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1. Scarpini C, White V, Muralidhar B, Patterson A, Hickey N, Singh N, Mullerat J, Winslet M, Davies RJ, Phillips ML, Stacey P, Laskey RA, Miller R, Nathan M, Coleman N: Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Oct;17(10):2855-64
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  • [Title] Improved screening for anal neoplasia by immunocytochemical detection of minichromosome maintenance proteins.
  • PURPOSE: Early detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by screening will improve clinical outcome.
  • Assessment of anal cytology samples using routine Papanicolaou testing suffers from shortcomings in sensitivity and/or specificity, suggesting that screening tests based on biomarkers may be of value.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We undertook an initial immunohistochemical study of 54 anal tissue samples and validated our findings using an independent prospective cohort study of 235 anal cytology samples from 144 subjects.
  • RESULTS: In the progression from normal anal epithelium through AIN to SCC, there was increasing expression of MCM2 and MCM5, including in the superficial epithelial third, the source of the majority of cells collected by anal swab.
  • By immunocytochemistry using a mixture of anti-MCM2 and anti-MCM5 antibodies, immunopositive cells were readily identified in anal cytology samples, even at low magnification.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MCMs are promising biomarkers for improving detection of AIN and SCC in anal cytology samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18843031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359878; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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2. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected persons. Top HIV Med; 2007 Aug-Sep;15(4):130-3
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  • Rates of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and abnormal cytology are high in HIV-infected women, as are rates of anal HPV infection and abnormal cytology in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Available evidence indicates that the incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM has increased in association with prolonged life expectancy achieved with antiretroviral therapy.
  • Routine screening for cervical neoplasia is recommended for HIV-infected women.
  • Routine screening is not yet universally recommended for anal neoplasia, although it should be considered for at-risk patients, particularly given recent improvements in local treatments.
  • Its potential benefit in preventing anal infection in women and men has yet to be determined, and its potential utility in those with HIV infection remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


3. Aigner F, Boeckle E, Albright J, Kilo J, Boesmueller C, Conrad F, Wiesmayr S, Antretter H, Margreiter R, Mark W, Bonatti H: Malignancies of the colorectum and anus in solid organ recipients. Transpl Int; 2007 Jun;20(6):497-504
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  • [Title] Malignancies of the colorectum and anus in solid organ recipients.
  • A total of 3595 SOTs were performed between 1986 and 2005 at our center and retrospectively analyzed with regard to the incidence and course of malignancies of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • Colorectal adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in nine patients (0.25%; mean age at diagnosis 65 years) at a mean of 5.3 years after transplantation.
  • Five patients (55%) died 7.2 years post-transplant due to cardiovascular disease (n = 4) and tumor progression (n = 1).
  • Four patients developed anal neoplasia (0.11%) 7 years post-transplant with 100% 1-year survival.
  • The incidence of anal but not of colorectal cancers in our transplant recipients differed from that of immunocompetent individuals of corresponding age (0.11% vs. 0.002% and 0.25% vs. 0.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Organ Transplantation. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 17343685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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4. Hosono S, Ohira M, Maeda K, Muguruma K, Nishihara T, Inoue T, Yashiro M, Hirakawa K: Synchronous adenocarcinomas of the ileum and transverse colon detected by capsule endoscopy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(7):663-5
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  • Neither gastrointestinal endoscopy nor computed tomography showed by abnormal findings; however, a capsule endoscopy, performed to detect obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, revealed a tumor in the ileum.
  • When we tried to take biopsies of the ileal tumor by push enteroscopy via the anus, we found another tumor in the transverse colon.
  • On exploration, tumors were identified in the ileum and the transverse colon.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Capsule Endoscopy. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16794807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Sueda K, Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Omiya H, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Takami K, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2656-8
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  • [Title] [A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal cancer with associated human immunodeficiency virus].
  • He presented with an anal tumor with bilateral inguinal nodal metastasis and pain in the anus; the tumor was diagnosed as stage IIIb (cA1N2M0).
  • However, CT performed 2 years after the diagnosis showed a recurrence in the hilar and mediastinal lymph node.
  • However, the treatment response was graded as progressive disease, and the treatment was changed from CDDP to mitomycin C (MMC).
  • The patient developed non-hematologic toxicity and died within 3 years of the diagnosis.
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus with associated HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


6. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):52-6
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV.
  • This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, new data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising.
  • Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and the mouth.
  • Treatment methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia have been described and show reasonable efficacy.
  • SUMMARY: New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the antiretroviral therapy era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia will prevent development of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19339939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94538; NLM/ PMC2756707
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7. Vajdic CM, Anderson JS, Hillman RJ, Medley G, Grulich AE: Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Sex Transm Infect; 2005 Oct;81(5):415-8
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  • [Title] Blind sampling is superior to anoscope guided sampling for screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: Anal cytology smears are either collected "blind" (swab inserted 4 cm into anal canal and rotated) or guided through an anoscope (transformation zone visualised and then sampled).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Blind cytology smears are superior to anoscope guided smears for screening for anal neoplasia in homosexual men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Homosexuality, Male. Proctoscopy / methods. Specimen Handling / methods

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  • (PMID = 16199742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1745038
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8. Schlecht HP, Fugelso DK, Murphy RK, Wagner KT, Doweiko JP, Proper J, Dezube BJ, Panther LA: Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Jul 1;51(1):107-10
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  • [Title] Frequency of occult high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer within anal condylomata in men who have sex with men.
  • Human papillomavirus causes anal condylomata, high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal squamous cell cancer.
  • We found high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia or squamous cell cancer in 75 (47%) of 159 HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) and in 42 (26%) of 160 HIV-seronegative MSM with anal condylomata meriting surgery (P<.001, determined by use of the chi(2) test).
  • Anal condylomata in MSM often harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Condylomata Acuminata / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Alphapapillomavirus. Cohort Studies. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult


9. Baatrup G, Bolstad M, Mortensen JH: Rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI are not interchangeable in determining the position of rectal cancers. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Nov;35(11):1169-73
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  • PURPOSE:. 1) To analyse for interchangeability of rigid sigmoidoscopy and MRI in determining the distance from anus to tumour, and to determine if anterior/posterior location influences this difference.
  • 2) To analyse the effect of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy on the distance from anus to tumour.
  • RESULTS: The mean distance from the anal verge to the tumour measured by sigmoidoscopy was 82mm and by MRI 61mm (p<0.01).
  • The length of the tumours decreased by 16mm after neoadjuvant treatment, but the distance from tumour to anus increased by only 4mm. CONCLUSION:.
  • 1) MRI and sigmoidoscopy are not interchangeable in determining the distance from anus to tumour simply by correcting for the length of the anal canal.
  • 2) The gain in tumour free distance above the anus induced by neoadjuvant treatment is small.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoidoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19249188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Divis P, Vlcek P, Capov I, Divisová K, Katolická J, Vanícek J, Kotulánová E: [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):421-7
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment].
  • The aim of the study was to compare the tumour volume reduction before and after the oncological therapy in relation to the change in the CEA value and to the outcome of the histopathological evaluation of response to the treatment.
  • The tumour volume before and after the CRT, percentage reduction in the tumour volume and the relation to the change in the CAE value and the histopathological evaluation were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The distance between the anus and the tumour was from 3 to 15 centimetres, the average value being 8.1 centimetres.
  • In 5 cases the tumour was not histologically found in the resected specimen.
  • The average tumour volume before CRT was 32.48, range 10.3-88.5, after the CRT the average volume was 20.13, range 4.7-55.1.
  • This relation however has not been proved in the N value change.
  • Only in one-third of the evaluated patients was there a positive change in both T and N classification.
  • No relation between the CEA value and the tumour volume change has been proven.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 21351419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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11. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus and anal neoplasia. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2008 May;5(2):78-85
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and anal neoplasia.
  • Anal cancer is a rare disease in the general population, but the incidence of anal cancer is higher in certain at-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), and immunosuppressed individuals, including those with HIV infection.
  • Among HIV-positive MSM, the incidence of anal cancer may be as high as 10 times greater than current rates of cervical cancer in the general population of women.
  • Anal cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may be preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN).
  • HGAIN and anal HPV infection are both highly prevalent in groups at risk for anal cancer.
  • Current issues include determining the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HGAIN and the incidence of anal cancer, optimizing diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to HGAIN, and determining the potential for prophylactic HPV vaccines to prevent anal HPV infection and anal cancer in at-risk groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 18510893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3568
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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12. Nadal SR, Calore EE, Manzione CR, Horta SC, Ferreira AF, Almeida LV: Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Dec;48(12):2289-93
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  • [Title] Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases.
  • The analysis of our patients suggests that herpes simplex virus, Types 1 and 2, may cause verrucous lesions simulating neoplasia in patients with AIDS using antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Herpes Simplex / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence


13. Berry JM, Palefsky JM, Jay N, Cheng SC, Darragh TM, Chin-Hong PV: Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Feb;52(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Performance characteristics of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing in patients with high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: High-resolution anoscopy is colposcopy of the anus after applying 3 percent acetic acid.
  • High-resolution anoscopy with biopsy was used as the standard for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia and was compared to detection of high-grade anal neoplasia by anal cytology, human papillomavirus testing, or the combination.
  • A specimen was taken for anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing, followed by high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy of any lesions.
  • RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of HIV-positive and 57 percent of HIV-negative MSM had anal human papillomavirus infection.
  • In HIV-positive men the sensitivity of abnormal cytology to detect high-grade anal neoplasia was 87 percent, and in HIV-negative MSM it was 55 percent.
  • Among HIV-negative men, 9 of 20 cases of high-grade anal neoplasia would have been missed because cytology was negative, but the addition of human papillomavirus positivity increased sensitivity for the combination to 90 percent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology and human papillomavirus testing are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM for detecting high-grade anal neoplasia when patients have high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy of lesions.
  • High-resolution anoscopy is an effective tool for diagnosing high-grade anal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Biopsy. Cytodiagnosis. HIV Seronegativity. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19279418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 CA/AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
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  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • In this article different tumors and management of each, including a brief review of local excision for rectal cancer, are discussed in turn.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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15. Nathan M, Singh N, Garrett N, Hickey N, Prevost T, Sheaff M: Performance of anal cytology in a clinical setting when measured against histology and high-resolution anoscopy findings. AIDS; 2010 Jan 28;24(3):373-9
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  • [Title] Performance of anal cytology in a clinical setting when measured against histology and high-resolution anoscopy findings.
  • OBJECTIVES: The success of cervical cytology in screening for cervical neoplasia has led to the concept of anal cytology screening for anal neoplasia.
  • Our objective is to study the performance of anal cytology as a screening tool.
  • DESIGN: We assessed anal cytology against histology and high-resolution anoscopy in a clinical setting.
  • METHODS: Anal pap test was obtained prior to high-resolution anoscopy examinations and biopsies.
  • RESULTS: From 395 individuals (93% men), 584 anal pap tests were obtained.
  • On the basis of 288 histology results, the sensitivity of anal cytology to detect disease was 70% [95% confidence interval (CI) 64-75], whereas the specificity was 67% (95% CI 38-88).
  • For high-grade disease (anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3), sensitivity of anal cytology was 81% (95% CI 70-90), and the negative predictive value was 85% (95% CI 76-92).
  • Sensitivity was dependent on the area of disease (86% for two or more quadrants vs. 69% for one or more quadrants, P = 0.002) and HIV positivity (76% in HIV positive vs. 59% in HIV negative, P = 0.009).
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology performs similar to cervical cytology in a clinical setting.
  • Sensitivity of anal smear is dependent on the area (quadrants) of disease present.
  • Sensitivity of anal cytology is enhanced when CD4 cell count is less than 400 cells/microl in HIV-positive men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. HIV Infections / pathology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] AIDS. 2010 Jan 28;24(3):463-5 [19926960.001]
  • (PMID = 20057313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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16. Herat A, Whitfeld M, Hillman R: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;48(3):143-53; quiz 154-5
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be a precursor lesion of invasive anal cancer.
  • Human papillomaviruses are considered to be an important aetiological agent in both anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
  • Dermatologists are likely to encounter these conditions among the differential diagnoses to be considered in high-risk patients presenting with perianal and anal lesions.
  • Anal cancer rates are also increasing among the HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected population.
  • The successful treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may reduce the risk of subsequent development of anal cancer.
  • However, current therapies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia may be associated with treatment-related morbidity and are not well validated.
  • It is currently not proven that they reduce the likelihood of the development of anal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia is being advocated for high-risk groups and may become standard dermatological care for these patients.
  • In view of recent developments in the understanding of this condition, this article reviews the current understanding of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment from a dermatological perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17680964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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17. Albright JB, Bonatti H, Stauffer J, Dickson RC, Nguyen J, Harnois D, Jeanpierre C, Hinder R, Steers J, Chua H, Aranda-Michel J: Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7):657-66
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  • [Title] Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease.
  • Data on neoplasms of the colon, rectum and anus in LT are limited.
  • METHOD: A retrospective evaluation of the incidence and clinical course of colorectal and anal malignancies and colonic polyps in a series of 467 consecutive LTs in 402 individuals between 1998 and 2001 was performed.
  • RESULTS: During a median follow up of 5.2 years, three colon adenocarcinomas, one EBV associated cecal posttransplant lymphoproliferative tumour and two HPV associated anal tumours were identified.
  • Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a significantly higher rate of adenoma formation (50.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001).
  • No patient died from colorectal/anal malignancy.
  • Viral-associated malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and anal cancer, are important entities in the LT population suggesting that complete screening of the colon, rectum and anus including pre-LT and post-LT colonoscopy should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19508543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Baron G, Walker F, Yeni P, Duval X: Systematic evaluation and description of anal pathology in HIV-infected patients during the HAART era. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Jun;52(6):1130-6
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  • [Title] Systematic evaluation and description of anal pathology in HIV-infected patients during the HAART era.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of macroscopic anal lesions and associated factors in HIV-infected outpatients during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • METHODS: A randomly selected sample of patients with HIV-infection receiving follow-up care in the infectious diseases department of Bichat University Hospital was invited to participate in a systematic screening program consisting of anal examination with anoscopy and a standardized questionnaire.
  • Overall, 208 patients (44 percent) had at least one anal macroscopic lesion: 108 patients (22.8 percent) had human papilloma (HPV)-related lesions (condyloma with or without dysplasia), 67 (14.2 percent) had hemorrhoidal disease, 50 (10.6 percent) had anal fissures, and 44 (9.3) percent had other anal lesions.
  • Independent significantly associated factors for anal condyloma were history of anal condyloma (OR, 2.09) and median number of episodes of sexual intercourse per month (OR, 1.03) in men who have sex with men; history of genital condyloma (OR, 26.74), and unprotected sexual intercourse (OR, 7.47) in heterosexual men; and CD4 cell count below 200/mm3 (OR, 6.02), receptive anal intercourse (OR, 6.37), and history of anal condyloma (OR, 16.69) in women.
  • Neither sexual behavior nor characteristics related to HIV infection were associated with hemorrhoidal disease or anal fissure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because patients with HIV infections have a high prevalence of unreported anal lesions that may be highly contagious, involve risk of anal neoplasia, or negatively affect quality of life, systematic anal screening should be conducted in the HIV-infected population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2010 Mar;53(3):364-5 [20173491.001]
  • (PMID = 19581857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Meyer JJ, Willett CG, Czito BG: Emerging role of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in anorectal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Apr;8(4):585-93
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  • Although radiation therapy has an established role to play in the management of rectal and anal tumors, there are often treatment-related morbidities that negatively impact on patients.
  • It has been implemented in the treatment of prostate and head and neck tumors with success.
  • This article reviews the rationale for its use in treating anorectal tumors and discusses early clinical data supporting its continued investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18402525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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20. Allal AS, Bründler MA, Gervaz P: Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Mar;20(2):161-4
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  • [Title] Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Histologically, tumors of the anal region are either keratinizing (K) or non-keratinizing (NK) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCA).
  • METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on 98 pre-treatment biopsies of patients with anal canal cancers.
  • Expression of p53 and Bcl-2 was considered positive when >5% of tumor cells were stained.
  • Tumor histology was correlated with protein expression as well as with other clinical variables.
  • The proportion of Bcl-2 positive tumors was statistically higher in NK carcinomas (51.5 vs. 23.5%, p=0.009).
  • In addition, women were more likely than men to present with NK carcinomas (71 vs. 45%, p=0.03) as well as with Bcl-2 positive tumors (47 vs. 29%, p=0.05).
  • The more distal the tumor is (anal margin), the more frequently the keratinizing subtype is observed (87 vs. 23%, p=0.0002).
  • By contrast, there was no correlation between p53 and tumor histology (p=0.83).
  • In addition, significant differences were observed in the distribution of these two histological subtypes according to gender and tumor sublocation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15688099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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21. Vorob'ev GI, Shelygin IuA, Nechushkin MI, Rybakov EG: [Results of surgical treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2008;(8):4-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Results of surgical treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors].
  • Radio- or chemotherapy is a modern standard of anal cancer treatment.
  • The study is aimed to evaluate the role of abdominoperineal resection in the treatment of residual and recurrent anal cancer.
  • The complete tumor regression after radiotherapy/radiochemotherapy was achieved in 74(61.1%) of 120 patients with cancer-specific survival rate of 81.7%.
  • Partial tumor regression was registered in 46 of 120 patients.
  • The abdominoperineal resection was performed in 39(84.8%) of patients with the residual tumor.
  • Thus, surgical treatment allowed secondary local tumor control in 76.9% of patients with the 5-year survival rates of 69.0%.
  • The locoregional tumor relapse was diagnosed in 10(13.74%) of 74 patients with the complete tumor regression.
  • The use of abdominoperineal resection allowed the secondary local tumor control and 5 year survival.
  • Thus, abdominoperineal resection remains the method of choice in the treatment of residual and recurrent anal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Russia / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18833142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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22. Soumarová R, Homola L, Perková H, Czudek S, Skrovina M, Adamcík L: [The role of interstitial brachytherapy in multimodality management of solid tumors]. Rozhl Chir; 2007 Oct;86(10):533-9
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  • [Title] [The role of interstitial brachytherapy in multimodality management of solid tumors].
  • Its prons include, in particular, a possibility to apply a dose, in addition to external radiotherapy, directly into the tumor region or its focus, which may improve treatment success rates in patients with localized tumors.
  • The commonest diagnoses, where interstitial brachytherapy is employed, include the following: breast carcinomas, soft tissue sarcomas, head and neck tumors, gynaecological tumors, penile and anal tumors and prostate tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18064791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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23. Ho-Yen C, Chang F, van der Walt J, Lucas S: Gastrointestinal malignancies in HIV-infected or immunosuppressed patients: pathologic features and review of the literature. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 Nov;14(6):431-43
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  • Several other malignancies that occur in the GI tract are also closely related to HIV-infected or immunosuppressed individuals; these include posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors, anal precancerous lesions, and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Therefore, it is possible that the number of AIDS-associated malignancies will rise and the pattern of tumors may change in the future.
  • In this paper, the clinicopathologic features of GI malignancies associated with AIDS patients are reviewed and the differential diagnosis with other mimic lesions is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppression. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18049132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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24. Schwarz JK, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Myerson RJ, Fleshman JW, Grigsby PW: Tumor response and survival predicted by post-therapy FDG-PET/CT in anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 May 1;71(1):180-6
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  • [Title] Tumor response and survival predicted by post-therapy FDG-PET/CT in anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer.
  • Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients.
  • The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008).
  • The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17996387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Saranovic Dj, Krivokapic Z, Masulovic D, Djuric A, Ivanovic A, Dobriserevic B, Markovic Z, Barisic G: Endoanal ultrasonography in establishing the diagnosis of fecal incontinence. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(3):159-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoanal ultrasonography in establishing the diagnosis of fecal incontinence.
  • Local staging of rectal and anal tumor and perianal neoplasm by conventional and sibgle slice CT or by barium enema study is not so valuable.
  • During last decade, endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been recognised as methods of choice in establishing diagnosis of rectal, perirectal, anal and perianal diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17988050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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26. Menkarios C, Azria D, Laliberté B, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Lemanski C, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans. Radiat Oncol; 2007;2:41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare the dosimetric advantage of three different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to a three dimensional (3D) conventional radiation treatment for anal cancer with regards to organs-at-risk (OAR) avoidance, including iliac bone marrow.
  • METHODS: Five patients with T1-3 N0-1 anal cancer and five with T4 and/or N2-3 tumors were selected.
  • Clinical tumor volume (CTV) included tumor, anal canal and inguinal, peri-rectal, and internal/external iliac nodes (plus pre-sacral nodes for T4/N2-3 tumors).
  • CONCLUSION: IMRT is superior to 3D conformal radiation treatment for anal carcinoma with respect to OAR sparing, including bone marrow sparing.

