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1. Brewster DH, Bhatti LA: Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jul 3;95(1):87-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in Scotland, 1975-2002.
  • In Scotland, since 1975-1979 (world) age-standardised incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus has more than doubled, reaching 0.37 per 100,000 in males and 0.55 in females during 1998-2002, being somewhat higher in socioeconomically deprived areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Cancer. 2006 Aug 7;95(3):423
  • (PMID = 16721368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360500
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2. Doddi S, Singhal T, De Silva C, Smedley F, Sinha P, Leslie M: Small cell carcinoma of the anus: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9396

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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the anus: a case report.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the anus is a very rare but aggressive tumour.
  • We present a case of a 60-year old lady with small cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Immunohistochemistry is required to make a diagnosis.
  • Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for small cell carcinoma of the anus with or without metastatic disease.

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  • (PMID = 20076782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2806881
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3. Kauh J, Koshy M, Gunthel C, Joyner MM, Landry J, Thomas CR Jr: Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Nov;19(12):1634-8; discussion 1638-40, 1645 passim
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population.
  • Squamous cell anal cancer remains an uncommon entity; however, the incidence appears to be increasing in at-risk populations, especially those infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Given the ability to cure this cancer using synchronous chemoradiotherapy, management practices of this disease are critical.
  • This article considers treatment strategies for HIV-positive patients with anal cancer, including the impact on chemoradiation-induced toxicities and the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of this patient population.
  • The impact of the immune system in patients with HIV and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and the associated response to therapy remains unknown.
  • Continued studies and phase III trials will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus to determine which treatment protocols provide the greatest benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


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4. Van Damme N, Deron P, Van Roy N, Demetter P, Bols A, Van Dorpe J, Baert F, Van Laethem JL, Speleman F, Pauwels P, Peeters M: Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:189
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used.
  • For the K-RAS gene, PCR was performed using exon 2 specific primers.
  • RESULTS: EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas.
  • EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours.From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21.
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were absent from squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and tonsils, but EGFR protein expression was detected in the majority of the cases.
  • EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas.
  • In our investigated panel, only one mutation in the K-RAS gene of a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma was identified.
  • This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not useful as a screening test for sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy in anal canal and tonsil squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Tonsillar Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / chemistry. Anal Canal / pathology. Base Sequence. Belgium. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20459770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887399
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5. Durães Lde C, Sousa JB: [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):265-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?].
  • [Transliterated title] Câncer anal e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: qual a correlação?
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare tumor, which incidence is influenced by sexual behavior.
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify the correlation between anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases, such as HPV, HIV, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection, syphilis and others.
  • METHODS: All the internments due to anal cancer, HIV, HPV, syphilis, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in public healthy in Brazil were collected at Datasus site between 1998 and 2007.
  • RESULTS: There was a high correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions (r=0.98, p<0.001).
  • There was negative correlation between anal cancer and Gonococci infection admissions (r=-0.81, p=0.005) and anal cancer and Chlamydia infection (r=-0.74, p=0.014).
  • There was not statistic significant correlation between anal cancer and HIV admissions (r=0.40, p=0.245), between anal cancer and other sexually transmitted diseases (r=0.55, p=0.1), and between anal cancer and syphilis (r=-0.61, p=0.059).
  • CONCLUSION: There was a high positive correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions in Brazil.
  • There were negative correlations between anal cancer and Gonococci infection and between anal cancer and Chlamydia infection admissions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / complications. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21085842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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6. D'Souza G, Wiley DJ, Li X, Chmiel JS, Margolick JB, Cranston RD, Jacobson LP: Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Aug 1;48(4):491-9
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  • [Title] Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study).
  • RESULTS: There were 28 cases of anal cancer among the 6,972 men who were evaluated.
  • Among HIV-positive men, anal cancer incidence was higher in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era than the pre-HAART era (incidence rate = 137 vs 30 per 100,000 person-years).
  • In multivariate analysis restricted to the HAART era, anal cancer risk increased significantly with HIV infection (relative hazard = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.3 to 17) and increasing number of unprotected receptive anal sex partners at the first 3 study visits (P trend = 0.03).
  • Among HIV-positive men, current HAART use did not decrease anal cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive men had increased risk of anal cancer.
  • Improved survival of HIV-positive individuals after HAART initiation may allow for sufficient time for human papillomavirus-associated anal dysplasias to develop into malignancies, thus explaining the increased incidence of anal cancer in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18614927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-MO1-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37613
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS562648; NLM/ PMC3991563
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7. Ben-Josef E, Moughan J, Ajani JA, Flam M, Gunderson L, Pollock J, Myerson R, Anne R, Rosenthal SA, Willett C: Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec 1;28(34):5061-6
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  • [Title] Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether increased duration of radiation therapy (RT) and overall treatment (RX) time has a detrimental effect in anal cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Total treatment time, but not duration of radiation therapy, seems to have a detrimental effect on local failure and colostomy rate in anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20956625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018356
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8. von Knebel Doeberitz M, Reuschenbach M: [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):13-20
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  • [Title] [Human papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and carcinoma of the anus].
  • [Transliterated title] Humane Papillomviren in der Pathogenese der intraepithelialen Neoplasien (AIN) und Karzinome des Anus.
  • HPV infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anal cancers.
  • The mode of infection and subsequent transformation resembles very much the pathogenesis of cervical and other HPV-associated cancers.
  • The molecular dissection of individual steps required to achieve cellular transformation within an HPV-infected cell led to the identification of novel biomarkers that make it possible to identify HPV-transformed cells with substantially higher precision in comparison to conventional methods.
  • Since effective antiretroviral therapy allows for possible long-term survival of HIV-infected individuals who are at very high risk to develop HPV-associated cancers in the anogenital tract, these new developments have become increasingly relevant for practicing dermatologists and proctologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / physiopathology. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Precancerous Conditions / virology

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  • (PMID = 20033115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


10. Kacerovska D, Szepe P, Vanecek T, Nemcova J, Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov DV: Spiradenocylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anus and rectum: case report, including HPV studies and analysis of the CYLD gene mutations. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Oct;30(5):472-6
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  • [Title] Spiradenocylindroma-like basaloid carcinoma of the anus and rectum: case report, including HPV studies and analysis of the CYLD gene mutations.
  • The authors report a case of basaloid carcinoma involving the anus and rectum of a 57-year-old woman.
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed unusual morphologic features strongly resembling a spiradenocylindroma because it consisted, in most parts, of basaloid cell nodules arranged in a jigsaw-puzzle fashion containing or surrounded by eosinophilic basal membrane material; in addition, there were intratumoral lymphocytes.
  • The overlying squamous epithelium manifested dysplastic changes compatible with in situ squamous carcinoma that gradually became invasive and blended with basaloid cell islands; additionally, there were koilocytes in the squamous epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Human papillomavirus 16 / pathogenicity. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18806492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CYLD protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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11. Sato H, Maeda K, Koide Y, Matsuoka H, Noro T, Honda K, Shiota M, Endo T, Ozeki S, Fukuda M: [Four cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2647-9
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  • [Title] [Four cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma treated by chemoradiotherapy].
  • We reviewed clinical records of 4 cases with squamous cell carcinoma in anus to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the chemoradiotherapy.
  • All patients had complete response in the anal lesion after chemoradiotherapy.
  • No patients had any sign of recurrence in anal lesion.
  • Chemoradiotherapy was expected to be a safe and effective treatment to improve prognosis for anal squamous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21224667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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12. Gorez E, Staumont G: [Epidermoid anal carcinoma]. Rev Prat; 2008 Oct 31;58(16):1783-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Epidermoid anal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome epidermoïde anal.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is a rare cancer, and conventionally affects elderly women.
  • Main predisposing factors are sexually transmitted diseases and particularly human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, variety of sexual partners, smoking, homosexuality, history of uterine cervix cancer, and immunodepression.
  • Warning signs of anal cancer are often non-specific.
  • The evaluation assessment should include lung X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and often pelvis MNR or anal endosonography.
  • First-line treament of anal epidermoid carcinoma is radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy for extensive forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 19143150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Goéré D, Bonnet S, Pocard M, Deutsch E, Lasser P, Elias D: Oncologic and functional results after abdominoperineal resection plus pseudocontinent perineal colostomy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 May;52(5):958-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oncologic and functional results after abdominoperineal resection plus pseudocontinent perineal colostomy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus.
  • PURPOSE: Surgical treatment for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus is reserved for patients after failure of primary chemoradiotherapy and consists of abdominoperineal resection with permanent iliac colostomy.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the oncologic and the functional outcomes after abdominoperineal resection and pseudocontinent perineal colostomy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus after external radiation at maximal doses (60 Gy).
  • METHODS: Between 1990 and 2006, 95 patients underwent abdominoperineal resection for an epidermoid carcinoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colostomy / methods. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19502862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Pantanowitz L, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: The growing problem of non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Sep;18(5):469-78
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence and spectrum of non-AIDS-defining cancers has continued to grow.
  • As HIV-infected individuals live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy, their risk of dying from one of these cancers is increased.
  • The recent literature pertaining to non-AIDS-defining cancers is reviewed.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Recent epidemiological studies have identified higher rates of carcinoma of the anus, lung, breast, skin, conjunctiva, liver and prostate; hematopoietic malignancies such as Hodgkin's lymphoma, plasma-cell neoplasia and leukemia; and other neoplasms like melanoma and leiomyosarcoma in HIV-positive patients.
  • The role of HIV-induced immunosuppression in the development of these non-AIDS-defining cancers appears less important than lifestyle habits like smoking and sun exposure, as well as coinfection with human papilloma, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and Epstein-Barr viruses.
  • SUMMARY: It is unclear whether the growing number of reports on non-AIDS-defining cancers reflects a true increased incidence or merely the product of increased surveillance, detection and reporting.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy not only promotes longevity in the HIV-positive population, but may increase their risk of developing cancer like Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Assertive prevention strategies are needed to adequately deal with non-AIDS-defining cancers in an aging and growing HIV-positive population.

