal cancer is undoubtedly a serious and growing problem for HIV-positive patients.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology is poor and adjuncts to cytology such as p16(ink4a) staining and human papillomavirus viral loads might be utilized to further reduce the number of patients requiring high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Despite the burden of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in HIV negative men who have sex with men, anal cancer remains uncommon in this group.
  • SUMMARY: Although routine anal cytology is not advisable for men who have sex with men at present, be they HIV positive or negative, clinicians should be regularly performing digital rectal examination in those at high risk of anal cancer, both to facilitate early detection of anal cancer and in the interests of health promotion.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Homosexuality, Male. Mass Screening
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Trials as Topic. Early Detection of Cancer. Epidemiologic Studies. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Proctoscopy. Sensitivity and Specificity. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 19343830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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70. Winton Ed, Heriot AG, Ng M, Hicks RJ, Hogg A, Milner A, Leong T, Fay M, MacKay J, Drummond E, Ngan SY: The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer. Br J Cancer; 2009 Mar 10;100(5):693-700
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  • [Title] The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer.
  • Accurate inguinal and pelvic nodal staging in anal cancer is important for the prognosis and planning of radiation fields.
  • There is evidence for the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging and management of cancer, with early reports of an increasing role in outcome prognostication in a number of tumours.
  • We aimed to determine the effect of FDG-PET on the nodal staging, radiotherapy planning and prognostication of patients with primary anal cancer.
  • Sixty-one consecutive patients with anal cancer who were referred to a tertiary centre between August 1997 and November 2005 were staged with conventional imaging (CIm) (including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and chest X-ray) and by FDG-PET.
  • The tumour-stage group was changed in 23% (14 out of 61) as a result of FDG-PET (15% up-staged, 8% down-staged).
  • FDG-PET shows increased sensitivity over CIm for staging nodal disease in anal cancer and changes treatment intent or radiotherapy prescription in a significant proportion of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19259091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653751
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71. Grigsby PW: FDG-PET/CT: new horizons in anal cancer. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 May;33(5):456-8
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT: new horizons in anal cancer.
  • Anal cancer is an uncommon tumor with an incidence of about one case per 100,000 in most countries.
  • Current treatment guidelines include fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography integrated with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) as part of the standard pretreatment workup of patients diagnosed with anal cancer.
  • At diagnosis, FDG-PET/CT is used to evaluate primary tumor size, lymph node status and to evaluate for distant metastases.
  • FDG-PET/CT can also be used for radiation therapy treatment planning by clearly defining sites of metabolically active tumor.
  • FDG-PET/CT is an imaging modality which greatly affects the management of patients with anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19394179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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72. Hirche C, Dresel S, Krempien R, Hünerbein M: Sentinel node biopsy by indocyanine green retention fluorescence detection for inguinal lymph node staging of anal cancer: preliminary experience. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep;17(9):2357-62
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy by indocyanine green retention fluorescence detection for inguinal lymph node staging of anal cancer: preliminary experience.
  • BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy guided by dye injection and/or radioisotopes can improve staging of inguinal lymph nodes (LNs) in anal cancer.
  • This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of fluorescence detection of SLN and lymphatic mapping in anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Twelve patients with anal cancer without evidence for inguinal LN involvement were included in the study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ICG fluorescence imaging allows intraoperative lymphatic mapping and transcutaneous SLN detection for selective biopsy of inguinal SLN in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Indocyanine Green. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 Mar;18(3):901; author reply 902 [20717732.001]
  • (PMID = 20217256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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73. Moran MG, Barkley TW Jr, Hughes CB: Screening and management of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected patients: a guide for practice. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care; 2010 Sep-Oct;21(5):408-16
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  • [Title] Screening and management of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected patients: a guide for practice.
  • People living with HIV infection have a significantly higher rate of anal cancer as compared with that of uninfected people.
  • It is believed that high-grade anal dysplasia secondary to human papillomavirus infection is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • Considering this, screening and treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia is a possible means of preventing the development of anal cancer.
  • No national or international guidelines exist to guide practice for screening and management of anal dysplasia.
