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1. Iagaru A, Kundu R, Jadvar H, Nagle D: Evaluation by 18F-FDG-PET of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan-Apr;12(1):26-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation by 18F-FDG-PET of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, representing less than 5% of the digestive malignancies.
  • Our results showed that PET demonstrated the primary lesion at initial evaluation in 7 of 8 anal cancers and showed FDG- avid lymph nodes in 4 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19330178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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2. Chatelain D, Mokrani N, Fléjou JF: [Anal and anal margin tumors]. Ann Pathol; 2007 Dec;27(6):459-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal and anal margin tumors].
  • Tumors of the anal canal and anal margin are rare.
  • Cancers are infrequent and consisted of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, or poorly differentiated basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / pathology. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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3. Teo M, Dhadda A, Gunn J: Paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: first reported case. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Nov;20(9):718
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: first reported case.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Hypercalcemia / complications

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  • (PMID = 18793830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Jay N, Palefsky JM, Welton ML: High-resolution anoscopy targeted surgical destruction of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: a ten-year experience. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jun;51(6):829-35; discussion 835-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-resolution anoscopy targeted surgical destruction of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: a ten-year experience.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether high-resolution anoscopy and targeted surgical destruction of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions is effective in controlling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions while preserving normal tissues.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of 246 patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions treated with high-resolution anoscopy-targeted surgical destruction from 1996 to 2006, with at least one follow-up at a minimum two months with physical examination, high-resolution anoscopy, cytology, and biopsy when indicated.
  • Recurrent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions occurred in 114 patients (57 percent) at an average 19 (range, 3-92) months; 26 of these required surgery.
  • Despite treatment, three patients progressed to invasive cancer (1.2 percent).
  • At their last visit, 192 patients (78 percent) had no evidence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution anoscopy-targeted destruction combined with office-based surveillance and therapy is effective in controlling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and is superior to reports of expectant management or traditional mapping procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Proctoscopy

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  • (PMID = 18363070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Tramujas da Costa e Silva I, de Lima Ferreira LC, Santos Gimenez F, Gonçalves Guimarães RA, Botinelly Fujimoto L, Barbosa Cabral CR, Venturim Mozzer R, de Souza Atala L: High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 May;15(5):1470-5
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  • [Title] High-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in renal graft recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Renal graft recipients are one of the population groups known to be at high risk of developing anal cancer.
  • This study investigated the presence of subclinical anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and the diagnostic ability of high-resolution anoscopy in detecting these lesions in renal graft recipients followed-up in Manaus.
  • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 50 renal graft recipients were interviewed and submitted to high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies of acetowhite lesions or of the anal transition zone mucosa when acetowhitening was absent.
  • Considering the histopathological reports of the examined anal specimens as the gold standard, the diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy were calculated as well as the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population.
  • RESULTS: In 42 renal graft recipients with satisfactory histopathological readings, prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions or condyloma acuminatum (ASIL-ACU) was 23.81%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a prevalence of 23.81% of subclinical ASIL-ACU lesions, the studied renal graft recipients had all these lesions detected by high-resolution anoscopy, notwithstanding most anal transition zone acetowhitened biopsied areas did not reveal histopathological aspects of anal cancer precursor lesions or condyloma acuminatum.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Transplantation


6. Czito BG, Willett CG: Current management of anal canal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 May;11(3):186-92
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  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal historically has been treated with abdominoperineal resection, resulting in high rates of morbidity and local recurrence.
  • At present, RT with 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard of care for anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19336010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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7. Siekas LL, Aboulafia DM: Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience. AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):178-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Establishing an anal dysplasia clinic for HIV-infected men: initial experience.
  • Anal dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common in the HIV-infected population and is a precursor to squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Herein, we describe our initial experience in assessing the frequency and severity of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in a newly formed anal dysplasia clinic in Seattle.
  • We anticipate that the anal dysplasia clinic will enable our institution to participate in emerging HIV- and HPV-related AIN clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology


8. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Vordermark D: Potential and limitations of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in anal cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb 1;26(4):688; author reply 688-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Potential and limitations of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Oct 10;25(29):4581-6 [17925552.001]
  • (PMID = 18235135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Oono Y, Fu K, Nakamura H, Iriguchi Y, Yamamura A, Kishi D, Oda J, Ikematsu H, Mizutani M, Takayanagi S, Tomino Y: Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal. Endoscopy; 2010;42 Suppl 2:E183-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods


11. Heitland W: [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2008 Feb;79(2):183-91; quiz 192
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy for anal carcinoma].
  • Of all carcinomas in the anal canal, 75-80% are squamous cell carcinomas-the remaining 25% being adenocarcinomas.
  • Carcinomas of the anal margin are to be differentiated from basal cell carcinomas and Paget's and Bowen's diseases.
  • More than 80% of anal carcinomas show high-risk HP viruses.
  • Every suspicious lesion in the anal canal and margins must be examined histologically.
  • Primary radiochemotherapy is the first treatment option for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal and anal margin.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 18227955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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13. Chan E, Kachnic LA, Thomas CR Jr: Anal cancer: progress on combined-modality and organ preservation. Curr Probl Cancer; 2009 Sep-Oct;33(5):302-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer: progress on combined-modality and organ preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy / trends. Proctoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20082844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6345
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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14. Hollwitz B, Rinnau F, Holm S, Petry KU, Hillemanns P: [HPV-associated anogenital neoplasia in HIV]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2008 Apr 28;150 Spec No 1:30-2, 34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Colposcopy. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology


15. Alfaro-Rubio A, Nagore E, Serra C, Botella R, Sanmartín O, Requena C, Llombart B, Hueso L, Guillén C: [Perianal Bowen's disease treated with imiquimod]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Sep;96(7):468-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Bowen's disease is a special form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ that usually develops in photoexposed areas of skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16476278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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16. Sasco AJ, Jaquet A, Boidin E, Ekouevi DK, Thouillot F, Lemabec T, Forstin MA, Renaudier P, N'dom P, Malvy D, Dabis F: The challenge of AIDS-related malignancies in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One; 2010;5(1):e8621
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: With the lengthening of life expectancy among HIV-positive subjects related to the use of highly active antiretroviral treatments, an increased risk of cancer has been described in industrialized countries.
  • The objective of our paper is to review the link between HIV and cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, putting it in perspective with what is already known in Western countries.
  • The association was less strong for invasive cervical cancer with ORs ranging from 1.1 (0.7-1.2) to 1.6 (1.1-2.3), whereas ORs for squamous intraepithelial lesions were higher, from 4.4 (2.3-8.4) to 17.0 (2.2-134.1).
  • For non AIDS-classifying cancers, squamous cell conjunctival carcinoma of the eye was associated with HIV in many case-referent studies with ORs from 2.6 (1.4-4.9) to 13.0 (4.5-39.4).
  • Other cancer sites found positively associated with HIV include lung, liver, anus, penis, vulva, kidney, thyroid and uterus and a decreased risk of female breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20066157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069919
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799672
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17. Piperkova E, Raphael B, Altinyay M, Castellon I, Libes R, Sandella N, Abdel-Dayem H: Impact of PET/CT on initial staging, restaging and treatment management of anal cancer: a clinical case with literature review. J BUON; 2006 Oct-Dec;11(4):523-7
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  • [Title] Impact of PET/CT on initial staging, restaging and treatment management of anal cancer: a clinical case with literature review.
  • Distant extrapelvic metastases appear in approximately in 10% of the patients with squamous cell anal cancer (SCAC) and survival depends on the treatment strategy.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy achieved a good therapeutic response but early follow up revealed new paraaortic lymph node (LN) metastases, as well as an uncommon left supraclavicular LN metastasis from the same primary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17309188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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18. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping.
  • This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ.
  • The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin.
  • A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed.
  • Our patient recurred with a 1.2 x 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy.