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  • (PMID = 18005443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2204019
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27. Duensing A, Chin A, Wang L, Kuan SF, Duensing S: Analysis of centrosome overduplication in correlation to cell division errors in high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal neoplasms. Virology; 2008 Mar 1;372(1):157-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of centrosome overduplication in correlation to cell division errors in high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal neoplasms.
  • High-risk HPV-associated anal neoplasms are difficult to treat and biomarkers of malignant progression are needed.
  • However, a detailed analysis of centrosome overduplication in primary HPV-associated neoplasms has not been performed so far.
  • Here, we determined the frequency of centrosome overduplication in HPV-associated anal lesions using a recently identified marker for mature maternal centrioles, Cep170.
  • Remarkably, centrosome overduplication, but not aberrant centrosome numbers per se or centrosome accumulation, correlated significantly with the presence of cell division errors.
  • In addition, our experiments revealed that in particular pseudo-bipolar mitoses may play a role in the propagation of chromosomal instability in high-risk HPV-associated tumors.
  • These results provide new insights into the role of centrosome aberrations in cell division errors and encourage further studies on centrosome overduplication as a predictive biomarker of malignant progression in HPV-associated anal lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18036631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-6822
  • [Journal-full-title] Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112598-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112598; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 112598; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112598-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cep170 protein, human; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Tubulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS38243; NLM/ PMC2267749
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28. Orlando G, Beretta R, Fasolo MM, Amendola A, Bianchi S, Mazza F, Rizzardini G, Tanzi E: Anal HPV genotypes and related displasic lesions in Italian and foreign born high-risk males. Vaccine; 2009 May 29;27 Suppl 1:A24-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal HPV genotypes and related displasic lesions in Italian and foreign born high-risk males.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer are closely related to infection from high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) genotypes.
  • Since HPVs involved in disease progression are reported to vary by geographical regions, this study focuses on HPV genotypes spectrum in 289 males attending a Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD) unit according to their nationality.
  • Anal cytology, Digene Hybrid Capture Assay (HC2) and HPV genotyping were evaluated in 226 Italian (IT) and 63 foreign born (FB) subjects, recruited between January 2003 and December 2006.
  • FB people were younger (median 32y-IQR 27-35 vs 36y-IQR 31-43, respectively; Mann-Whitney test p<0.0001) and had a higher rate of abnormal results (>or=atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)) on anal cytology (95.0% vs 84.04%) (p=0.032; OR 3.61; 95% CI 1.04-1.23).
  • HPV-16 is by far the most common genotype found in anal cytological samples independently from nationality while differences in distribution of other HPV genotypes were observed.
  • The relative contribution of each HPV genotype in the development of pre-neoplastic disease to an early age in the FB group cannot be argued by this study and more extensive epidemiological evaluations are needed to define the influence of each genotype and the association with the most prevalent high-risk HPVs on cytological intraepithelial lesions development.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. DNA, Viral / genetics. Genotype. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19480957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2518
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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29. Retamozo-Palacios M, de Sousa JB, Santos JB: [Anorectal lesions in HIV-positive patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 2007 May-Jun;40(3):286-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Rectal Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Lesões anorretais em pacientes HIV positivos usuários de terapia anti-retroviral de alta efetividade.
  • Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has little influence on the progression of anal neoplasms.
  • Around 71% of the patients said they practiced anal intercourse.
  • The prevalence of anorectal lesions was 36.4%, and condyloma acuminata and anal fissure were the most frequent of these.