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  • (PMID = 16894295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI 060354
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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15. Lukan N, Ströbel P, Willer A, Kripp M, Dinter D, Mai S, Hochhaus A, Hofheinz RD: Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status. Oncology; 2009;77(5):293-9
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  • [Title] Cetuximab-based treatment of metastatic anal cancer: correlation of response with KRAS mutational status.
  • BACKGROUND: No standard chemotherapy regimen can be defined for patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus due to the low incidence of this disease and the high cure rate of localized tumors.
  • Anal cancers universally express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations have not been reported in anal cancer thus far.
  • METHODS: We report on 7 patients with metastatic anal cancer treated with cetuximab - a chimeric antibody against EGFR - on a compassionate use basis along with the results of KRAS mutational analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Cetuximab-based treatment appears to be a valuable treatment option for patients with metastatic KRAS wild-type anal cancer after failure of or as an alternative to cisplatin/5-fluorouracil-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19923868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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16. Swampillai A, Williams M, Osborne M, Mawdsley S, Hughes R, Harrison M, Glynne-Jones R: A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4117

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT).
  • Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal cancer Trial (ACT II).
  • Clinical stage at diagnosis- Tx (6) T1 (28), T2 (80), T3 (65), T4 (16), N0 (126), N+ (66) Nx (3).

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  • (PMID = 27961219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Eng C, Chang GJ, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas M, Skibber JM, Qiao W, Rosner GL, Ukegbu LT, Wolff RA, Crane CH: Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4116

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • : 4116 Background: Definitive therapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal consists of external beam radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C or cisplatin.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of XELOX-XRT as definitive treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically proven SCC of the anal canal, AJCC Stage II-IIIB (T<sub>2-4</sub> or N+M<sub>0</sub>), ECOG PS 0-1, HIV<sup>-</sup>, and no prior therapy were eligible for XELOX-based chemoradiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiation therapy (XELOX-XRT) is effective for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27961220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. You YN, Larson DW, Dozois EJ, Nelson H, Antpack Filho E, Klein K, Miller RC: Multimodality salvage therapy for anal cancer failing standard chemoradiation. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15635

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality salvage therapy for anal cancer failing standard chemoradiation.
  • : e15635 Background: Most squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCC) respond to chemoradiation, but effective therapy for locally-invasive(T4) or recurrent disease that fails standard chemoradiation and/or salvage abdominoperineal resection (APR) has not been clearly delineated.

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  • (PMID = 27962742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Yap JC, Yang GY, Fakih M, Mashtare T, Bullard Dunn K, Kuvshinoff BW, Smith J, Khushalani NI, Gibbs JF: Primary adenocarcinoma of the anus: a 22-year SEER population database analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15072

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary adenocarcinoma of the anus: a 22-year SEER population database analysis.
  • : e15072 Background: Most anal canal cancers consist of squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA).
  • Adenocarcinoma (AdenoCa) is rare and accounts for approximately 10% of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: The search of the SEER database revealed 1,008 pts who had pathologically confirmed anal cancers with either SCCA or AdenoCa.
  • All pts had single diagnosis of anal cancer with localized disease without nodal involvement.
  • On the other hand, among the AdenoCa subset, pts who had APR had better 10-yr OS than RT pts (53.8% vs. 0%, p=0.03) Conclusions: For localized anal SCCA, RT yielded equivalent overall survival as compared to APR.
  • On the other hand, pts with localized anal adenoCa appeared to do worse when APR was omitted.
  • Omission of APR in pts with anal canal adenoCa should be cautiously weighed.

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  • (PMID = 27964572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Subramonia Iyer S, Akl A: A review of the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry: 1987-2004. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15131

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A review of the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry: 1987-2004.
  • : e15131 Background: This paper describes the outcomes of patients with anal cancer enrolled in the Hurley Cancer Registry.
  • The Hurley cancer registry was searched using diagnosis codes for anal cancer.
  • The records retrieved, were reviewed for demographic and pathologic details,cancer recurrence, and vital status at last follow up.
  • RESULTS: Over a period of 18 years (1987 - 2004), there were 36 patients enrolled in the registry, with a diagnosis of anal cancer.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 59.3 (SD 17.6) years for males, and 64.6 (SD 13.8) years for females.
  • Squamous cell cancers were the most common: 27 / 36 (75%).
  • Three of the five (60%) recurrent cancers were associated with HIV infection.
  • Cumulative survival functions for the cohort were derived for the time points of 3-yrs and 5-yrs after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among patients in the Hurley Cancer Registry, 1.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the commonest (75%) anal cancer.
  • 2. The risk of recurrence of anal cancer was 14% over 6-years, and 80% of recurrence was localised to the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 27960904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Fakih MG, Pendyala L, Egorin MJ, Fetterly G, Espinoza-Delgado I, Ross M, Phelan J, Kramer Z, Yirinec B, Diasio R: A phase I clinical trial of vorinostat in combination with sFULV2 in patients with refractory solid tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4083

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Vorinostat was escalated in a standard 3 x 3 design in combination with a fixed dose of 5-FU and LV (simplified de Gramont regimen, sFULV2).
  • 21 pts had colorectal cancer (CRC), 1 had gastric, 1 had esophageal, and 1 had anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 27961640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Hammad N, Philip PA, Shields AF, Heilbrun LK, Venkatramanamoorthy R, El-Rayes BF: A retrospective review of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15586

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A retrospective review of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.
  • : e15586 Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients (pts) are at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and the incidence of SCCAC has increased in the era of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy).
  • The aim of this study is to describe the outcome, tolerability, and overall survival (OS) in pts with and without HIV infection treated at Karmanos Cancer Institute, at Wayne State University from 1991 to 2007.
  • We collected data regarding HIV status, demographics (age, gender, race), stage at diagnosis, treatment, response to treatment, toxicity, and survival.

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  • (PMID = 27962344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. James R, Wan S, Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, Kadalayil L, Northover J, Cunningham D, Meadows H, Ledermann J, National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) ACT II Trial Management Group: A randomized trial of chemoradiation using mitomycin or cisplatin, with or without maintenance cisplatin/5FU in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):LBA4009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A randomized trial of chemoradiation using mitomycin or cisplatin, with or without maintenance cisplatin/5FU in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (ACT II).

