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1. Aigner F, Boeckle E, Albright J, Kilo J, Boesmueller C, Conrad F, Wiesmayr S, Antretter H, Margreiter R, Mark W, Bonatti H: Malignancies of the colorectum and anus in solid organ recipients. Transpl Int; 2007 Jun;20(6):497-504
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  • [Title] Malignancies of the colorectum and anus in solid organ recipients.
  • A total of 3595 SOTs were performed between 1986 and 2005 at our center and retrospectively analyzed with regard to the incidence and course of malignancies of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • Colorectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in nine patients (0.25%; mean age at diagnosis 65 years) at a mean of 5.3 years after transplantation.
  • Five patients (55%) died 7.2 years post-transplant due to cardiovascular disease (n = 4) and tumor progression (n = 1).
  • Four patients developed anal neoplasia (0.11%) 7 years post-transplant with 100% 1-year survival.
  • The incidence of anal but not of colorectal cancers in our transplant recipients differed from that of immunocompetent individuals of corresponding age (0.11% vs. 0.002% and 0.25% vs. 0.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Organ Transplantation. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 17343685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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2. Scarpini C, White V, Muralidhar B, Patterson A, Hickey N, Singh N, Mullerat J, Winslet M, Davies RJ, Phillips ML, Stacey P, Laskey RA, Miller R, Nathan M, Coleman N: Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Oct;17(10):2855-64
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  • [Title] Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins.
  • PURPOSE: Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by screening will improve clinical outcome.
  • Assessment of anal cytology samples using routine Papanicolaou testing suffers from shortcomings in sensitivity and/or specificity, suggesting that screening tests based on biomarkers may be of value.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook an initial immunohistochemical study of 54 anal tissue samples and validated our findings using an independent prospective cohort study of 235 anal cytology samples from 144 subjects.
  • RESULTS: In the progression from normal anal epithelium through AIN to SCC, there was increasing expression of MCM2 and MCM5, including in the superficial epithelial third, the source of the majority of cells collected by anal swab.
  • By immunocytochemistry using a mixture of anti-MCM2 and anti-MCM5 antibodies, immunopositive cells were readily identified in anal cytology samples, even at low magnification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs are promising biomarkers for improving detection of AIN and SCC in anal cytology samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18843031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MRC/ MC/ U105359878; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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3. Duensing A, Chin A, Wang L, Kuan SF, Duensing S: Analysis of centrosome overduplication in correlation to cell division errors in high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal neoplasms. Virology; 2008 Mar 1;372(1):157-64
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  • [Title] Analysis of centrosome overduplication in correlation to cell division errors in high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal neoplasms.
  • High-risk HPV-associated anal neoplasms are difficult to treat and biomarkers of malignant progression are needed.
  • However, a detailed analysis of centrosome overduplication in primary HPV-associated neoplasms has not been performed so far.
  • Here, we determined the frequency of centrosome overduplication in HPV-associated anal lesions using a recently identified marker for mature maternal centrioles, Cep170.
  • Remarkably, centrosome overduplication, but not aberrant centrosome numbers per se or centrosome accumulation, correlated significantly with the presence of cell division errors.
  • In addition, our experiments revealed that in particular pseudo-bipolar mitoses may play a role in the propagation of chromosomal instability in high-risk HPV-associated tumors.
  • These results provide new insights into the role of centrosome aberrations in cell division errors and encourage further studies on centrosome overduplication as a predictive biomarker of malignant progression in HPV-associated anal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18036631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112598-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112598; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 112598; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112598-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cep170 protein, human; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Tubulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS38243; NLM/ PMC2267749
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4. Galanis I, Dragoumis D, Tsolakis M, Zarampoukas K, Zarampoukas T, Atmatzidis K: Obstructive ileus due to a giant fibroepithelial polyp of the anus. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Aug 7;15(29):3687-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Obstructive ileus due to a giant fibroepithelial polyp of the anus.
  • Fibroepithelial polyps or hypertrophied anal papillae are essentially skin tags that project up from the dentate line and the junction between the skin and the epithelial lining of the anus.
  • An extremely rare case of a giant hypertrophied anal papilla complicated by obstructive ileus is reported.
  • Fibroepithelial anal polyp, despite its size, should be included in the differential diagnosis of a smooth mass located near the anal verge, especially in a patient with a history of chronic anal irritation or infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Ileus / etiology. Intestinal Polyps / complications. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19653351.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721247
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5. Brewster DH, Bhatti LA: Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jul 3;95(1):87-90
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  • [Title] Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002.
  • In Scotland, since 1975-1979 (world) age-standardised incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus has more than doubled, reaching 0.37 per 100,000 in males and 0.55 in females during 1998-2002, being somewhat higher in socioeconomically deprived areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16721368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360500
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6. Marin-Muller C, Li M, Chen C, Yao Q: Current understanding and potential immunotherapy for HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). World J Surg; 2009 Apr;33(4):653-60
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  • [Title] Current understanding and potential immunotherapy for HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare disease in the average population but is an increasing concern among immunocompromised individuals, such as the HIV-seropositive.
  • HPV infection is difficult to clear with a compromised immune system, which results in a greater risk of tumor development and a more aggressive progression of the disease.
  • The recent approval of a prophylactic HPV vaccine for cervical cancer has sparked an interest in a search for improved immunotherapeutic multimodality therapies to combat anogenital tumors associated with the virus.
  • In this review, we discuss the known mechanisms of action of HIV-associated SCCA, examine the current treatments for the disease, and focus on the potential of an immunotherapeutic vaccine approach for both prophylactic and therapeutic application.

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  • (PMID = 19052810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132572-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R13 CA132572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R13 CA132572-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AIDS Vaccines; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 18; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Repressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 86
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS227649; NLM/ PMC2924142
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7. Vajdic CM, Anderson JS, Hillman RJ, Medley G, Grulich AE: Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Oct;81(5):415-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Anal cytology smears are either collected "blind" (swab inserted 4 cm into anal canal and rotated) or guided through an anoscope (transformation zone visualised and then sampled).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blind cytology smears are superior to anoscope guided smears for screening for anal neoplasia in homosexual men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Homosexuality, Male. Proctoscopy / methods. Specimen Handling / methods

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  • (PMID = 16199742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1745038
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8. Baatrup G, Bolstad M, Mortensen JH: Rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI are not interchangeable in determining the position of rectal cancers. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1169-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE:. 1) To analyse for interchangeability of rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI in determining the distance from anus to tumour, and to determine if anterior/posterior location influences this difference.
  • 2) To analyse the effect of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy on the distance from anus to tumour.
  • RESULTS: The mean distance from the anal verge to the tumour measured by sigmoidoscopy was 82mm and by MRI 61mm (p<0.01).
  • The length of the tumours decreased by 16mm after neoadjuvant treatment, but the distance from tumour to anus increased by only 4mm. CONCLUSION:.
  • 1) MRI and sigmoidoscopy are not interchangeable in determining the distance from anus to tumour simply by correcting for the length of the anal canal.
  • 2) The gain in tumour free distance above the anus induced by neoadjuvant treatment is small.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoidoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19249188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Hosono S, Ohira M, Maeda K, Muguruma K, Nishihara T, Inoue T, Yashiro M, Hirakawa K: Synchronous adenocarcinomas of the ileum and transverse colon detected by capsule endoscopy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(7):663-5
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  • Neither gastrointestinal endoscopy nor computed tomography showed by abnormal findings; however, a capsule endoscopy, performed to detect obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, revealed a tumor in the ileum.
  • When we tried to take biopsies of the ileal tumor by push enteroscopy via the anus, we found another tumor in the transverse colon.
  • On exploration, tumors were identified in the ileum and the transverse colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Capsule Endoscopy. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16794807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Sueda K, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Omiya H, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2656-8
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  • [Title] [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus].
  • He presented with an anal tumor with bilateral inguinal nodal metastasis and pain in the anus; the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIIb (cA1N2M0).
  • However, CT performed 2 years after the diagnosis showed a recurrence in the hilar and mediastinal lymph node.
  • However, the treatment response was graded as progressive disease, and the treatment was changed from CDDP to mitomycin C (MMC).
  • The patient developed non-hematologic toxicity and died within 3 years of the diagnosis.
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus with associated HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


11. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus and anal neoplasia. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2008 May;5(2):78-85
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal neoplasia.
  • Anal cancer is a rare disease in the general population, but the incidence of anal cancer is higher in certain at-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), and immunosuppressed individuals, including those with HIV infection.
  • Among HIV-positive MSM, the incidence of anal cancer may be as high as 10 times greater than current rates of cervical cancer in the general population of women.
  • Anal cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may be preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN).
  • HGAIN and anal HPV infection are both highly prevalent in groups at risk for anal cancer.
  • Current issues include determining the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HGAIN and the incidence of anal cancer, optimizing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to HGAIN, and determining the potential for prophylactic HPV vaccines to prevent anal HPV infection and anal cancer in at-risk groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 18510893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3568
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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12. Divis P, Vlcek P, Capov I, Divisová K, Katolická J, Vanícek J, Kotulánová E: [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):421-7
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment].
  • The aim of the study was to compare the tumour volume reduction before and after the oncological therapy in relation to the change in the CEA value and to the outcome of the histopathological evaluation of response to the treatment.
  • The tumour volume before and after the CRT, percentage reduction in the tumour volume and the relation to the change in the CAE value and the histopathological evaluation were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The distance between the anus and the tumour was from 3 to 15 centimetres, the average value being 8.1 centimetres.
  • In 5 cases the tumour was not histologically found in the resected specimen.
  • The average tumour volume before CRT was 32.48, range 10.3-88.5, after the CRT the average volume was 20.13, range 4.7-55.1.
  • This relation however has not been proved in the N value change.
  • Only in one-third of the evaluated patients was there a positive change in both T and N classification.
  • No relation between the CEA value and the tumour volume change has been proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 21351419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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13. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • In this article different tumors and management of each, including a brief review of local excision for rectal cancer, are discussed in turn.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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14. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Manzione CR, Horta SC, Ferreira AF, Almeida LV: Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Dec;48(12):2289-93
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  • [Title] Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases.
  • The analysis of our patients suggests that herpes simplex virus, Types 1 and 2, may cause verrucous lesions simulating neoplasia in patients with AIDS using antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Herpes Simplex / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence


15. von Knebel Doeberitz M, Reuschenbach M: [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):13-20
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  • [Title] [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus].
  • [Transliterated title] Humane Papillomviren in der Pathogenese der intraepithelialen Neoplasien (AIN) und Karzinome des Anus.
  • HPV infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • (PMID = 20033115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Allal AS, Bründler MA, Gervaz P: Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Mar;20(2):161-4
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  • [Title] Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Histologically, tumors of the anal region are either keratinizing (K) or non-keratinizing (NK) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCA).
  • METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on 98 pre-treatment biopsies of patients with anal canal cancers.
  • Expression of p53 and Bcl-2 was considered positive when >5% of tumor cells were stained.
  • Tumor histology was correlated with protein expression as well as with other clinical variables.
  • The proportion of Bcl-2 positive tumors was statistically higher in NK carcinomas (51.5 vs. 23.5%, p=0.009).
  • In addition, women were more likely than men to present with NK carcinomas (71 vs. 45%, p=0.03) as well as with Bcl-2 positive tumors (47 vs. 29%, p=0.05).
  • The more distal the tumor is (anal margin), the more frequently the keratinizing subtype is observed (87 vs. 23%, p=0.0002).
  • By contrast, there was no correlation between p53 and tumor histology (p=0.83).
  • In addition, significant differences were observed in the distribution of these two histological subtypes according to gender and tumor sublocation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15688099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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17. Cuffy M, Abir F, Longo WE: Management of less common tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2006 Jan;5(5):327-37
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  • [Title] Management of less common tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • The majority of colorectal and anal malignancies are adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cancers, respectively.
  • Despite the predominance of these neoplasms in these locations, rare histiotypes of the colon, rectum, and anus do occur.
  • These tumors often present challenges to clinicians with respect to diagnosis, staging, management, and pathology because of their unfamiliarity.
  • A Medline search using "colon," "rectum,""anus," "lymphoma," "melanoma," "diffuse cavernous hemangioma," "squamous cell carcinoma," "carcinoid," "sarcoma," "leiomyosarcoma," "Kaposi's sarcoma," "Paget's disease," "Bowen's disease," and "basal cell carcinoma" as key words was performed as well as a cross-referencing of the bibliography cited in each work.
  • Rare tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus present diagnostic and management dilemmas for clinicians.
  • Because of their infrequency and poor prognosis, the optimal management of these tumors is controversial.
  • For some histotypes, such as squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoids of the rectum, treatment depends on location and size of the tumor.
  • For uncommon anal lesions, such as Bowen's disease, Paget's disease, and basal cell carcinoma, wide local excision (WLE) with negative margins is the standard of care.
  • Because the optimal treatment of these tumors is still unclear, we recommend a multidisciplinary approach including a surgeon, primary care physician, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and pathologist to offer the patient the best outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16512991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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18. Zhuang CP, Cai GY, Li TH, Wang YQ, Chen WR: [Efficacy evaluation of intersphincteric resection during anus-preserving operation for ultralow rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jul;12(4):364-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Efficacy evaluation of intersphincteric resection during anus-preserving operation for ultralow rectal carcinoma].
  • METHODS: From January 2004 to August 2007, 30 patients with ultralow rectal carcinoma(2.5-4.0 cm distance from anal edge) underwent ISR.
  • The postoperative anal function was evaluated by Williams continence standard and the treatment outcome was followed up.
  • RESULTS: After ISR operation, anal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure and maximum tolerance volume of the rectum decreased significantly (all P<0.01) and restored gradually, but not to normal.
  • The rectal anal inhibitory reflex disappeared in 27 patients(90.0%) and was not improved.
  • According to Williams continence standard, 86.7%, 93.3% and 96.7% of patients obtained acceptable anal function in 3, 6, and 12 months after operation respectively.
  • Fecal eczema of anus occurred in 10 patients, colonic mucosa prolapse in 2 patients and stenosis of anal canal in one patient.
  • CONCLUSION: ISR for ultralow rectal carcinoma can not only attain radical treatment outcome, but also preserve anal sphincter.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19598020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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19. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


20. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: High-resolution anoscopy is colposcopy of the anus after applying 3 percent acetic acid.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Zuo ZG, Song HY, Xu C, Li J, Ni SC, Chen SQ: [Combination of trans-anal intersphincteric resection and trans-abdominal total mesorectal excision for anus-retained ultra-low rectal tumors]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Jul 1;47(13):988-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Combination of trans-anal intersphincteric resection and trans-abdominal total mesorectal excision for anus-retained ultra-low rectal tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the combination of trans-anal intersphincteric resection and transabdominal total mesorectal excision for anus-retained ultra-low rectal tumors.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 34 ultra-low rectal tumor patients without external anal sphincter involved, who underwent the combination surgery, were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The distance from the distal incisal margin of the rectum to the inferior margin of the tumor ranged from 1.8 cm to 3.0 cm on an average of 2.1 cm.
  • For pathological types, there were 23 cases of adenocarcinoma (9 well differentiated and 14 moderately differentiated), 1 papillary carcinoma, 2 rectal stromal tumor, 5 rectal villous adenoma with neoplasia and 3 giant villous adenoma.
  • Because of the dysfunction of bowel control, bowel frequency varied from 3 to 12 in the early stage after operation, but with the recovery of anus function, bowel frequency decreased and ranged form 1 to 5 times a day and the time of formed bowel control could be more than 5 min in 6-12 months after operation.
  • However, patients underwent total resection of internal anal sphincter still suffered from incontinence of loose stool after 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of trans-anal ISR and trans-abdominal TME for anus-retained ultra low rectal tumor is not only coincident with radical tumor principle but also retains the function of anus, on the premise of the strict indication.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Mesentery / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19957808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Cassoni P, Castellano I, Maass J, Martina MC, Bellò M, Mussa A: [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S29-30
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  • [Title] [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma verrucoso dell'ano o tumore di buschke-lowenstein dell'ano: stadiazione e trattamento presentazione di 3 casi.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant condyloma acuminatum or Buschke Lowenstein tumor of the anorectal and perianal regions is an uncommon entity that commonly affects genitalia.
  • The hallmark of the disease is the high rate of recurrence (66%) and malignant transformation (56%).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: At the Oncological Surgical Department, University of Turin, three patients were diagnosed with a Buschke Lowenstein tumor.
  • In one case we observed a late anal stenosis treated with local dilatations.
  • One patient with a small persistence of the disease was treated with cryotherapy.
  • All inguinal nodes revealed negative to definitive histological exam, that confirmed the diagnosis of Buschke Lowenstein tumor of the primary lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Buschke Lowenstein tumors are rare but extensive lesions difficult to treat.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16437884.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Bass G, O'Mahony CA, Smith R, Dennison MS, Goss JA: Biliary epithelial metastasis of squamous carcinoma of the anus. Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Dec;179(4):605-6
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  • [Title] Biliary epithelial metastasis of squamous carcinoma of the anus.
  • INTRODUCTION: The liver and biliary tree are common sites of initial metastasis for many primary tumors.
  • However, we recently encountered a patient who presented with biliary-tree tumor encasement as a first metastasis from squamous carcinoma of the anus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As obstructive jaundice is a relatively common presenting sign in the emergency room and in general surgical clinics, we thus recommend early consideration of metastatic disease as a differential diagnosis in patients post-chemoradiotherapy for anal carcinoma who present with obstructive jaundice.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms. Dilatation, Pathologic. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Jejunostomy. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Ducts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20734157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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24. Raghunathan G, Mortele KJ: Magnetic resonance imaging of anorectal neoplasms. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Apr;7(4):379-88
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of anorectal neoplasms.
  • With its superior contrast resolution, multiplanar imaging capability, and nil radiation risk, it has become the standard preoperative imaging tool in rectal tumors.
  • Because rectal adenocarcinomas constitute the majority of tumors in this region, we will be discussing the input of MRI in the management of this condition in greater detail.
  • This will be followed by an overview of MRI in anal carcinoma and other less common anorectal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19340959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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25. Albright JB, Bonatti H, Stauffer J, Dickson RC, Nguyen J, Harnois D, Jeanpierre C, Hinder R, Steers J, Chua H, Aranda-Michel J: Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7):657-66
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  • [Title] Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease.
  • Data on neoplasms of the colon, rectum and anus in LT are limited.
  • METHOD: A retrospective evaluation of the incidence and clinical course of colorectal and anal malignancies and colonic polyps in a series of 467 consecutive LTs in 402 individuals between 1998 and 2001 was performed.
  • RESULTS: During a median follow up of 5.2 years, three colon adenocarcinomas, one EBV associated cecal posttransplant lymphoproliferative tumour and two HPV associated anal tumours were identified.
  • Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a significantly higher rate of adenoma formation (50.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001).
  • No patient died from colorectal/anal malignancy.
  • Viral-associated malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and anal cancer, are important entities in the LT population suggesting that complete screening of the colon, rectum and anus including pre-LT and post-LT colonoscopy should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19508543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Herat A, Whitfeld M, Hillman R: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;48(3):143-53; quiz 154-5
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be a precursor lesion of invasive anal cancer.
  • Human papillomaviruses are considered to be an important aetiological agent in both anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
  • Dermatologists are likely to encounter these conditions among the differential diagnoses to be considered in high-risk patients presenting with perianal and anal lesions.
  • Anal cancer rates are also increasing among the HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected population.
  • The successful treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may reduce the risk of subsequent development of anal cancer.
  • However, current therapies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia may be associated with treatment-related morbidity and are not well validated.
  • It is currently not proven that they reduce the likelihood of the development of anal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia is being advocated for high-risk groups and may become standard dermatological care for these patients.
  • In view of recent developments in the understanding of this condition, this article reviews the current understanding of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment from a dermatological perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17680964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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27. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Bellò M, Beltramo G, Cassoni P, Mussa A: [The technique of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with anus neoplasm]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S32-3
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  • [Title] [The technique of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with anus neoplasm].
  • [Transliterated title] La tecnica del linfonodo sentinella nei pazienti affetti da neoplasia dell'ano.
  • Anal cancer is a rare neoplasm, representing 1-2% of all large bowel cancers.
  • In order to assess inguinal lymph node status we applied the sentinel node technique to patients affected by anal cancer.
  • Considering the strong correlation between prognosis and node involvement, we consider this technique an important and simple method for evaluating the lymph node status and for an adequate pre-treatment staging of anal carcinoma. fundamental in the choice of radiation plane.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16437886.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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28. Meyer JJ, Willett CG, Czito BG: Emerging role of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in anorectal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Apr;8(4):585-93
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  • Although radiation therapy has an established role to play in the management of rectal and anal tumors, there are often treatment-related morbidities that negatively impact on patients.
  • It has been implemented in the treatment of prostate and head and neck tumors with success.
  • This article reviews the rationale for its use in treating anorectal tumors and discusses early clinical data supporting its continued investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18402525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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29. Buchs NC, Allal AS, Morel P, Gervaz P: Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2009 Apr;9(4):483-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer.
  • Management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) has remained virtually unchanged since the 1980s.
  • By contrast, the demographics of SCCA are evolving, with the emergence of a high-risk group of patients: HIV-positive male homosexuals are prone to develop anal intra-epithelial neoplasia and rapidly progress towards invasive SCCA.
  • By many aspects, anal cancer is similar to uterine cervix cancer - a sexually transmitted disease driven by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