30. Gormley RH, Kovarik CL: Dermatologic manifestations of HPV in HIV-infected individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2009 Aug;6(3):130-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Dermatologic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV patients manifests as both anogenital and nongenital skin disease.
  • Anogenital HPV-related disease includes benign condyloma acuminata, the most common cutaneous manifestation of genital HPV infection; intermediate malignancy or premalignant conditions including giant condyloma acuminata (also called Buschke-Loewenstein tumor), anal intraepithelial neoplasia, penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia; and frankly malignant disease including Bowen's disease and invasive anal, penile, or vulvar carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous HPV-related disease in nongenital skin is also increased in HIV-positive patients, in the form of benign common warts, epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like skin lesions, and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • This review and update addresses the above listed dermatologic manifestations of HPV disease in HIV-infected individuals, with an emphasis on new findings and published data from 2006 to 2008.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Humans. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19589298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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31. Kreuter A, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated diseases in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2009 Apr;22(2):109-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This review summarizes recent data on papillomavirus-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in these patients.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia rises in HIV-positive men who have sex with men despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Increasing evidence indicates that high-grade lesions can progress to anal cancer over time.
  • Anal cytology has been recommended as the primary screening tool for anal dysplasia in the at-risk population.
  • Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defining tumors in HIV-infected individuals.
  • In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the outcome of combined chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals with anal cancer is similar to that in HIV-negative persons.
  • SUMMARY: Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines should be implemented for at-risk populations for anal dysplasia/anal cancer, such as HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • More study is required to get better insights into the natural history of penile and oral HPV-associated benign and malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / virology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19276878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6527
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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32. Wong AK, Chan RC, Aggarwal N, Singh MK, Nichols WS, Bose S: Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jan;23(1):144-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection strongly correlates with the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas; however, few studies have characterized the distribution of the specific subtypes of the virus in the varying grades of dysplasia.
  • This report characterizes the distribution of HPV 16/18 in surgical specimens with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I-III and histological variants of anal carcinoma.
  • A total of 111 anal surgical specimens with no dysplasia (10), AIN I-III (53), and anal carcinomas (48) were evaluated for the presence of high-risk HPV infection and subtyped by nested PCR or the Invader Assay.
  • High-risk virus types were detected in progressively greater number of anal intraepithelial lesions from 56% in low grade to 88% in high grade.
  • The similarity in the prevalence of type 16 in high-grade dysplasia and squamous carcinomas suggests that anal intraepithelial lesion III is the true precursor of squamous carcinoma and warrants aggressive management.
  • Anal intraepithelial lesions II showed a virus distribution that was similar to low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Genotype. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 18 / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prevalence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19838162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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33. Danova NA, Robles-Emanuelli JC, Bjorling DE: Surgical excision of primary canine rectal tumors by an anal approach in twenty-three dogs. Vet Surg; 2006 Jun;35(4):337-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical excision of primary canine rectal tumors by an anal approach in twenty-three dogs.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe an anal approach for excision of primary rectal tumors in dogs and to report outcome.
  • ANIMALS: Dogs (n=23) with primary rectal tumors.
  • METHODS: Review of medical records (1990-2000) of dogs with primary rectal neoplasia excised surgically using an anal approach with rectal prolapse.
  • With dogs anesthetized, the rectum was prolapsed, stabilized with stay sutures during tumor excision with 1 cm margins to the level of the muscularis, then the rectal mucosa was sutured.
  • RESULTS: Each dog had only 1 tumor type (adenocarcinoma [8], solitary polyp [5], carcinoma [4], plasmacytoma [2], adenoma [1], leiomyoma [1], mucinous carcinoma [1], and papilloma [1]).
  • Mean tumor volume was 3.1 cm(3) (range 0.1-37.7 cm(3)).
  • The primary tumor was incompletely excised in 1 dog (4.3%), and local recurrence occurred 16 and 24 months after surgery in 2 dogs.
  • Mean postoperative disease-free interval for these 18 dogs was 36.8 months (range 5-84 months).
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical excision of tumors of the caudal rectum can be accomplished through the anus after rectal prolapse.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: An anal approach facilitated by rectal prolapse should be considered as a viable option for the surgical treatment of selected cases of tumors of the caudal aspect of the rectum in dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Dog Diseases / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Animals. Disease-Free Survival. Dogs. Female. Male. Polyps / surgery. Polyps / veterinary. Postoperative Complications / veterinary. Records as Topic / veterinary. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Wisconsin / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16756613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-3499
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Rossitto M, Pantè S, Manfrè A, Ciccolo A: [Post-operative analgesia in case of ano-rectal diseases]. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Nov-Dec;80(6):459-61; discussion 461
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Post-operative analgesia in case of ano-rectal diseases].
  • [Transliterated title] L'analgesia post-operatoria nel trattamento delle patologie ano-rettali.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was that to evaluate the post-operative pain in case of ano-rectal diseases wether treated by ketorolac, or buprenorphine or tramadol.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The intensity of post-operative pain was evaluated in 60 patients with hemorrhoidal diseases, fistulae, abscesses and anal neoplasms, divided into three homogenous groups and treated with intramuscular ketorolac (Group I), transdermal buprenorphine (Group II) and tramadol in elastomeric pump (Group III).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Better compliance and lower operating costs have given the preference to the use of transdermal buprenorphine for the treatment of diseases of the post-operative pain in the diseases of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / surgery. Buprenorphine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Ketorolac / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Tramadol / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20476679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics, Opioid; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 39J1LGJ30J / Tramadol; 40D3SCR4GZ / Buprenorphine; YZI5105V0L / Ketorolac
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35. Wilkin T, Lee JY, Lensing SY, Stier EA, Goldstone SE, Berry JM, Jay N, Aboulafia D, Cohn DL, Einstein MH, Saah A, Mitsuyasu RT, Palefsky JM: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-1-infected men. J Infect Dis; 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1246-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected men are at increased risk for anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may prevent anal cancer caused by vaccine types.
  • Men with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer by history or by screening cytology or histology were excluded.
  • The primary end points were seroconversion to vaccine types at week 28, in men who were seronegative and without anal infection with the relevant HPV type at entry, and grade 3 or higher adverse events related to vaccination.

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  • [Cites] Int J STD AIDS. 2009 Sep;20(9):595-600 [19710329.001]
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  • (PMID = 20812850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6613
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00513526
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865-26; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024996; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI 55038; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00865; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI055038-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS285476; NLM/ PMC3118428
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36. Kidd EA, Dehdashti F, Siegel BA, Grigsby PW: Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):288-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate anal cancer uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measured as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) by positron emission tomography (PET) and its correlation with prognostic factors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 77 patients with stages 0-IIIB anal cancer who underwent pre-treatment FDG-PET.
  • Tumor histology included 65 squamous cell, 11 basaloid, and 1 small cell cancers.
  • SUV(max) and clinical tumor size were not associated (R(2)=0.338).
  • Higher SUV(max) was associated with an increased risk of nodal metastasis at diagnosis (p<0.0001).
  • Higher SUV(max) was associated with worse disease-free survival (p=0.05).
  • Patients with high anal tumor SUV(max) at diagnosis were at an increased risk of persistent or recurrent disease on post-therapy FDG-PET performed less than 4months after completing therapy (p=0.0402).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SUV(max) is a valuable biomarker of anal cancer prognosis, predicting increased risk of lymph node metastasis and worse disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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37. Wang H, Fu CG, Zheng JM, Gong HF, Tao LY, Yu ED, Zhang W, Liu LJ, Hao LQ, Meng RG: [Impact of meticulousness of pathologists on lymph node harvest after radical resection of invasive rectal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;12(6):569-72
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  • Excluded criteria were recurrent colorectal tumor, Tis tumor, R(1) or R(2) resection, tumor resection transanally or endoscopically, the cases enrolled in other prospective research, synchronous diseases affecting the surgical procedure for the rectal cancer (familial adenomatous polyposis, synchronous colorectal carcinoma) and rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation.
  • There were no significant differences in gender (46/76 vs 86/156, P=0.436), age (58.1+/-1.3 vs 59.2+/-1.1, P=0.527), distance from tumor to anal verge (7.4+/-0.4 vs 7.1+/-0.3, P=0.761), proportion of sphincter-sparing surgery (67/76 vs 140/156, P=0.715), ratio of well and moderate differentiated tumors (68/76 vs 125/156, P=0.074) and overall TNM stage (P=0.167) between the two groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Period. Rectum / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19921565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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38. Martellucci J, Naldini G, Colosimo C, Cionini L, Rossi M: Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy. Surg Endosc; 2009 May;23(5):1054-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the follow-up assessment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiochemotherapy has largely replaced surgery in the treatment for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal.
  • Transanal ultrasonography is well documented as an important investigation method in the management of anal carcinoma.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of endoanal ultrasound in the study of the postradiation findings and to distinguish between postradiation fibrosis, residual tumor, and local recurrence.
  • METHODS: The study enrolled 16 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven squamous carcinoma of the anal canal between 2003 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients had stage uT2 disease; none had uT3 disease; and seven had uT4 disease.
  • There was no evidence of residual tumor in the T2 group after treatment.
  • In the T4 patients after treatment, ultrasound demonstrated tumor regression or abnormalities considered to be radiation-induced changes rather than residual diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endoanal ultrasound is a safe and effective method for evaluating and following anal cancer before and after treatment.
  • Experience and evaluation during the period of the ultrasonographic abnormalities could give a clear idea concerning the evolution of the anal tumors treated with radiochemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography

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  • [Cites] Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002 Jul;43(1):77-92 [12098609.001]
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  • (PMID = 18813993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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39. Berton F, Gola G, Wilson SR: Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jun;190(6):1495-504
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal.
  • OBJECTIVE: Intestinal sonography is characterized by excellent resolution of the multiple layers of the intestinal wall and sensitive depiction of the degree of invasion of rectal tumors.
  • Our purpose is to describe the current status of sonography in the evaluation of rectal and anal tumors and in the staging of rectal cancer.
  • They are considered the reference standard for the preoperative staging of rectal and anal cancers and have relatively high accuracy in categorization of tumors and nodes in TNM staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography. Vagina / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18492898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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40. Fagan SP, Bellows CF 3rd, Albo D, Rodriquez-Barradas M, Feanny M, Awad SS, Berger DH: Length of human immunodeficiency virus disease and not immune status is a risk factor for development of anal carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2005 Nov;190(5):732-5
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Length of human immunodeficiency virus disease and not immune status is a risk factor for development of anal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The anal epithelium is subject to dysplastic change in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • We sought to determine if the duration of HIV disease or the patient's immune status were associated with the development of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: HIV-positive patients diagnosed with anal neoplasms were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients were identified, 7 with anal intraepithelial neoplasms (group 1) and 7 with anal carcinoma (group 2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The most significant factor for the development of invasive anal carcinoma in patients with HIV is duration of disease.
  • As a result of improved long-term survival secondary to new HIV therapy, anal invasive carcinoma will become an increasing problem.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma / etiology. HIV. HIV Infections / complications. Immune Tolerance / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Antibodies / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Viral / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


41. Tanaka S, Ohta T, Fujimoto T, Makino Y, Murakami I: Endoscopic mucosal resection of primary anorectal malignant melanoma: a case report. Acta Med Okayama; 2008 Dec;62(6):421-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic mucosal resection of primary anorectal malignant melanoma: a case report.
  • Anorectal melanoma is a rare malignant tumor with a poor prognosis.
  • An 85-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination and treatment of an anal tumor 2 cm in size.
  • Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed that the depth of tumor invasion was confined to the submucosal layer.
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant melanoma.
  • The patient was followed without any additional treatment, which was per his wishes.
  • If the depth of tumor invasion is shallow, endoscopic mucosal resection is a useful option among other therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 19122689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0386-300X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Okayama
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med. Okayama
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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42. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Bellò M, Beltramo G, Cassoni P, Mussa A: [The technique of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with anus neoplasm]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S32-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The technique of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with anus neoplasm].
  • [Transliterated title] La tecnica del linfonodo sentinella nei pazienti affetti da neoplasia dell'ano.
  • Anal cancer is a rare neoplasm, representing 1-2% of all large bowel cancers.
  • In order to assess inguinal lymph node status we applied the sentinel node technique to patients affected by anal cancer.
  • Considering the strong correlation between prognosis and node involvement, we consider this technique an important and simple method for evaluating the lymph node status and for an adequate pre-treatment staging of anal carcinoma. fundamental in the choice of radiation plane.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16437886.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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43. Poizot-Martin I, Henry M, Benhaim S, Obry-Roguet V, Figarella D, Tamalet C: High level of HPV 16 and 18 DNA load in anal swabs from male and female HIV-1 infected patients. J Clin Virol; 2009 Apr;44(4):314-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS in Women.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High level of HPV 16 and 18 DNA load in anal swabs from male and female HIV-1 infected patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite HAART, the prevalence and incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals have increased.
  • Recently, the relationship between the severity of cervical lesions and oncogenic HPV load was demonstrated; however, few studies have assessed the level and the significance of oncogenic HPV load in patients at risk for anal neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess HPV genotypes and HPV 16/18 DNA load in HIV-1 infected patients at risk for anal neoplasia.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot study from male and female HIV-1 infected individuals at risk for anal neoplasia in an outpatient HIV Clinical Unit of Marseilles university Hospitals.
  • RESULTS: Anal HPV was found in 79% of the patients whereas high-risk (HR) HPV types and infection with multiple HPV types were found in 83% and 61% of the patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the link between high anal HPV DNA load and progression to anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. HIV Infections / complications. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19269245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5967
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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44. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Cassoni P, Castellano I, Maass J, Martina MC, Bellò M, Mussa A: [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S29-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma verrucoso dell'ano o tumore di buschke-lowenstein dell'ano: stadiazione e trattamento presentazione di 3 casi.
  • INTRODUCTION: Giant condyloma acuminatum or Buschke Lowenstein tumor of the anorectal and perianal regions is an uncommon entity that commonly affects genitalia.
  • The hallmark of the disease is the high rate of recurrence (66%) and malignant transformation (56%).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: At the Oncological Surgical Department, University of Turin, three patients were diagnosed with a Buschke Lowenstein tumor.
  • In one case we observed a late anal stenosis treated with local dilatations.
  • One patient with a small persistence of the disease was treated with cryotherapy.
  • All inguinal nodes revealed negative to definitive histological exam, that confirmed the diagnosis of Buschke Lowenstein tumor of the primary lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Buschke Lowenstein tumors are rare but extensive lesions difficult to treat.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16437884.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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45. Shrikhande SV, Saoji RR, Barreto SG, Kakade AC, Waterford SD, Ahire SB, Goliwale FM, Shukla PJ: Outcomes of resection for rectal cancer in India: the impact of the double stapling technique. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: A total of 77 out of 78 patients in the SST group had Astler Coller B and C disease while the number was 132/138 in the DST group.
  • The mean distance of the tumor from anal verge was 7.6 cm (2.5-15 cm) and 8.0 cm (4-15 cm) in the DST and SST groups, respectively.
  • The observed improvement of surgical outcomes with DST needs further studies to significantly prove these findings in a population where the tumors at presentation are predominantly Astler Coller Stage B and C.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery. Surgical Stapling