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  • (PMID = 27963297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • RESULTS: HPV infection and subsequent HPV DNA integration are necessary, but not sufficient, to cause cancer progression.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


25. Buchs NC, Allal AS, Morel P, Gervaz P: Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2009 Apr;9(4):483-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevention, chemoradiation and surgery for anal cancer.
  • Management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) has remained virtually unchanged since the 1980s.
  • By contrast, the demographics of SCCA are evolving, with the emergence of a high-risk group of patients: HIV-positive male homosexuals are prone to develop anal intra-epithelial neoplasia and rapidly progress towards invasive SCCA.
  • By many aspects, anal cancer is similar to uterine cervix cancer - a sexually transmitted disease driven by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Alphapapillomavirus / pathogenicity. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Salvage Therapy. Surgical Flaps. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / etiology. Surgical Wound Dehiscence / prevention & control. Vaccination

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  • (PMID = 19374601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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26. Herat A, Whitfeld M, Hillman R: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;48(3):143-53; quiz 154-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be a precursor lesion of invasive anal cancer.
  • Human papillomaviruses are considered to be an important aetiological agent in both anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
  • Dermatologists are likely to encounter these conditions among the differential diagnoses to be considered in high-risk patients presenting with perianal and anal lesions.
  • Anal cancer rates are also increasing among the HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected population.
  • The successful treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may reduce the risk of subsequent development of anal cancer.
  • However, current therapies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia may be associated with treatment-related morbidity and are not well validated.
  • It is currently not proven that they reduce the likelihood of the development of anal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia is being advocated for high-risk groups and may become standard dermatological care for these patients.
  • In view of recent developments in the understanding of this condition, this article reviews the current understanding of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment from a dermatological perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17680964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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27. Gurfinkel R, Walfisch S: Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis. Tech Coloproctol; 2005 Dec;9(3):235-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined treatment of basaloid anal carcinoma using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and resection of hepatic metastasis.
  • The combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy with subsequent repeated local biopsy has become the standard treatment of epidermoid carcinoma.
  • The optimal treatment of metastatic anal carcinomas is controversial.
  • We present the case of 54-year-old woman with a diagnosis of metastatic basaloid anal carcinoma.
  • The patient underwent resection of liver metastasis in combination with cisplatin + 5FU and local radiotherapy, without evident disease 3 years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16328122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1123-6337
  • [Journal-full-title] Techniques in coloproctology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tech Coloproctol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Fraunholz I, Rabeneck D, Weiss C, Rödel C: Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Jul;186(7):361-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions.
  • BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) is the treatment of choice for anal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT without induction or maintenance chemotherapy remains the standard of care for anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20582392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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29. Sunesen KG, Buntzen S, Tei T, Lindegaard JC, Nørgaard M, Laurberg S: Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jan;16(1):68-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Salvage surgery of recurrent or persistent anal cancer following radiotherapy is often followed by perineal wound complications.
  • We examined survival and perineal wound complications in anal cancer salvage surgery during a 10-year period with primary perineal reconstruction predominantly performed using vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Between 1997 and 2006, 49 patients underwent anal cancer salvage surgery.
  • We conclude that anal cancer salvage surgery can yield long-time survival but obtaining free margins is critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Perineum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectus Abdominis / transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


30. Widder J, Kastenberger R, Fercher E, Schmid R, Langendijk JA, Dobrowsky W, Pötter R: Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):367-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyse a large consecutive cohort of patients with anal cancer for treatment-related factors influencing local control and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for primary radiotherapy at Medical University of Vienna in 1990-2002 with anal canal carcinoma without distant metastases were analysed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results support potential improvement of anal cancer treatment by studying advanced technology such as IMRT, making it possible to tailor high-dose regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18501453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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31. Gretschel S, Warnick P, Bembenek A, Dresel S, Koswig S, String A, Hünerbein M, Schlag PM: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;34(8):890-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • AIM: Although 15-25% of patients with anal cancer present with superficial inguinal lymph node metastases but the routine application of groin irradiation is controversial because of serious side effects.
  • METHODS: Forty patients with anal cancer underwent 1 ml Tc(99m)-Nanocolloid injection in four sites around the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inguinal sentinel node biopsy in anal cancer is efficient and could assist in the decision for inguinal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin

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  • (PMID = 18178364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
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32. Chin-Hong PV, Vittinghoff E, Cranston RD, Browne L, Buchbinder S, Colfax G, Da Costa M, Darragh T, Benet DJ, Judson F, Koblin B, Mayer KH, Palefsky JM: Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Jun 15;97(12):896-905
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Age-related prevalence of anal cancer precursors in homosexual men: the EXPLORE study.
  • BACKGROUND: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally linked to the development of anal and cervical cancer.
  • In the United States, the incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) is higher than the incidence of cervical cancer among women.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are anal cancer precursors comprising low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs).
  • The prevalence of cervical cancer precursor lesions peaks at around 30 years of age.
  • Anal cytology and behavioral data were obtained.
  • Anal HPV infection status was assessed by polymerase chain reaction.
  • In a multivariable analysis, the risk of LSILs was associated with having more than five male receptive anal sex partners (P = .03), any use of poppers (alkyl nitrites) in the previous 6 months [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1 to 2.5; P = .03] or use of injection drugs two or more times per month during the previous 6 months [OR = 19, 95% CI = 1.3 to 277; P = .03], older age at first receptive anal intercourse (P = .004), and infection with a greater number of HPV types (P < .001 for linear trend).
  • The risk of HSILs was associated with any anal HPV infection (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1 to 9.4; P = .039) and infection with an increasing number of HPV types (P < .001 for linear trend).
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15956651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5 U01 AI46749; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054157; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI35176; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI45200; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA54053; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI47995; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI48016; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI48040
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Bringman D, Anton-Culver H: Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis; 2005 May;32(5):314-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased incidence of squamous cell anal cancer among men with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) corresponded with changes in anal squamous cell cancer rates among men with AIDS.
  • STUDY: We linked cancer registry data from 1988-2000 and AIDS registry data from 1981-July/2003 for San Diego County.
  • RESULTS: The annual incidence of invasive anal cancer increased from zero per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-226) in 1991 to 224 per 100,000 (95% CI, 102-425) in the year 2000.
  • Pre-HAART, the average annual incidence of invasive anal cancer was 49 per 100,000 men with AIDS aged 25 to 64 years (95% CI, 16-114) versus 144 per 100,000 (95% CI, 93-212) post-HAART.
  • The relative risk of invasive anal cancer among men with AIDS compared with men without known HIV/AIDS was 98 (95% CI, 36-264) pre-HAART and 352 (95% CI, 186-669) post-HAART.
  • The increased incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS resulted in an increase in the overall rate of anal cancer among men in San Diego County.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rising incidence of anal cancer among men with AIDS may be related to increased longevity with HAART and the consequent increased time at risk for the development of malignancy and/or the result of greater use of cytologic screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15849533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K07CA096480-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Khanfir K, Ozsahin M, Bieri S, Cavuto C, Mirimanoff RO, Zouhair A: Patterns of failure and outcome in patients with carcinoma of the anal margin. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Apr;15(4):1092-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of failure and outcome in patients with carcinoma of the anal margin.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcome of patients with carcinoma of anal margin in terms of recurrence, survival, and radiation toxicity.
  • METHODS: A series of 45 consecutive patients, with anal margin carcinoma treated between 1983 and 2006 with curative intent at two institutions, was retrospectively analyzed.
  • The overall anal conservation rate was 80% for the whole series.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18231838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Palefsky JM, Tyring S, El Serag H: Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jul 15;43(2):223-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review.
  • Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.
  • We have conducted a systematic review of the indirect evidence in the literature regarding the utility of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening of HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Although there are no published studies evaluating the efficacy of anal Pap smear screening for preventing squamous cell cancer of the anus or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, we reviewed data regarding the burden of disease, anal Pap smear sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of anal dysplasia, and 1 cost effectiveness study.
  • The available evidence demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This review identifies important areas for further study before routine anal Pap smear screening can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Papillomaviridae