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  • (PMID = 19374601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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30. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: At the end of RT with concomitant chemotherapy local tumor clinical complete response rate was 83%.
  • Out of 5 local tumor relapses, 3 were salvaged with APR.
  • The overall local tumor control (LC) rate with or without salvage local treatment were 88%.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • The 5-year disease-free survival was 75%.
  • After multivariate analysis, 2 independent predicting factors significantly influenced the disease-free survival: HIV-positive pts (negative vs positive, P=0.032) and clinical tumor response after the first course of radiotherapy (<50% vs >or=50%, P=0.00032).
  • Late severe complication was observed in 3 pts: 2 pts with painful necrosis of the anus requiring colostomy and 1 pt with grade 3 rectal bleeding.
  • The clinical tumor response after the first course of RT and concomitant chemotherapy is probably the most important predictive factor on the disease-free survival.
  • For patients with T3 or T4 lesion and tumor regression <or=50% after the first course of radiation therapy, surgical non conservative treatment should be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Zhong J, Zhou JN, Xu FP, Shang JQ: [Diagnosis and treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma--a report of 22 cases with literature review]. Ai Zheng; 2006 May;25(5):619-24
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of anorectal malignant melanoma--a report of 22 cases with literature review].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Anorectal malignant melanoma (AMM) is an aggressive malignant tumor, and its treatment still remains controversial.
  • This study was to summarize our experience on diagnosis and treatment of AMM.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathologic records, including clinical feature, diagnosis, operation patterns, and prognosis, of 22 patients with AMM, treated in Jiangsu Provincial Cancer Hospital from 1977 to 2003, were analyzed retrospectively with literature review.
  • RESULTS: The 22 patients with AMM accounted for 0.04% of all the patients diagnosed as malignant tumors of large bowel simultaneously in our hospital.
  • The most common complaints of AMM patients were hematochezia (86%), anus pain or discomfort (59%), local mass (27%), and so on.
  • The definite pathologic diagnosis rate before surgery was 48%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AMM is a rare disease with poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colostomy. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhoids / diagnosis. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectum / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16687086.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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32. Anand BS, Verstovsek G, Cole G: Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar 21;12(11):1780-1
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  • [Title] Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report.
  • Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma.
  • We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis.
  • Examination revealed a 4 cm friable mass attached to the anus by a stalk.
  • Microscopic examination revealed a tubulovillus adenoma with no areas of high grade dysplasia or malignant transformation.
  • The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor.
  • We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus.
  • Although seen rarely, it is important to recognize and treat these tumors at an early stage because of their potential to transform into adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1988 Sep 1;319(9):525-32 [2841597.001]
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  • (PMID = 16586552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124358
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33. Ben-Josef E, Moughan J, Ajani JA, Flam M, Gunderson L, Pollock J, Myerson R, Anne R, Rosenthal SA, Willett C: Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec 1;28(34):5061-6
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  • [Title] Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether increased duration of radiation therapy (RT) and overall treatment (RX) time has a detrimental effect in anal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Total treatment time, but not duration of radiation therapy, seems to have a detrimental effect on local failure and colostomy rate in anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20956625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018356
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34. Zhang Y, Jorda M, Goldblum JR: Perianal mammary-type myofibroblastoma. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Oct;14(5):358-60
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  • Microscopically, the neoplasm was composed of bland spindled cells generally arranged into short fascicles with abundant myxoid stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Desmin
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35. Fraunholz I, Rabeneck D, Weiss C, Rödel C: Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Jul;186(7):361-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions.
  • BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) is the treatment of choice for anal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT without induction or maintenance chemotherapy remains the standard of care for anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20582392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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36. Hatanaka K, Tanimoto A, Umekita Y, Yoshioka T, Kanekura T: Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report.
  • A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported.
  • A dermal cystic lesion developed in the region between the anus and scrotum of a 74-year-old Japanese male.
  • Immunohistochemical examination showed that the luminal cells were partially positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and human milk fat globulin 1, and the basal myoepithelial cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein.
  • Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Perineum / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 20576161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2907321
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37. Klint A, Engholm G, Storm HH, Tryggvadóttir L, Gislum M, Hakulinen T, Bray F: Trends in survival of patients diagnosed with cancer of the digestive organs in the Nordic countries 1964-2003 followed up to the end of 2006. Acta Oncol; 2010 Jun;49(5):578-607

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cancers of the digestive organs (including the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas) constitute one-fifth of all cancer cases in the Nordic countries and is a group of diseases with diverse time trends and varying consequences for public health.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were retrieved from the NORDCAN database for the period 1964 to 2003, grouped into eight 5-year periods of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / mortality. Denmark / epidemiology. Environmental Exposure. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Intestinal Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Male. Middle Aged. Mortality / trends. Norway / epidemiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / mortality. Registries. Risk Factors. Sedentary Lifestyle. Sex Distribution. Smoking / adverse effects. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate / trends. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20491524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Van Damme N, Deron P, Van Roy N, Demetter P, Bols A, Van Dorpe J, Baert F, Van Laethem JL, Speleman F, Pauwels P, Peeters M: Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:189
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used.
  • For the K-RAS gene, PCR was performed using exon 2 specific primers.
  • RESULTS: EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas.
  • EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours.From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21.
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were absent from squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and tonsils, but EGFR protein expression was detected in the majority of the cases.
  • EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas.
  • In our investigated panel, only one mutation in the K-RAS gene of a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma was identified.
  • This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not useful as a screening test for sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy in anal canal and tonsil squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Tonsillar Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / chemistry. Anal Canal / pathology. Base Sequence. Belgium. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20459770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887399
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39. McBride KR, Fortenberry JD: Heterosexual anal sexuality and anal sex behaviors: a review. J Sex Res; 2010 Mar;47(2):123-36

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Heterosexual anal sexuality and anal sex behaviors: a review.
  • Little research addresses the role of anal sexuality and anal sexual behaviors as a widely practiced but relatively less frequent element of a heterosexual sexual repertoire.
  • However, the importance of anal sex in sexual health is increasingly well-defined by epidemiological and clinical studies.
  • This article reviews existing data on a range of heterosexual anal sex practices and provides conceptual and methodological recommendations for new research.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Erotica. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Media. Medicine in Art. Medicine in Literature. Motivation. Public Health. Risk Factors. Safe Sex. Sexual Abstinence. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / transmission. Social Values / ethnology. Stereotyping. Taboo