  • On the basis of a review of research and expert recommendations, a guide to practice for screening and management of anal dysplasia and anal cancer is made for clinicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20409734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Kidd EA, Dehdashti F, Siegel BA, Grigsby PW: Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):288-91
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  • [Title] Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate anal cancer uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measured as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) by positron emission tomography (PET) and its correlation with prognostic factors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 77 patients with stages 0-IIIB anal cancer who underwent pre-treatment FDG-PET.
  • Tumor histology included 65 squamous cell, 11 basaloid, and 1 small cell cancers.
  • SUV(max) and clinical tumor size were not associated (R(2)=0.338).
  • Higher SUV(max) was associated with an increased risk of nodal metastasis at diagnosis (p<0.0001).
  • Patients with high anal tumor SUV(max) at diagnosis were at an increased risk of persistent or recurrent disease on post-therapy FDG-PET performed less than 4months after completing therapy (p=0.0402).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SUV(max) is a valuable biomarker of anal cancer prognosis, predicting increased risk of lymph node metastasis and worse disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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75. Das P, Cantor SB, Parker CL, Zampieri JB, Baschnagel A, Eng C, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Cancer; 2010 Feb 15;116(4):822-9
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  • [Title] Long-term quality of life after radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with localized squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 80 patients treated with definitive radiotherapy, with or without concurrent chemotherapy, for anal cancer, with a minimum 2-year interval after the completion of radiotherapy.
  • The questionnaire included the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C), the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sexual Problems Scale, and questions regarding demographic characteristics and comorbidities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated with radiotherapy for anal cancer reported acceptable overall QoL scores, but poor sexual function scores.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 20041481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Fraunholz I, Rabeneck D, Weiss C, Rödel C: Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Jul;186(7):361-6
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  • [Title] Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions.
  • BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) is the treatment of choice for anal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT without induction or maintenance chemotherapy remains the standard of care for anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20582392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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77. Tramujas da Costa e Silva I, de Lima Ferreira LC, Santos Gimenez F, Gonçalves Guimarães RA, Botinelly Fujimoto L, Barbosa Cabral CR, Venturim Mozzer R, de Souza Atala L: High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 May;15(5):1470-5
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  • [Title] High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Renal graft recipients are one of the population groups known to be at high risk of developing anal cancer.
  • This study investigated the presence of subclinical anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and the diagnostic ability of high-resolution anoscopy in detecting these lesions in renal graft recipients followed-up in Manaus.
  • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 50 renal graft recipients were interviewed and submitted to high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies of acetowhite lesions or of the anal transition zone mucosa when acetowhitening was absent.
  • Considering the histopathological reports of the examined anal specimens as the gold standard, the diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy were calculated as well as the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population.
  • RESULTS: In 42 renal graft recipients with satisfactory histopathological readings, prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions or condyloma acuminatum (ASIL-ACU) was 23.81%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a prevalence of 23.81% of subclinical ASIL-ACU lesions, the studied renal graft recipients had all these lesions detected by high-resolution anoscopy, notwithstanding most anal transition zone acetowhitened biopsied areas did not reveal histopathological aspects of anal cancer precursor lesions or condyloma acuminatum.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 18299937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Nilsson PJ, Rubio C, Lenander C, Auer G, Glimelius B: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Jun;16(6):893-8
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  • [Title] Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Markers for guidance with regard to individual prognosis and treatment planning are sought in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • This study assessed the prognostic and predictive value of tumour budding.
  • Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody for the gamma2 chain of laminin-5 was used to detect tumour budding (defined as dissociated single cancer cells or clusters of up to five cells).
  • RESULTS: Tumour budding was detected in 104 (50%) of the 209 samples.
  • No significant correlation was found between tumour budding and clinicopathological characteristics.
  • Patients with tumour budding had a statistically significantly better 5-year overall survival rate compared with patients lacking tumour budding (74% versus 64%, P <0.05).
  • Albeit not statistically significant, other outcome variables such as tumour-specific survival, recurrence after initial complete response and rate of distant metastases, were all in favour of patients with tumour budding.