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  • (PMID = 20181236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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19. Eng C: Anal cancer: current and future methodology. Cancer Invest; 2006 Aug-Sep;24(5):535-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer: current and future methodology.
  • Despite the small number of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal it remains one of the most challenging cancers to treat.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm, Residual. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16939964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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20. Williams VM, Metcalf C, French MA, McCloskey JC: Audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic. Sex Health; 2010 Sep;7(3):346-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Audit of paired anal cytology and histopathology outcomes in patients referred to a public sexual health clinic.
  • BACKGROUND: The level of agreement between anal cytology and histopathology is not clear with only a few studies evaluating the reliability of anal specimen reporting.
  • METHODS: The results of paired anal cytology and histopathology specimens received between 2002 and 2008 from patients who were referred within the sexual health clinic were retrieved from the anatomical pathology database.
  • Data were tabulated according to reported grade of squamous abnormality based on the Bethesda system.
  • High-grade squamous abnormalities were reported in biopsy specimens from 60% (n = 42/67) of HIV-positive subjects and 25% (n = 22/87) of HIV-negative subjects.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology is highly sensitive for the detection of abnormal squamous cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Medical Audit. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Referral and Consultation. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. HIV Seropositivity / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests


21. Walker F, Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Duval X, Descatoire V, Hénin D, Lehy T, Aparicio T: Growth factor receptor expression in anal squamous lesions: modifications associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus. Hum Pathol; 2009 Nov;40(11):1517-27
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  • [Title] Growth factor receptor expression in anal squamous lesions: modifications associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus.
  • High prevalence of squamous anal lesions is linked to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promotes anal carcinogenesis.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2/neu, c-Met, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) (tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors) are implicated in tumor progression, but little is known about their role in anal lesions.
  • We investigated their expression and distribution in normal, dysplastic, and carcinomatous anal epithelium and then tried to analyze the effects on these variables of HPV and the HIV-positive status.
  • We studied growth factor receptors, p16 and Ki67 expression, by in situ hybridization, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogen in situ hybridization (CISH), immunocytochemistry, and morphological quantification in 226 lesions, either infected by HPV6 and 11 (31 condylomas acuminata) or infected with oncogenic HPVs (48 invasive cancers, 147 anal intraepithelial neoplasias).
  • HIV-positive anal cancers showed correlated c-Met and VEGFR1 (P < .003), strong p16 labeling, and an increased Ki67 proliferation.
  • The finding that EGFR, c-Met, and VEGFR1 involved in carcinogenesis are well-represented and coexpressed in anal cancers, especially in HIV-positive population, suggests possible novel targeted treatments for anal diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Receptors, Growth Factor / biosynthesis


22. Balachandra B, Marcus V, Jass JR: Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist. Histopathology; 2007 Jan;50(1):163-74
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated tumours of the anal canal: a diagnostic strategy for the surgical pathologist.
  • Poorly differentiated malignancies affecting the anal canal are uncommon but pose diagnostic difficulties because of the wide range of normal cell types that may occur within a limited anatomical region.
  • The range of lesions that may present as poorly differentiated tumours includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing epithelial cytokeratins and other patterns of mixed differentiation, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma and secondary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical / methods

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  • (PMID = 17204029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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23. Hemmings CT, Frizelle FA: Carcinosarcoma of the anus: report of a case with immunohistochemical study and literature review. Pathology; 2006 Jun;38(3):264-7
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the anus: report of a case with immunohistochemical study and literature review.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Immunohistochemistry / methods

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  • (PMID = 16753754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Vimentin
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24. Ho K, Warrier S, Solomon MJ, Lee K: A prepelvic tunnel for the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in perineal reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2006;59(12):1415-9
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  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: A female patient with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in the pelvis, who underwent radical pelvic exenteration and a successful VRAM flap reconstruction with a prepelvic tunnel.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pelvic Exenteration. Skin Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 17113532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-6815
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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25. Okutur K, Arslan K, Bozkurt M, Barlan M, Oz B, Demir G: Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with anal canal metastasis. J BUON; 2010 Jan-Mar;15(1):194
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with anal canal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20414955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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26. Goh V, Gollub FK, Liaw J, Wellsted D, Przybytniak I, Padhani AR, Glynne-Jones R: Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 1;78(3):715-21
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation: can MRI predict for eventual clinical outcome?
  • PURPOSE: To describe the MRI appearances of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal before and after chemoradiation and to assess whether MRI features predict for clinical outcome.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-five patients (15 male, 20 female; mean age 60.8 years) with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the anal canal underwent MRI before and 6-8 weeks after definitive chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Takeda A, Maeda M, Iseki H, Hirooka E, Shinozuka N, Koyama I: Establishment and characterization of the human SaTM-1 anal canal squamous cell carcinoma cell line derived from lymph node metastasis. Int J Mol Med; 2009 Oct;24(4):465-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of the human SaTM-1 anal canal squamous cell carcinoma cell line derived from lymph node metastasis.
  • Human anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line has not yet been reported due to the rarity of this disease.
  • Since cell lines to study this malignancy were not available, we attempted to establish and characterize anal canal SCC cell line from primary culture of lymph node metastasis.
  • This is the first report of successful establishment and characterization of a human anal canal SCC cell line, which may provide beneficial resources for investigating the biological features of human anal canal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Cell Line, Tumor / cytology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology


28. Patel HS, Silver AR, Levine T, Williams G, Northover JM: Human papillomavirus infection and anal dysplasia in renal transplant recipients. Br J Surg; 2010 Nov;97(11):1716-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus infection and anal dysplasia in renal transplant recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression is a known risk factor for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) disease, including anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The demographics of anal HPV and associated risk factors were investigated in this population.
  • METHODS: Anal cytology and polymerase chain reaction were used to assess anal HPV disease in a cohort of transplant recipients at the Royal London Hospital.
  • Risk factors associated with increased immunosuppression and HPV exposure were collated to determine any association with anal disease.
  • RESULTS: Anal dysplasia was associated with anal oncogenic HPV infection (P < 0.001), duration of immunosuppression (P = 0.050), previous genital warts (P = 0.018) and receptive anal intercourse (P = 0.013).
  • CONCLUSION: Anal dysplasia was related to immunosuppression and patient factors in this cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20730855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
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29. Zampino MG, Magni E, Sonzogni A, Renne G: K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment? Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;65(1):197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment?
  • PURPOSE: Squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon disease comprising only 1-5% of all intestinal tumours.
  • The EGFR status and k-ras mutations in SCC of the anal canal has not been well investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics


30. Rogers LJ, Howard B, Van Wijk L, Wei W, Dehaeck K, Soeters R, Denny LA: Chemoradiation in advanced vulval carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 May;19(4):745-51
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  • [Title] Chemoradiation in advanced vulval carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Vulval carcinoma is uncommon, affecting approximately 2 per 100,000 women annually.
  • Advanced vulval carcinomas involve midline structures (such as clitoris, urethra, or anus) and/or adjacent pelvic organs or bone, and adequate excision may require urinary diversion, colostomy, or pelvic exenteration.
  • Less morbid and less mutilating therapeutic alternatives have been investigated, particularly chemoradiation, which has shown success in the management of anal carcinomas.
  • This is a retrospective study of the GSH's experience of the use of chemoradiation as primary therapy for women with advanced vulval carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19509582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic problems in anal pathology.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • This trend predates human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and has been associated with persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype infection, previous lower genital tract dysplasia/carcinoma, high frequency anoreceptive intercourse, heavy cigarette smoking, immunosuppression in solid organ transplant and immune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV subtyping, anal cytology, and recently identified biomarkers, such as p16 and Becton Dickinson ProEx C may provide additional information in problematic cases, but it is important to be aware of the limitations of these assays.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Very well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pushing margins (so-called giant condyloma of Buschke and Lowenstein) should be classified as verrucous carcinoma; this tumor shows aggressive local infiltration but does not metastasize.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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32. Berry JM, Darragh TM: Home study course: summer 2005. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2005 Jul;9(3):182-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16044060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-2591
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Kagawa R, Yamaguchi T, Furuta R: Histological features of human papilloma virus 16 and its association with the development and progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Surg Today; 2006;36(10):885-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histological features of human papilloma virus 16 and its association with the development and progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the development of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the expression patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • The expression patterns of HPV in the cancer cell nuclei was investigated by in situ hybridization (ISH) using HPV probes.
  • RESULTS: Amplification of DMD genes was confirmed in 8 of 20 patients with anal SCC, suggesting that tumor DNA was preserved in these patients.
  • In two patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS), the cancer cells showed only a diffuse pattern (DP), and in two patients with invasive cancer, the cancer cell showed only an oligo-dot pattern (OP).
  • In one patient with lesions ranging from CIS to invasive cancer, the histologic features varied in each area, from DP to OP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that HPV16 infection is closely involved in the development of anal SCC and suggest that the change in the genome occurs at the stage of microinvasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16998682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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34. Mistrangelo M, Bellò M, Mobiglia A, Beltramo G, Cassoni P, Milanesi E, Cornaglia S, Pelosi E, Giunta F, Sandrucci S, Mussa A: Feasibility of the sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Feb;53(1):3-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Feasibility of the sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer.
  • AIM: Anal cancer is a rare neoplasm.
  • According to a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer multivariate analysis, synchronous inguinal lymph node metastasis occurs in 10-25% of patients and constitutes an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality.
  • METHODS: Inguinal lymph node status was assessed using the sentinel node technique in 35 patients with anal cancer.
  • RESULTS: Histology revealed 23 squamous carcinomas, 10 basaloid carcinomas, 1 squamous carcinoma with basaloid areas and 1 spinocellular epithelioma associated with areas of Bowen's disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given the correlation between prognosis and node involvement, sentinel node biopsy can be considered a simple method for adequate pretreatment staging of anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 18337684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-4785
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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35. Chaiyachati K, Cinti SK, Kauffman CA, Riddell J: HIV-infected patients with anal carcinoma who subsequently developed oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of 2 cases. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2008 Nov-Dec;7(6):306-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-infected patients with anal carcinoma who subsequently developed oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of 2 cases.
  • We describe 2 patients who had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and who first developed human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma and later, oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  • At the time each patient developed oral cancer, they were responding well to antiretroviral therapy with undetectable viral loads.
  • Careful screening for oral cancers may be indicated in HIV-infected patients with HPV-associated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Papillomavirus Infections / complications


36. Martin FT, Kavanagh D, Waldron R: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Surgeon; 2009 Aug;7(4):232-7
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract.
  • Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19736891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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37. Hoots BE, Palefsky JM, Pimenta JM, Smith JS: Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions. Int J Cancer; 2009 May 15;124(10):2375-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions.
  • A systematic review was conducted of HPV type distribution in anal cancer and anal high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL).
  • A total of 1,824 cases were included: 992 invasive anal cancers, 472 HSIL cases and 360 LSIL cases.
  • Crude HPV prevalence in anal cancer, HSIL, and LSIL was 71, 91 and 88%, respectively.
  • HPV16/18 prevalence was 72% in invasive anal cancer, 69% in HSIL and 27% in LSIL.
  • The HPV 16 and/or 18 prevalence in invasive anal cancer cases was similar to that reported in invasive cervical cancer.
  • If ongoing clinical trials show efficacy in preventing anal HPV infection and associated anal lesions, prophylactic HPV vaccines may play an important role for the primary prevention of these cancers in both genders.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19189402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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38. Alvarez G, Perry A, Tan BR, Wang HL: Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal is independent of gene amplification. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):942-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal is independent of gene amplification.
  • The EGFR status in squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, an uncommon malignancy traditionally treated with chemoradiation, has not been well investigated.
  • In this study, 38 primary squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal were immunohistochemically examined for EGFR expression and analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for EGFR gene copy numbers.
  • These results demonstrate that EGFR is overexpressed in more than one-half of the squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal through mechanisms other than gene amplification.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16648870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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39. Konstantinopoulos PA, Schlecht HP, Bryan B, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ: HIV-associated anal squamous cell cancer: an otherwise preventable disease. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Sep 20;24(27):4516-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV-associated anal squamous cell cancer: an otherwise preventable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / complications