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  • (PMID = 20358456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-8519
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of sex research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sex Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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40. Jin Z, Yin L, Xue L, Lin M, Zheng Q: Anorectal functional results after transanal endoscopic microsurgery in benign and early malignant tumors. World J Surg; 2010 May;34(5):1128-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anorectal functional results after transanal endoscopic microsurgery in benign and early malignant tumors.
  • Anorectal manometric values showed the mean anal resting pressure (ARP) decrease from 45 +/- 6 mmHg to 29 +/- 4 mmHg (p < 0.05) and the maximum tolerable volume (MTV) decrease from 175 +/- 21 ml to 90 +/- 15 ml (p < 0.05) at the third month after TEM.
  • Endosonography demonstrated internal anal sphincter (IAS) rupture in five patients, and full integrity of the external anal sphincter (EAS) in all patients.
  • Most patients had more times of stools per day and relative higher Wexner scores in a short period after TEM.
  • Thus TEM is safe, in terms of anorectal function, for the cure of benign and early malignant tumors of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma, Villous / surgery. Anal Canal / physiopathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20225126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Sunesen KG, Nørgaard M, Thorlacius-Ussing O, Laurberg S: Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005. Int J Cancer; 2010 Aug 1;127(3):675-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005.
  • Compromised immune function may increase the risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We examined the risk of anal SCC in patients with HIV infection and other chronic disorders associated with immunosuppression.
  • We identified all patients with a first-time hospital contact or procedure for HIV infection, solid organ transplantation or autoimmune disease or a first-time record of haematologic malignancy in the DCR, 1978-2005, and followed these for a subsequent anal SCC, starting follow-up 1 year after diagnosis of the index disease.
  • Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of anal SCCs, based on national age-, sex- and period-specific rates.
  • Among 4,488 patients with HIV, we observed 21 anal SCCs with 0.3 expected (SIR: 81.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.6-121.9)).
  • Risk of anal SCC was markedly increased among 5,113 solid organ recipients (SIR: 14.4 (CI: 7.0-26.4)) and 30,165 patients with haematologic malignancies (SIR: 2.3 (CI: 1.1-4.2)) but only moderately increased among 242,114 patients with autoimmune diseases (SIR: 1.3 (CI: 1.0-1.6)).
  • SIRs varied according to type of autoimmune disease and were high in patients with Crohn's disease (SIR: 3.1 (CI: 1.2-6.4)), psoriasis (SIR: 3.1 (CI: 1.8-5.1)), polyarteritis nodosa (SIR: 8.8 (CI: 1.5-29.0)) and Wegener's granulomatosis (SIR: 12.4 (CI: 2.1-40.8)).
  • In conclusion, we found HIV infection, solid organ transplantation, haematologic malignancies and a range of specific autoimmune diseases strongly associated with increased risk of anal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Immunocompromised Host

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  • (PMID = 19960431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Fan JK, Lo CS, Law WL: A rare complication of laparoscopic low anterior resection. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Oct;19(5):e210

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  • We report a 70-year-old lady who suffered from carcinoma of rectum with the lowest border of the tumor at 5 cm from the anal verge.
  • The stapler was withdrawn through the anus with a pair of laparoscopic forceps following it.
  • The pair of forceps, which was still at the anus, was used to pull the cotton tape and the suture through the original perforation at the rectal stump.
  • [MeSH-major] Anastomosis, Surgical / adverse effects. Laparoscopy / adverse effects. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery. Surgical Stapling / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19851255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Zampino MG, Magni E, Sonzogni A, Renne G: K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment? Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;65(1):197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment?
  • PURPOSE: Squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon disease comprising only 1-5% of all intestinal tumours.
  • The EGFR status and k-ras mutations in SCC of the anal canal has not been well investigated.
  • Immunohistochemistry for EGFR and k-ras mutation was retrospectively evaluated.
  • This observation previously reported in other tumours has supported the effective use of EGFR-inhibitors in recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19727729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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44. Kim HJ, Lee KY, Kim YW: Case report: Imaging features of perianal leiomyoma. Br J Radiol; 2009 Aug;82(980):e168-70
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  • A leiomyoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm that usually develops where smooth muscle is present.
  • The external anal sphincter was stretched over the surface of the leiomyoma and the internal anal sphincter was intact on surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Radiol. 2010 Jan;83(985):88. Lee, G H [corrected to Lee, K Y]
  • (PMID = 19592401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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45. Bège T, Turrini O, Lelong B, Delpero JR: Pelvic cancer recurrence: drop the arrow in the target. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Apr;19(2):e41-2
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  • CASE: A 53-year-old woman presented in 2006 with a small (20 mm) pelvic recurrence of an anal canal cancer initially treated by radiochemotherapy and amputation of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19390261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Yamamoto S, Fukunaga M, Miyajima N, Okuda J, Konishi F, Watanabe M, Japan Society of Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: Impact of conversion on surgical outcomes after laparoscopic operation for rectal carcinoma: a retrospective study of 1,073 patients. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Mar;208(3):383-9

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  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1,073 patients with carcinoma of the rectum and anus who underwent laparoscopic operations were reviewed retrospectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Laparoscopy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Body Mass Index. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Complications / classification. Intraoperative Complications / epidemiology. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / classification. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19318000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Watanabe M; Kokuba Y; Konishi F; Kawamura Y; Miyajima N; Fukunaga M; Kudo S; Tanaka J; Tanigawa N; Okuda J; Nagai H; Otsuka K; Fukunaga Y; Okajima M; Bandou H; Kitano S; Inomata M; Kubo Y; Ichihara T; Hasegawa H; Yamamoto S; Ikoma S; Nishiyama Y; Sugihara K; Yamaguchi S; Sekimoto M; Masaki M; Idani H; Sumiyama Y; Saida Y; Munemoto Y; Maeda K; Hanai K; Kuroyanagi H; Ueda K
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47. Yang R, Cheung MC, Zhuge Y, Armstrong C, Koniaris LG, Sola JE: Primary solid tumors of the colon and rectum in the pediatric patient: a review of 270 cases. J Surg Res; 2010 Jun 15;161(2):209-16
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  • [Title] Primary solid tumors of the colon and rectum in the pediatric patient: a review of 270 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the outcomes of solid tumors of the colon and rectum in pediatric patients.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 270 patients with malignant tumors of the lower gastrointestinal tract were identified.
  • The annual incidence was 1.04 cases per million in 2005.
  • The majority of tumors arose in adolescents (68.1% were older than 15 y).
  • Tumors were more commonly seen in white (77.8%) and non-Hispanic (78.9%) patients.
  • Tumors were identified in the right colon (45.9%), transverse colon (9.3%), left colon (20.4%), rectum (15.2%), and anal canal (1.1%).
  • The most common histology of these tumors was adenocarcinoma (35.6%), followed by carcinoid (34.1%).
  • Disease specific 5- and 10-y-survival for the entire cohort was 61.0% and 57.9%, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis of the cohort identified tumor stage (HR 8.39, P < 0.001 for distant disease), tumor type (signet ring HR 2.12, P = 0.025, and carcinoid HR = 0.14, P = 0.001), and surgical resection (no surgery HR 2.98, P = 0.010) as independent predictors of worse outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: In the pediatric population, solid tumors of the colon and rectum occur more frequently in the right side of the colon in teenagers.
  • Surgical resection significantly improves survival for most pediatric tumors of the lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aging. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Colectomy. Continental Population Groups / statistics & numerical data. Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Staging. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19285688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Midtgaard J, Hansen MJ, Grandjean B: Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer. Support Care Cancer; 2009 Sep;17(9):1213-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is a rare disease within the cancer spectrum.
  • AIM: The objective of this study was to describe the lived experiences of recovery from anal cancer, including which and how resources may help survivors of anal cancer to resist and to manage potentially complex stressors encountered in the recovery from the disease.
  • Sixteen individuals (11 women and five men; average age 52 years), who had completed therapy for anal cancer (average 31 months ago), participated in the study.
  • FINDINGS: The analysis revealed two concepts, modesty and recognition, which describe the essence of the lived experience of anal cancer, and which each appear to be important resistance resources.
  • DISCUSSION: Anal cancer appears to lack attention and deserved recognition from professional and social services, which in itself may lead to mistrust and devaluation of the individual seeking support.
  • It is recommended that both researchers and rehabilitation services incorporate, prioritize, and advise on the disease's specific issues and the terms under which the survivor can maintain an active, working and social life, as desired.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Interpersonal Relations. Stress, Psychological. Survivors / psychology

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  • (PMID = 19172304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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49. Camargo MA, Boin I, Mainnardi JP, de Lourdes M, Ayrizono S, Coy CS, Leonardi MI, Meirelles L, Leonardi LS, Escanhoela CA: Extragastrointestinal stromal tumor and liver transplantation: case report and review. Transplant Proc; 2008 Dec;40(10):3781-3
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  • [Title] Extragastrointestinal stromal tumor and liver transplantation: case report and review.
  • The occurrence of de novo malignant neoplasias has been shown in postransplant patients under imunosuppression.
  • GI stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract.
  • Rare cases are identified outside the GI tract are collectively known as extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs).
  • Seven months later, he noticed a hardened, mobile, painless, 3-cm subcutaneous nodule in the perineum localized in the right lateral quadrant 2 cm distant from the anus.
  • A surgical resection with 1 cm margin yielded a histopathology report of a 5.0 x 3.0 cm spindle cell stromal tumor.
  • The immunohistochemical profile was compatible with a GIST, with 5 mitosis per 50 high-powered fields.
  • This tumor is extremely rare after liver transplantation but has shown a good outcome up to now.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Hepatitis B / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / surgery