  • Multivariate analysis reveals tumour budding as an independent positive prognostic factor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 immunohistochemistry may be of prognostic value in the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15821121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LAMC2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin
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79. Zagar TM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Aug;24(9):815-23, 828
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: toxicity versus outcomes.
  • The treatment of cancer of the anal canal has changed significantly over the past several decades.
  • Although the abdominoperineal resection (APR) was the historical standard of care, a therapeutic paradigm shift occurred with the seminal work of Nigro, who reported that anal canal cancer could be treated with definitive chemoradiation, with APR reserved for salvage therapy only.
  • With the advent of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), many oncologists are beginning to utilize this technology in the treatment of anal cancer in order to decrease these toxicities while maintaining similar treatment efficacy.
  • This article reviews the relevant literature leading up to the modern treatment of anal canal cancer, and discusses IMRT-related toxicity and disease-related outcomes in the context of outcomes of conventionally treated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Aug;24(9):828, 830-1 [20923036.001]
  • (PMID = 20923035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Czoski-Murray C, Karnon J, Jones R, Smith K, Kinghorn G: Cost-effectiveness of screening high-risk HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-positive women for anal cancer. Health Technol Assess; 2010 Nov;14(53):iii-iv, ix-x, 1-101
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  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness of screening high-risk HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-positive women for anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is uncommon and predominantly a disease of the elderly.
  • Individuals who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive are particularly vulnerable to HPV infections, and increasing numbers from this population present with anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of screening for anal cancer in the high-risk HIV-positive population [in particular, men who have sex with men (MSM), who have been identified as being at greater risk of the disease] by developing a model that incorporates the national screening guidelines criteria.
  • The following electronic bibliographic databases were searched: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), BIOSIS previews (Biological Abstracts), British Nursing Index (BNI), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), NHS Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index (SCI), and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI).
  • Papers that met the inclusion criteria contained the following: data on population incidence, effectiveness of screening, health outcomes or screening and/or treatment costs; defined suitable screening technologies; prospectively evaluated tests to detect anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: The reference case cost-effectiveness model for MSM found that screening for anal cancer is very unlikely to be cost-effective.
  • The negative aspects of screening included utility decrements associated with false-positive results and with treatment for high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN).
  • However, combined with higher regression rates from low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (LG-AIN), the lowest expected incremental cost-effectiveness ratio remained at over 44,000 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.
  • LIMITATIONS: Limited knowledge is available about the epidemiology and natural history of anal cancer, along with a paucity of good-quality evidence concerning the effectiveness of screening.
  • Further studies could assess whether the screening model has underestimated the impact of anal cancer, the results of which may justify an evaluative study of the effects of treatment for HG-AIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / economics. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Mass Screening / economics


81. Charnley N, Choudhury A, Chesser P, Cooper RA, Sebag-Montefiore D: Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 11;92(7):1221-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy.
  • Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is accepted as the standard initial treatment for squamous cell anal cancer.
  • In all, 16 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal or margin and performance status or co-morbidity precluding the use of full-dose CRT were included in this protocol.
  • Patients received a dose of 30 Gy to the gross tumour volume plus 3 cm margin in all directions.
  • This is a well-tolerated regimen for elderly/poor performance patients with anal cancer, which can achieve high rates of local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Frail Elderly

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  • (PMID = 15798772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361984
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82. Widder J, Kastenberger R, Fercher E, Schmid R, Langendijk JA, Dobrowsky W, Pötter R: Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):367-75
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  • [Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyse a large consecutive cohort of patients with anal cancer for treatment-related factors influencing local control and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for primary radiotherapy at Medical University of Vienna in 1990-2002 with anal canal carcinoma without distant metastases were analysed.
  • Patient-, tumour-, and treatment-factors were tested for influence on survival and local control using Cox multivariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results support potential improvement of anal cancer treatment by studying advanced technology such as IMRT, making it possible to tailor high-dose regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18501453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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83. Sunesen KG, Buntzen S, Tei T, Lindegaard JC, Nørgaard M, Laurberg S: Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jan;16(1):68-77
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  • [Title] Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Salvage surgery of recurrent or persistent anal cancer following radiotherapy is often followed by perineal wound complications.
