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1. Marin-Muller C, Li M, Chen C, Yao Q: Current understanding and potential immunotherapy for HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). World J Surg; 2009 Apr;33(4):653-60
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  • [Title] Current understanding and potential immunotherapy for HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare disease in the average population but is an increasing concern among immunocompromised individuals, such as the HIV-seropositive.
  • HPV infection is difficult to clear with a compromised immune system, which results in a greater risk of tumor development and a more aggressive progression of the disease.
  • The recent approval of a prophylactic HPV vaccine for cervical cancer has sparked an interest in a search for improved immunotherapeutic multimodality therapies to combat anogenital tumors associated with the virus.
  • In this review, we discuss the known mechanisms of action of HIV-associated SCCA, examine the current treatments for the disease, and focus on the potential of an immunotherapeutic vaccine approach for both prophylactic and therapeutic application.

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  • (PMID = 19052810.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132572-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R13 CA132572; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R13 CA132572-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AIDS Vaccines; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 18; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Repressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 86
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS227649; NLM/ PMC2924142
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2. Menkarios C, Azria D, Laliberté B, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Lemanski C, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans. Radiat Oncol; 2007;2:41
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  • [Title] Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare the dosimetric advantage of three different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to a three dimensional (3D) conventional radiation treatment for anal cancer with regards to organs-at-risk (OAR) avoidance, including iliac bone marrow.
  • METHODS: Five patients with T1-3 N0-1 anal cancer and five with T4 and/or N2-3 tumors were selected.
  • Clinical tumor volume (CTV) included tumor, anal canal and inguinal, peri-rectal, and internal/external iliac nodes (plus pre-sacral nodes for T4/N2-3 tumors).
  • CONCLUSION: IMRT is superior to 3D conformal radiation treatment for anal carcinoma with respect to OAR sparing, including bone marrow sparing.

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  • (PMID = 18005443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2204019
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3. Kim YA, Chung HC, Choi HJ, Rha SY, Seong JS, Jeung HC: Intermediate dose 5-fluorouracil-induced encephalopathy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan;36(1):55-9
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  • Here, we report a case of a male with anal cancer who was treated with 5-FU 1000 mg/m(2), continuous infusion for 5 days q4 weeks.
  • In conclusion, we report that encephalopathy can develop even with the dose of 5-FU lower than ever reported, and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for proper management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Hyperammonemia / complications. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16436463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Nilsson PJ, Rubio C, Lenander C, Auer G, Glimelius B: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Jun;16(6):893-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Markers for guidance with regard to individual prognosis and treatment planning are sought in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • This study assessed the prognostic and predictive value of tumour budding.
  • Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody for the gamma2 chain of laminin-5 was used to detect tumour budding (defined as dissociated single cancer cells or clusters of up to five cells).
  • RESULTS: Tumour budding was detected in 104 (50%) of the 209 samples.
  • No significant correlation was found between tumour budding and clinicopathological characteristics.
  • Patients with tumour budding had a statistically significantly better 5-year overall survival rate compared with patients lacking tumour budding (74% versus 64%, P <0.05).
  • Albeit not statistically significant, other outcome variables such as tumour-specific survival, recurrence after initial complete response and rate of distant metastases, were all in favour of patients with tumour budding.
  • Multivariate analysis reveals tumour budding as an independent positive prognostic factor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 immunohistochemistry may be of prognostic value in the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15821121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LAMC2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin
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5. Krengli M, Milia ME, Turri L, Mones E, Bassi MC, Cannillo B, Deantonio L, Sacchetti G, Brambilla M, Inglese E: FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:10
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: FDG-PET/CT imaging has an emerging role in staging and treatment planning of various tumor locations and a number of literature studies show that also the carcinoma of the anal canal may benefit from this diagnostic approach.
  • We analyzed the potential impact of FDG-PET/CT in stage definition and target volume delineation of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal and candidates for curative radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Twenty seven patients with biopsy proven anal carcinoma were enrolled.
  • Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) and Clinical Target Volume (CTV) were drawn on CT and on PET/CT fused images.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT has a potential relevant impact in staging and target volume delineation of the carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 20137093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851594
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6. Hohenberger W, Merkel S, Weber K: [Lymphadenectomy with tumors of the lower gastrointestinal tract]. Chirurg; 2007 Mar;78(3):217-25
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  • [Title] [Lymphadenectomy with tumors of the lower gastrointestinal tract].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphadenektomie bei Tumoren des unteren Gastrointestinaltraktes.
  • The second step is the central tying of the tumor's supplying vessels.
  • Following these rules and with no adjuvant systemic treatment, 5-year survival figures of 80% can be reached, even for UICC stage III disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Humans. Intestines / pathology. Intestines / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17333036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Kawahara H, Watanabe K, Ushigome T, Noaki R, Kobayashi S, Yanaga K: Retrograde single stapling technique for laparoscopic ultralow anterior resection. Dig Surg; 2010;27(4):261-4
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  • After the anal side of the tumor has been closed transanally, the distal line in the right lateral wall of the rectum is partially transected with laparoscopic coagulation shears (LCS).
  • After an anvil is placed in the proximal end of the colon over a purse-string suture, it is introduced to the anal canal transabdominally.
  • For the prevention of anastomotic leakage, a 24-french balloon catheter which decompresses the anastomosis is inserted through the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Stapling / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / surgery. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Anastomotic Leak. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Proctoscopy / methods. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20668381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9883
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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8. Branco BC, Sachar DB, Heimann T, Sarpel U, Harpaz N, Greenstein AJ: Adenocarcinoma complicating restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis with mucosectomy performed by Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator. Colorectal Dis; 2009 May;11(4):428-9
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  • The CUSA was introduced to simplify and optimize ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with mucosectomy and has been shown to shorten the operative time and reduce blood loss.
  • In the present case, even though preoperative colonoscopy had clearly shown dysplasia, the surgical pathology report could not detect any neoplasia in the specimen; hence, the patient was not surveyed for pouch cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colitis, Ulcerative / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / methods. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary


9. Piekarski JH, Jereczek-Fossa BA, Nejc D, Pluta P, Szymczak W, Sek P, Bilski A, Gottwald L, Jeziorski A: Does fecal diversion offer any chance for spontaneous closure of the radiation-induced rectovaginal fistula? Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):66-70
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  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / surgery. Radiation Injuries / surgery. Rectovaginal Fistula / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colostomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Retrospective Studies