50. Bourrat E, Lemarchand-Venencie F, Jacquemont ML, El Ghoneimi A, Wassef M, Leger J, Morel P: [PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome with livedoid haemangioma and amniotic band]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Dec;135(12):855-9
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A newborn male infant underwent left colostomy on the day of birth due to anal imperforation and anomalies of the external genital organs with sexual ambiguity.
  • By analogy with PHACE syndrome, defined as association of segmented facial haemangioma with cerebral, ocular and cardio-aortic abnormalities, PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome denotes the association of segmented haemangioma of the loins (sacrolumbar region, buttocks or perineum=napkin haemangioma) with spinal dysraphia affecting the sacrolumbar spine, the terminal medullary cone, the genitourinary organs and the anal region to different degrees.
  • Diagnosis of haemangioma associated with PELVIS/SACRAL syndrome may be delayed or complicated due to the macular, telangiectasic or livedoid appearance commonly seen.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple. Amniotic Band Syndrome / complications. Anus, Imperforate. Hemangioma / complications. Pelvis / abnormalities. Sacrum / abnormalities. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19084698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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51. Sunesen KG, Buntzen S, Tei T, Lindegaard JC, Nørgaard M, Laurberg S: Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jan;16(1):68-77
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  • [Title] Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Salvage surgery of recurrent or persistent anal cancer following radiotherapy is often followed by perineal wound complications.
  • We examined survival and perineal wound complications in anal cancer salvage surgery during a 10-year period with primary perineal reconstruction predominantly performed using vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Between 1997 and 2006, 49 patients underwent anal cancer salvage surgery.
  • We conclude that anal cancer salvage surgery can yield long-time survival but obtaining free margins is critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Perineum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectus Abdominis / transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


52. Balamurugan A, Ahmed F, Saraiya M, Kosary C, Schwenn M, Cokkinides V, Flowers L, Pollack LA: Potential role of human papillomavirus in the development of subsequent primary in situ and invasive cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):2919-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The recent licensure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will likely decrease the development of primary in situ and invasive cervical cancers and possibly other HPV-associated cancers such as vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Child. Continental Population Groups. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Risk. SEER Program. Survivors. United States / epidemiology. United States / ethnology. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / virology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 18980275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Widder J, Kastenberger R, Fercher E, Schmid R, Langendijk JA, Dobrowsky W, Pötter R: Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):367-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyse a large consecutive cohort of patients with anal cancer for treatment-related factors influencing local control and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for primary radiotherapy at Medical University of Vienna in 1990-2002 with anal canal carcinoma without distant metastases were analysed.
  • Patient-, tumour-, and treatment-factors were tested for influence on survival and local control using Cox multivariate analysis.
  • With median follow-up of 8.0 years for surviving patients (3.9 years including deceased patients), five-year overall survival and disease-free-survival were 57% and 51%, respectively.
  • Stage and age were significant factors for overall and colostomy-free-survival, N-stage for disease-free-survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results support potential improvement of anal cancer treatment by studying advanced technology such as IMRT, making it possible to tailor high-dose regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18501453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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54. Hoory T, Monie A, Gravitt P, Wu TC: Molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus. J Formos Med Assoc; 2008 Mar;107(3):198-217
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  • These small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses primarily infect the epithelium and induce benign as well as malignant lesions of the mucosa and skin.
  • Some HPVs are considered to be high-risk due to their strong implication in carcinogenesis, particularly the malignant progression of cervical tumors.
  • The recognition of papillomaviruses as a major etiologic agent for human cancers has increased their medical importance and stimulated research into developing strategies for the screening, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of HPV-associated diseases.

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  • (PMID = 18400605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA114425-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA118790; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098252
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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55. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • There were no differences between patients with relapse (n=22) or persistence (n=15) of disease.
  • On multivariate analyses, disease stage (P=0.05) and completion of radiotherapy (P=0.01) remained significant predictors of relapse-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. New York / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Gretschel S, Warnick P, Bembenek A, Dresel S, Koswig S, String A, Hünerbein M, Schlag PM: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):890-4
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  • [Title] Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • AIM: Although 15-25% of patients with anal cancer present with superficial inguinal lymph node metastases but the routine application of groin irradiation is controversial because of serious side effects.
  • METHODS: Forty patients with anal cancer underwent 1 ml Tc(99m)-Nanocolloid injection in four sites around the tumour.
  • In 10/20 patients SLNB altered the therapy plan--four patients with T1-tumours and positive SLN had additional groin irradiation, whereas 6 patients with small T2-tumors and tumour-free inguinal SLN did not undergo inguinal irradiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer is efficient and could assist in the decision for inguinal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin

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  • (PMID = 18178364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
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57. Hussain SK, Sundquist J, Hemminki K: Familial clustering of cancer at human papillomavirus-associated sites according to the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Int J Cancer; 2008 Apr 15;122(8):1873-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cluster Analysis. Family. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Odds Ratio. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Registries. Sweden / epidemiology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18074353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Roka F, Roka J, Trost A, Schalk H, Zagler C, Kirnbauer R, Salat A: Anal human papillomavirus testing with Digene's hybrid capture 2 using two different sampling methods. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):62-6
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  • [Title] Anal human papillomavirus testing with Digene's hybrid capture 2 using two different sampling methods.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of human papillomavirus detection in the anal canal is rising.
  • Efficient anal screening by cytology is hampered because of poor specificity.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is proposed in addition to Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for the detection of cervical neoplasia.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a human papillomavirus-DNA detection test to detect human papillomavirus-associated disease and to compare two different methods of sample collection.
  • METHODS: In 555 patients, anal samples were obtained by using a cervical brush and a Dacron swab to test for high-risk and low-risk human papillomavirus-DNA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal screening for human papillomavirus-DNA by hybrid capture 2 is a useful method for detection of human papillomavirus-associated disease.
  • Further studies are needed to determine the exact value of hybrid capture 2 in the screening for (pre)cancerous lesions of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18030530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Polyethylene Terephthalates
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59. Stojanović S, Radosević-Jelić I, Dabić-Stanković K, Popov I, Josifovski J: External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(3):33-8
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  • [Title] External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy has been the standard treatment of anal canal carcinoma for the last three decades.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, between March 1997 and May 2004, patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy boost as primary treatment modality.
  • Total tumor dose in combined radiotherapy treatment ranged from 55-70 Gy.
  • In the median follow up time of 42 months, five-year overall survival was 71% and disease free survival was 61%.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy

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  • (PMID = 17988027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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60. Tezuka K, Inaba Y, Hayashi K, Miura T, Moriya T, Takiguchi M, Isobe H, Watabe S, Yanagawa N: [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Oct;34(10):1709-12
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  • [Title] [A case of liver metastasis from anorectal malignant melanoma on hemodialysis treated by chemotherapy].
  • We report a case on hemodialysis with liver metastases from anorectal malignant melanoma treated by dacarbazine (DTIC).
  • A 61-year-old man presented with anal bleeding.
  • An elastic soft mass was palpated in the anal canal, and a biopsy specimen was diagnosed as anorectal malignant melanoma histologically.
  • Subsequently, the patient died of respiratory failure 4 years after surgery, 1 year and 7 months after the diagnosis of multiple liver metastases.
  • We conclude that administration of DTIC undergoing hemodialysis for malignant melanoma with renal failure seems to be useful without severe adverse events.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / drug therapy. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 17940397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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61. Guasch G, Schober M, Pasolli HA, Conn EB, Polak L, Fuchs E: Loss of TGFbeta signaling destabilizes homeostasis and promotes squamous cell carcinomas in stratified epithelia. Cancer Cell; 2007 Oct;12(4):313-27
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  • [Title] Loss of TGFbeta signaling destabilizes homeostasis and promotes squamous cell carcinomas in stratified epithelia.
  • Although TGFbeta is a potent inhibitor of proliferation, epithelia lacking the essential receptor (TbetaRII) for TGFbeta signaling display normal tissue homeostasis.
  • By studying asymptomatic TbetaRII-deficient stratified epithelia, we show that tissue homeostasis is maintained by balancing hyperproliferation with elevated apoptosis.
  • Moreover, rectal and genital epithelia, which are naturally proliferative, develop spontaneous squamous cell carcinomas with age when TbetaRII is absent.
  • This progression is associated with a reduction in apoptosis and can be accelerated in phenotypically normal epidermis by oncogenic mutations in Ras.
  • We show that TbetaRII deficiency leads to enhanced keratinocyte motility and integrin-FAK-Src signaling.
  • Together, these mechanisms provide a molecular framework to account for many of the characteristics of TbetaRII-deficient invasive SQCCs.