  • We examined survival and perineal wound complications in anal cancer salvage surgery during a 10-year period with primary perineal reconstruction predominantly performed using vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Between 1997 and 2006, 49 patients underwent anal cancer salvage surgery.
  • We conclude that anal cancer salvage surgery can yield long-time survival but obtaining free margins is critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Perineum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectus Abdominis / transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


84. Tougeron D, Tougeron-Brousseau B, Nasser Z, Benzerroug M, Lefebure B, Hamidou H, Michel P, Muraine M: Unusual iris metastasis from anal cancer: a case report. Dig Liver Dis; 2009 Jul;41(7):e1-3
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  • [Title] Unusual iris metastasis from anal cancer: a case report.
  • We report a case of anal cancer with iris metastasis and summarize the iris metastasis literature.
  • A 69 years old woman with a history of anal cancer presented with a visual field loss.
  • Because of worse prognosis of metastatic cancer and any ocular complications, the patient was treated by radiotherapy which allowed a clinical improvement.
  • A review of medical records was performed to assess the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.
  • Anal carcinoma can metastasize to the iris.
  • Radiotherapy allows a good local control of tumour but the prognosis depends on systemic disease which is generally bad.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18294934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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85. Otto SD, Lee L, Buhr HJ, Frericks B, Höcht S, Kroesen AJ: Staging anal cancer: prospective comparison of transanal endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Jul;13(7):1292-8
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  • [Title] Staging anal cancer: prospective comparison of transanal endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • PURPOSE: The staging of anal cancer is extremely important for therapy and prognosis.
  • The aim of this prospective comparative study is to evaluate whether tumor staging is concordant between these techniques.
  • METHODS: Forty-five anal cancer patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The two test methods were compared with the kappa concordance index and sensitivity for the initial method of tumor detection was calculated.
  • For six patients who were operated upon because of tumor progression, the results were evaluated against the histological tumor stage.
  • RESULTS: High concordance was found in the assessment of tumor size and nodal status (kappa index 0.63 and 0.77).
  • Cancer patients were correctly identified with 100% sensitivity (45/45) by endoscopic ultrasound and with 88.9% (40/45) sensitivity by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Endosonography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19365694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. de Bree E, van Ruth S, Dewit LG, Zoetmulder FA: High risk of colostomy with primary radiotherapy for anal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Jan;14(1):100-8
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  • [Title] High risk of colostomy with primary radiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) has become the primary treatment of choice for anal cancer in an effort to avoid colostomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In approximately one-third of the patients treated by anal sphincter saving management with curative aimed primary RT, the creation of a colostomy appeared to be necessary for RT complications and local treatment failure.
  • Therefore, patients should be well informed regarding the considerable risk of need for colostomy after RT for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Colostomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17066231.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Mistrangelo M, Pelosi E, Bellò M, Castellano I, Cassoni P, Ricardi U, Munoz F, Racca P, Contu V, Beltramo G, Morino M, Mussa A: Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 May 1;77(1):73-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19632066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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88. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Tumour size was the main factor driving outcomes, especially survival.
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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89. Borzomati D, Valeri S, Ripetti V, Vincenzi B, Rabitti C, Persichetti P, Valentini V, Trodella L, Caricato M, Coppola R: Persisting perianal ulcer after radiotherapy for anal cancer: recurrence of disease or late radiation-related complication? Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 May-Jun;52(63):780-4
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  • [Title] Persisting perianal ulcer after radiotherapy for anal cancer: recurrence of disease or late radiation-related complication?
  • We report the case of a 47-year-old HIV-negative male affected by a perianal ulcer which occurred after chemoradiation delivered for anal cancer.
  • Uncontrollable pain and anal stenosis were also present; abdominoperineal resection with a large excision of perianal tissues and reconstruction with bilateral musculocutaneous gracilis flaps was therefore performed.
  • Histology did not confirm tumor recurrence.
  • The introduction of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of anal cancer, avoiding demolitive surgery in a large subset of patients.