10. Haddad F, Nadir S, Benkhaldoun L, Alaoui R, Cherkaoui A: [Primary anorectal melanoma]. Presse Med; 2005 Jan 29;34(2 Pt 1):85-8
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  • METHODS: Nine cases of malignant anorectal melanoma were managed in the department of gastroenterology of the Ibn Rochd university hospital in Casablanca between 1984 and 2002.
  • The tumor was blackish in 4 cases.
  • One patient had undergone abdominoperineal resection, two transanal tumor resection, and in one patient radiotherapy was applied.
  • DISCUSSION: The prognosis of anorectal melanoma is frightening because of late diagnosis and high malignancy potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Colonoscopy. Colostomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals, University. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Morocco / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rare Diseases. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15687974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Bellò M, Beltramo G, Cassoni P, Mussa A: [The technique of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with anus neoplasm]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S32-3
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  • [Title] [The technique of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with anus neoplasm].
  • [Transliterated title] La tecnica del linfonodo sentinella nei pazienti affetti da neoplasia dell'ano.
  • Anal cancer is a rare neoplasm, representing 1-2% of all large bowel cancers.
  • In order to assess inguinal lymph node status we applied the sentinel node technique to patients affected by anal cancer.
  • Considering the strong correlation between prognosis and node involvement, we consider this technique an important and simple method for evaluating the lymph node status and for an adequate pre-treatment staging of anal carcinoma. fundamental in the choice of radiation plane.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16437886.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Ilias EJ: [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2008 Sep-Oct;54(5):380-1
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  • [Title] [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?].
  • [Transliterated title] Como estadiar e tratar o carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18989550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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13. Kumar GK, Chandra SS, Krishnan R: Local excision inadequate in the treatment of anal canal leiomyosarcoma. Saudi J Gastroenterol; 2010 Jul-Sep;16(3):226-7
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  • [Title] Local excision inadequate in the treatment of anal canal leiomyosarcoma.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of the anal canal is an uncommon neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • We report a 45-year-old lady with anal canal leiomyosarcoma.
  • In the setting of a recurrent tumor with high-grade histological appearance, local excision would be deemed unsafe.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20616423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4049
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3003215
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14. Hoots BE, Palefsky JM, Pimenta JM, Smith JS: Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions. Int J Cancer; 2009 May 15;124(10):2375-83
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions.
  • A systematic review was conducted of HPV type distribution in anal cancer and anal high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL).
  • A total of 1,824 cases were included: 992 invasive anal cancers, 472 HSIL cases and 360 LSIL cases.
  • Crude HPV prevalence in anal cancer, HSIL, and LSIL was 71, 91 and 88%, respectively.
  • HPV16/18 prevalence was 72% in invasive anal cancer, 69% in HSIL and 27% in LSIL.
  • The HPV 16 and/or 18 prevalence in invasive anal cancer cases was similar to that reported in invasive cervical cancer.
  • If ongoing clinical trials show efficacy in preventing anal HPV infection and associated anal lesions, prophylactic HPV vaccines may play an important role for the primary prevention of these cancers in both genders.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Species Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19189402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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15. Zoucas E, Frederiksen S, Lydrup ML, Månsson W, Gustafson P, Alberius P: Pelvic exenteration for advanced and recurrent malignancy. World J Surg; 2010 Sep;34(9):2177-84
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  • BACKGROUND: Improved surgical techniques and oncological treatment render many advanced pelvic tumors amenable to curative resection.
  • METHODS: From January 2003 to November 2008, 85 patients underwent multivisceral pelvic resection; 87% had colorectal or anal malignancies.
  • Twenty-seven manifested disseminated disease without local recurrence, two developed isolated local recurrence, and six had local and systemic recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pelvic Exenteration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Quality of Life. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20512493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. de Jong JS, Beukema JC, van Dam GM, Slart R, Lemstra C, Wiggers T: Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2656-62
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  • [Title] Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Selection of patients with anal cancer for groin irradiation is based on tumor size, palpation, ultrasound, and fine needle cytology.
  • Current staging of anal cancer may result in undertreatment in small tumors and overtreatment of large tumors.
  • This study reports the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with anal cancer and whether this improves the selection for inguinal radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: A total of 50 patients with squamous anal cancer were evaluated prospectively.
  • Patients without a SLNB (n = 29) received irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes based on lymph node status, tumor size, and location of the primary tumor.
  • However, 2 patients with a tumor-free SLN and no inguinal irradiation developed lymph node metastases after 12 and 24 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that SLNB in anal cancer is technically feasible.
  • However, because of the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastases after a tumor-negative SLNB, introduction of this procedure as standard of care in all patients with anal carcinoma should be done with caution to avoid undertreatment of patient who otherwise would benefit from inguinal radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20865825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941712
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17. Gurzu S, Jung J, Azamfirei L, Mezei T, Cîmpean AM: The aspects of angiogenesis in anal canal carcinomas compared with that in colorectal carcinomas. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2007;48(4):349-53
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  • [Title] The aspects of angiogenesis in anal canal carcinomas compared with that in colorectal carcinomas.
  • AIM: To compare the angiogenesis in anal canal carcinomas (ACC) with that in colorectal carcinomas (CRC).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / blood supply. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood supply. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18060184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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18. Haboubi NY, Edilbe MW, Hill J: Justification for staging of epidermoid anal carcinoma after salvage surgery: a pathological guideline. Colorectal Dis; 2007 Mar;9(3):238-44
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  • [Title] Justification for staging of epidermoid anal carcinoma after salvage surgery: a pathological guideline.
  • The currently accepted first line treatment for epidermoid anal cancer is chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
  • Tumour size and adjacent organ involvement are the key in the pretreatment assessment for T1-T4 tumours respectively.
  • Residual or recurrent disease following initial CRT, is best treated by salvage anorectal excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • (PMID = 17298622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Welton ML: High resolution anoscopy and targeted treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):126
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this video is to illustrate the use of high resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • METHODS: Five patients with anal dysplasia were examined in the operating room with acetic acid and the operative microscope.
  • Acetowhite lesions with specific vascular characteristics like punctuate vessels or honeycomb patterns are highly suggestive of high-grade disease.
  • Some pigmented lesions contain high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; the operative microscope is used in this setting to look for the vascular characteristics of high-grade disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Image Enhancement. Video-Assisted Surgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16222485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Wakefield LM, Stuelten C: Keeping order in the neighborhood: new roles for TGFbeta in maintaining epithelial homeostasis. Cancer Cell; 2007 Oct;12(4):293-5
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  • TGFbetas are thought to have tumor suppressor activity in many organ systems, but receptor inactivation in mouse models has not previously resulted in increased spontaneous tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Movement. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Homeostasis. Humans. Integrins / metabolism. Keratin-14 / genetics. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Skin / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Time Factors. Urogenital Neoplasms / metabolism. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology. Wound Healing. ras Proteins / genetics. ras Proteins / metabolism. src-Family Kinases / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Cancer Cell. 2007 Oct;12(4):313-27 [17936557.001]
  • (PMID = 17936552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / KRT14 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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21. Pawlik TM, Gleisner AL, Bauer TW, Adams RB, Reddy SK, Clary BM, Martin RC, Scoggins CR, Tanabe KK, Michaelson JS, Kooby DA, Staley CA, Schulick RD, Vauthey JN, Abdalla EK, Curley SA, Choti MA, Elias D: Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2807-16
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  • Clinicopathologic factors were analyzed with regard to disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • RESULTS: Primary SCC site was anal (n = 27), head/neck (n = 12), lung (n = 4), esophagus (n = 2), and other (n = 7).
  • Factors associated with reduced DFS were liver tumor size > 5 cm (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.02) and positive surgical margin (HR = 2.33).
  • Risk factors associated with worse overall survival included synchronous disease (HR = 4.09), hepatic metastasis > 5 cm (HR = 1.71) and positive surgical resection margin (HR = 1.83).
  • Long-term survival, however, can be achieved following surgical resection of SCC liver metastasis, especially in patients who present with limited metachronous disease amenable to margin negative resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Electrocoagulation. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Prognosis. Retreatment. United States


22. Schlecht HP, Fugelso DK, Murphy RK, Wagner KT, Doweiko JP, Proper J, Dezube BJ, Panther LA: Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Jul 1;51(1):107-10
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  • [Title] Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men.
  • Human papillomavirus causes anal condylomata, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal squamous cell cancer.
  • We found high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell cancer in 75 (47%) of 159 HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) and in 42 (26%) of 160 HIV-seronegative MSM with anal condylomata meriting surgery (P<.001, determined by use of the chi(2) test).
  • Anal condylomata in MSM often harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Alphapapillomavirus. Cohort Studies. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


23. Alver O, Ersoy YE, Aydemir I, Erguney S, Teksoz S, Apaydin B, Ertem M: Use of "house" advancement flap in anorectal diseases. World J Surg; 2008 Oct;32(10):2281-6
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  • Indications were chronic anal fissure, anal stenosis, high transsphincteric fistula, low rectovaginal fistula, anal neoplasia, and obstetric third-degree perineal tear and incontinence.
  • After rectangular excision of the anal or perianal lesion, the "walls" and "roof" of the house flap were incised to the depth of ischiorectal fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / surgery. Intestinal Obstruction / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Rectum / surgery