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  • (PMID = 17374176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1839092
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070726
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46. Alver O, Ersoy YE, Aydemir I, Erguney S, Teksoz S, Apaydin B, Ertem M: Use of "house" advancement flap in anorectal diseases. World J Surg; 2008 Oct;32(10):2281-6
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

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  • Indications were chronic anal fissure, anal stenosis, high transsphincteric fistula, low rectovaginal fistula, anal neoplasia, and obstetric third-degree perineal tear and incontinence.
  • After rectangular excision of the anal or perianal lesion, the "walls" and "roof" of the house flap were incised to the depth of ischiorectal fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / surgery. Intestinal Obstruction / surgery. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18679744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Jay N, Palefsky JM, Welton ML: High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1410-5; discussion 1415-6
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  • [Title] High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients.
  • Anal dysplasia (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSIL; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) is a challenging disease for the surgeon.
  • We reviewed 42 patients that underwent high-resolution anoscopy (HRA)-targeted surgical therapy of anal dysplasia in the past 10 years.
  • Patients were followed up in the Anal Neoplasia Clinic with physical examination, cytology, HRA, and biopsy if indicated.
  • Patients with disease amenable to local therapy were treated with office-based HRA-directed therapies.
  • HSIL was present in 33, with four undergoing planned staged treatment due to circumferential disease.
  • HRA-targeted surgical therapy coupled with surveillance and re-treatment with office-based therapies offered an effective method in controlling anal dysplasia in the immunocompetent patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17710507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. von Roon AC, Tekkis PP, Clark SK, Heriot AG, Lovegrove RE, Truvolo S, Nicholls RJ, Phillips RK: The impact of technical factors on outcome of restorative proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Jul;50(7):952-61
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  • Primary outcomes were major complications, pouch function, and neoplastic transformation in the anal transitional zone.
  • The incidence of polyps at the anal transitional zone was lower with handsewn than with stapled anastomosis (19 vs. 38 percent; P=0.047).
  • Handsewn ileoanal anastomosis with mucosectomy seems to reduce the incidence of subsequent neoplasia in the anal transitional zone but does not eliminate the risk of cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Length of Stay. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


49. Singh JC, Kuohung V, Palefsky JM: Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Dec 1;52(4):474-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), particularly AIN 3 is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records was performed for all patients with AIN treated at the University of California San Francisco Anal Neoplasia Clinic with TCA as the first-line therapy from January 2000 to December 2004.
  • On a per lesion basis, 73% of AIN 1 and 71% AIN 2/3 cleared to no lesion or AIN 1 or less, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19779306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000079-420472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079-420472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149443; NLM/ PMC2871540
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50. Delikoukos S, Zacharoulis D, Hatzitheofilou C: Local posterior perianal block for proctologic surgery. Int Surg; 2006 Nov-Dec;91(6):348-51
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  • A total of 72 patients with proctologic disorders consented to operation under LPPB for stapled hemorrhoidectomy, Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy, subanodermal fistula resection, perianal abscess revision, and anal tumor electrocoagulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / surgery. Nerve Block
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / innervation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17256435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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51. Mikropoulos C, Williams T, Munthali L, Summers J: A rare case of anal tumor: Anal carcinosarcoma. World J Gastrointest Oncol; 2010 Dec 15;2(12):446-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare case of anal tumor: Anal carcinosarcoma.
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis, otherwise known as carcinosarcoma.
  • Gastrointestinal origin is very rare and only a limited number of anal carcinosarcomas have been reported in the literature.
  • The aim of this case report was to confirm that by combining treatment modalities we can achieve long disease free intervals.
  • Concomitant chemoradiotherapy led to a good partial response and this was followed by a consolidation surgical endo-anal excision.