  • Radionecrosis is an uncommon but potentially devastating event occurring in up to 10% of patients undergoing radiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • It causes clinical (pain, anal stenosis, mucositis and diarrhea) and diagnostic problems (recurrence vs. benign post-attinic lesion).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Perineum / radiation effects. Radiodermatitis / diagnosis. Ulcer / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 15966204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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90. Devisetty K, Mell LK, Salama JK, Schomas DA, Miller RC, Jani AB, Roeske JC, Aydogan B, Chmura SJ: A multi-institutional acute gastrointestinal toxicity analysis of anal cancer patients treated with concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and chemotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Nov;93(2):298-301
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  • [Title] A multi-institutional acute gastrointestinal toxicity analysis of anal cancer patients treated with concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and chemotherapy.
  • Using previous dosimetric analysis methods, we identified the volume of bowel receiving 30 Gy (V(30)) correlated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in anal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Gastrointestinal Tract / drug effects. Gastrointestinal Tract / radiation effects. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19717198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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91. Nilsson PJ, Lenander C, Rubio C, Auer G, Ljungqvist O, Glimelius B: Prognostic significance of Cyclin A in epidermoid anal cancer. Oncol Rep; 2006 Sep;16(3):443-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of Cyclin A in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • Ultimately aiming at a more individualized therapeutic approach in epidermoid anal cancer, this study explored the prognostic and predictive impact of a set of tumour markers.
  • From a population-based cohort of 276 patients with epidermoid anal cancer, treated according to prospective protocols, 215 pre-treatment biopsies were investigated using immunohistochemistry.
  • The expression rate was classified as high when immunostaining was seen in > 5% of the tumour cells for p53 and p21, > 20% in Cyclin A and, above median vessel count for CD31.
  • A high Cyclin A expression correlated significantly with improved overall (77% vs 59%, p = 0.005) and tumour-specific (81% vs 64%, p = 0.009) survival at 5 years.
  • Cyclin A may be an indicator of radiosensitivity and a valuable prognostic marker in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD31 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16865241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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92. Lampinen TM, Miller ML, Chan K, Anema A, van Niekerk D, Schilder AJ, Taylor R, Hogg RS: Randomized clinical evaluation of self-screening for anal cancer precursors in men who have sex with men. Cytojournal; 2006;3:4
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  • [Title] Randomized clinical evaluation of self-screening for anal cancer precursors in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Self-collection of anorectal swab specimens could greatly facilitate the completion of prerequisite studies and future implementation of anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Among 12 men with biopsy-confirmed high-grade neoplasia, most had abnormal cytological results (including 6 patient and 9 clinician swabs) but few (2 patient and 1 clinician swab) were high-grade.

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  • (PMID = 16549010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1435770
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93. Trautmann TG, Zuger JH: Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal. Mol Imaging Biol; 2005 Jul-Aug;7(4):309-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron Emission Tomography for pretreatment staging and posttreatment evaluation in cancer of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: In recent years, combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy and radiation has replaced surgery as the preferred treatment for cancer of the anal canal.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From September 1999 to August 2002, 21 patients with cancer of the anal canal were studied prospectively.
  • Nine patients had minimal residual PET activity at the primary site on the one-month follow-up PET study, but only three of these subsequently developed local recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET, in conjunction with CT scanning, provides additional staging information in cancer of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16028002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Tarasov VA, Larin IA, Sharov IuK, Bogdanovich AS, Litvinov AIu: [Use of high-energy intraluminal brachytherapy in radio- and radiochemotherapy for anal cancer]. Vopr Onkol; 2010;56(3):307-11
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  • [Title] [Use of high-energy intraluminal brachytherapy in radio- and radiochemotherapy for anal cancer].
  • Complete local response to radio- and chemoradiation for anal cancer was improved due to use of high-energy dosage of intraluminal brachytherapy (complete clinical regression (chemoradiation)--85.7%; combined irradiaton--75%).
  • No signs of tumor progression have been reported in 20 survivors (median duration--21.6 months) (mean recurrence-free survival--12.5 months).