40. Chetty R, Serra S, Hsieh E: Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1668-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basaloid squamous carcinoma of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern: histologic and immunohistochemical reappraisal of an unusual variant.
  • Two cases of a distinctive variety of basaloid squamous carcinoma (BSC) of the anal canal are described.
  • Accompanying dysplasia of the overlying squamous mucosa was absent.
  • This appearance together with microcystic spaces simulated that of an adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • BSC of the anal canal with an adenoid cystic pattern is an infrequently encountered and reported variant, although it is seen more often in the aerodigestive tract.
  • The histologic differential diagnosis is true salivary gland-type adenoid cystic carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16327441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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41. Clivio A, Fogliata A, Franzetti-Pellanda A, Nicolini G, Vanetti E, Wyttenbach R, Cozzi L: Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal: A treatment planning comparison with fixed field IMRT. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Jul;92(1):118-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal: A treatment planning comparison with fixed field IMRT.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT datasets of 10 patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal were included and five plans were generated for each case: fixed beam IMRT, single (RA1)- and double (RA2)-modulated arcs with the RapidArc technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated

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  • (PMID = 19181409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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42. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):123-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) is established as the primary treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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43. Nguyen BD, Ram PC, Roarke MC: F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Mar;32(3):234-6
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  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of anal canal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17314608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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44. Mistrangelo M, Pelosi E, Bellò M, Castellano I, Cassoni P, Ricardi U, Munoz F, Racca P, Contu V, Beltramo G, Morino M, Mussa A: Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 May 1;77(1):73-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19632066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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45. Ghigna MR, Drak Alsibai K, Porras J, Palazzo L, Godchaux JM, Fabre M: Deep-seated rectal/anal basaloid carcinoma: useful immunocytochemistry in rare squamous cell carcinoma variants. Cytopathology; 2009 Oct;20(5):315-20
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  • [Title] Deep-seated rectal/anal basaloid carcinoma: useful immunocytochemistry in rare squamous cell carcinoma variants.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report the cytological aspects of ano-rectal basaloid carcinoma (BC) variant in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC), in a series of 10 cases of deep-seated squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and to discuss the diagnostic difficulties in interpreting the morphology and immunocytochemical findings.
  • Of these two cases, only one was correctly diagnosed by EUS-FNA specimen, whereas in the second case, the initial cytological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and the final diagnosis of basaloid carcinoma variant was established on surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasms, Basal Cell. Rectal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18540877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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46. Schneider A, Lacreuse I, Moog R, Kauffmann I, Becmeur F: Buschke-Löwenstein anal tumour in children: two case reports. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Oct;19(5):330-2
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  • [Title] Buschke-Löwenstein anal tumour in children: two case reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Condylomata Acuminata

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  • (PMID = 19199236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Bewtra C: Anal pap smear for high risk women. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Mar;38(3):234
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  • [Title] Anal pap smear for high risk women.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods

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  • (PMID = 19845030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Wu QJ, Yoo S, Clough RW, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 1;78(5):1413-9
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicities associated with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • This study reports the results of using IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Records of patients with anal malignancies treated with IMRT at Duke University were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal malignancy (89% canal, 11% perianal skin) were treated with IMRT between August 2006 and September 2008.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer results in significant reductions in normal tissue dose and acute toxicities versus historic controls treated without IMRT, leading to reduced rates of toxicity-related treatment interruption.
  • IMRT is emerging as a standard therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Diarrhea / etiology. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / etiology. Male. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy. Sarcoma / radiotherapy. Thrombocytopenia / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Jay N, Palefsky JM, Welton ML: High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1410-5; discussion 1415-6
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  • [Title] High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients.
  • Anal dysplasia (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSIL; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) is a challenging disease for the surgeon.
  • We reviewed 42 patients that underwent high-resolution anoscopy (HRA)-targeted surgical therapy of anal dysplasia in the past 10 years.
  • Patients were followed up in the Anal Neoplasia Clinic with physical examination, cytology, HRA, and biopsy if indicated.
  • Progression to HSIL was seen in one patient with LSIL and to squamous cell carcinoma in one patient with HSIL despite therapy.
  • HRA-targeted surgical therapy coupled with surveillance and re-treatment with office-based therapies offered an effective method in controlling anal dysplasia in the immunocompetent patient.
  • Morbidity is minimal, and our progression to cancer rate is low (2.4%).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17710507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Owens SR, Greenson JK: Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Feb;31(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Anal canal carcinomas account for between 1% and 2% of all gastrointestinal carcinomas in the United States.
  • By far, the most common carcinoma in this site is squamous cell carcinoma, but the differential diagnosis typically includes poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma or carcinoid tumor.
  • Because the first diagnostic specimen received in the pathology laboratory is usually a small, sometimes suboptimal biopsy, the distinction of these types of carcinoma can be difficult.
  • However, accurate diagnosis is imperative, because the treatment differs between squamous carcinoma (chemoradiation) and the other types of carcinoma (surgical therapy).
  • The p63 protein has been previously shown to be involved in epithelial proliferation and differentiation, and is known to be related to squamous carcinomas in many sites.
  • Therefore, we undertook to ascertain its usefulness in the diagnosis of squamous carcinomas in the anal canal.
  • We retrieved 24 anal squamous carcinomas, 68 colorectal adenocarcinomas (including a tissue microarray), and 32 colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas from the archives at the University of Michigan, and immunostained them for the p63 antigen.
  • As a result, this immunohistochemical stain had a specificity of 98% and a positive predictive value of 92% for squamous cell carcinoma once invasive carcinoma had been established.
  • It also stained the dysplastic epithelial cells in adjacent areas of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • We report that the p63 immunostain is a highly specific and useful tool in the diagnosis of carcinomas of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Tissue Array Analysis. Transcription Factors

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  • (PMID = 17255774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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51. Hatzaras I, Abir F, Kozol R, Sullivan P, Longo WE: The demographics, histopathology and patterns of treatment of anal cancer in Connecticut: 1980-2000. Conn Med; 2005 May;69(5):261-5
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  • [Title] The demographics, histopathology and patterns of treatment of anal cancer in Connecticut: 1980-2000.
  • OBJECTIVES: Examine the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of anal cancer in the State of Connecticut.
  • RESULTS: A total of 646 anal cancers (410 females, 236 males) were diagnosed (mean age: 63.4 years).
  • The most prominent histological type was squamous cell carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and cloacogenic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal cancer incidence in Connecticut increased in the 21-year period 1980 to 2000, affecting the rate for African-American men more than other race-specific and gender-specific population subgroups.
  • Anal cancer affects women more often than men.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological type.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16114640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0010-6178
  • [Journal-full-title] Connecticut medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conn Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Tang B, Horberg MA, Klein D, Quesenberry CP Jr, Towner WJ, Abrams DI: HIV infection and the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause. AIDS; 2009 Nov 13;23(17):2337-45
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  • METHODS: Adult HIV-infected and matched HIV-uninfected members of Kaiser Permanente followed between 1996 and 2007 for incident AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), infection-related non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs; anal squamous cell, vagina/vulva, Hodgkin's lymphoma, penis, liver, human papillomavirus-related oral cavity/pharynx, stomach) and infection-unrelated NADC (all other NADCs).
  • These results were largely influenced by anal squamous cell cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Among infection-unrelated NADCs, other anal, skin, other head and neck, and lung cancer rates were higher and prostate cancer rates lower in HIV-infected persons.
  • Among all infection-unrelated NADCs, the rate ratio decreased over time only for lung cancer (P = 0.007).