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  • (PMID = 21191539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5204
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3011099
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal tumour / Carcinosarcoma / Chemoradiotherapy / Endo-anal excision / Spindle cell
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52. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie und Analkarzinom : Ein zunehmendes Problem bei Menschen mit HIV-Infektion.
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19967333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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53. Pérez Pereyra J, Frisancho Velarde O, Ruiz Barahona E, Palomino A: [Fibroepithelial lesions of the anal canal: therapeutic technique with rubber band ligation]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru; 2008 Jan-Mar;28(1):37-42
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  • [Title] [Fibroepithelial lesions of the anal canal: therapeutic technique with rubber band ligation].
  • [Transliterated title] Lesiones Fibroepiteliales del Canal Anal: alternativa terapéutica con ligadura de bandas elásticas.
  • When fibroepithelial lesions of the anal canal increase in size and bleed, they can produce tenesmus and a sensation of a foreign body in the anus.
  • In the Gastroenterology Department of the "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" National Hospital (EsSALUD) between June 2000, and June, 2007, 16 patients with anal fibroepithelioma were included: 6 men and 10 women, with an average age of 44, aged between 21 to 75, and 44% aged 20 to 29.
  • All of these patients (100%) had anal tumors, 50% had prolapses, 28% had anal pain and, 12% intermittent slight bleeding.
  • Patients only required oral analgesics for the first hours after procedure; only one patient presented an acute anal fissure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18418455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5129
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de gastroenterología del Perú : órgano oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Gastroenterol Peru
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Peru
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54. Saranovic D, Barisic G, Krivokapic Z, Masulovic D, Djuric-Stefanovic A: Endoanal ultrasound evaluation of anorectal diseases and disorders: technique, indications, results and limitations. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Mar;61(3):480-9
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  • CT and conventional barium studies offer limited information in local staging of rectal and perirectal neoplasms, anal carcinomas and extension perianal fistulas in patients with inflamamatory bowel disease, or in evaluating patients with fecal incontinence.
  • During past decade, sonography and MR imaging have resulted in significant improvement in the imaging of rectal and perirectal and anal and perianal disease.
  • The aim of this article is to review possibility of the EAUS in the evaluation both normal anal anatomy and anorectal disease and disorders (anal carcinoma, sphincter defects, anal fistulas, perianal abscesses and other pathological conditions).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Diseases / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Rectal Diseases / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17188828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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55. Freudenberg S, Palma P, Grobholz R, Ngendahayo L, Post S: HIV-related and Epstein-Barr virus-associated anal Burkitt's lymphoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Aug;48(8):1656-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-related and Epstein-Barr virus-associated anal Burkitt's lymphoma: report of a case.
  • PURPOSE: This article describes and discusses primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the anus which is an extremely rare site of origin.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A 38-year-old HIV+ Rwandan farmer had an 8-cm x 13-cm anal tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the AIDS epidemic and the increase of anal malignant pathologies, anal Burkitt's lymphoma may appear more frequently.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colostomy. Fatal Outcome. HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. Rectum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16034658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Hessol NA, Holly EA, Efird JT, Minkoff H, Schowalter K, Darragh TM, Burk RD, Strickler HD, Greenblatt RM, Palefsky JM: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in a multisite study of HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected women. AIDS; 2009 Jan 2;23(1):59-70
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in a multisite study of HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected women.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its associations with anal and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical neoplasia, host immune status, and demographic and behavioral risk factors in women with and at risk for HIV infection.
  • METHODS: In 2001-2003 participants were interviewed, received a gynecological examination, anal and cervical cytology testing and, if abnormal, colposcopy-guided or anoscopy-guided biopsy of visible lesions.
  • Exfoliated cervical and anal specimens were assessed for HPV using PCR and type-specific HPV probing.
  • Logistic regression analyses were performed, and odds ratios (ORs) estimated risks for anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was present in 12% of HIV-infected and 5% of HIV-uninfected women.
  • High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was present in 9% of HIV-infected and 1% of HIV-uninfected women.
  • In adjusted analyses among HIV-infected women, the risk factors for low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia were younger age [OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36-0.97], history of receptive anal intercourse (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.5-6.8), anal HPV (oncogenic types only OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.2-103; oncogenic and nononcogenic types OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.3-96), and cervical HPV (oncogenic and nononcogenic types OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.1-11).
  • In multivariable analyses among HIV-infected women, the only significant risk factor for high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was anal HPV infection (oncogenic and nononcogenic types OR = 7.6, 95% CI = 1.5-38).
  • CONCLUSION: Even in the era of highly active antiviral therapy, the prevalence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia was 16% in HIV-infected women.
  • After controlling for potential confounders, several risk factors for low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia differed from risk factors for high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19050387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-42590; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI031834; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035004; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01-HD-32632; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034989; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-05S1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-31834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034989-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-05S1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34993; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085178; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34989; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01 HD032632; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI042590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS84186; NLM/ PMC2614220
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57. Palefsky JM, Rubin M: The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2009 Mar;36(1):187-200
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  • [Title] The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia.
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by a series of precancerous changes, raising the possibility that like cervical cancer, anal cancer can be prevented.
  • Further, given the known risk factors for anal cancer, prevention efforts could be targeted to high-risk groups, providing a unique example of a screening program targeted to high-risk individuals.
  • This article describes the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer among men and women, as well as current efforts to prevent anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonoscopy / methods. Human papillomavirus 11. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19344856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0474
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 085178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR02413,1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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58. Gavioli M, Losi L, Luppi G, Iacchetta F, Zironi S, Bertolini F, Falchi AM, Bertoni F, Natalini G: Preoperative therapy for lower rectal cancer and modifications in distance from anal sphincter. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Oct 1;69(2):370-5
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  • [Title] Preoperative therapy for lower rectal cancer and modifications in distance from anal sphincter.
  • Preoperative therapy can increase the rate of preserving surgery by shrinking the tumor and enhancing its distance from the anal sphincter.
  • The maximal size of the tumor and its distance from the anal sphincter were measured in millimeters before and after preoperative therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 90 cases, 82.5% showed tumor downsizing, varying from one-third to two-thirds or more of the original tumor mass.
  • The distance between the tumor and the anal sphincter increased in 60.2% of cases.
  • It was possible in nearly 30% of patients in whom the cancer had reached the anal sphincter before the preoperative therapy.
  • The distal margin was tumor free in these cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that in very low rectal cancer, preoperative therapy causes tumor downsizing in >80% of cases and in more than one-half enhances the distance between the tumor and anal sphincter.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 17524570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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59. Fei CS, Yu BM, Zhang M, Wu WQ, Chen LW, Fu J: [Effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy on the healing of anastomosis following low anterior resection in locally advanced rectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov 1;47(21):1630-3
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  • METHODS: Between May 2001 and August 2007, 192 patients with T3 and T4 low rectal cancer (distance from the tumor to anal verge </= 6 cm) enrolled in the study.
  • Of the patients, 17 cases were diagnosed tumor free after the neoadjuvant therapy and were not operated on.
  • Other 24 cases were found got complete tumor response with pathological examination after the operation.
  • A total of 41 cases (21.4%) got complete tumor response with the neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20137397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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60. Sgourakis G, Lanitis S, Karaliotas C: Clinical challenges and images in GI. Anal tumor with refractory hypercalcemia. Gastroenterology; 2010 May;138(5):1667, 2025
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  • [Title] Clinical challenges and images in GI. Anal tumor with refractory hypercalcemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Hypercalcemia / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / virology

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  • (PMID = 20332041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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61. Elgin Y, Demirkasimoglu T, Kucukplakci B, Altundag MB, Altundag K, Misirlioglu C, Sanri E, Erkal H, Ugur I, Kara P, Ozgen A, Ozdamar N: Anal tumor diagnosed after the recovery of Fournier gangrene. Dig Dis Sci; 2006 May;51(5):889-90
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  • [Title] Anal tumor diagnosed after the recovery of Fournier gangrene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Fournier Gangrene / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16642420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Baccouche D, Sriha B, Denguezli M, Belajouza C, Nouira R, Korbi S: [Peri anal tumor]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2005 Apr;132(4):375-7
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  • [Title] [Peri anal tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur végétante péri-anale.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / pathology. Crohn Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15886570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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63. Schweitzer A: [Giant anal tumor. The patient is not bothered by it]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2008 Apr 17;150(16):5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant anal tumor. The patient is not bothered by it].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Rectum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18557104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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