  • Intrapelvic lymph nodes were involved in 2 cases of previously morphologically confirmed regression of primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colostomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Pilot Projects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20804052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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95. Roldán GB, Chan AK, Buckner M, Magliocco AM, Doll CM: The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2010 Aug;53(8):1127-34
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of hemoglobin in patients with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of hemoglobin level on clinical outcome (local response, progression-free survival, and overall survival) in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with anal cancer treated between 1992 and 2005 with definitive chemoradiotherapy at Tom Baker Cancer Centre.
  • The median age was 56 years, the male-to-female ratio was 1:2, and the median tumor size was 3.5 cm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin status was correlated with progression-free and overall survival, and distant relapse, but not clinical response, in patients with carcinoma of the anal canal treated with chemoradiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / blood. Hemoglobins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20628275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Hemoglobins
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96. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 20442633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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97. Milano MT, Jani AB, Farrey KJ, Rash C, Heimann R, Chmura SJ: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of anal cancer: toxicity and clinical outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):354-61
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of anal cancer: toxicity and clinical outcome.
  • PURPOSE: To assess survival, local control, and toxicity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this hypothesis-generating analysis, the acute toxicity and clinical outcome with IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer is encouraging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 16168830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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98. Stieler F, Wolff D, Lohr F, Steil V, Abo-Madyan Y, Lorenz F, Wenz F, Mai S: A fast radiotherapy paradigm for anal cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Radiat Oncol; 2009;4:48
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  • [Title] A fast radiotherapy paradigm for anal cancer with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT).
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) volumes for anal cancer are large and of moderate complexity when organs at risk (OAR) such as testis, small bowel and bladder are at least partially to be shielded.
  • Volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy (VMAT) might provide OAR-shielding comparable to step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for this tumor entity with better treatment efficiency.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on treatment planning CTs of 8 patients, we compared dose distributions, comformality index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), number of monitor units (MU) and treatment time (TTT) for plans generated for VMAT, 3D-CRT and step-and-shoot-IMRT (optimized based on Pencil Beam (PB) or Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation) for typical anal cancer planning target volumes (PTV) including inguinal lymph nodes as usually treated during the first phase (0-36 Gy) of a shrinking field regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 19852856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2774855
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99. Janssen S, Meier zu Eissen J, Kolbert G, Bremer M, Karstens JH, Meyer A: Anal cancer treated with radio-chemotherapy: correlation between length of treatment interruption and outcome. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2009 Dec;24(12):1421-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer treated with radio-chemotherapy: correlation between length of treatment interruption and outcome.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the feasibility and outcome of definitive radio-chemotherapy without split-course technique but with individualised short treatment interruption in anal cancer patients.
  • METHOD: Between 1993 and 2008, 101 patients with anal cancer were treated in our institution with definitive radio-chemotherapy with individualised short treatment interruptions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19649642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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100. Ramamoorthy S, Luo L, Luo E, Carethers JM: Tobacco smoking and risk of recurrence for squamous cell cancer of the anus. Cancer Detect Prev; 2008;32(2):116-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tobacco smoking and risk of recurrence for squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • OBJECTIVE: Squamous cell cancer of the anus is associated with multiple risk factors, including infection with human papillomavirus, immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and tobacco smoking, although there is little data on these factors for the prediction of recurrent disease.
  • Here, we evaluated the risk of recurrence and mortality of anal carcinoma in association with tobacco smoking.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of cases of anal carcinoma from two local hospitals.
  • We obtained information on treatment response and cancer recurrence, as well as tobacco usage from medical records.
  • RESULTS: We identified 64 patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus, and 34 of these (53%) had a tobacco smoking history.
  • Current smokers had higher carcinoma recurrence rates (11/34, 32%) than non-smokers (6/30, 20%).
  • Overall mortality was 33% (21/64), and cancer-related mortality was 23% (15/64).
  • Smokers were more likely to die from recurrence than non-smokers, with 45% of smokers dead compared to only 20% of non-smokers by 5 years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking appears to be associated with anal carcinoma disease recurrence, and is related to increased mortality.
  • This data suggests that patients should be cautioned about tobacco smoking once a diagnosis of anal carcinoma is made in attempt to improve their long-term outcome.

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  • (PMID = 18639388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1500
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK067287; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK080506; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK067287-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK080506-01; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK067287-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS209533; NLM/ PMC3427794
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