36. Zampino MG, Magni E, Sonzogni A, Renne G: K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment? Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;65(1):197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] K-ras status in squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC): it's time for target-oriented treatment?
  • PURPOSE: Squamous cell anal carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon disease comprising only 1-5% of all intestinal tumours.
  • The EGFR status and k-ras mutations in SCC of the anal canal has not been well investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19727729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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37. Goto H, Ikenaga M, Yasui M, Miyazaki M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshida K, Tsujinaka T: [A case of salvage treatment for local recurrence of squamous cell anal carcinoma after chemoradiation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2659-61
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  • [Title] [A case of salvage treatment for local recurrence of squamous cell anal carcinoma after chemoradiation].
  • A 76-year-old woman consulted her local physician because she experienced anal pain during defecation.
  • She was diagnosed with squamous cell anal carcinoma and underwent chemoradiation (59.4 Gy + UFT 500 mg/5 days/week).
  • She was followed up and 8 months later, she experienced anal erosion and pain.
  • Functional preservation employing concomitant chemoradiation has become the standard treatment for most case of squamous cell anal carcinoma, with APR backup being a salvage procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Uracil / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21224671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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38. Badin S, Iqbal A, Sikder M, Chang VT: Persistent pain in anal cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv; 2008 Jun;2(2):79-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Persistent pain in anal cancer survivors.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anorectal cancers are highly curable malignancies.
  • RESULTS: Two patients presented with painful anal lesions that were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Treatment related lumbosacral plexopathy may be an unrecognized consequence of the successful treatment of anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Pain / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 18648976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-2267
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer survivorship : research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Surviv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Schiller DE, Cummings BJ, Rai S, Le LW, Last L, Davey P, Easson A, Smith AJ, Swallow CJ: Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2780-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: For patients with anal canal cancer who fail combined modality treatment (CMT), salvage surgery (SS) offers the potential for long term survival.
  • METHODS: We identified 60 patients with persistent or recurrent anal cancer who had undergone SS; 20 were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: SS for anal canal cancer was associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cancer Care Facilities. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Registries. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17638059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Midtgaard J, Hansen MJ, Grandjean B: Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer. Support Care Cancer; 2009 Sep;17(9):1213-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modesty and recognition--a qualitative study of the lived experience of recovery from anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is a rare disease within the cancer spectrum.
  • AIM: The objective of this study was to describe the lived experiences of recovery from anal cancer, including which and how resources may help survivors of anal cancer to resist and to manage potentially complex stressors encountered in the recovery from the disease.
  • Sixteen individuals (11 women and five men; average age 52 years), who had completed therapy for anal cancer (average 31 months ago), participated in the study.
  • FINDINGS: The analysis revealed two concepts, modesty and recognition, which describe the essence of the lived experience of anal cancer, and which each appear to be important resistance resources.
  • DISCUSSION: Anal cancer appears to lack attention and deserved recognition from professional and social services, which in itself may lead to mistrust and devaluation of the individual seeking support.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Interpersonal Relations. Stress, Psychological. Survivors / psychology

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  • (PMID = 19172304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7339
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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41. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. New York / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Jhawer M, Mani S, Lefkopoulou M, Hahn RG, Harris J, Catalano PJ, Haller D: Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282. Invest New Drugs; 2006 Sep;24(5):447-54
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin-C, adriamycin, cisplatin (MAP) and Bleomycin-CCNU in patients with advanced cancer of the anal canal: An eastern cooperative oncology group study E7282.
  • Metastatic anal cancer is a rare disease in the Western hemisphere and current treatment modalities are not effective.
  • In this study, patients with advanced epithelial cancer of the anal canal received MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU upon progression of disease.
  • The combination therapy of MAP followed by Bleomycin and CCNU for patients with advanced anal cancer, not amenable to radiotherapy or surgery, results in a moderate objective response but with moderate toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16763788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13650; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA15488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA25988
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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43. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Czito BG: Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):123-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy advances for treatment of anal cancer.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) is established as the primary treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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44. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4C):2469-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) showing intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Lymphocytosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18751436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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45. Contu SS, Agnes G, Damin AP, Contu PC, Rosito MA, Alexandre CO, Damin DC: Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 28;15(36):4566-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of correlation between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and anal cancer risk.
  • AIM: To investigate the potential role of p53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for development of anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients with invasive anal carcinoma and 103 healthy blood donors were included in the study. p53 codon 72 polymorphism was analyzed in blood samples through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing.
  • RESULTS: The relative frequency of each allele was 0.60 for Arg and 0.40 for Pro in patients with anal cancer, and 0.61 for Arg and 0.39 for Pro in normal controls.
  • CONCLUSION: These results do not support a role for the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in anal carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53

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  • (PMID = 19777616.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2752002
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46. Sana S, Khan AU: Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Clinical trials in the management of anal cancer.
  • Our understandings of anal canal cancer pathogenesis and treatment have undergone significant changes due to continuing research into its pathogenesis and the results of major clinical trials conducted over the past 20 years.
  • Anal canal cancer can be cured by combined modality chemoradiation therapy, a treatment that preserves continence and reserves abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and anal canal in patients with recurrent or residual disease after primary chemoradiotherapy.
  • Future challenges include an increasing incidence of human papillomavirus infection, the AIDS epidemic, diagnosis of early disease, and optimization of chemotherapy and radiation regimens.
  • This article aims to provide a summary of recently completed and ongoing clinical trials in the management of anal canal cancer.

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1999 Apr 15;85(8):1686-93 [10223561.001]
  • [Cites] CA Cancer J Clin. 2008 Mar-Apr;58(2):71-96 [18287387.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2008 May 20;26(15):2550-7 [18427149.001]
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  • (PMID = 20436836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780239
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal cancer / chemotherapy / radiation therapy
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47. Balamurugan A, Ahmed F, Saraiya M, Kosary C, Schwenn M, Cokkinides V, Flowers L, Pollack LA: Potential role of human papillomavirus in the development of subsequent primary in situ and invasive cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):2919-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Potential role of human papillomavirus in the development of subsequent primary in situ and invasive cancers among cervical cancer survivors.
  • BACKGROUND: The recent licensure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will likely decrease the development of primary in situ and invasive cervical cancers and possibly other HPV-associated cancers such as vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers.
  • Because the HPV vaccine has the ability to impact the development of >1 HPV-associated cancer in the same individual, the risk of developing subsequent primary cancers among cervical cancer survivors was examined.
  • METHODS: Using the 1992 through 2004 data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, 23,509 cervical cancer survivors were followed (mean of 4.8 person-years) for the development of subsequent primary cancers.
  • The observed number (O) of subsequent cancers of all sites were compared with those expected (E) based on age-/race-/year-/site-specific rates in the SEER population.
  • RESULTS: Among cervical cancer index cases, there was a significant elevated risk for subsequent in situ cancers of the vagina and vulva (SIRs of 53.8 and 6.6, respectively); and invasive vaginal, vulvar, and rectal cancers (SIRs of 29.9, 5.7, and 2.2, respectively).
  • Significantly elevated risks were observed across race and ethnic populations for subsequent vaginal in situ (SIR for whites of 49.4; blacks, 52.8; Asian/Pacific Islander [API], 91.4; and Hispanics, 55.7) and invasive cancers (SIR for whites of 25.7; blacks, 34.5; API, 48.5; and Hispanics, 25.2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrate a substantially increased risk of the development of subsequent primary in situ and invasive cancers among cervical cancer survivors and have implications for the development of prevention and early detection strategies as the role of HPV infection becomes evident.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Child. Continental Population Groups. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Risk. SEER Program. Survivors. United States / epidemiology. United States / ethnology. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / virology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 18980275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Hofheinz RD, Beyer U, Al-Batran SE, Hartmann JT: Mitomycin C in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumours: recent data and perspectives. Onkologie; 2008 May;31(5):271-81
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  • This review summarises results of MMC-based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal tumours with special focus on current treatment options in gastric, pancreatic, biliary tract, colorectal, and anal cancer.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18497518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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49. Gagne SE, Jensen R, Polvi A, Da Costa M, Ginzinger D, Efird JT, Holly EA, Darragh T, Palefsky JM: High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Oct 1;40(2):182-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the likely precursor to anal cancer.
  • AIN is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and HPV-associated genomic instability may play an important role in the progression of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer.
  • HPV16 DNA integration or rearrangement correlated with CNAs in host cell DNA (P = 0.007).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Genome, Viral. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Virus Integration

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  • (PMID = 16186736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Palefsky JM, Holly EA, Efirdc JT, Da Costa M, Jay N, Berry JM, Darragh TM: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS; 2005 Sep 2;19(13):1407-14
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to increase since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • The prevalence of the putative anal cancer precursor, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) was high among HIV-positive MSM prior to the availability of HAART but little is known about AIN since HAART was introduced.
  • A total of 357 HIV-positive MSM with no history of anal cancer completed a questionnaire detailing behaviors and medical history, anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsy for detection of AIN.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of participants with available CD4+ cell counts at baseline had AIN of any grade; 52% had AIN 2 or 3; and 95% had anal HPV infection.
  • In multivariate analysis, detection of > or = 6 HPV types [odds ratio (OR), 36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.4-171) and use of HAART (OR, 10; 95% CI, 2.6-38) were associated with AIN after adjustment for length of time participants were HIV-positive, CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load.
  • Our data indicate that HAART is not associated with a reduced prevalence of AIN and support measures to prevent anal cancer among HIV-positive MSM whether or not they are using HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Homosexuality, Male