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  • (PMID = 17936557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027883; None / None / / R01 AR027883-28; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027883-28
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / KRT14 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44885; NLM/ PMC2424201
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62. Haddow J, Muthapati D, Arshad I, Gupta M, Agarwal P: Multiple bilateral choroidal metastasis from anal melanoma. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Aug;12(4):303-4
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  • [Title] Multiple bilateral choroidal metastasis from anal melanoma.
  • A 58-year-old Caucasian woman with bleeding per rectum had a melanoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17701012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. He BM, Li WS, Li WY: [Effect of previous analgesia of scalp acupuncture on post-operative epidural morphine analgesia in the patient of intestinal cancer]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu; 2007 May;27(5):369-71
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  • The scalp acupuncture group in recovery of bowel sound, exsufflation from the anus in the scalp acupuncture group was faster than the epidural analgesia group (P < 0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Acupuncture Analgesia / methods. Analgesia, Epidural. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Morphine / therapeutic use. Pain, Postoperative / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17645262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0255-2930
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 76I7G6D29C / Morphine
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64. Gatt M, Reddy BS, Mainprize KS: Day-case stoma surgery: is it feasible? Surgeon; 2007 Jun;5(3):143-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Admission. Pilot Projects. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17575667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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65. Valenti G, Campisi C, Testa A, Arturi A, Torino G: The blind colonic J-pouch: an original technique to reduce the surgical risk in the treatment of extra-peritoneal rectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Nov;22(11):1361-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Low and ultra-low anterior resection with colo-rectal or colo-anal anastomosis is accompanied by high frequency of postoperative anastomotic leakage.
  • It consists of a simple colo-rectal or colo-anal apposition with latero-terminal modality, with the creation of a colonic J-pouch called "blind" because it remains closed in the external site and the anus is sealed up.
  • Within 4-6 weeks from the first, the blind pouch is opened, the communication between the anus and the colon is established, and the colostomy is closed and reduced in the peritoneal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Pouches / pathology. Peritoneum / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17551744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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66. Honjo Y, Bian Y, Kawakami K, Molinolo A, Longenecker G, Boppana R, Larsson J, Karlsson S, Gutkind JS, Puri RK, Kulkarni AB: TGF-beta receptor I conditional knockout mice develop spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Cycle; 2007 Jun 1;6(11):1360-6
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  • Transplantation of these tumors into athymic nude mice resulted in 62% tumorigenicity.
  • To determine whether evasion of the immune response plays any role in this tumorigenesis, we analyzed the expression levels of receptors for interleukin-13 (mIL-13R), a key negative regulator of tumor immunosurveillance, and found that 33% of COKO tumors expressed the IL-13R alpha2 chain.
  • This is the first demonstration that loss of TbetaRI can lead to spontaneous tumor formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Activin Receptors, Type I / physiology. Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Brain / embryology. Brain / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Crosses, Genetic. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Exotoxins / pharmacology. Female. Genes, Synthetic. Integrases / genetics. Interleukin-13 / pharmacology. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / biosynthesis. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neurofilament Proteins / genetics. Organ Specificity. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17534148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / IL13-PE38; 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 108688-71-7 / neurofilament protein H; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases
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67. Goldstone SE, Hundert JS, Huyett JW: Infrared coagulator ablation of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative males who have sex with males. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 May;50(5):565-75
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  • [Title] Infrared coagulator ablation of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative males who have sex with males.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal squamous carcinoma in males who have sex with males is rising.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records on HIV-negative males who have sex with males who had infrared coagulation ablation of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Forty patients (53 percent) developed a recurrence in a median time of 238 days and 35 patients (47 percent) were disease free for a median of 516 days.
  • No patient developed squamous-cell carcinoma, anal stenosis, or had a serious complication.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infrared coagulation is a safe and effective office-based procedure for treating anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. HIV Seronegativity. Homosexuality, Male. Infrared Rays / therapeutic use. Light Coagulation / methods. Precancerous Conditions / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17380365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Sanli Y, Turkmen C, Kurul S, Taş F, Mudun A, Cantez S: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for the staging of anal melanoma: report of two cases. Ann Nucl Med; 2006 Nov;20(9):629-31
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for the staging of anal melanoma: report of two cases.
  • Primary melanoma of the anal region is a rare pathological entity and its prognosis is generally poor.
  • The aim of this report is to demonstrate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure with combined technique in patients with anal melanoma.
  • We report of two cases with anal melanoma that had wide local excision of the primary lesion and was referred for further evaluation.
  • After diagnostic metastatic work-up, SLN procedure consisted of a combination of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium-99m nanocolloid injected around the tumor, and intraoperative detection of SLN with gamma probe (combined technique) was performed.
  • In addition, patent blue dye was injected at the periphery of the tumor to facilitate direct identification of the blue-stained lymph node.
  • Consequently, we suggest that SLN procedure with combined technique is also a useful technique in malignant melanomas similar to other anal canal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17294674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
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69. Huyghe E, Nohra J, Khedi M, Soulié M, Rischmann P, Bachaud JM, Plante P: [Severe (RTOG grades 3 or 4) long-term complications of adjuvant radiotherapy after total prostatectomy]. Prog Urol; 2006 Sep;16(4):457-60
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  • [Transliterated title] Complications sévères (grades 3 ou 4 RTOG) a long-terme de la radiothérapie adjuvante après prostatectomie totale.
  • Three patients developed gastrointestinal complications (2 cases of radiation proctitis and 1 anal stricture).
  • [MeSH-major] Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Diseases / etiology. Constriction, Pathologic / etiology. Cystitis / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proctitis / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors. Urethral Stricture / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17069039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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70. Jhawer M, Mani S, Lefkopoulou M, Hahn RG, Harris J, Catalano PJ, Haller D: Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282. Invest New Drugs; 2006 Sep;24(5):447-54
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282.
  • Metastatic anal cancer is a rare disease in the Western hemisphere and current treatment modalities are not effective.
  • In this study, patients with advanced epithelial cancer of the anal canal received MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU upon progression of disease.
  • The combination therapy of MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU for patients with advanced anal cancer, not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery, results in a moderate objective response but with moderate toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16763788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25988
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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71. Martín JM, Calduch L, Monteagudo C, Molina I, Ramón D, Alonso V, Jordá E: Cutaneous plasmacytosis associated with lung and anal carcinomas. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Apr;20(4):428-31
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  • [Title] Cutaneous plasmacytosis associated with lung and anal carcinomas.
  • Cutaneous plasmacytosis is a rare disorder characterized by a benign proliferation of mature plasma cells that appears as multiple dark-brown to purplish skin lesions, often associated with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia.
  • Cutaneous plasmacytosis seems to be a reactive process because most cases reported are not associated with any apparent underlying disease.
  • Nevertheless, because few reported cases were associated with malignancies, screening of additional neoplasms would be justified.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Plasma Cells / pathology. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16643141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. Alfaro-Rubio A, Nagore E, Serra C, Botella R, Sanmartín O, Requena C, Llombart B, Hueso L, Guillén C: [Perianal Bowen's disease treated with imiquimod]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Sep;96(7):468-70
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  • [Title] [Perianal Bowen's disease treated with imiquimod].
  • [Transliterated title] Enfermedad de Bowen perianal tratada con imiquimod.
  • Bowen's disease is a special form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ that usually develops in photoexposed areas of skin.
  • We contribute a new case of perianal Bowen's disease, which responded to treatment with imiquimod with no evidence of clinical recurrence after 3 years of follow up.
  • Imiquimod appears to be a therapeutic alternative for perianal Bowen's disease, which seems to have a particular tendency to recur in this location where surgery may also be complicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16476278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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73. Kazakov DV, Bisceglia M, Sima R, Michal M: Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Adenosis tumor of anogenital mammary-like glands: a case report and demonstration of clonality by HUMARA assay.
  • In mammary pathology, adenosis tumor is defined as a clinically recognizable lesion that histologically primarily consists of adenosis, but also exhibits various combinations of diverse epithelial changes seen in other benign breast diseases.
  • A lesion that occurred in the anogenital area of a 46-year-old woman and apparently arose in anogenital mammary-like glands is described and which, in our opinion, is best classified as adenosis tumor.
  • Several histological patterns within the same tumor mass were recognizable: sclerosing adenosis-like changes, variably sized microcysts and cysts, some with rare short papillary projections having hyalinized cores, rare tubular structures exhibiting epithelial features reminiscent of simple ductal hyperplasia, areas with oxyphilic (apocrine) metaplasia, and clear cell epithelial changes resembling mucinous metaplasia.
  • As our case exhibited a number of patterns identical to those seen in diverse benign breast diseases, its classification as adenosis tumor seems justifiable.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrocystic Breast Disease / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Clone Cells / metabolism. Clone Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16441411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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74. Darvishian F, Stier EA, Soslow RA, Lin O: Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation. Cancer; 2006 Feb 25;108(1):66-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytology has been proposed as a potential screening tool in the evaluation of squamous anorectal disease in view of the morphologic similarities between anal and cervical squamous lesions.
  • Due to potential diagnostic pitfalls in anal cytology, p16 overexpression in these specimens was studied.
  • No cell immunoreactive for p16 was found in 15 cases (5 benign cases and 10 cases with either LSIL or HSIL).
  • The sensitivity and specificity of p16 immunoreactivity in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma were 72% and 71%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of p16 immunoreactivity is a good predictor of dysplasia in anal specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16404747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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75. Gurfinkel R, Walfisch S: Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Dec;9(3):235-6
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  • [Title] Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis.
  • The optimal treatment of metastatic anal carcinomas is controversial.
  • We present the case of 54-year-old woman with a diagnosis of metastatic basaloid anal carcinoma.
  • The patient underwent resection of liver metastasis in combination with cisplatin + 5FU and local radiotherapy, without evident disease 3 years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16328122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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76. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Welton ML: High resolution anoscopy and targeted treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):126
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this video is to illustrate the use of high resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • METHODS: Five patients with anal dysplasia were examined in the operating room with acetic acid and the operative microscope.
  • Acetowhite lesions with specific vascular characteristics like punctuate vessels or honeycomb patterns are highly suggestive of high-grade disease.
  • Some pigmented lesions contain high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; the operative microscope is used in this setting to look for the vascular characteristics of high-grade disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Image Enhancement. Video-Assisted Surgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16222485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Gagne SE, Jensen R, Polvi A, Da Costa M, Ginzinger D, Efird JT, Holly EA, Darragh T, Palefsky JM: High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Oct 1;40(2):182-9
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  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the likely precursor to anal cancer.
  • AIN is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and HPV-associated genomic instability may play an important role in the progression of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Genome, Viral. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Virus Integration