24. Zhang J, Martins CR, Fansler ZB, Roemer KL, Kincaid EA, Gustafson KS, Heitjan DF, Clark DP: DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6544-9
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  • [Title] DNA methylation in anal intraepithelial lesions and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with human papillomavirus infection and may progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is increasing in immunocompromised patients.
  • We hypothesize that anal intraepithelial neoplasia is associated with abnormal DNA methylation and that detection of these events may be used to improve screening programs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy-six patients were identified who underwent anal cytology screening and subsequent biopsy at our institution between 1999 and 2004.
  • The specimens from these patients included 184 anal biopsies [normal, n = 57; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), n = 74; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), n = 41; and invasive SCC, n = 12] and 37 residual liquid-based anal cytology specimens (normal, n = 11; LSIL, n = 12; HSIL, n = 14).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent event in anal HSIL and SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA Methylation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / genetics. Adult. Biopsy. Carrier Proteins. Cell Adhesion Molecules. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Humans. Immunoglobulins / genetics. Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16166431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / CADM1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / HIC1 protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors; 0 / MLH1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RASSF1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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25. Palefsky JM, Rubin M: The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2009 Mar;36(1):187-200
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  • [Title] The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia.
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by a series of precancerous changes, raising the possibility that like cervical cancer, anal cancer can be prevented.
  • Further, given the known risk factors for anal cancer, prevention efforts could be targeted to high-risk groups, providing a unique example of a screening program targeted to high-risk individuals.
  • This article describes the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer among men and women, as well as current efforts to prevent anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonoscopy / methods. Human papillomavirus 11. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19344856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0474
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 085178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR02413,1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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26. Cappell MS, Batke M: Invasive cancer in a diminutive rectal polyp amidst internal hemorrhoids detected by rectal retroflexion. South Med J; 2010 Sep;103(9):943-6
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  • This case report also illustrates how easily an early cancer in a diminutive colonic polyp can be missed when in difficult areas of colonoscopic inspection, such as behind a colonic fold or immediately above the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Colonoscopy. Hemorrhoids / pathology. Intestinal Polyps / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20689479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Widder J, Kastenberger R, Fercher E, Schmid R, Langendijk JA, Dobrowsky W, Pötter R: Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):367-75
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  • [Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyse a large consecutive cohort of patients with anal cancer for treatment-related factors influencing local control and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for primary radiotherapy at Medical University of Vienna in 1990-2002 with anal canal carcinoma without distant metastases were analysed.
  • Patient-, tumour-, and treatment-factors were tested for influence on survival and local control using Cox multivariate analysis.
  • With median follow-up of 8.0 years for surviving patients (3.9 years including deceased patients), five-year overall survival and disease-free-survival were 57% and 51%, respectively.
  • Stage and age were significant factors for overall and colostomy-free-survival, N-stage for disease-free-survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results support potential improvement of anal cancer treatment by studying advanced technology such as IMRT, making it possible to tailor high-dose regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18501453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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28. Chen SY, Takeuchi S, Moroi Y, Hayashida S, Kido M, Uchi H, Takahara M, Uenotsuchi T, Tu YT, Urabe K, Furue M: Concordant over-expression of transcription factor Sp1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in extramammary Paget's disease. Int J Dermatol; 2008 Jun;47(6):562-6
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  • [Title] Concordant over-expression of transcription factor Sp1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in extramammary Paget's disease.
  • But the expression of Sp1 and VEGF has not previously been investigated in extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD).
  • METHODS: To investigate the expression of Sp1 and VEGF proteins in EMPD and to assess their relationships and potential contribution to malignant transduction of EMPD, paraffin-embedded EMPD specimens (35 tissue samples from 33 patients with primary EMPD, including two samples of metastatic lymph nodes from two patients) were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for Sp1 and VEGF.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals that the concordant over-expression of Sp1 and VEGF may play a pivotal role in the tumorigenesis and further malignant transduction of EMPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Sp1 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Urogenital Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Axilla / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18477144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Sp1 Transcription Factor; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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29. Wu J, Rosenbaum E, Begum S, Westra WH: Distribution of BRAF T1799A(V600E) mutations across various types of benign nevi: implications for melanocytic tumorigenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Dec;29(6):534-7
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  • [Title] Distribution of BRAF T1799A(V600E) mutations across various types of benign nevi: implications for melanocytic tumorigenesis.
  • Its ubiquitous presence suggests that it poses no significant threat of malignant transformation, raising doubts about its relevance in melanoma development and its suitability as a target of directed therapy in patients with melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanocytes / pathology. Mutation. Nevus / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Back / pathology. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Extremities / pathology. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Microdissection. Middle Aged. Urogenital Neoplasms / genetics. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18032947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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30. Hosono S, Ohira M, Maeda K, Muguruma K, Nishihara T, Inoue T, Yashiro M, Hirakawa K: Synchronous adenocarcinomas of the ileum and transverse colon detected by capsule endoscopy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(7):663-5
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  • Neither gastrointestinal endoscopy nor computed tomography showed by abnormal findings; however, a capsule endoscopy, performed to detect obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, revealed a tumor in the ileum.
  • When we tried to take biopsies of the ileal tumor by push enteroscopy via the anus, we found another tumor in the transverse colon.
  • On exploration, tumors were identified in the ileum and the transverse colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Capsule Endoscopy. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16794807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC: Management of anal canal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jun;48(6):1301-15
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  • [Title] Management of anal canal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy has replaced radical surgery as the initial treatment of choice for anal canal cancer.
  • The roles of these therapeutic modalities are discussed and recommendations on management of anal canal cancer are made based on currently available evidence.
  • METHODS: Literature on management of anal canal cancer from January 1970 to July 2003 obtained via MEDLINE was reviewed.
  • Reports on anal margin cancers were excluded.
  • In larger tumors, the addition of mitomycin C to radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil improves local control, colostomy-free, and disease-free survival but is associated with more acute hematologic toxicity.
  • Chemoradiotherapy, including Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, appeared to be equal or superior to surgery as salvage therapy in patients with residual disease six weeks after initial nonsurgical treatment.
  • Few studies addressed the treatment of metastatic disease, which remains a major cause of mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15793642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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32. Fonseca IB, Spitale LS, Gramática L, Cejas H, Piccinni DJ, Ghirardi G: [Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: conceptual evolution]. Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba; 2006;63(1):37-45
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  • [Title] [Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: conceptual evolution].
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) constitute the largest category of primary nonepithelial neoplasms of the stomach and small bowel.
  • They represent about 1-2% from all neoplasms of the digestive tract.
  • They occur most commonly in the stomach and small bowel, but small series of comparable tumors have also been reported in all the other parts of the tubular gastrointestinal tract, including esophagus, colon, rectum and anus.
  • Originally recognized in 1960 by Martin et. al. as a distinctive type of stromal neoplasm of the bowel, they were subsequently reported by Stout, who introduced the term leiomyoblastoma.
  • Because of difficulties in accurately predicting the biologic behavior of these tumors, the term "smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential" (SMTUMP) has been introduced for borderline tumors.
  • In 1983, Mazur and Clark coined the term gastrointestinal stromal tumor and suggested that these neoplasms might arise from the myenteric nervous system.
  • Some studies have reported evidence of neuronal cell differentiation in a proportion of GISTs and the term "gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor (GANT) has been introduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17639807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-6722
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas (Córdoba, Argentina)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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33. Das P, Bhatia S, Eng C, Ajani JA, Skibber JM, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Chang GJ, Bhosale P, Delclos ME, Krishnan S, Janjan NA, Crane CH: Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jul 1;68(3):794-800
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  • [Title] Predictors and patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate patterns of locoregional failure, and predictors of recurrence and survival in patients treated with chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between September 1992 and August 2004, 167 patients with nonmetastatic squamous cell anal carcinoma were treated with definitive chemoradiation.
  • RESULTS: The estimated 3-year rates of locoregional control, distant control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 81%, 88%, 67%, and 84%, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that higher T stage and N stage independently predicted for a higher rate of locoregional failure; higher N stage and basaloid subtype independently predicted for a higher rate of distant metastasis; and higher N stage and positive human immunodeficiency virus status independently predicted for a lower rate of overall survival.
  • Among the patients who had locoregional failure, 18 (75%) had failure involving the anus or rectum, 5 (21%) had other pelvic recurrences, and 1 (4%) had inguinal recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Trials of more aggressive and innovative locoregional and systemic therapies are warranted in high-risk patients, based on their T and N stages.
  • The majority of locoregional failures involve the anus and rectum, whereas inguinal recurrences occur rarely.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17379452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Albright JB, Bonatti H, Stauffer J, Dickson RC, Nguyen J, Harnois D, Jeanpierre C, Hinder R, Steers J, Chua H, Aranda-Michel J: Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7):657-66
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  • [Title] Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease.
  • Data on neoplasms of the colon, rectum and anus in LT are limited.
  • METHOD: A retrospective evaluation of the incidence and clinical course of colorectal and anal malignancies and colonic polyps in a series of 467 consecutive LTs in 402 individuals between 1998 and 2001 was performed.
  • RESULTS: During a median follow up of 5.2 years, three colon adenocarcinomas, one EBV associated cecal posttransplant lymphoproliferative tumour and two HPV associated anal tumours were identified.
  • Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a significantly higher rate of adenoma formation (50.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001).
  • No patient died from colorectal/anal malignancy.
  • Viral-associated malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and anal cancer, are important entities in the LT population suggesting that complete screening of the colon, rectum and anus including pre-LT and post-LT colonoscopy should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19508543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • Twelve pts had undergone a surgical resection of the tumour before radiotherapy.
  • In multivariate analysis, a pre-radiotherapy resection (p=0.084) had an inverse impact on the tumour control reaching the level of statistical significance and the use of a belly board was of marginal influence (p=0.13).
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Patient Positioning. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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36. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • External radiotherapy (RT) was delivered at the whole pelvis followed by a boost at the primary tumor.
  • The median dose of RT at the whole pelvis and at the primary tumor was 45 Gy and 55 Gy, respectively.
  • Patient's age, tumor stage, overall treatment time, and RT dose at primary tumor were variables analyzed for survival and local control.
  • According to the RT dose, local control was higher among patients who received more than 50 Gy at primary tumor (86.5% vs. 34%, p = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • Local control was higher in patients treated with doses of more than 50 Gy at primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Kreuter A, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated diseases in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2009 Apr;22(2):109-14
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  • This review summarizes recent data on papillomavirus-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in these patients.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia rises in HIV-positive men who have sex with men despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Increasing evidence indicates that high-grade lesions can progress to anal cancer over time.
  • Anal cytology has been recommended as the primary screening tool for anal dysplasia in the at-risk population.
  • Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defining tumors in HIV-infected individuals.
  • In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the outcome of combined chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals with anal cancer is similar to that in HIV-negative persons.
  • SUMMARY: Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines should be implemented for at-risk populations for anal dysplasia/anal cancer, such as HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • More study is required to get better insights into the natural history of penile and oral HPV-associated benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology


38. Rouzier R, Preti M, Sideri M, Paniel BJ, Jones RW: A suggested modification to FIGO stage III vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jul;110(1):83-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: FIGO Stage III vulvar cancer includes tumors that invade the lower urethra, vagina, or anus, and/or tumors that have metastasized to the inguino-femoral lymph nodes of one groin.
  • Overall survival (OS) was measured as the time from diagnosis to the date of death or last follow-up.
  • The survival difference between stage III patients with locally advanced vulvar cancer and stage III patients with regional metastatic node(s) disease was highly significant (P<10(-10)).
  • The 5-year and 10-year OS of patients with locally advanced vulvar tumors without metastatic nodes were 62% and 47%, respectively.
  • The 5-year and 10-year OS of patients with regional metastatic node(s) disease were 39% and 27%, respectively.
  • Separating locally advanced stage III and regional metastatic stage III disease would improve discrimination (concordance index: 72% vs 69% with the actual staging system).
  • CONCLUSION: Involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes in FIGO (1988) stage III patients carries a significantly worse prognosis compared with invasion of the lower urethra, vagina or anus alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18436291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Nadal LR, Horta SH, Manzione CR: [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Mar-Apr;53(2):147-51
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  • [Title] [Anal cytology for screening of pre-neoplasic lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Citologia anal para rastreamento de lesões pré-neoplásicas.
  • BACKGROUND: High grade intra-epithelial neoplasias (HAIN) are probable precursors of anal carcinoma, with association to high-risk types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate if anal cytology, with a cytobrush, could be useful to screen clinic and pre-clinic lesions provoked by HPV.
  • METHODS: Brushes were used to obtain smears from the anal canal of 102 HIV-positive patients with proctologic complaints.
  • HPV infection was denied by 33 patients, 14 had treated anal warts in the past, 28 had condylomas in the anal verge, seven had internal clinical lesions and 20 had both internal and external condylomas.
  • One patient with HAIN, without a history of HPV infection in the past, presented an anal canal ulcer which at biopsy was diagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Results suggest that cytology could be used to diagnose anal cancer precursors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology

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  • (PMID = 17568919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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40. Ferri M, Laghi A, Mingazzini P, Iafrate F, Meli L, Ricci F, Passariello R, Ziparo V: Pre-operative assessment of extramural invasion and sphincteral involvement in rectal cancer by magnetic resonance imaging with phased-array coil. Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jul;7(4):387-93
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  • The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to predict tumour stage and sphincter status.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with a rectal tumour were pre-operatively assessed by MRI with a phased-array coil.
  • RESULTS: The overall accuracy of pre-operative staging with MRI was 88% (k = 0.75) for extramural tumour invasion and 59% (k = 0.26) for lymph node metastases.
  • MRI correctly evaluated the infiltration of the anal sphincters in 87% of patients (7 of 8 patients with low rectal tumour).
  • CONCLUSION: MRI provides the surgeon with valuable information regarding extramural tumour spread and sphincteral involvement, enabling appropriate selection of patients for pre-operative adjuvant therapy or sphincter-saving surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / instrumentation. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colectomy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 15932564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Rousset P, Hoeffel C: [Tumors of the rectum: MRI and CT features]. J Radiol; 2007 Nov;88(11 Pt 1):1679-87
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  • [Title] [Tumors of the rectum: MRI and CT features].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs du rectum: aspects IRM et scanner.
  • The imaging features of rectal tumors on CT and MRI are reviewed.
  • MRI is the imaging modality of choice for loco-regional staging, and may provide clues as to the histological nature of some tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Adenoma, Villous / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / radiography. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / radiography. Humans. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Leiomyoma / radiography. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / radiography. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / radiography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18065927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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42. Gurfinkel R, Walfisch S: Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Dec;9(3):235-6
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  • [Title] Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis.
  • The optimal treatment of metastatic anal carcinomas is controversial.
  • We present the case of 54-year-old woman with a diagnosis of metastatic basaloid anal carcinoma.
  • The patient underwent resection of liver metastasis in combination with cisplatin + 5FU and local radiotherapy, without evident disease 3 years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16328122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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43. Chuwa EW, Seow-Choen F: Outcomes for abdominoperineal resections are not worse than those of anterior resections. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):41-9
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  • Independent predictors for local recurrence included advanced tumor stage, tumor depth, and poorly differentiated tumors.
  • The type of anastomosis did not influence disease-free survival with median disease-free survival for patients who underwent abdominoperineal resections being 100 months, survival of anterior resections with straight anastomoses being 135 months, and survival of anterior resections with pouch anastomoses being 121 months (P = 0.33 by log-rank test).
  • The independent factors for poor survival were age greater than 65 years, advanced tumor stage, tumor depth, and poorly differentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Colectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Peritoneum / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16283562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Chapet O, Gerard JP, Mornex F, Goncalves-Tavan S, Ardiet JM, D'hombres A, Favrel V, Romestaing P: Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Feb;22(2):191-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience.
  • BACKGROUND: To report our patient experience with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and to evaluate the prognostic factors influencing outcome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 2001, 26 patients with anal margin squamous cell carcinoma were treated in Lyon-Sud: 7 T1, 14 T2, 4 T3, and 1 T4 with 20 N0, 3 N1, and 3 N2.
  • The anal canal was invaded in five patients.
  • Three factors correlated with specific survival: cell differentiation (P=0.038) and T (P=0.001) and N category (P=0.0005).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the dominating place of definitive irradiation and radiochemotherapy in the treatment of anal margin squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma is correlated to T and N staging and cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. France. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1983 Apr 1;51(7):1291-6 [6825051.001]
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  • (PMID = 16799791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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45. Myerson RJ, Outlaw ED, Chang A, Birnbaum EH, Fleshman JW, Grigsby PW, Kodner IJ, Malayapa RS, Mutch MG, Parikh P, Picus J, Tan BR: Radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus: thirty years' experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Oct 1;75(2):428-35
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus: thirty years' experience.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 61 months, 57 patients had persistence or recurrence, 9 of whom were successfully salvaged, resulting in 146 (75%) ultimately free of disease (UNED).
  • Univariate analysis for UNED survival showed a strong association with the T and N stage (5-year UNED rate, 88.5% +/- 3.4% for those with Stage T1-T2N0; 70.1% +/- 4.2% for Stage T3N0; and 52.7% +/- 6.6% for Stage III; p > .001) and mobility on palpation (5-year UNED rate, 89.2% +/- 4.6% for those with mobile tumors vs. 59.3% +/- 6.1% for those with tethered/fixed tumor; p > .001).
  • The radiotherapy factors associated with Grade 3 or greater late morbidity included anorectal morbidity with tumor dose (29% with a dose > or =55 Gy vs. 9% otherwise), small bowel injury with technique (9% with anteroposterior-posteroanterior supine vs. 0.7% with multiple fields prone), and bone injury with femoral head dose (9% with a dose of > or =44 Gy vs. 0.7% otherwise).
  • Of the 194 patients, 56 had 68 additional malignancies, mainly either antedating the anal cancer or outside the radiation fields.
  • Tumor mobility significantly predicts the outcome; the implications for management are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / trends. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Hospitals, University. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Missouri. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salvage Therapy / methods


46. Jimenez AM: Laparoscopically assisted vulvocolpohysterectomy and abdominoperineal resection with sigmoid vaginal replacement. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2010 May-Jun;17(3):379-82
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  • BACKGROUND: In this report, we discuss the feasibility of laparoscopy for the resection of recurrent invasive vulvar cancer involving the vagina and anus (stage IVA), requiring radical surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colon, Sigmoid / surgery. Hysterectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Vagina / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20417431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Berton F, Gola G, Wilson SR: Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jun;190(6):1495-504
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  • [Title] Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal.
  • OBJECTIVE: Intestinal sonography is characterized by excellent resolution of the multiple layers of the intestinal wall and sensitive depiction of the degree of invasion of rectal tumors.
  • Our purpose is to describe the current status of sonography in the evaluation of rectal and anal tumors and in the staging of rectal cancer.
  • They are considered the reference standard for the preoperative staging of rectal and anal cancers and have relatively high accuracy in categorization of tumors and nodes in TNM staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography. Vagina / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18492898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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48. Kawano N, Tashiro M, Taguchi M, Kihara Y, Yoshikawa I, Syukuwa K, Yamasaki M, Kume K, Otsuki M: [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Nov;105(11):1627-33
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  • [Title] [Combined treatment with dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta in a patient with advanced anorectal malignant melanoma].
  • A 73-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having advanced anorectal malignant melanoma (Stage IV), was treated with combination chemotherapy using dacarbazine, nimustine, cisplatin, and tamoxifen plus interferon-beta.
  • After the first course of chemotherapy, rectal tumor was decreased in size with less anal pain and liver tumor was disappeared.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Humans. Interferon-beta / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nimustine / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18987448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0S726V972K / Nimustine; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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49. Chapet O, Gerard JP, Riche B, Alessio A, Mornex F, Romestaing P: Prognostic value of tumor regression evaluated after first course of radiotherapy for anal canal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Dec 1;63(5):1316-24
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  • [Title] Prognostic value of tumor regression evaluated after first course of radiotherapy for anal canal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the tumor response after an initial course of irradiation predicts for colostomy-free survival and overall survival in patients with anal canal cancer.
  • An evaluation of tumor regression, before the boost, was available for 221 patients.
  • They were divided into four groups according to the tumor response: <70%, 70-80%, >80% but <100%, and 100%.
  • The disease-free survival rate was 60.0% +/- 3.3% and 49.4% +/- 3.9% at 5 and 10 years, respectively.
  • Two groups could be differentiated according to the percentage of tumor regression before the boost: >80% vs. < or = 80%.
  • The group with a T3-T4 lesion and tumor regression < or = 80% had the poorest overall (52.8% +/- 12.3%), disease-free (19.9% +/- 9.9%), and colostomy-free survival (24.8% +/- 11.2%) rates.
  • CONCLUSION: The amount of tumor regression before EBRT or brachytherapy boost is a strong prognostic factor of disease control without colostomy.
  • When regression is < or = 80% in patients with an initial T3-T4 lesion, the use of conservative RT should be carefully evaluated because of the very poor disease-free and colostomy-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brachytherapy. Colostomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Iridium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16169674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iridium Radioisotopes
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50. Samalavicius NE, Rudinskaite G, Pavalkis D, Latkauskas T, Kaselis N, Sidlauskas Z, Sniuolis P, Poskus T, Kvedaras V, Strupas K, Poskus E: [Laparoscopic surgery for malignancies of the colon, rectum, and anus in Lithuania in 2008]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2009;45(6):447-51
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic surgery for malignancies of the colon, rectum, and anus in Lithuania in 2008].
  • THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY: was to analyze data on laparoscopic surgery for malignant diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus in Lithuania during the period of January 1, 2005, to February 15, 2008.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the above-mentioned period in Lithuania, 130 laparoscopic surgeries for malignancies of colon, rectum, and anus were performed in seven different hospitals.
  • Twenty-seven (20.8%) patients had stage I, 45 (34.6%) stage II, 45 (34.6%) stage III, and 13 (10%) stage IV disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery for malignant diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus is dominating among laparoscopic surgeries for colorectum.
  • To evaluate disease relapse and outcomes, observation time is not sufficient yet.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Colon / pathology. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Lithuania. Male. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Rectum / pathology. Reoperation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19605964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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51. Bège T, Turrini O, Lelong B, Delpero JR: Pelvic cancer recurrence: drop the arrow in the target. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Apr;19(2):e41-2
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  • CASE: A 53-year-old woman presented in 2006 with a small (20 mm) pelvic recurrence of an anal canal cancer initially treated by radiochemotherapy and amputation of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19390261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Winton Ed, Heriot AG, Ng M, Hicks RJ, Hogg A, Milner A, Leong T, Fay M, MacKay J, Drummond E, Ngan SY: The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer. Br J Cancer; 2009 Mar 10;100(5):693-700
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  • [Title] The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer.
  • Accurate inguinal and pelvic nodal staging in anal cancer is important for the prognosis and planning of radiation fields.
  • We aimed to determine the effect of FDG-PET on the nodal staging, radiotherapy planning and prognostication of patients with primary anal cancer.
  • Sixty-one consecutive patients with anal cancer who were referred to a tertiary centre between August 1997 and November 2005 were staged with conventional imaging (CIm) (including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and chest X-ray) and by FDG-PET.
  • The tumour-stage group was changed in 23% (14 out of 61) as a result of FDG-PET (15% up-staged, 8% down-staged).
  • Sensitivity for nodal regional disease by FDG-PET and CIm was 89% and 62%, respectively.
  • The estimated 5-year PFS for FDG-PET and CIm staged N2-3 disease was 70% (95% CI: 42.8-87.9%) and 55.3% (95% CI: 23.3-83.4%), respectively.
  • FDG-PET shows increased sensitivity over CIm for staging nodal disease in anal cancer and changes treatment intent or radiotherapy prescription in a significant proportion of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19259091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653751
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53. Martellucci J, Naldini G, Colosimo C, Cionini L, Rossi M: Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. Surg Endosc; 2009 May;23(5):1054-7
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  • [Title] Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiochemotherapy has largely replaced surgery in the treatment for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Transanal ultrasonography is well documented as an important investigation method in the management of anal carcinoma.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the study of the postradiation findings and to distinguish between postradiation fibrosis, residual tumor, and local recurrence.
  • METHODS: The study enrolled 16 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven squamous carcinoma of the anal canal between 2003 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients had stage uT2 disease; none had uT3 disease; and seven had uT4 disease.
  • There was no evidence of residual tumor in the T2 group after treatment.
  • In the T4 patients after treatment, ultrasound demonstrated tumor regression or abnormalities considered to be radiation-induced changes rather than residual diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoanal ultrasound is a safe and effective method for evaluating and following anal cancer before and after treatment.
  • Experience and evaluation during the period of the ultrasonographic abnormalities could give a clear idea concerning the evolution of the anal tumors treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography

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  • (PMID = 18813993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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54. Straatsma BR, Nusinowitz S, Young TA, Gordon LK, Chun MW, Rosen C, Seja E, Economou JS, Glaspy JA, Bozon V, Gomez-Navarro J, Ribas A: Surveillance of the eye and vision in clinical trials of CP-675,206 for metastatic melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2007 Jun;143(6):958-969
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  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Blocking / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Immunoconjugates / immunology. Immunotherapy. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasms / therapy. Ocular Physiological Phenomena. Vision, Ocular / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abatacept. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Electrooculography. Electroretinography. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Humans. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Prospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17434437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Blocking; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunoconjugates; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 7D0YB67S97 / Abatacept; QEN1X95CIX / tremelimumab
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55. Uronis HE, Bendell JC: Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist; 2007 May;12(5):524-34
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: an overview.
  • Anal cancer is a rare tumor with an incidence that has been rising over the last 25 years.
  • The disease was once thought to develop as a result of chronic irritation, but it is now known that this is not the case.
  • HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there is a higher incidence in HIV-positive patients but the direct relationship between HIV and anal cancer has been difficult to separate from the prevalence of HPV in this population.
  • HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there are increasing numbers of HIV-positive patients being diagnosed with the disease.
  • Treatment of anal cancer prior to the 1970s involved abdominoperineal resection, but the standard of care is now concurrent chemoradiation therapy, with surgery reserved for those patients with residual disease.
  • We present a case of anal cancer followed by a general discussion of both risk factors and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17522240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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56. Chang GJ, Gonzalez RJ, Skibber JM, Eng C, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Aug;52(8):1375-80
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  • [Title] A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy with limited data regarding treatment and outcomes.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate disease control and survival outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective consecutive cohort study of all patients in whom adenocarcinoma of the anal canal was diagnosed between 1983 and 2004 was performed.
  • Tumor, patient, and treatment characteristics were categorized.
  • Median disease-free survival was 13 months after local excision and 32 months after radical surgery (P = 0.055).
  • Tumor grade was predictive of overall survival (P = 0.04) and recurrence (P = 0.046).
  • On multivariate analysis, the type of surgical treatment was an important predictor of overall survival (P = 0.045) and disease-free survival (P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined modality treatment with radical surgical resection improves survival among patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal, but a high risk for distant failure emphasizes the need for effective adjuvant therapeutic regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Texas / epidemiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19617747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Roach SC, Hulse PA, Moulding FJ, Wilson R, Carrington BM: Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer. Clin Radiol; 2005 Oct;60(10):1111-9
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary and recurrent anal carcinoma, and to demonstrate the commonest patterns of local and distant disease spread.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 27 cases of biopsy-proven anal carcinoma, where MRI was used for primary staging (9 patients) or suspected recurrence (18 patients).
  • The size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumour were documented.
  • Metastatic disease spread to lymph nodes, viscera and bone was recorded.
  • In all, 7 patients with recurrent disease underwent surgery and subsequent histological correlation was performed.
  • Lymph node metastases were of similar signal intensity to the anal cancer.
  • Recurrent lymph node disease involved perirectal, presacral and internal iliac nodes more commonly than did primary lymph node disease.
  • MR has a role in the preoperative evaluation and surgical planning of cases of recurrent disease following radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16179172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Nilsson PJ, Ragnarsson-Olding BK: Importance of clear resection margins in anorectal malignant melanoma. Br J Surg; 2010 Jan;97(1):98-103
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  • [Title] Importance of clear resection margins in anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • Seventy-two patients in whom an R0 resection was achieved, irrespective of approach, had a significantly better overall 5-year survival rate than patients with involved margins (19 versus 6 per cent; P < 0.001).
  • Multivariable analysis showed resection status and tumour stage to be independent prognostic variables.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20013935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Grabenbauer GG, Kessler H, Matzel KE, Sauer R, Hohenberger W, Schneider IH: Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Sep;48(9):1742-51
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  • [Title] Tumor site predicts outcome after radiochemotherapy in squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal region: long-term results of 101 patients.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the long-term results following radiochemotherapy in patients with anal squamous-cell carcinoma and to evaluate the impact of tumor location on response, survival, and colostomy-free survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 2001, a total of 101 patients with anal carcinoma were registered for curative treatment, of whom 77 had involvement of the anal canal alone, 10 cases had extension into the perianal skin, and 14 patients had pure anal margin tumors.
  • Small tumors of the anal margin were not included since they were treated by surgical excision only.
  • Seventy-one patients had no evidence of nodal disease, whereas 30 presented with involved regional nodes.
  • Radiation treatment was directed to the primary tumor region and to the inguinal, perirectal, and internal iliac nodes using a three-field to four-field box technique with 10MV photons up to a total dose of 5040 cGy.
  • Lesions greater than 5 cm received an additional boost by interstitial or external radiation depending on circumferential extension of the residual tumor.
  • RESULTS: Overall survival and colostomy-free survival rates for patients with anal canal cancer were 75 percent and 87 percent at five years, respectively.
  • Patients with anal margin cancer had a less favorable outcome with five-year-overall and colostomy-free survival rates of 54 percent and 69 percent, respectively.
  • After correction for imbalance between anal canal and anal margin tumors, i.e., exclusion of T1 tumors of the anal canal, difference in overall survival remained significant (73 percent vs. 54 percent, P = 0.01).
  • Following multivariate analysis, tumor location (anal canal vs. anal margin, P = 0.02), age (P = 0.003), and dose intensity of chemotherapy (< or =75 percent vs. >75 percent, P = 0.03) remained independent significant factors for overall survival.
  • Initial tumor response at six weeks (P = 0.03) was predictive for colostomy-free survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With colostomy-free survival rates around 85 percent, long-term treatment results for anal canal carcinoma have reached a satisfactory level.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15991058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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60. Chou YP, Saito Y, Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Mashimo Y, Moriya Y, Shimoda T: Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Endoscopy; 2009;41 Suppl 2:E283-5
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  • [Title] Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods. Dissection / methods. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors


61. Yeh JJ, Weiser MR, Shia J, Hwu WJ: Response of stage IV anal mucosal melanoma to chemotherapy. Lancet Oncol; 2005 Jun;6(6):438-9
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  • [Title] Response of stage IV anal mucosal melanoma to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15925823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Laytragoon-Lewin N, Nilsson PJ, Castro J, Gharizadeh B, Nyren P, Glimelius B, Elmberger G, Turesson I, Svensson C: Human papillomavirus (HPV), DNA aberrations and cell cycle progression in anal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Anticancer Res; 2007 Nov-Dec;27(6C):4473-9
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV), DNA aberrations and cell cycle progression in anal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
  • In this study, the role of HPV in 72 patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma was investigated.
  • RESULTS: Ninety percent of the carcinoma biopsies carried high-risk oncogenic HPV in their malignant cells.
  • The HPV genome in the tumour cell influenced significantly the host cell cycle progression, but not DNA aberrations.
  • Within these patients, HPVstatus in the malignant cells was not found to be associated with patient survival time.
  • CONCLUSION: High-risk oncogenic HPV may play an important role in the initiation of host cell proliferation in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Papillomaviridae. Tumor Virus Infections