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  • (PMID = 16103772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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51. Abramowitz L, Rémy V, Vainchtock A: Economic burden of anal cancer management in France. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique; 2010 Oct;58(5):331-8
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  • [Title] Economic burden of anal cancer management in France.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer has increased over the last 25 years.
  • No organized screening exists for the precursors of anal cancer (anal intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma in situ) and diagnosis is often delayed.
  • Treatment for precursor lesions is of limited success, while cancer management is traumatic for the patient.
  • Like cancers of the cervix, most cases of anal cancer are associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • With increases in the incidence of anal cancer, and in light of the availability of prevention strategies such as screening and HPV vaccination, it is important, from a public health perspective, to assess the economic burden of anal cancer in France.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis based on data extracted from a French hospital database - the Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information (PMSI) - to assess the number and management of patients hospitalized for anal cancer in 2006.
  • Data on radiotherapy sessions performed in private hospitals were obtained from the Statistiques annuelles des établissements de santé (SAE) database.
  • Costs of hospitalization, from the healthcare-payer perspective, were obtained from official diagnosis-related group tariffs for public and private hospitals.
  • RESULTS: In 2006, 3,711 patients with anal cancer were treated in hospitals in France.
  • The annual cost of hospital treatment for anal cancer was estimated at € 20,326,868.
  • CONCLUSION: This study, the first to investigate the economic burden of anal cancer in France, shows that the management costs of anal cancer are high and comparable to cervical cancer management costs (€ 44 million).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / economics. Health Care Costs

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20869182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0398-7620
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue d'épidémiologie et de santé publique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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52. Wilkes G, Hartshorn K: Colon, rectal, and anal cancers. Semin Oncol Nurs; 2009 Feb;25(1):32-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colon, rectal, and anal cancers.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence, risk factors, staging, diagnosis, and treatment of colon, rectal, and anal cancers, as well as nursing care associated with managing patients diagnosed with these malignancies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Significant advances in the management of colon, rectal, and anal cancers in the past decade have extended patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Colonic Neoplasms. Rectal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19217504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0749-2081
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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53. Gervaz P, Buchs N, Morel P: Diagnosis and management of anal cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2008 Oct;10(5):502-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of anal cancer.
  • During the past three decades, anal cancer has served as a paradigm for the successful application of chemoradiation to solid tumors.
  • Since the early 1990s, the increasing incidence of anal cancer in homosexual men has highlighted the causative role of oncogenic human papilloma-virus infection.
  • This review focuses on significant trends and developments in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, emphasizing three major aspects of diagnosis and treatment: routine screening and eradication of premalignant lesions in high-risk individuals; outcome of chemoradiation therapy in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy; and potential improvements in chemoradiation protocols through improved radiation delivery technique and the combination of mitomycin with cisplatin in current prospective randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18799127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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54. Tournier-Rangeard L, Peiffert D, Lafond C, Mege A, Metayer Y, Marchesi V, Buchheit I, Uwer L, Conroy T, Kaminsky MC: [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Jun;11(4):169-77
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  • [Title] [Long-term results and prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated by irradiation].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats à long terme et facteurs pronostiques des carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the prognostic factors of loco regional control (LRC), specific survival (SS) and sphincter conservation (SC) of patients treated by curative and conservative irradiation for an epidermoid cancer of anal canal in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17400501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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55. Jiménez W, Paszat L, Kupets R, Wilton A, Tinmouth J: Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario.
  • OBJECTIVE: The oncogenic HPV subtypes responsible for gynecologic malignancies have also been implicated in the development of squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCAC).
  • SCAC is more common in women, typically presenting at an older age than gynecologic cancers.
  • The aim of this study was determine whether women diagnosed with anal cancer are more likely to have a history of HPV-related gynecological cancer as compared to a matched control group.
  • The exposure of interest was previous HPV-related gynecologic cancer, specifically cervical cancer, vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer.
  • Amongst the cases, there were 7 cervical, 3 vulvar and 1 vaginal cancers compared with 5 cervical, 0 vulvar and vaginal cancers in the 3264 controls.
  • Previous HPV-related gynecological cancer (cervical, vaginal or vulvar cancer) was significantly associated with SCAC (OR: 10.5, 95% C.I.: 3.6 to 30.3).
  • The median time between the diagnosis of anal cancer and previous cervical cancer was 20 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Previous HPV-related gynecological cancers are strongly associated with anal cancer and may occur decades before the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19501390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Winton Ed, Heriot AG, Ng M, Hicks RJ, Hogg A, Milner A, Leong T, Fay M, MacKay J, Drummond E, Ngan SY: The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer. Br J Cancer; 2009 Mar 10;100(5):693-700
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  • [Title] The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on the staging, management and outcome of anal cancer.
  • Accurate inguinal and pelvic nodal staging in anal cancer is important for the prognosis and planning of radiation fields.
  • There is evidence for the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging and management of cancer, with early reports of an increasing role in outcome prognostication in a number of tumours.
  • We aimed to determine the effect of FDG-PET on the nodal staging, radiotherapy planning and prognostication of patients with primary anal cancer.
  • Sixty-one consecutive patients with anal cancer who were referred to a tertiary centre between August 1997 and November 2005 were staged with conventional imaging (CIm) (including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and chest X-ray) and by FDG-PET.
  • FDG-PET shows increased sensitivity over CIm for staging nodal disease in anal cancer and changes treatment intent or radiotherapy prescription in a significant proportion of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19259091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2653751
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57. Charnley N, Choudhury A, Chesser P, Cooper RA, Sebag-Montefiore D: Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 11;92(7):1221-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy.
  • Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is accepted as the standard initial treatment for squamous cell anal cancer.
  • In all, 16 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal or margin and performance status or co-morbidity precluding the use of full-dose CRT were included in this protocol.
  • This is a well-tolerated regimen for elderly/poor performance patients with anal cancer, which can achieve high rates of local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Frail Elderly

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  • (PMID = 15798772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361984
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58. Aboumarzouk OM, Coleman R, Goepel JR, Shorthouse AJ: PNET/Ewing's sarcoma of the rectum: a case report and review of the literature. BMJ Case Rep; 2009;2009

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A trephine loop ileostomy was fashioned and biopsies were initially reported to show a poorly differentiated cloacogenic carcinoma.
  • Stem-cell supported chemoradiotherapy resulted in complete resolution of her primary tumour and liver metastases.
  • Serial CT scanning and endoscopy revealed no recurrence after 7 years of follow-up, when she presented with a malignant anal fissure.
  • Imaging and subsequently abdominoperineal resection revealed no evidence of metastases from either the anal cancer or the PNET tumour.
  • Histopathology showed a T1N0R0 basaloid squamous carcinoma originating from grade III squamous intraepithelial neoplasia with no obvious wart viral infection.