53. Wong AK, Chan RC, Aggarwal N, Singh MK, Nichols WS, Bose S: Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies. Mod Pathol; 2010 Jan;23(1):144-50
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus genotypes in anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma as detected in tissue biopsies.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection strongly correlates with the development of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas; however, few studies have characterized the distribution of the specific subtypes of the virus in the varying grades of dysplasia.
  • This report characterizes the distribution of HPV 16/18 in surgical specimens with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I-III and histological variants of anal carcinoma.
  • A total of 111 anal surgical specimens with no dysplasia (10), AIN I-III (53), and anal carcinomas (48) were evaluated for the presence of high-risk HPV infection and subtyped by nested PCR or the Invader Assay.
  • High-risk virus types were detected in progressively greater number of anal intraepithelial lesions from 56% in low grade to 88% in high grade.
  • Most (89%) squamous carcinomas were associated with high-risk viruses, 68% with type 16, a prevalence similar to that noted in high-grade dysplasia.
  • Non-16/18 subtypes were encountered more frequently in squamous carcinomas from immunodeficient individuals (57% cases) as compared with immunocompetent individuals (18% cases).
  • The similarity in the prevalence of type 16 in high-grade dysplasia and squamous carcinomas suggests that anal intraepithelial lesion III is the true precursor of squamous carcinoma and warrants aggressive management.
  • Anal intraepithelial lesions II showed a virus distribution that was similar to low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 19838162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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54. Yakovlev AE, Ellias Y: Spinal cord stimulation as a treatment option for intractable neuropathic cancer pain. Clin Med Res; 2008 Dec;6(3-4):103-6
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  • [Title] Spinal cord stimulation as a treatment option for intractable neuropathic cancer pain.
  • Nearly 6,750,000 people suffer moderate to severe cancer-related pain each year.
  • Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used with increased frequency for successful treatment of intractable cancer pain.
  • We present two cases of intractable, refractory-to-conventional treatment cancer pain that were successfully treated with SCS.
  • Case 1 reports a 51-year-old male with burning pain at the left groin site of inguinal metastases, post-surgical and intraoperative radiation therapy for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Case 2 reports a 43-year-old woman with intractable, burning, throbbing, and shooting pain, post-debulking followed by radiation of a metastatic colon carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Electric Stimulation Therapy. Neuralgia / therapy. Spinal Cord. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19325172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6179
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine & research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2670524
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55. Pawlik TM, Gleisner AL, Bauer TW, Adams RB, Reddy SK, Clary BM, Martin RC, Scoggins CR, Tanabe KK, Michaelson JS, Kooby DA, Staley CA, Schulick RD, Vauthey JN, Abdalla EK, Curley SA, Choti MA, Elias D: Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2807-16
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  • [Title] Liver-directed surgery for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the liver: results of a multi-center analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The role of hepatic resection for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains unknown.
  • METHODS: Between 1988 and 2006, 52 patients underwent hepatic resection of metastatic SCC at eight major cancer centers.
  • RESULTS: Primary SCC site was anal (n = 27), head/neck (n = 12), lung (n = 4), esophagus (n = 2), and other (n = 7).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Electrocoagulation. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery


56. Mercer SE, Khalil D, Emanuel PO, Goldenberg G: Verrucous carcinoma masquerading as a giant fibroepithelial polyp. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):347-51
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  • [Title] Verrucous carcinoma masquerading as a giant fibroepithelial polyp.
  • The authors report a case of a verrucous carcinoma (VC) of the buttocks clinically simulating a giant (6.5 cm in length and 5.4 cm in greatest diameter) fibroepithelial polyp (FEP) capped by a large cutaneous horn.
  • It is considered a low-grade, well-differentiated variant of squamous cell cancer and is commonly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Fibroepithelial / diagnosis. Polyps / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20667928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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58. Butler CE, Gündeslioglu AO, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: Outcomes of immediate vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction for irradiated abdominoperineal resection defects. J Am Coll Surg; 2008 Apr;206(4):694-703
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  • BACKGROUND: Perineal wound complications after chemoradiotherapy and abdominoperineal resection (APR) for anorectal cancer occur in up to 60% of patients, including perineal abscess and wound dehiscence.
  • STUDY DESIGN: All patients who underwent chemoradiotherapy and APR during a 12-year period at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / etiology. Abscess / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colectomy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Perineum / radiation effects. Perineum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectus Abdominis / transplantation. Retrospective Studies. Wound Healing / drug effects. Wound Healing / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 18387476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Chou YP, Saito Y, Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Mashimo Y, Moriya Y, Shimoda T: Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Endoscopy; 2009;41 Suppl 2:E283-5
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  • [Title] Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods. Dissection / methods. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery


60. Gagne SE, Jensen R, Polvi A, Da Costa M, Ginzinger D, Efird JT, Holly EA, Darragh T, Palefsky JM: High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Oct 1;40(2):182-9
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  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the likely precursor to anal cancer.
  • AIN is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and HPV-associated genomic instability may play an important role in the progression of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Genome, Viral. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Virus Integration