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  • (PMID = 16186736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Wang YY, Lin SY, Lai WA, Liu PH, Sheu WH: Association between adenomas of rectosigmoid colon and metabolic syndrome features in a Chinese population. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Sep;20(9):1410-5
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  • All patients underwent a sigmoidoscopic examination to 60 cm from the anus.
  • Pathological findings were hyperplastic in 138 subjects, adenomas in 341, carcinomas in 10, and other benign lesions in 79.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Metabolic Syndrome X / complications. Rectal Neoplasms / complications. Sigmoid Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16105129.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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79. Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Efirdc JT, Da Costa M, Jay N, Berry JM, Darragh TM: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS; 2005 Sep 2;19(13):1407-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • The prevalence of the putative anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) was high among HIV-positive MSM prior to the availability of HAART but little is known about AIN since HAART was introduced.
  • A total of 357 HIV-positive MSM with no history of anal cancer completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history, anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy for detection of AIN.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of participants with available CD4+ cell counts at baseline had AIN of any grade; 52% had AIN 2 or 3; and 95% had anal HPV infection.
  • Our data indicate that HAART is not associated with a reduced prevalence of AIN and support measures to prevent anal cancer among HIV-positive MSM whether or not they are using HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 16103772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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80. Andres AH, Walk CB, Meywirth E, Milkereit E: [Awareness under remifentanil-propofol anaesthesia]. Anaesthesist; 2005 Oct;54(10):1000-4
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  • We report on a 49-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent carcinoma of the rectum, who underwent a palliative Hartmann operation for an anus praeter reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Hemodynamics / physiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Pain, Postoperative / psychology. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15999266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2417
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Anaesthesist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaesthesist
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Piperidines; P10582JYYK / remifentanil; YI7VU623SF / Propofol
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81. Papaconstantinou HT, Lee AJ, Simmang CL, Ashfaq R, Gokaslan ST, Sokol S, Huber PJ Jr, Gregorcyk SG: Screening methods for high-grade dysplasia in patients with anal condyloma. J Surg Res; 2005 Jul 1;127(1):8-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening methods for high-grade dysplasia in patients with anal condyloma.
  • HPV infection can cause anal condylomas and is a risk factor for dysplasia.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether anal cytology, morphological characteristics, and/or the presence of high-risk oncogenic HPV-types are effective noninvasive methods to detect high-risk anal condylomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From November 2003 to June 2004, all patients with anal condyloma were prospectively evaluated for anal cytology, high-risk oncogenic HPV-types, and tissue biopsies.
  • Histology results served as true disease for all comparisons.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal condyloma were studied; 43 (91.5%) were men, and the mean age was 39 +/- 11 years.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology alone is not accurate for detecting HRL in patients with anal condylomas.
  • Combining oncogenic HPV-testing with cytology is more sensitive in detecting HRL in patients with anal condyloma, and therefore, a more effective screening tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15964301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Chin-Hong PV, Vittinghoff E, Cranston RD, Browne L, Buchbinder S, Colfax G, Da Costa M, Darragh T, Benet DJ, Judson F, Koblin B, Mayer KH, Palefsky JM: Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Jun 15;97(12):896-905
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study.
  • BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally linked to the development of anal and cervical cancer.
  • In the United States, the incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) is higher than the incidence of cervical cancer among women.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are anal cancer precursors comprising low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs).
  • Anal cytology and behavioral data were obtained.
  • Anal HPV infection status was assessed by polymerase chain reaction.
  • In a multivariable analysis, the risk of LSILs was associated with having more than five male receptive anal sex partners (P = .03), any use of poppers (alkyl nitrites) in the previous 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1 to 2.5; P = .03] or use of injection drugs two or more times per month during the previous 6 months [OR = 19, 95% CI = 1.3 to 277; P = .03], older age at first receptive anal intercourse (P = .004), and infection with a greater number of HPV types (P < .001 for linear trend).
  • The risk of HSILs was associated with any anal HPV infection (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1 to 9.4; P = .039) and infection with an increasing number of HPV types (P < .001 for linear trend).
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Sexual Behavior. United States / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15956651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5 U01 AI46749; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI35176; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI45200; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI47995; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI48016; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI48040
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Bringman D, Anton-Culver H: Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis; 2005 May;32(5):314-20
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) corresponded with changes in anal squamous cell cancer rates among men with AIDS.
  • RESULTS: The annual incidence of invasive anal cancer increased from zero per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-226) in 1991 to 224 per 100,000 (95% CI, 102-425) in the year 2000.
  • Pre-HAART, the average annual incidence of invasive anal cancer was 49 per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% CI, 16-114) versus 144 per 100,000 (95% CI, 93-212) post-HAART.
  • The relative risk of invasive anal cancer among men with AIDS compared with men without known HIV/AIDS was 98 (95% CI, 36-264) pre-HAART and 352 (95% CI, 186-669) post-HAART.
  • The increased incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS resulted in an increase in the overall rate of anal cancer among men in San Diego County.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rising incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS may be related to increased longevity with HAART and the consequent increased time at risk for the development of malignancy and/or the result of greater use of cytologic screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15849533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K07CA096480-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Lampejo T, Kavanagh D, Clark J, Goldin R, Osborn M, Ziprin P, Cleator S: Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review. Br J Cancer; 2010 Dec 07;103(12):1858-69
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: recent decades have seen combination chemoradiotherapy become the standard treatment for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • However, the burden of this disease continues to rise, with only 10% of patients with metastatic disease surviving >2 years.
  • Further insight into tumour characteristics and molecular biology may identify novel therapeutic targets.
  • This systematic review examines current prognostic markers in SCC of the anus.
  • METHODS: an extensive literature search was performed to identify studies reporting on biomarkers in anal cancer in the context of clinical outcome following treatment primarily with chemoradiotherapy.
  • The tumour-suppressor genes p53 and p21 were the only markers shown to be of prognostic value in more than one study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: an array of biomarkers have been identified that correlate with survival following chemoradiotherapy in anal cancer.
  • However, investigators are yet to identify a biomarker that has the ability to consistently predict outcome in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genes, p53. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Cancer Resaerch UK.
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  • (PMID = 21063399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3008609
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85. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Baron G, Walker F, Yeni P, Duval X: Systematic evaluation and description of anal pathology in HIV-infected patients during the HAART era. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Jun;52(6):1130-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS in Women.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systematic evaluation and description of anal pathology in HIV-infected patients during the HAART era.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of macroscopic anal lesions and associated factors in HIV-infected outpatients during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • METHODS: A randomly selected sample of patients with HIV-infection receiving follow-up care in the infectious diseases department of Bichat University Hospital was invited to participate in a systematic screening program consisting of anal examination with anoscopy and a standardized questionnaire.
  • Overall, 208 patients (44 percent) had at least one anal macroscopic lesion: 108 patients (22.8 percent) had human papilloma (HPV)-related lesions (condyloma with or without dysplasia), 67 (14.2 percent) had hemorrhoidal disease, 50 (10.6 percent) had anal fissures, and 44 (9.3) percent had other anal lesions.
  • Independent significantly associated factors for anal condyloma were history of anal condyloma (OR, 2.09) and median number of episodes of sexual intercourse per month (OR, 1.03) in men who have sex with men; history of genital condyloma (OR, 26.74), and unprotected sexual intercourse (OR, 7.47) in heterosexual men; and CD4 cell count below 200/mm3 (OR, 6.02), receptive anal intercourse (OR, 6.37), and history of anal condyloma (OR, 16.69) in women.
  • Neither sexual behavior nor characteristics related to HIV infection were associated with hemorrhoidal disease or anal fissure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because patients with HIV infections have a high prevalence of unreported anal lesions that may be highly contagious, involve risk of anal neoplasia, or negatively affect quality of life, systematic anal screening should be conducted in the HIV-infected population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2010 Mar;53(3):364-5 [20173491.001]
  • (PMID = 19581857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):52-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV.
  • This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, new data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising.
  • Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and the mouth.
  • Treatment methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia have been described and show reasonable efficacy.
  • SUMMARY: New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the antiretroviral therapy era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia will prevent development of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19339939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94538; NLM/ PMC2756707
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87. Wan X, Zhang Y, Zhang Y: [Anus-preserving laparoscopic rectal resection in 75 patients with lower rectal cancer]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2009 Sep;34(9):902-4
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  • [Title] [Anus-preserving laparoscopic rectal resection in 75 patients with lower rectal cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the feasibility of anus-preserving laparoscopic rectal resection for lower rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 75 patients with lower rectal cancer treated with anus-preserving laparoscopic rectal resection.
  • CONCLUSION: With the development of laparoscopic technique and laparoscopic total mesorectum excision technique as well as the application of stapler, the operation field is expanded, which benefits the separation and anastomosis of the lower intestine, with more chances to preserve anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Laparoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19779264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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88. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):123-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) is established as the primary treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Multiple randomized trials have shown that combined modality therapy with RT, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin-C results in high rates of local control, disease-free survival, and sphincter preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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89. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Palefsky JM, Tyring S, El Serag H: Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jul 15;43(2):223-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review.
  • Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.
  • We have conducted a systematic review of the indirect evidence in the literature regarding the utility of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening of HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Although there are no published studies evaluating the efficacy of anal Pap smear screening for preventing squamous cell cancer of the anus or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, we reviewed data regarding the burden of disease, anal Pap smear sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of anal dysplasia, and 1 cost effectiveness study.
  • The available evidence demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This review identifies important areas for further study before routine anal Pap smear screening can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Papillomaviridae