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  • (PMID = 18214063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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63. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: High-resolution anoscopy is colposcopy of the anus after applying 3 percent acetic acid.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Badgwell BD, Chang GJ, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Smith K, Lupo PJ, Frankowski RF, Delclos G, Du XL, Cormier J: Management and outcomes of anorectal infection in the cancer patient. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2752-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: The study cohort was identified from International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes for diagnosis of infection of the anal and rectal region and patients who underwent a surgical oncology consultation at The University of Texas M.D.
  • Factors associated with surgical intervention based on logistic multivariable analysis included diagnosis of an abscess [odds ratio (OR) 10.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9-38.5] and documentation of erythema on physical examination (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.4).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / therapy. Bacterial Infections / therapy. Neoplasms / microbiology. Rectal Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19649556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
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65. Takashima A, Shimada Y, Hamaguchi T, Ito Y, Masaki T, Yamaguchi S, Kondo Y, Saito N, Kato T, Ohue M, Higashino M, Moriya Y, Colorectal Cancer Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group: Current therapeutic strategies for anal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;14(5):416-20
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  • [Title] Current therapeutic strategies for anal squamous cell carcinoma in Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: In Western countries, chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is well established as the standard therapy for stages II/III anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC).
  • In Japan, the therapeutic modalities for and outcomes of this disease have not been clarified because ASCC is quite rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19856049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Investigator] Kondo Y; Ohtsuka K; Shiiba K; Sato T; Yoshimi F; Kotake K; Sawada T; Mochizuki H; Konishi F; Saito N; Moriya Y; Masaki T; Aoki T; Takahashi K; Hasegawa H; Kenichi S; Sumiyama Y; Sato T; Akaike M; Kudo S; Yamada T; Munakata Y; Shigeski Y; Kato T; Maeda K; Koizumi K; Monden M; Ohue M; Higashino M; Tanigawa M; Fukunaga M; Kato T; Okamura S; Kimura H; Okajima M; Takakura N; Tanada M; Shirouzu K; Kitano S
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66. Oehler-Jänne C, Seifert B, Lütolf UM, Studer G, Glanzmann C, Ciernik IF: Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma. Brachytherapy; 2007 Jul-Sep;6(3):218-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome after definitive whole pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by brachytherapy (BT) boost after treatment break vs. external beam boost without break in the treatment of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty-one consecutive patients with invasive anal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy (CT) with mitomycin C was applied during whole pelvis EBRT depending on tumor stage.
  • Pattern of care, local disease control (LC), cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), toxicity, and quality of life (QOL) were assessed.
  • In early stage tumors, (192)Ir-HDR BT boost with CT resulted in a 5-year LC and CSS of 100%.
  • In all patients, BT boost did not result in improved LC, OS, and CSS compared with EBRT boost, despite stage and treatment bias favoring small tumors to be treated with BT.
  • Subgroup analysis of Stages I and II disease revealed no significant improvement after BT boost compared with EBRT boost.
  • BT boost is most beneficial in early stage tumors but the advantage of BT seems to be limited due to its invasiveness, doctor dependence, and logistic circumstances.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Carcinoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Equipment Design. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17681244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4721
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Karandikar SS, Borley A, Crosby T, Williams G, Reynolds S, Radcliffe AG: A five-year audit of anal cancer in Wales. Colorectal Dis; 2006 May;8(4):266-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A five-year audit of anal cancer in Wales.
  • OBJECTIVES: A retrospective audit has been undertaken of Squamous (epidermoid) type of anal cancer diagnosed and treated in the principality of Wales over a five-year period (1995-99) with follow-up until 2005.
  • Twenty-six anal cancers were diagnosed per year in the region.
  • Ten percent had documented perianal Human Papilloma Virus related disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is a unique regional audit of anal cancer.
  • This study concurs that Human Papilloma Virus appears to predispose to Squamous anal cancer.
  • As recommended by NICE all patients should be referred to a multidisciplinary anal cancer team, which can provide individual treatment plans.
  • Increased specialization could mean specialist regional MDTs for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Wales / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16630228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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68. Kinjo T, Suzui M, Morioka T, Nabandith V, Inamine M, Kaneshiro T, Arakaki J, Nishimaki T, Yoshimi N: Distribution of preneoplastic lesions and tumors, and beta-catenin gene mutations in colon carcinomas induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine plus dextran sulfate sodium. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar;25(1):89-95
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  • [Title] Distribution of preneoplastic lesions and tumors, and beta-catenin gene mutations in colon carcinomas induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine plus dextran sulfate sodium.
  • Colon tissues were divided into 10 segments from anus to cecum (A/J) and stained with Alcian blue (AB) to identify MDF.
  • We found that MDF and tumors were induced in the rat colon after treatment with DMH plus DSS and that the number of MDF in each segment of the colon was significantly correlated with that of tumors (p=0.006).
  • In addition, we found that the beta-catenin protein was accumulated in cytoplasm and nuclei of MDF and the frequent beta-catenin gene mutations in the colon tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine. Carcinogens. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Dextran Sulfate / pharmacology. Mutation. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Colon / pathology. Dimethylhydrazines / metabolism. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 16761624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Dimethylhydrazines; 0 / beta Catenin; 9042-14-2 / Dextran Sulfate; IX068S9745 / 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
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69. Lanteri R, Aliotta I, Racalbuto A, Licata A: Anal GIST in older old patient: a case report. G Chir; 2005 Apr;26(4):135-7
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  • [Title] Anal GIST in older old patient: a case report.
  • It is generally difficult to determine if they are to be considered as a benign or malignant neoplastic disease.
  • We present the case of a patient with recurrence of anal GIST who was examined 8 years after the first treatment.
  • During rectal exploration we found a mass spreading inside the lumen 3 cm from the anal verge.
  • Colonoscopy showed that the tumour, which was 7 x 5 cm in size, was inside the wall with normal mucosa.
  • The patient was discharged 5 days after surgery and is alive; she only showed a small local recurrence of disease 30 months after treatment.
  • Histological examination confirmed that the tumour was a GIST This case provides the basis for a discussion about characteristics and the evolution of this group of pathologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16035248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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70. Sheikh M, Hussein AY, Kehinde EO, Al-Saeed O, Rad AB, Ali YM, Anim JT: Patients' tolerance and early complications of transrectal sonographically guided prostate biopsy: prospective study of 300 patients. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Dec;33(9):452-6
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  • The reasons for referral were suspected prostate cancer due to increased serum prostate-specific antigen level (>4 ng/ml), the finding of a palpable nodule or greater firmness of one prostatic lobe than the other on digital rectal examination, or the finding of a suspicious area of neoplasm of the prostate on TRS biopsy.
  • They included mild pain, self-limiting hematuria, hematospermia, rectal bleeding, severe hematuria, septicemia, severe hemorrhage of the anus, and vasovagal attack.
  • The procedure was terminated in 1 patient, and 6 patients required local anesthetic due to perianal disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anesthesia, Local. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Prostatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Rectum. Sepsis / etiology. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16281270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Christensen AF, Nyhuus B, Nielsen MB: Interobserver and intraobserver variation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional anal endosonography in the evaluation of recurrent anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Mar;52(3):484-8
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  • [Title] Interobserver and intraobserver variation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional anal endosonography in the evaluation of recurrent anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver agreement of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) anal endosonography for the detection of local recurrence anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients were treated for anal carcinoma, and seven had recurrent disease.
  • The observers scored each examination according to the following scale regarding presence of local recurrence: 1 = no finding/benign findings; 2 = properly benign findings; 3 = suspicious findings/malignant findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional endosonography proved to have significantly better interobserver and intraobserver agreement than 2-D endosonography concerning detection of recurrent anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19333050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Iesalnieks I, Gaertner WB, Glass H, Strauch U, Hipp M, Agha A, Schlitt HJ: Fistula-associated anal adenocarcinoma in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2010 Oct;16(10):1643-8
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  • [Title] Fistula-associated anal adenocarcinoma in Crohn's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma arising from perianal fistulae in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) is rare.
  • We present 6 patients with CD and fistula-associated anal adenocarcinoma (FAAA) and a systematic review of published series.
  • The average age at time of diagnosis was 45.5 years.
  • Four patients died with metastatic disease, 1 is alive with pelvic recurrence at 55 months, and 1 is alive without evidence of disease at 19 months follow-up.
  • Mean delay of cancer diagnosis was 11 months.
  • Thirteen of 15 patients with node-positive tumors died with recurrent disease following surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Crohn Disease / complications. Rectal Fistula / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