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  • (PMID = 16186736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Irabor DO, Dongo AE: Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed? Trop Doct; 2009 Jan;39(1):7-9
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in a tropical low socio-economic population in the new millennium: What has changed?
  • The paper is a retrospective look at the clinicopathological presentation of carcinoma of the anal canal in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria.
  • Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with anal carcinoma over a five-year period (2002-2006) from a total of 394 patients who had malignancies of the colon, rectum and anus.
  • The male: female ratio was 1.2: 1 showing a slight male predominance; the average age was 48 years; tenesmus, bleeding per rectum and anal pain were the most common presenting features.
  • The most predominant histopathological subtype was adenocarcinoma - a departure from the hitherto squamous cell cancer dominance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria / epidemiology. Socioeconomic Factors. Tropical Climate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19211411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-4755
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical doctor
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Doct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Haas ML: Oral mucositis in radiation/chemotherapy: treatment similarities. Oncology (Williston Park); 2009 Jul;23(8 Suppl):23-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cost of Illness. Depression / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Tonsillar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19860039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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63. Haboubi N: Anal cancer; do we all have a common treatment strategy? Colorectal Dis; 2009 Nov;11(9):891-2
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  • [Title] Anal cancer; do we all have a common treatment strategy?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19832862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Yumuk PF, Abacioglu U, Demir G, Cabuk D, Dane F, Gumus M, Ozguroglu M, Ekenel M, Basaran G, Turhal NS: Does the incidence of anal canal cancers differ in Moslem societies? Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jan;20(1):76
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  • [Title] Does the incidence of anal canal cancers differ in Moslem societies?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / ethnology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / ethnology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ethnology. Hygiene. Islam. Registries / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15293063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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65. Marucci G, Betts CM, Liguori L, Eusebi V: Basaloid carcinoma of the pancreas. Virchows Arch; 2005 Mar;446(3):322-4
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  • [Title] Basaloid carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • A case of basaloid carcinoma of the pancreas in a 26-year-old woman is reported.
  • Small foci of clear-cut squamous differentiation were present.
  • Basaloid carcinomas may arise in several sites of the body, the most frequent being the anus and oesophagus, and have poor clinical outcome.
  • The present case appears to be, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented example in the literature of basaloid carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15726404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
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66. Riethmuller D, Guerrini JS, Aubin F: [Intraepithelial lesions and neoplasia associated with human papillomavirus infection]. Bull Acad Natl Med; 2007 Mar;191(3):601-9; discussion 609
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Anogenital lesions induced by human papillomaviruses (HPV) are due to both high-risk HPV types involved in carcinogenesis of the cervix (and also, to a lesser extent, of the vulva, anus and vagina) and to low-risk HPV types that cause external genital warts in the perianal region, perineum, vulva and vagina (less often the cervix).
  • Cervical cancer is thus virus-induced, and there is a continuum from intraepithelial lesions to invasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology


67. Ghouti L, Houvenaeghel G, Moutardier V, Giovannini M, Magnin V, Lelong B, Bardou VJ, Delpero JR: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan;48(1):16-22
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  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy alone or with combined chemotherapy is the first therapeutic option for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite high incidence of perineal morbidity, salvage abdominoperineal resection for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal has a high long-term survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15690652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Chao MW, Gibbs P: Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Lowenstein tumour). Asian J Surg; 2005 Jul;28(3):238-40
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Lowenstein tumour).
  • Despite the histologically benign appearance, it behaves in a malignant fashion, destroying adjacent tissues, and is regarded as an entity intermediate between an ordinary condyloma acuminatum and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Primary anorectal lesions account for only a small number of GCA cases and, as with squamous cell carcinoma, the human papilloma virus is the causative agent.
  • The hallmark of GCA is the high rate of local recurrence and transformation into squamous cell carcinoma.


69. Roach SC, Hulse PA, Moulding FJ, Wilson R, Carrington BM: Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer. Clin Radiol; 2005 Oct;60(10):1111-9
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of anal cancer.
  • AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of primary and recurrent anal carcinoma, and to demonstrate the commonest patterns of local and distant disease spread.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 27 cases of biopsy-proven anal carcinoma, where MRI was used for primary staging (9 patients) or suspected recurrence (18 patients).
  • The size, extent and signal characteristics of the anal tumour were documented.
  • Lymph node metastases were of similar signal intensity to the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16179172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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70. Meyer J, Willett C, Czito B: Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2010 May;12(3):168-74
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  • [Title] Current and emerging treatment strategies for anal cancer.
  • Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and mitomycin-C) is established as a sphincter-preserving treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This review discusses the evolution of therapy for anal cancer, from early clinical trials establishing the current standard to more recent studies evaluating cisplatin, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and cetuximab.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20425076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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71. Carroll KA, Pierce J, Kovarik CL: Perianal Bowen disease in a child with human immunodeficiency virus. Pediatr Dermatol; 2010 Mar-Apr;27(2):166-9
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  • Histologic sections revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
  • Several cases of anogenital condyloma in HIV-positive children have been reported, but very few cases of HPV-associated cancer.
  • The increased life expectancy of children with HIV may actually put them at risk for developing an HPV-related anogenital cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Bowen's Disease / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20537068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Kauh J, Koshy M, Gunthel C, Joyner MM, Landry J, Thomas CR Jr: Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Nov;19(12):1634-8; discussion 1638-40, 1645 passim
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population.
  • Squamous cell anal cancer remains an uncommon entity; however, the incidence appears to be increasing in at-risk populations, especially those infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Given the ability to cure this cancer using synchronous chemoradiotherapy, management practices of this disease are critical.
  • This article considers treatment strategies for HIV-positive patients with anal cancer, including the impact on chemoradiation-induced toxicities and the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of this patient population.
  • The impact of the immune system in patients with HIV and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and the associated response to therapy remains unknown.
  • Continued studies and phase III trials will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus to determine which treatment protocols provide the greatest benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology


73. Lytwyn A, Salit IE, Raboud J, Chapman W, Darragh T, Winkler B, Tinmouth J, Mahony JB, Sano M: Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer; 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1447-56
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  • [Title] Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal carcinoma incidence is increasing, and is highest among men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have sex with men.
  • Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) are ascertained on tissue histology, but requires invasive procedures.
  • Screening for AIN using anal cytology was suggested.
  • The authors evaluated agreement on cytologic and biopsy specimens from HIV-positive men undergoing anal carcinoma screening.
  • METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse underwent anal cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy.
  • Reliability for the Bethesda classification system was at least moderate, except for the cytologic category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (kappa = 0.12).
  • Fourteen of 29 (48.3%) cytology specimens and 36 of 47 (76.6%) biopsy specimens with consensus interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were interpreted originally as HSIL by > or = 3 pathologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Observer Variation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15726546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. D'Souza G, Wiley DJ, Li X, Chmiel JS, Margolick JB, Cranston RD, Jacobson LP: Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Aug 1;48(4):491-9
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  • [Title] Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study).
  • RESULTS: There were 28 cases of anal cancer among the 6,972 men who were evaluated.
  • Among HIV-positive men, anal cancer incidence was higher in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era than the pre-HAART era (incidence rate = 137 vs 30 per 100,000 person-years).
  • In multivariate analysis restricted to the HAART era, anal cancer risk increased significantly with HIV infection (relative hazard = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.3 to 17) and increasing number of unprotected receptive anal sex partners at the first 3 study visits (P trend = 0.03).
  • Among HIV-positive men, current HAART use did not decrease anal cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive men had increased risk of anal cancer.
  • Improved survival of HIV-positive individuals after HAART initiation may allow for sufficient time for human papillomavirus-associated anal dysplasias to develop into malignancies, thus explaining the increased incidence of anal cancer in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18614927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-MO1-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37613
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS562648; NLM/ PMC3991563
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75. Brewster DH, Bhatti LA: Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jul 3;95(1):87-90
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  • [Title] Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002.
  • In Scotland, since 1975-1979 (world) age-standardised incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus has more than doubled, reaching 0.37 per 100,000 in males and 0.55 in females during 1998-2002, being somewhat higher in socioeconomically deprived areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16721368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360500
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76. Hargis AM, Baldessari AE, Walder EJ: Intraepidermal adenocarcinoma in the perianal skin of two cats, a condition resembling human extramammary Paget's disease. Vet Dermatol; 2008 Feb;19(1):31-7
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  • Differential diagnoses included intraepidermal adenocarcinoma, in situ squamous or basal cell carcinoma, junctional amelanotic melanoma, and epitheliotropic tumours of histiocytic or lymphocytic origin.
  • In one cat the clinical lesions consisted of a pruritic erythematous eruption surrounding the anus.
  • Another cat presented clinically for an area of irregular anal thickening; this cat had well-regulated diabetes mellitus.