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  • (PMID = 21691396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3029497
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59. Ljubojević S, Lipozencić J, Skerlev M, Zele-Starcević L, Ljubojević N, Babić D, Grubisić G, Jukić S: [Diagnostic-therapeutic guidelines for men whose partners have HPV genital infection]. Lijec Vjesn; 2009 Sep-Oct;131(9-10):269-74
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  • HPV infections are connected with different diseases such as benign warts, condylomata acuminata, malignant cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile and anal carcinoma.
  • Peniscopy with HPV detection is a specific diagnostic method for diagnosis of subclinical HPV genital infection in asymptomatic men.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of HPV infections in men is of potential benefit because their eradication can reduce the viral reservoir and as the result of that the incidence of CIN, carcinoma in situ and invasive cervical carcinoma can be reduced.
  • For the correct diagnosis and for choosing the adequate therapeutical technique, we suggest diagnostic-therapeutic guidelines for HPV genital infection in men.
  • [MeSH-major] Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Penile Diseases / diagnosis. Penile Diseases / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20030291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3477
  • [Journal-full-title] Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lijec Vjesn
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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60. Sunesen KG, Nørgaard M, Thorlacius-Ussing O, Laurberg S: Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005. Int J Cancer; 2010 Aug 1;127(3):675-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunosuppressive disorders and risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark, 1978-2005.
  • Compromised immune function may increase the risk of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We examined the risk of anal SCC in patients with HIV infection and other chronic disorders associated with immunosuppression.
  • A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Cancer Registry (DCR).
  • We identified all patients with a first-time hospital contact or procedure for HIV infection, solid organ transplantation or autoimmune disease or a first-time record of haematologic malignancy in the DCR, 1978-2005, and followed these for a subsequent anal SCC, starting follow-up 1 year after diagnosis of the index disease.
  • Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were computed as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of anal SCCs, based on national age-, sex- and period-specific rates.
  • Among 4,488 patients with HIV, we observed 21 anal SCCs with 0.3 expected (SIR: 81.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.6-121.9)).
  • Risk of anal SCC was markedly increased among 5,113 solid organ recipients (SIR: 14.4 (CI: 7.0-26.4)) and 30,165 patients with haematologic malignancies (SIR: 2.3 (CI: 1.1-4.2)) but only moderately increased among 242,114 patients with autoimmune diseases (SIR: 1.3 (CI: 1.0-1.6)).
  • In conclusion, we found HIV infection, solid organ transplantation, haematologic malignancies and a range of specific autoimmune diseases strongly associated with increased risk of anal SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Immunocompromised Host

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  • (PMID = 19960431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Fan JK, Lo CS, Law WL: A rare complication of laparoscopic low anterior resection. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2009 Oct;19(5):e210

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  • We report a 70-year-old lady who suffered from carcinoma of rectum with the lowest border of the tumor at 5 cm from the anal verge.
  • The stapler was withdrawn through the anus with a pair of laparoscopic forceps following it.
  • The pair of forceps, which was still at the anus, was used to pull the cotton tape and the suture through the original perforation at the rectal stump.

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  • (PMID = 19851255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Yamamoto S, Fukunaga M, Miyajima N, Okuda J, Konishi F, Watanabe M, Japan Society of Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: Impact of conversion on surgical outcomes after laparoscopic operation for rectal carcinoma: a retrospective study of 1,073 patients. J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Mar;208(3):383-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of conversion on surgical outcomes after laparoscopic operation for rectal carcinoma: a retrospective study of 1,073 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: In laparoscopic operations for rectal carcinoma, only a few multicenter studies of a large number of patients have examined the impact of conversion on outcomes and determined risk factors for conversion.
  • This study was designed to evaluate short-term outcomes and risk factors for conversion to open operation in laparoscopic operations for rectal carcinoma.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1,073 patients with carcinoma of the rectum and anus who underwent laparoscopic operations were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Body mass index and the particular laparoscopic procedure are risk factors for conversion, indicating that appropriate patient selection is essential in laparoscopic operations for rectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / surgery. Body Mass Index. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Complications / classification. Intraoperative Complications / epidemiology. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / classification. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Hemorrhage / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19318000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Watanabe M; Kokuba Y; Konishi F; Kawamura Y; Miyajima N; Fukunaga M; Kudo S; Tanaka J; Tanigawa N; Okuda J; Nagai H; Otsuka K; Fukunaga Y; Okajima M; Bandou H; Kitano S; Inomata M; Kubo Y; Ichihara T; Hasegawa H; Yamamoto S; Ikoma S; Nishiyama Y; Sugihara K; Yamaguchi S; Sekimoto M; Masaki M; Idani H; Sumiyama Y; Saida Y; Munemoto Y; Maeda K; Hanai K; Kuroyanagi H; Ueda K
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63. Camargo MA, Boin I, Mainnardi JP, de Lourdes M, Ayrizono S, Coy CS, Leonardi MI, Meirelles L, Leonardi LS, Escanhoela CA: Extragastrointestinal stromal tumor and liver transplantation: case report and review. Transplant Proc; 2008 Dec;40(10):3781-3
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  • The occurrence of de novo malignant neoplasias has been shown in postransplant patients under imunosuppression.
  • The greatest incidence is seen in cancers associated with chronic infection by human papilloma virus, skin cancers, oropharyngeal, and gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies.
  • A 64-year-old man underwent liver transplantation because of cirrhosis (hepatitis B virus and alcoholism) and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Seven months later, he noticed a hardened, mobile, painless, 3-cm subcutaneous nodule in the perineum localized in the right lateral quadrant 2 cm distant from the anus.
  • A surgical resection with 1 cm margin yielded a histopathology report of a 5.0 x 3.0 cm spindle cell stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Hepatitis B / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation / pathology. Nevus, Spindle Cell / surgery


64. Nyitray A, Nielson CM, Harris RB, Flores R, Abrahamsen M, Dunne EF, Giuliano AR: Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men. J Infect Dis; 2008 Jun 15;197(12):1676-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men.
  • In US men, the incidence of anal cancer, the primary cause of which is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, has increased almost 3-fold in 3 decades; however, little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, especially in heterosexual men.
  • In 2 US cities, behavioral data and anal biological specimens were collected from 253 men who acknowledged having engaged in sexual intercourse with a woman during the preceding year.
  • On the basis of DNA analysis, overall prevalence of anal HPV infection was found to be 24.8% in 222 men who acknowledged having had no prior sexual intercourse with men.
  • Of the men with anal HPV infection, 33.3% had an oncogenic HPV type.
  • Risk factors independently associated with anal HPV were lifetime number of female sex partners and frequency of sex with females during the preceding month.
  • These results suggest that anal HPV infection may be common in heterosexual men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18426367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / U36/CCU319276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Chung AP, Rosenfeld DB: Intraoperative high-resolution anoscopy: a minimally invasive approach in the treatment of patients with Bowen's disease and results in a private practice setting. Am Surg; 2007 Dec;73(12):1279-83
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  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia III (AIN III) is a risk factor for anal cancer with poor curative results and high morbidity.
  • From January 2002 through November 2005, 76 patients with AIN III diagnosed by anal Pap smear, colposcopy, or biopsy underwent HRA for diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal. Community Health Services. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Private Practice. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18186390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Hussain SK, Sundquist J, Hemminki K: Familial clustering of cancer at human papillomavirus-associated sites according to the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Int J Cancer; 2008 Apr 15;122(8):1873-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Familial clustering of cancer at human papillomavirus-associated sites according to the Swedish Family-Cancer Database.
  • Familial aggregation of cervical cancer has been demonstrated previously, however aggregation of other human papillomavirus-associated anogenital, upper aerodigestive tract and skin cancers has not been fully characterized.
  • The Swedish Family-Cancer Database, which contains reliable data on cancer incidence and nuclear family linkages for all residents of Sweden between 1958 and 2004, was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals for offspring site-specific cancer risks according to site-specific cancer in sibling and parental probands.
  • Offspring cancer risk was significantly increased when either a sibling or parent was affected at the same site for penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, SIR = 7.54), cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, SIR = 2.31), vulvar SCC (SIR = 2.27), skin SCC (SIR = 2.14), rectal AC (SIR = 1.86), in situ cervical SCC (SIR = 1.80), invasive cervical SCC (SIR = 1.77) and upper aerodigestive tract SCC (SIR = 1.57).
  • Significant aggregation on the order of 2-fold between anogenital cancers at different sites or histologies was also observed.
  • Familial skin SCC was largely unassociated with anogenital or upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in offspring.
  • These data suggest that common host factors exist among individuals affected with anogenital and upper aerodigestive tract cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cluster Analysis. Family. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Medical Record Linkage. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Odds Ratio. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Registries. Sweden / epidemiology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18074353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Roka F, Roka J, Trost A, Schalk H, Zagler C, Kirnbauer R, Salat A: Anal human papillomavirus testing with Digene's hybrid capture 2 using two different sampling methods. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):62-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal human papillomavirus testing with Digene's hybrid capture 2 using two different sampling methods.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of human papillomavirus detection in the anal canal is rising.
  • Efficient anal screening by cytology is hampered because of poor specificity.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is proposed in addition to Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for the detection of cervical neoplasia.
  • METHODS: In 555 patients, anal samples were obtained by using a cervical brush and a Dacron swab to test for high-risk and low-risk human papillomavirus-DNA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal screening for human papillomavirus-DNA by hybrid capture 2 is a useful method for detection of human papillomavirus-associated disease.
  • Further studies are needed to determine the exact value of hybrid capture 2 in the screening for (pre)cancerous lesions of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18030530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Polyethylene Terephthalates
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68. Stojanović S, Radosević-Jelić I, Dabić-Stanković K, Popov I, Josifovski J: External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2007;54(3):33-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] External beam radiotherapy plus brachytherapy boost in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy has been the standard treatment of anal canal carcinoma for the last three decades.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, between March 1997 and May 2004, patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy boost as primary treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy

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  • (PMID = 17988027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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69. Guasch G, Schober M, Pasolli HA, Conn EB, Polak L, Fuchs E: Loss of TGFbeta signaling destabilizes homeostasis and promotes squamous cell carcinomas in stratified epithelia. Cancer Cell; 2007 Oct;12(4):313-27
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  • [Title] Loss of TGFbeta signaling destabilizes homeostasis and promotes squamous cell carcinomas in stratified epithelia.
  • Moreover, rectal and genital epithelia, which are naturally proliferative, develop spontaneous squamous cell carcinomas with age when TbetaRII is absent.