90. Vidarsdóttir H, Möller PH, Tryggvason G, Kjartansson S, Jónasson JG: [Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). Case report]. Laeknabladid; 2005 Feb;91(2):177-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST). Case report].
  • In 1987 a 73 year old man was diagnosed with a malignant sarcoma of the anus.
  • Fourteen years later the original diagnoses of the specimen was reviewed and the diagnosis was changed to GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumour).
  • This diagnosis was confirmed with appropriate immunohistochemical staining on the tumour tissue.
  • This is the first case of GIST in the anus diagnosed in Iceland.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Iceland. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Male

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  • (PMID = 16155313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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91. Vorob'ev GI, Shelygin IuA, Nechushkin MI, Rybakov EG: [Results of surgical treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(8):4-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Results of surgical treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors].
  • Radio- or chemotherapy is a modern standard of anal cancer treatment.
  • The study is aimed to evaluate the role of abdominoperineal resection in the treatment of residual and recurrent anal cancer.
  • The complete tumor regression after radiotherapy/radiochemotherapy was achieved in 74(61.1%) of 120 patients with cancer-specific survival rate of 81.7%.
  • Partial tumor regression was registered in 46 of 120 patients.
  • The abdominoperineal resection was performed in 39(84.8%) of patients with the residual tumor.
  • Thus, surgical treatment allowed secondary local tumor control in 76.9% of patients with the 5-year survival rates of 69.0%.
  • The locoregional tumor relapse was diagnosed in 10(13.74%) of 74 patients with the complete tumor regression.
  • The use of abdominoperineal resection allowed the secondary local tumor control and 5 year survival.
  • Thus, abdominoperineal resection remains the method of choice in the treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Russia / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18833142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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92. Chaturvedi AK: Beyond cervical cancer: burden of other HPV-related cancers among men and women. J Adolesc Health; 2010 Apr;46(4 Suppl):S20-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, and is etiologically associated with a subset of cancers of the anus, oropharynx, penis, vagina, and vulva.
  • Current data indicate that HPV infection is potentially associated with 90%-93% of anal cancers, 12%-63% of oropharyngeal cancers, 36%-40% of penile cancers, 40%-64% of vaginal cancers, and 40%-51% of vulvar cancers.
  • HPV infection accounts for up to 492,800 cervical cancers and 97,215 cases of noncervical HPV-related cancers worldwide during 2002, including up to 50,780 cancers among men (13,485 anal cancers, 26,775 oropharyngeal cancers, and 10,520 penile cancers) and up to 46,435 cancers among women (14,787 anal cancers, 6,048 oropharyngeal cancers, and 25,600 vaginal/vulvar cancers).
  • However, incidence rates for anal, oropharyngeal, and vulvar cancers have increased substantially in recent years.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cost of Illness. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20307840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1972
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Adolesc Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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93. Velenik V, Segedin B, Anderluh F, Oblak I, Strojan P: Radiotherapy for perianal Paget's disease: a case report. Tumori; 2008 Sep-Oct;94(5):750-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy for perianal Paget's disease: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Perianal Paget's disease was first described in 1893.
  • In the present report, we describe the case of an 80-year-old woman with perianal Paget's disease.
  • The pertinent literature is reviewed, and the controversies in diagnosis and management are discussed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our single-case experience supports the opinion that radiotherapy is a viable treatment option with curative potential for patients with perianal Paget's disease.
  • For the treatment of in situ disease, hypofractionated regimens to a total dose of 40-44 Gy and orthovoltage X-ray beams are recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / radiotherapy. Perineum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19112954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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94. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Nov;6(11):925-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • In HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), anal HPV prevalence is more than 90% and infections with multiple HPV types are common.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a potential precursor lesion of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Like its cervical counterpart, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), AIN is causally linked to persistent infections with high-risk HPV types such as HPV16 or HPV18.
  • As AIN and CIN share distinct biological similar-ities, AIN screenings analogous to Pap smear programs for CIN have been recommended in high-risk populations to reduce the incidence of anal carcinoma.
  • These screenings include cytological analysis followed by high resolution anoscopy in case of anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18410393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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95. Kazakov DV, Nemcova J, Mikyskova I, Belousova IE, Vazmitel M, Michal M: Human papillomavirus in lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Oct;26(4):475-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We studied 16 neoplasms of anogenital MLG for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA using INNO-line probe assay (LiPA) HPV Genotyping kit, GP5+/6+, CP(SGB), and FAP 6085-6319 primer sets.
  • The lesions included 3 fibroadenomas, 2 adenosis tumors, 1 invasive ductal carcinoma, 1 tubulolobular carcinoma, 2 hidradenoma papilliferum with prominent cystic change rendering a cystadenoma appearance and oxyphilic metaplasia, and 7 cases of extramammary Paget disease.
  • All 3 fibroadenomas, both adenosis tumors, both hidradenoma papilliferum, and the tubulolobular carcinoma proved negative for HPV DNA.
  • In 2 of the 7 patients with extramammary Paget disease, there was HPV DNA present in the lesional tissue, typed as HPV-6 (LiPA) and a type which was closely related to HPV-21 and HPV-24 (FAP 6085-6319), whereas the remaining 5 cases tested negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Exocrine Glands / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Tumor Virus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17885501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Human papillomavirus: often harmless but in some cases carcinogenic. Prescrire Int; 2007 Jun;16(89):115-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant transformation of lesions due to HPV seems to be facilitated by HPV persistence, a high HPV viral load in the cervix, and immunosuppression. (8) However, HPV infection rarely leads to progression to cancer.
  • About 5% of high-grade lesions progress to invasive cancer. (9) Other anogenital cancers, such as cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina and penis, appear to be linked to HPV (usually genotype 16). (10) Skin cancer due to HPV is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. DNA, Viral. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression. Male. Papillomaviridae / metabolism. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Urogenital Neoplasms / genetics. Urogenital Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 17585425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Prescrire international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prescrire Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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97. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected persons. Top HIV Med; 2007 Aug-Sep;15(4):130-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Rates of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and abnormal cytology are high in HIV-infected women, as are rates of anal HPV infection and abnormal cytology in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Available evidence indicates that the incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM has increased in association with prolonged life expectancy achieved with antiretroviral therapy.
  • Routine screening for cervical neoplasia is recommended for HIV-infected women.
  • Routine screening is not yet universally recommended for anal neoplasia, although it should be considered for at-risk patients, particularly given recent improvements in local treatments.
  • Its potential benefit in preventing anal infection in women and men has yet to be determined, and its potential utility in those with HIV infection remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


98. Jiménez W, Paszat L, Kupets R, Wilton A, Tinmouth J: Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario.
  • OBJECTIVE: The oncogenic HPV subtypes responsible for gynecologic malignancies have also been implicated in the development of squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCAC).
  • The aim of this study was determine whether women diagnosed with anal cancer are more likely to have a history of HPV-related gynecological cancer as compared to a matched control group.
  • The median time between the diagnosis of anal cancer and previous cervical cancer was 20 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Previous HPV-related gynecological cancers are strongly associated with anal cancer and may occur decades before the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19501390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Kreuter A, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated diseases in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2009 Apr;22(2):109-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This review summarizes recent data on papillomavirus-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in these patients.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia rises in HIV-positive men who have sex with men despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Increasing evidence indicates that high-grade lesions can progress to anal cancer over time.
  • Anal cytology has been recommended as the primary screening tool for anal dysplasia in the at-risk population.
  • Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defining tumors in HIV-infected individuals.
  • In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the outcome of combined chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals with anal cancer is similar to that in HIV-negative persons.
  • SUMMARY: Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines should be implemented for at-risk populations for anal dysplasia/anal cancer, such as HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • More study is required to get better insights into the natural history of penile and oral HPV-associated benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19276878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6527
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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100. Irabor DO, Dongo AE: Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed? Trop Doct; 2009 Jan;39(1):7-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed?
  • The paper is a retrospective look at the clinicopathological presentation of carcinoma of the anal canal in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria.
  • Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with anal carcinoma over a five-year period (2002-2006) from a total of 394 patients who had malignancies of the colon, rectum and anus.
  • The male: female ratio was 1.2: 1 showing a slight male predominance; the average age was 48 years; tenesmus, bleeding per rectum and anal pain were the most common presenting features.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Socioeconomic Factors. Tropical Climate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19211411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-4755
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical doctor
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Doct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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