73. Spugnini EP, Filipponi M, Romani L, Dotsinsky I, Mudrov N, Baroni A, Ruocco E, Laieta MT, Montesarchio V, Cassandro R, Citro G, Baldi A: Local control and distant metastasis after electrochemotherapy of a canine anal melanoma. In Vivo; 2007 Sep-Oct;21(5):897-9
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  • [Title] Local control and distant metastasis after electrochemotherapy of a canine anal melanoma.
  • Canine anal melanoma is an aggressive neoplasm that rapidly leads to constipation in dogs, thus mimicking the behavior of their human counterpart.
  • In this paper, the successful local palliation of this neoplasm is described using cisplatin selectively driven within the tumor cells by trains of biphasic pulses.
  • The dog experienced tumor reduction with restoration of normal defecation for three months, then experienced massive dissemination to the sublumbar lymph nodes that led to intestinal obstruction and euthanasia.
  • Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a safe palliative therapy for such neoplasm and warrants further investigations in dogs as well humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Dog Diseases / pathology. Electrochemotherapy. Melanoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18019432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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74. Clark J, Cleator S, Goldin R, Lowdell C, Darzi A, Ziprin P: Treatment of primary rectal squamous cell carcinoma by primary chemoradiotherapy: should surgery still be considered a standard of care? Eur J Cancer; 2008 Nov;44(16):2340-3
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  • Rectal squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumour accounting for only 0.25% of all rectal carcinomas, yet it carries a significant mortality and morbidity.
  • Radical surgery has been advocated as the primary treatment modality with or without adjunctive therapies despite the proven benefits of primary chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anus.
  • All patients demonstrated significant tumour regression, and surgery to the primary tumour was avoided in all but one of these cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18707873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Vietharsdóttir H, Moeller PH, Jóhannsson J, Jónasson JG: [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study]. Laeknabladid; 2006 May;92(5):365-72
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  • [Title] [Anal cancer in Iceland 1987-2003. A population based study].
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare disease.
  • The aim of this study was to describe anal cancer in Iceland in 1987-2003 with respect to incidence, histologic type, treatment, recurrence rate and survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study in which all malignant anal tumours diagnosed in Iceland in the period 1987-2003 were reviewed with respect to patient outcome.
  • This is a nationwide, population-based study of malignant tumours of the anal region.
  • RESULTS: From 1987-2003 thirty-eight patients were diagnosed with anal cancer, 28 females and 10 males.
  • The average age at diagnosis was 63.4 years.
  • Age standardized incidence rates for anal cancer in Iceland were 0.3 (+/-0.2) of 100.000 males and 0.9 (+/-0.4) of 100.000 females.
  • The remaining histologic types were malignant melanoma (n=3), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1), adenocarcinoma (n=1), GIST (n=1) and undifferentiated carcinoma (n=2).
  • The duration of symptoms before diagnosis ranged from 2 weeks to 96 months (mean value 3.5 months).
  • The mean value of the time from diagnosis of the primary to the recurrent cancer was 15.6 months (range, 5.9-117).
  • Sixteen patients remain with disease and ten have died of anal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Age-standardized incidence for anal cancer in Iceland is similar to other regions.
  • Average age at diagnosis, male-female ratio and prognosis is similar to reports in other studies.
  • The proportion of adenocarcinoma of the anus is lower in Iceland than elsewhere.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Defecation. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pain / etiology. Pruritus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16741319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-7213
  • [Journal-full-title] Læknablađiđ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laeknabladid
  • [Language] ice
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iceland
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76. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: At the end of RT with concomitant chemotherapy local tumor clinical complete response rate was 83%.
  • Out of 5 local tumor relapses, 3 were salvaged with APR.
  • The overall local tumor control (LC) rate with or without salvage local treatment were 88%.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • The 5-year disease-free survival was 75%.
  • After multivariate analysis, 2 independent predicting factors significantly influenced the disease-free survival: HIV-positive pts (negative vs positive, P=0.032) and clinical tumor response after the first course of radiotherapy (<50% vs >or=50%, P=0.00032).
  • Late severe complication was observed in 3 pts: 2 pts with painful necrosis of the anus requiring colostomy and 1 pt with grade 3 rectal bleeding.
  • The clinical tumor response after the first course of RT and concomitant chemotherapy is probably the most important predictive factor on the disease-free survival.
  • For patients with T3 or T4 lesion and tumor regression <or=50% after the first course of radiation therapy, surgical non conservative treatment should be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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77. Eng C: Anal cancer: current and future methodology. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):535-44
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: current and future methodology.
  • Despite the small number of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal it remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16939964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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78. Oono Y, Fu K, Nakamura H, Iriguchi Y, Yamamura A, Kishi D, Oda J, Ikematsu H, Mizutani M, Takayanagi S, Tomino Y: Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal. Endoscopy; 2010;42 Suppl 2:E183-4
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  • [Title] Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Colonoscopes. Diagnostic Imaging / instrumentation. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


79. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • There were no differences between patients with relapse (n=22) or persistence (n=15) of disease.
  • On multivariate analyses, disease stage (P=0.05) and completion of radiotherapy (P=0.01) remained significant predictors of relapse-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. New York / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Walts AE, Bose S: BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):246-51
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  • [Title] BD ProEx C immunostaining in extramammary Paget's disease and perineal melanoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of perineal biopsies can include squamous intraepithelial lesions, extramammary Paget's disease, and melanoma.
  • Immunostaining for ProEx C has been validated in cervical cytology and positive staining has also been shown to be strongly associated with human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in biopsies.
  • We observed positive staining for ProEx C in Paget cells in all of 26 cases of Paget's disease irrespective of tissue site (extramammary, mammary) and in melanoma cells in all of 12 cases of primary perineal melanoma with immunostaining in >50% of malignant cells in 73% of Paget disease cases and 43% of perineal melanoma cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Anus Neoplasms / enzymology. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Melanoma / enzymology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / enzymology. Perineum / pathology. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic. Vaginal Neoplasms / enzymology. Vulvar Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Biopsy. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoassay. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Mucous Membrane / enzymology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Mucous Membrane / virology. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18931649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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81. Bertani E, Chiappa A, Mazzarol G, Contino G, Lazzari R, Zampino MG, Viale G, Andreoni B: Aggressive treatment approach for cloacogenic carcinoma of the anorectum: report from a single cancer center. Dig Surg; 2010;27(4):297-301
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  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prognosis of cloacogenic carcinoma of the anorectum has rarely been investigated, and its clinical behavior is supposed to be similar to common squamous anal cancers.
  • During the last 10 years, chemoradiation treatment (CRT) has been considered the standard of care for anal cancer.
  • Three patients presented distant metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: After a mean follow-up time of 33 months (range 9-100), disease recurrence or progression was observed in 6 patients, which caused death in 3 of them.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data seem to suggest that the cloacogenic origin could present prognostic relevance within the wide spectrum of anal cancers.
  • However, this hypothesis needs to be confirmed by larger series of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / surgery. Biopsy, Needle. Cancer Care Facilities. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20689291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9883
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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82. Mistrangelo M, Pelosi E, Bellò M, Castellano I, Cassoni P, Ricardi U, Munoz F, Racca P, Contu V, Beltramo G, Morino M, Mussa A: Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 May 1;77(1):73-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19632066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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83. Lee MW, Chung WK, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK: A case of botryoid-type embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Dec;34(8):e737-9
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  • We describe an infant with a congenital polypoid anal mass, diagnosed as botryoid-type embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Tumour cells were strongly immunoreactive for desmin and 10% of cells displayed immunoreactivity for myoglobin.
  • We present this case with a view to highlighting the benign clinical and histological appearance of botryoid-type embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Desmin / analysis. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19663848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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84. Christensen AF, Nielsen MB, Svendsen LB, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1527-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three-dimensional anal endosonography may improve detection of recurrent anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: In our center since 2001, follow-up examination has included three-dimensional endosonography in all patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: This prospective study included 38 consecutive patients who have had anal carcinoma and were investigated using three-dimensional endosonography in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination at Rigshospitalet from July 2001 to January 2005 under suspicion of local recurrence.
  • The observers scored each examination according to a five-point scale in which a score from 1 to 3 was regarded as benign endosonographic findings and a score from 4 to 5 was regarded as malignant endosonographic findings.
  • The endosonographic diagnosis for each examination was compared with histologic evaluation or when no biopsy had been taken with a follow-up period of at least six months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that three-dimensional endosonography surpasses two-dimensional endosonography in the evaluation of patients with suspicion of local recurrence of anal cancer especially in combination with anoscopy and digital rectal examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16988854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Yang R, Cheung MC, Zhuge Y, Armstrong C, Koniaris LG, Sola JE: Primary solid tumors of the colon and rectum in the pediatric patient: a review of 270 cases. J Surg Res; 2010 Jun 15;161(2):209-16
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  • [Title] Primary solid tumors of the colon and rectum in the pediatric patient: a review of 270 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the outcomes of solid tumors of the colon and rectum in pediatric patients.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 270 patients with malignant tumors of the lower gastrointestinal tract were identified.
  • The annual incidence was 1.04 cases per million in 2005.
  • The majority of tumors arose in adolescents (68.1% were older than 15 y).
  • Tumors were more commonly seen in white (77.8%) and non-Hispanic (78.9%) patients.
  • Tumors were identified in the right colon (45.9%), transverse colon (9.3%), left colon (20.4%), rectum (15.2%), and anal canal (1.1%).
  • The most common histology of these tumors was adenocarcinoma (35.6%), followed by carcinoid (34.1%).
  • Disease specific 5- and 10-y-survival for the entire cohort was 61.0% and 57.9%, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis of the cohort identified tumor stage (HR 8.39, P < 0.001 for distant disease), tumor type (signet ring HR 2.12, P = 0.025, and carcinoid HR = 0.14, P = 0.001), and surgical resection (no surgery HR 2.98, P = 0.010) as independent predictors of worse outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: In the pediatric population, solid tumors of the colon and rectum occur more frequently in the right side of the colon in teenagers.
  • Surgical resection significantly improves survival for most pediatric tumors of the lower gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aging. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Colectomy. Continental Population Groups / statistics & numerical data. Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Staging. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19285688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Engineer R, Mallik S, Mahantshetty U, Shrivastava S: Impact of radiation dose on locoregional control and survival on squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):283-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of radiation dose on locoregional control and survival on squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: To perform a systematic analysis of clinical data of presentation, treatment, outcome, toxicity, survival and other associated prognostic factors of the patients of anal canal who received treatment at our hospital.
  • The 5years overall (OAS) and disease-free (DFS) survival for the whole group was 71.5% and 61%, respectively.
  • Patients with T1-2 tumors which received the radiation dose between 55 and 60Gy had superior locoregional control, DFS and OAS.
  • Similarly T3-4 tumors receiving radiation dose more than 60Gy independently improved the locoregional control, DFS and OAS irrespective of the nodal status and addition of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiation dose of 56-60Gy for T1 and T2 and 65Gy for T3 and T4 tumors along with concurrent chemotherapy is required to achieve better local control, disease-free survival and overall survival, with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colostomy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20452695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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87. Fallai C, Cerrotta A, Valvo F, Badii D, Olmi P: Anal carcinoma of the elderly treated with radiotherapy alone or with concomitant radio-chemotherapy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2007 Mar;61(3):261-8
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma of the elderly treated with radiotherapy alone or with concomitant radio-chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To analyse the results achieved with radio-chemotherapy (RTCT) or radiotherapy alone (RT) in elderly patients (pts) affected with squamous cell anal cancer.
  • In the RTCT group, 36Gy were delivered to pelvic+inguinal lymph nodes, with a tumor boost (18Gy).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Frail Elderly. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17085056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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88. Borzomati D, Valeri S, Ripetti V, Vincenzi B, Rabitti C, Persichetti P, Valentini V, Trodella L, Caricato M, Coppola R: Persisting perianal ulcer after radiotherapy for anal cancer: recurrence of disease or late radiation-related complication? Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 May-Jun;52(63):780-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Persisting perianal ulcer after radiotherapy for anal cancer: recurrence of disease or late radiation-related complication?
  • We report the case of a 47-year-old HIV-negative male affected by a perianal ulcer which occurred after chemoradiation delivered for anal cancer.
  • In spite of a negative biopsy the lesion was highly suspected to be a disease recurrence.
  • Uncontrollable pain and anal stenosis were also present; abdominoperineal resection with a large excision of perianal tissues and reconstruction with bilateral musculocutaneous gracilis flaps was therefore performed.
  • Histology did not confirm tumor recurrence.
  • Thirteen months after surgery, the patient is still alive and free of disease.
  • The introduction of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of anal cancer, avoiding demolitive surgery in a large subset of patients.
  • Radionecrosis is an uncommon but potentially devastating event occurring in up to 10% of patients undergoing radiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • It causes clinical (pain, anal stenosis, mucositis and diarrhea) and diagnostic problems (recurrence vs. benign post-attinic lesion).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Perineum / radiation effects. Radiodermatitis / diagnosis. Ulcer / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 15966204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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89. Elgin Y, Demirkasimoglu T, Kucukplakci B, Altundag MB, Altundag K, Misirlioglu C, Sanri E, Erkal H, Ugur I, Kara P, Ozgen A, Ozdamar N: Anal tumor diagnosed after the recovery of Fournier gangrene. Dig Dis Sci; 2006 May;51(5):889-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal tumor diagnosed after the recovery of Fournier gangrene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Fournier Gangrene / etiology