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  • (PMID = 17936557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027883; None / None / / R01 AR027883-28; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027883-28
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / KRT14 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44885; NLM/ PMC2424201
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70. Gatt M, Reddy BS, Mainprize KS: Day-case stoma surgery: is it feasible? Surgeon; 2007 Jun;5(3):143-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Feasibility Studies. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Admission. Pilot Projects. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17575667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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71. Honjo Y, Bian Y, Kawakami K, Molinolo A, Longenecker G, Boppana R, Larsson J, Karlsson S, Gutkind JS, Puri RK, Kulkarni AB: TGF-beta receptor I conditional knockout mice develop spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Cycle; 2007 Jun 1;6(11):1360-6
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  • [Title] TGF-beta receptor I conditional knockout mice develop spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • 35% of F1 conditional knockout (COKO) mice developed spontaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in periorbital and/or perianal regions.
  • These mice can serve as a unique mouse model of SCC to evaluate the tumorigenicity and effect of anti-cancer therapeutics.
  • [MeSH-major] Activin Receptors, Type I / physiology. Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Head and Neck Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Brain / embryology. Brain / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Crosses, Genetic. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Exotoxins / pharmacology. Female. Genes, Synthetic. Integrases / genetics. Interleukin-13 / pharmacology. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / biosynthesis. Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neurofilament Proteins / genetics. Organ Specificity. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17534148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / IL13-PE38; 0 / Interleukin-13; 0 / Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 108688-71-7 / neurofilament protein H; EC 2.7.1.11 / TGF-beta type I receptor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.7.- / Cre recombinase; EC 2.7.7.- / Integrases
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72. Goldstone SE, Hundert JS, Huyett JW: Infrared coagulator ablation of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative males who have sex with males. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 May;50(5):565-75
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  • [Title] Infrared coagulator ablation of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative males who have sex with males.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal squamous carcinoma in males who have sex with males is rising.
  • We reported that infrared coagulation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive males who have sex with males yielded a recurrence rate after the first ablation of 65 percent and 58 percent after a second ablation.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records on HIV-negative males who have sex with males who had infrared coagulation ablation of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Recurrent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were retreated.
  • HIV-positive patients were twice as likely to have lesions persist and 1.7 times more likely to develop a recurrent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • No patient developed squamous-cell carcinoma, anal stenosis, or had a serious complication.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infrared coagulation is a safe and effective office-based procedure for treating anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Although recurrence was high after the first infrared coagulation, repeated treatment led to resolution of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. HIV Seronegativity. Homosexuality, Male. Infrared Rays / therapeutic use. Light Coagulation / methods. Precancerous Conditions / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17380365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Busnach G, Piselli P, Arbustini E, Baccarani U, Burra P, Carrieri MP, Citterio F, De Juli E, Bellelli S, Pradier C, Rezza G, Serraino D, Immunosuppression and Cancer Study Group: Immunosuppression and cancer: A comparison of risks in recipients of organ transplants and in HIV-positive individuals. Transplant Proc; 2006 Dec;38(10):3533-5
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  • [Title] Immunosuppression and cancer: A comparison of risks in recipients of organ transplants and in HIV-positive individuals.
  • The comparison of cancers occurring excessively among HIV-infected and transplanted individuals may help to elucidate the relationship between immune surveillance, viral infections, and cancer.
  • Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to quantify the risk for cancer, compared with the French and Italian general populations.
  • The SIRs for all cancers were 9.8 (95% CI: 9.0-10.6) for HIV-infected individuals versus 2.2 (95% CI: 1.9-2.5) for transplant recipients.
  • In both groups, most of the excess risk was attributable to virus-related cancers, such as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS; SIR = 451 in HIV-positive individuals, 125 in transplant recipients), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; SIR = 62.1 and 11.1, respectively), and liver cancer (SIR = 9.4 and 4.1, respectively).
  • Significantly increased SIRs for anal cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma were found only among HIV-positive individuals.
  • Among women younger than 40 years of age, a more than 10-fold increase in cervical cancer risk was found in both groups.
  • These results show that HIV-infected individuals and transplant recipients share a similar pattern of cancer risk, largely due to virus-related cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17175324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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74. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • Late severe complication was observed in 3 pts: 2 pts with painful necrosis of the anus requiring colostomy and 1 pt with grade 3 rectal bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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75. Martín JM, Calduch L, Monteagudo C, Molina I, Ramón D, Alonso V, Jordá E: Cutaneous plasmacytosis associated with lung and anal carcinomas. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Apr;20(4):428-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous plasmacytosis associated with lung and anal carcinomas.
  • Cutaneous plasmacytosis is a rare disorder characterized by a benign proliferation of mature plasma cells that appears as multiple dark-brown to purplish skin lesions, often associated with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Plasma Cells / pathology. Skin Diseases / complications. Skin Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16643141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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76. Anand BS, Verstovsek G, Cole G: Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Mar 21;12(11):1780-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tubulovillous adenoma of anal canal: a case report.
  • Tumors arising from the anal canal are usually of epithelial origin and are mostly squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma.
  • We present a case of benign anal adenomas arising from the anus, an extremely rare diagnosis.
  • Examination revealed a 4 cm friable mass attached to the anus by a stalk.
  • Microscopic examination revealed a tubulovillus adenoma with no areas of high grade dysplasia or malignant transformation.
  • The squamocolumnar junction was visible at the edges of the lesion confirming the anal origin of the tumor.
  • We believe the tubulovillus adenoma arose from either an anal gland or its duct that opens into the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Villous / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1988 Sep 1;319(9):525-32 [2841597.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Pathol. 2005 Feb;58(2):217-9 [15677547.001]
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  • (PMID = 16586552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4124358
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77. Cuffy M, Abir F, Longo WE: Management of less common tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2006 Jan;5(5):327-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of less common tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • The majority of colorectal and anal malignancies are adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cancers, respectively.
  • Despite the predominance of these neoplasms in these locations, rare histiotypes of the colon, rectum, and anus do occur.
  • These tumors often present challenges to clinicians with respect to diagnosis, staging, management, and pathology because of their unfamiliarity.
  • A Medline search using "colon," "rectum,""anus," "lymphoma," "melanoma," "diffuse cavernous hemangioma," "squamous cell carcinoma," "carcinoid," "sarcoma," "leiomyosarcoma," "Kaposi's sarcoma," "Paget's disease," "Bowen's disease," and "basal cell carcinoma" as key words was performed as well as a cross-referencing of the bibliography cited in each work.
  • Rare tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus present diagnostic and management dilemmas for clinicians.
  • For some histotypes, such as squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoids of the rectum, treatment depends on location and size of the tumor.
  • For uncommon anal lesions, such as Bowen's disease, Paget's disease, and basal cell carcinoma, wide local excision (WLE) with negative margins is the standard of care.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16512991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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78. Alfaro-Rubio A, Nagore E, Serra C, Botella R, Sanmartín O, Requena C, Llombart B, Hueso L, Guillén C: [Perianal Bowen's disease treated with imiquimod]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Sep;96(7):468-70
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  • [Transliterated title] Enfermedad de Bowen perianal tratada con imiquimod.
  • Bowen's disease is a special form of squamous cell carcinoma in situ that usually develops in photoexposed areas of skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16476278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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79. Darvishian F, Stier EA, Soslow RA, Lin O: Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation. Cancer; 2006 Feb 25;108(1):66-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunoreactivity of p16 in anal cytology specimens: histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytology has been proposed as a potential screening tool in the evaluation of squamous anorectal disease in view of the morphologic similarities between anal and cervical squamous lesions.
  • Due to potential diagnostic pitfalls in anal cytology, p16 overexpression in these specimens was studied.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight of the 43 cases demonstrated the presence of squamous cells immunoreactive for p16 in cytology specimens.
  • The p16-positive cells were identified in cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (n = 3 cases), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (n = 22 cases), and invasive squamous carcinoma (n = 1 case), and in 2 cases with negative follow-up biopsies.
  • No cell immunoreactive for p16 was found in 15 cases (5 benign cases and 10 cases with either LSIL or HSIL).
  • The sensitivity and specificity of p16 immunoreactivity in the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma were 72% and 71%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of p16 immunoreactivity is a good predictor of dysplasia in anal specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16404747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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80. Pineda CE, Berry JM, Welton ML: High resolution anoscopy and targeted treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):126
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High resolution anoscopy and targeted treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this video is to illustrate the use of high resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • METHODS: Five patients with anal dysplasia were examined in the operating room with acetic acid and the operative microscope.
  • Acetic acid is generously applied to aide in the recognition of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Acetowhite regions are examined under the operative microscope to further distinguish lesions as either low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Some pigmented lesions contain high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; the operative microscope is used in this setting to look for the vascular characteristics of high-grade disease.
  • RESULTS: The video reports five male patients treated for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with the aide of high resolution anoscopy.
  • All lesions suspicious for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions based on observed vascular patterns were confirmed as such with permanent histopathology.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of acetic acid and the operative microscope with selective use of Lugol's solution accentuates the visual characteristics of high-grade lesions, enhancing the surgeon's ability to target treatment to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • High resolution anoscopy is useful in the targeted treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Image Enhancement. Video-Assisted Surgery / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16222485.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Houvenaeghel G, Ghouti L, Moutardier V, Buttarelli M, Lelong B, Delpero JR: Rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in radical oncopelvic surgery: a safe and useful procedure. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Dec;31(10):1185-90
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  • RESULTS: Between 1989 and 1998, 46 patients underwent pelvi-perineal reconstruction with RAM flaps after radical pelvic surgery for carcinoma of the cervix (n=22), anal carcinoma (n=11), rectal carcinoma (n=7), or other pelvic tumours types (n=6).