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  • (PMID = 18177290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4493
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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77. de Jong JS, Beukema JC, van Dam GM, Slart R, Lemstra C, Wiggers T: Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2656-62
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  • [Title] Limited value of staging squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and canal using the sentinel lymph node procedure: a prospective study with long-term follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Selection of patients with anal cancer for groin irradiation is based on tumor size, palpation, ultrasound, and fine needle cytology.
  • Current staging of anal cancer may result in undertreatment in small tumors and overtreatment of large tumors.
  • This study reports the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with anal cancer and whether this improves the selection for inguinal radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: A total of 50 patients with squamous anal cancer were evaluated prospectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that SLNB in anal cancer is technically feasible.
  • However, because of the occurrence of inguinal lymph node metastases after a tumor-negative SLNB, introduction of this procedure as standard of care in all patients with anal carcinoma should be done with caution to avoid undertreatment of patient who otherwise would benefit from inguinal radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20865825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941712
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78. Kinjo A, Ogawa K, Iraha S, Tamaki W, Toita T, Kakinohana Y, Samura H, Kinjo I, Nishimaki T, Kuniyoshi Y, Murayama S: [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):519-22
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  • [Title] [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases].
  • We have treated four Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal using concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • These four patients have been alive and free of disease (follow-ups of 55, 14, 7 and 5 months, respectively), with excellent function of the anal sphincter after treatment.
  • These results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18347409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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79. Renehan AG, Saunders MP, Schofield PF, O'Dwyer ST: Patterns of local disease failure and outcome after salvage surgery in patients with anal cancer. Br J Surg; 2005 May;92(5):605-14
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  • [Title] Patterns of local disease failure and outcome after salvage surgery in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Salvage surgery for anal cancer is usually reserved for local disease failure, but issues relating to the prediction of local failure and surgical outcome are ill defined.
  • METHODS: Between 1988 and 2000, 254 patients with non-metastatic anal epidermoid carcinoma were treated at a regional cancer centre with radiotherapy (n = 127) or chemoradiotherapy (n = 127).
  • CONCLUSION: In the management of anal cancer, local disease failure is a major clinical problem requiring early detection followed by radical surgery, often accompanied by plastic reconstruction.
  • By implication, these factors favour the centralization of treatment for this uncommon cancer to a multidisciplinary oncology team.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15739215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Buchs NC, Allal AS, Morel P, Gervaz P: Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2009 Apr;9(4):483-9
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  • [Title] Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer.
  • Management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) has remained virtually unchanged since the 1980s.
  • By contrast, the demographics of SCCA are evolving, with the emergence of a high-risk group of patients: HIV-positive male homosexuals are prone to develop anal intra-epithelial neoplasia and rapidly progress towards invasive SCCA.
  • By many aspects, anal cancer is similar to uterine cervix cancer - a sexually transmitted disease driven by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Alphapapillomavirus / pathogenicity. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Salvage Therapy. Surgical Flaps. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / etiology. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / prevention & control. Vaccination


81. Fayaz S, Vasishta S, Motawy M: Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 20084726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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82. Pantanowitz L, Leiman G, Dezube BJ: Editorial comment: screening for anal dysplasia--are we on the same page? AIDS Read; 2009 May;19(5):182-3
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  • [Title] Editorial comment: screening for anal dysplasia--are we on the same page?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Mass Screening. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Humans. Male. Washington / epidemiology

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  • [CommentOn] AIDS Read. 2009 May;19(5):178-86 [19554736.001]
  • (PMID = 19554737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-0894
  • [Journal-full-title] The AIDS reader
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Read
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Wexler A, Berson AM, Goldstone SE, Waltzman R, Penzer J, Maisonet OG, McDermott B, Rescigno J: Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):73-81
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  • [Title] Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in patients with HIV is increasing.
  • We report the outcome after combined chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous-cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two HIV-positive patients treated at the St. Vincent's Cancer Care Center for anal squamous-cell carcinoma from 1997 through mid 2005 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Overall survival, anal cancer-specific survival, local recurrence, and toxicity were assessed.
  • Five-year locoregional relapse, anal cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were 16 , 75, and 65 percent, respectively.
  • In multivariate analysis, locoregional recurrence, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were all significantly associated with tumor size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Outcome after chemoradiotherapy for HIV-related anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy is comparable to outcome in patients without HIV.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