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  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
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90. Schiller DE, Cummings BJ, Rai S, Le LW, Last L, Davey P, Easson A, Smith AJ, Swallow CJ: Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2780-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: For patients with anal canal cancer who fail combined modality treatment (CMT), salvage surgery (SS) offers the potential for long term survival.
  • METHODS: We identified 60 patients with persistent or recurrent anal cancer who had undergone SS; 20 were excluded.
  • Overall and disease-free survival (OS, DFS) curves were constructed using the Kaplan Meier method.
  • Median OS was 41 months; OS and disease free survival at 5 years were 39% and 30%, respectively.
  • Independent predictors of poor OS were male gender, Charlson Comorbidity Score and tumor size.
  • Independent predictors of poor disease free survival were positive margins and lymphovascular invasion.
  • CONCLUSION: SS for anal canal cancer was associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cancer Care Facilities. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Registries. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17638059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Peiffert D, Brunet P, Salmon R, Hannoun JM, Giovannini M: Cancer of the anal canal (cancer of the anus). Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2006 Sep;30 Spec No 2:2S52-2S56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer of the anal canal (cancer of the anus).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. France. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17151563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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92. Singh JC, Kuohung V, Palefsky JM: Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Dec 1;52(4):474-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), particularly AIN 3 is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records was performed for all patients with AIN treated at the University of California San Francisco Anal Neoplasia Clinic with TCA as the first-line therapy from January 2000 to December 2004.
  • On a per lesion basis, 73% of AIN 1 and 71% AIN 2/3 cleared to no lesion or AIN 1 or less, respectively.

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  • [ErratumIn] J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jul 1;60(3):e105-6
  • (PMID = 19779306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000079-420472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079-420472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149443; NLM/ PMC2871540
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93. von Roon AC, Tekkis PP, Clark SK, Heriot AG, Lovegrove RE, Truvolo S, Nicholls RJ, Phillips RK: The impact of technical factors on outcome of restorative proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Jul;50(7):952-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary outcomes were major complications, pouch function, and neoplastic transformation in the anal transitional zone.
  • The incidence of polyps at the anal transitional zone was lower with handsewn than with stapled anastomosis (19 vs. 38 percent; P=0.047).
  • Handsewn ileoanal anastomosis with mucosectomy seems to reduce the incidence of subsequent neoplasia in the anal transitional zone but does not eliminate the risk of cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Length of Stay. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


94. Mistrangelo M, Cassoni P, Scozzari G, Castellano I, Gavello G, Corno F, Morino M: Perianal granular cell tumor: report of a case and review of the literature. Tumori; 2009 Jul-Aug;95(4):538-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal granular cell tumor: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Granular cell tumor was first described by Abrikossoff in 1926.
  • Over the years several cases of this neoplasm have been reported, with a variety of localizations.
  • We here report a case of perianal granular cell tumor and discuss its histogenesis and its relevance to clinical practice.
  • Pathological examination revealed a granular cell tumor.
  • A literature search produced only 25 other cases of anal and perianal granular cell tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Granular cell tumors are rarely observed in the perianal region.
  • Their existence must always be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of perianal neoplasms.
  • In most cases surgical excision is curative, but potential malignant transformation must be considered during therapeutic procedures and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19856672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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95. Perineal ultrasound. Ultraschall Med; 2010 Feb;31(1):87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods. Female Urogenital Diseases / ultrasonography. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Male Urogenital Diseases / ultrasonography. Pelvis / ultrasonography. Perineum / ultrasonography. Rectal Fistula / ultrasonography. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20191670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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96. Saranovic Dj, Krivokapic Z, Masulovic D, Djuric A, Ivanovic A, Dobriserevic B, Markovic Z, Barisic G: Endoanal ultrasonography in establishing the diagnosis of fecal incontinence. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(3):159-62
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  • [Title] Endoanal ultrasonography in establishing the diagnosis of fecal incontinence.
  • Local staging of rectal and anal tumor and perianal neoplasm by conventional and sibgle slice CT or by barium enema study is not so valuable.
  • During last decade, endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been recognised as methods of choice in establishing diagnosis of rectal, perirectal, anal and perianal diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17988050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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97. Haberstich R, Tuech JJ, Wilt M, Rodier JF: Anal localization as first manifestation of metastatic ductal breast carcinoma. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Dec;9(3):237-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal localization as first manifestation of metastatic ductal breast carcinoma.
  • Nonspecific presenting symptoms, death of the patients caused by other more frequent metastases, and variable radiographic features mimicking primary neoplasms cause a clinical underestimation of this pathology.
  • This is to our knowledge, the first recorded instance of an anal metastasis from IDC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / secondary. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Nitriles / administration & dosage. Triazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16328121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole
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98. Baatrup G, Pfeiffer P, Svolgaard B, Jensen HA: Resectability of rectal cancers still fixed after radio-chemotherapy: evaluation by digital rectal examination, MRI, and intraoperative examination. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Jan;21(1):7-10
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  • After 5-7 weeks, eight tumors were mobile on DRE.
  • Intraoperative bimanual rectal examination was performed with one finger through the anus and one hand in the rectovaginal/rectovesical fossa before resection was performed.
  • After chemo-radiation DRE correctly predicted the tumor to be advanced or not in 12/17 patients, MRI in 14/17, and bimanual rectal examination in 17/17 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Colectomy / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Palpation / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15968523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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99. Tanaka S, Ohta T, Fujimoto T, Makino Y, Murakami I: Endoscopic mucosal resection of primary anorectal malignant melanoma: a case report. Acta Med Okayama; 2008 Dec;62(6):421-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic mucosal resection of primary anorectal malignant melanoma: a case report.
  • Anorectal melanoma is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • An 85-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment of an anal tumor 2 cm in size.
  • Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed that the depth of tumor invasion was confined to the submucosal layer.
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant melanoma.
  • The patient was followed without any additional treatment, which was per his wishes.
  • If the depth of tumor invasion is shallow, endoscopic mucosal resection is a useful option among other therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 19122689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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100. Hill J: Commentary: Anal cancer - the benefits of evidence-based treatment. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Nov;11(9):914-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Commentary: Anal cancer - the benefits of evidence-based treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Evidence-Based Medicine
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentOn] Colorectal Dis. 2009 Nov;11(9):909-14 [19175651.001]
  • (PMID = 19832863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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