84. Das P, Crane CH, Ajani JA: Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Jul;19(4):396-400
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  • [Title] Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemoradiation represents the standard of care for most patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This article reviews randomized trials and recent studies on chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • Recent studies have started to evaluate intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer, in an effort to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The role of cisplatin in anal cancer is not completely clear, although an ongoing randomized trial (Anal Cancer Trial II) may help clarify the role of cisplatin.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy appears to be a promising approach for reducing treatment-related toxicity in anal cancer patients.
  • The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) is conducting a phase II trial evaluating the multi-institutional feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17545807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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85. Fleshner PR, Chalasani S, Chang GJ, Levien DH, Hyman NH, Buie WD, Standards Practice Task Force, American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons: Practice parameters for anal squamous neoplasms. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):2-9
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  • [Title] Practice parameters for anal squamous neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18030528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Jiang Y, Mackley H, Cheng H, Ajani JA: Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy? J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):135-44
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy?
  • Use of definitive chemoradiation as primary therapy for locoregional squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has been the standard approach in the United States since the 1980s.
  • Further improvement is likely depending on an increased understanding of the molecular biology of anal carcinoma and the addition of relevant biologic agents to chemoradiation to overcome chemoradiation resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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87. Gurfinkel R, Walfisch S: Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Dec;9(3):235-6
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  • [Title] Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis.
  • The combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy with subsequent repeated local biopsy has become the standard treatment of epidermoid carcinoma.
  • The optimal treatment of metastatic anal carcinomas is controversial.
  • We present the case of 54-year-old woman with a diagnosis of metastatic basaloid anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16328122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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88. Jiménez W, Paszat L, Kupets R, Wilton A, Tinmouth J: Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):395-8
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  • [Title] Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario.
  • OBJECTIVE: The oncogenic HPV subtypes responsible for gynecologic malignancies have also been implicated in the development of squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCAC).
  • The aim of this study was determine whether women diagnosed with anal cancer are more likely to have a history of HPV-related gynecological cancer as compared to a matched control group.
  • The exposure of interest was previous HPV-related gynecologic cancer, specifically cervical cancer, vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer.
  • Previous HPV-related gynecological cancer (cervical, vaginal or vulvar cancer) was significantly associated with SCAC (OR: 10.5, 95% C.I.: 3.6 to 30.3).
  • The median time between the diagnosis of anal cancer and previous cervical cancer was 20 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Previous HPV-related gynecological cancers are strongly associated with anal cancer and may occur decades before the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19501390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. de Parades V, Bauer P, Benbunan JL, Bouillet T, Cottu PH, Cuenod CA, Durdux C, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):157-65
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  • [Title] [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Bilan préthérapeutique initial du carcinome épidermoïde invasif de l'anus.
  • Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17347624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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90. Pleimes M, Wiedemeyer K, Hartschuh W: [Lichen simplex chronicus of the anal region and its differential diagnoses. A case series]. Hautarzt; 2009 Nov;60(11):907-12
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  • [Title] [Lichen simplex chronicus of the anal region and its differential diagnoses. A case series].
  • Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) of the anal region is characterized by massive pruritus, constant itching and a chronic course.
  • Correct diagnosis as well as therapy of anal LSC sometimes is difficult.
  • Differential diagnostic considerations include verrucous lichen planus and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We present three cases and then summarize pathogenesis, diagnostics, differential diagnoses and therapeutic options for lichen simplex chronicus of the anal region.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Intestinal Diseases / diagnosis. Intestinal Diseases / therapy. Neurodermatitis / diagnosis. Neurodermatitis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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91. Sahai A, Kodner IJ: Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):88-93
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  • [Title] Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin.
  • Premalignant and malignant lesions of the anal margin are rare.
  • Understanding anal anatomy and performing a biopsy of any suspicious lesions are essential in avoiding a delay in diagnosis and appropriately treating these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20011315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780101
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anus neoplasms / Bowen's disease / Paget's disease / squamous cell cancer
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92. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Pfister H, Altmeyer P, Wieland U, Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Human papillomavirus type 26-associated periungual squamous cell carcinoma in situ in a HIV-infected patient with concomitant penile and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Oct;53(4):737-9
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus type 26-associated periungual squamous cell carcinoma in situ in a HIV-infected patient with concomitant penile and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. HIV-1. Nail Diseases / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology


93. Moreau MV, Tournier-Rangeard L, Kaminsky MC, Peiffert D: [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jul;13(4):329-32
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  • [Title] [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie de rattrapage pour métastases médiastinales et pleuropulmonaires d'un cancer du canal anal.
  • This case report presents a 57 years-old woman treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal by radiochemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • This observation is interesting for its curative treatment in metastatic cancer of the anal canal.
  • It also illustrates the radiosensibility of anal canal cancers, including metastatic situations, and raises the contribution of PET-scanner to evaluate the response to treatment and detect a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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94. Anand BS, Verstovsek G, Cole G: Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar 21;12(11):1780-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report.
  • Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma.
  • We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis.
  • Examination revealed a 4 cm friable mass attached to the anus by a stalk.
  • The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor.
  • We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16586552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124358
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95. Oblak I, Petric P, Anderluh F, Velenik V, Hudej R, Fras AP: Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience. Neoplasma; 2009;56(2):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer chemoirradiation with curative intent - a single institution experience.
  • Results of radiochemotherapy in 50 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, treated with radical radiochemotherapy between January 2003 and September 2007, at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana are presented.
  • Late anal stenosis, chronic ulceration and grade 2-3 incontinence developed in 3 (6 %), 2 (4 %) and 5 (10 %) of colostomy-free survivors, respectively.
  • </p> KEYWORDS: anal cancer, radiochemotherapy, survival, toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .
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  • (PMID = 19239330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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96. Fesneau M, Champeaux-Orange E, Hennequin C: [Anal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Nov;14 Suppl 1:S120-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers.
  • The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, pararectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21129654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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97. Kuhlgatz J, Golas MM, Sander B, Füzesi L, Hermann RM, Miericke B: Human papilloma virus infection in a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma associated with severe Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis; 2005 Jan;11(1):84-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papilloma virus infection in a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma associated with severe Crohn's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Crohn Disease / complications. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections. Rectal Fistula / etiology


98. Nahas CS, Lin O, Weiser MR, Temple LK, Wong WD, Stier EA: Prevalence of perianal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected patients referred for high-resolution anoscopy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Oct;49(10):1581-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All patients underwent anal canal and perianal high-resolution anoscopy in the office with biopsy of suspicious areas.
  • Office perianal biopsies diagnosed two patients with invasive squamous-cell carcinoma and nine with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Seven of the nine patients with perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on office biopsy were submitted to multiple biopsies under general anesthesia.
  • One of these seven had an occult perianal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perianal disease was common in this group of HIV-infected patients; 11 patients (21 percent of total) were diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Our data suggest that anal canal neoplasia often is accompanied by perianal disease and illustrates the need for biopsy of any suspicious perianal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Infections / complications. Proctoscopy / methods


99. Winton Ed, Heriot AG, Ng M, Hicks RJ, Hogg A, Milner A, Leong T, Fay M, MacKay J, Drummond E, Ngan SY: The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer. Br J Cancer; 2009 Mar 10;100(5):693-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer.
  • Accurate inguinal and pelvic nodal staging in anal cancer is important for the prognosis and planning of radiation fields.
  • There is evidence for the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging and management of cancer, with early reports of an increasing role in outcome prognostication in a number of tumours.
  • We aimed to determine the effect of FDG-PET on the nodal staging, radiotherapy planning and prognostication of patients with primary anal cancer.
  • Sixty-one consecutive patients with anal cancer who were referred to a tertiary centre between August 1997 and November 2005 were staged with conventional imaging (CIm) (including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and chest X-ray) and by FDG-PET.
  • FDG-PET shows increased sensitivity over CIm for staging nodal disease in anal cancer and changes treatment intent or radiotherapy prescription in a significant proportion of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19259091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653751
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100. Wienert V: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Nov;4(11):984-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17081276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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