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  • (PMID = 16126359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Andres AH, Walk CB, Meywirth E, Milkereit E: [Awareness under remifentanil-propofol anaesthesia]. Anaesthesist; 2005 Oct;54(10):1000-4
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  • We report on a 49-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent carcinoma of the rectum, who underwent a palliative Hartmann operation for an anus praeter reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Female. Hemodynamics / physiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Pain, Postoperative / psychology. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15999266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2417
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Anaesthesist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaesthesist
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Intravenous; 0 / Piperidines; P10582JYYK / remifentanil; YI7VU623SF / Propofol
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83. Papaconstantinou HT, Lee AJ, Simmang CL, Ashfaq R, Gokaslan ST, Sokol S, Huber PJ Jr, Gregorcyk SG: Screening methods for high-grade dysplasia in patients with anal condyloma. J Surg Res; 2005 Jul 1;127(1):8-13
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  • [Title] Screening methods for high-grade dysplasia in patients with anal condyloma.
  • HPV infection can cause anal condylomas and is a risk factor for dysplasia.
  • High-grade dysplasia may progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether anal cytology, morphological characteristics, and/or the presence of high-risk oncogenic HPV-types are effective noninvasive methods to detect high-risk anal condylomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From November 2003 to June 2004, all patients with anal condyloma were prospectively evaluated for anal cytology, high-risk oncogenic HPV-types, and tissue biopsies.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal condyloma were studied; 43 (91.5%) were men, and the mean age was 39 +/- 11 years.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology alone is not accurate for detecting HRL in patients with anal condylomas.
  • Combining oncogenic HPV-testing with cytology is more sensitive in detecting HRL in patients with anal condyloma, and therefore, a more effective screening tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15964301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Allal AS, Bründler MA, Gervaz P: Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Mar;20(2):161-4
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  • [Title] Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Histologically, tumors of the anal region are either keratinizing (K) or non-keratinizing (NK) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCA).
  • METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on 98 pre-treatment biopsies of patients with anal canal cancers.
  • The more distal the tumor is (anal margin), the more frequently the keratinizing subtype is observed (87 vs. 23%, p=0.0002).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15688099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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85. Christensen AF, Nielsen BM, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer. Acta Radiol; 2008 Mar;49(2):132-7
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: New techniques using image guidance other than computed tomography (CT) and traditional two-dimensional (2D) endosonography might improve interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with anal carcinoma were referred to interstitial brachytherapy under 3D endosonographic guidance after external radiotherapy.
  • The procedure was initiated by anal endosonography performed with a 10-MHz rotating endoprobe.
  • Cross-sectional images of the anal sphincters were stored on a 3D system during retraction of the endoprobe through the anal canal.
  • The needles were inserted through holes in an externally fixated anal template.
  • CONCLUSION: 3D endosonography guidance of interstitial brachytherapy in anal carcinoma seems to optimize the implant procedure and offer better information for dose planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Brachytherapy / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 18300134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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86. Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women. AIDS Alert; 2006 Mar;21(3):22-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women.
  • Investigators compared United States surveillance data for cancer in the pre-HIV era, HIV era, and antiretroviral treatment era and found that squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal incidence rates increased significantly in the latter era.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / drug therapy


87. Ambinder RF, Bhatia K, Martinez-Maza O, Mitsuyasu R: Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2010 Nov;5(6):531-7
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  • [Title] Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update investigations related to cancer biomarkers in HIV-infected populations.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: CD4 lymphocyte count is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (except perhaps for Burkitt lymphoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
  • HIV load is associated with Burkitt lymphoma and systemic NHL (but not PCNSL), with Kaposi's sarcoma and with anal cancer.
  • B-cell activation as manifest in immunoglobulin light chain production may be an important marker for NHL risk.

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  • (PMID = 20978397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274983; NLM/ PMC3055562
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88. Provencher S, Oehler C, Lavertu S, Jolicoeur M, Fortin B, Donath D: Quality of life and tumor control after short split-course chemoradiation for anal canal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality of life and tumor control after short split-course chemoradiation for anal canal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of life (QOL) and outcome of patients with anal carcinoma treated with short split-course chemoradiation (CRT).
  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 58 patients with anal cancer were curatively treated with CRT.
  • Significant anal pain or fecal incontinence was infrequently reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Short split-course CRT for anal carcinoma seems to be associated with good local control, survival and long-term global QOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 20492729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883545
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89. Chaturvedi AK: Beyond cervical cancer: burden of other HPV-related cancers among men and women. J Adolesc Health; 2010 Apr;46(4 Suppl):S20-6
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  • [Title] Beyond cervical cancer: burden of other HPV-related cancers among men and women.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, and is etiologically associated with a subset of cancers of the anus, oropharynx, penis, vagina, and vulva.
  • Current data indicate that HPV infection is potentially associated with 90%-93% of anal cancers, 12%-63% of oropharyngeal cancers, 36%-40% of penile cancers, 40%-64% of vaginal cancers, and 40%-51% of vulvar cancers.
  • HPV infection accounts for up to 492,800 cervical cancers and 97,215 cases of noncervical HPV-related cancers worldwide during 2002, including up to 50,780 cancers among men (13,485 anal cancers, 26,775 oropharyngeal cancers, and 10,520 penile cancers) and up to 46,435 cancers among women (14,787 anal cancers, 6,048 oropharyngeal cancers, and 25,600 vaginal/vulvar cancers).
  • In the United States annually (1998-2003), up to 10,846 cervical cancers, 4,753 noncervical cancers among men, and 4,128 noncervical cancers among women are potentially attributable to HPV infection.
  • Incidence rates for cervical cancer have declined significantly during the past 30 years in the United States, consistent with the success of Pap smear screening.
  • However, incidence rates for anal, oropharyngeal, and vulvar cancers have increased substantially in recent years.
  • The high proportion of cervical and noncervical cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18, that is, 70%-76% for cervical cancers and 63%-95% for noncervical cancers, underscores the potential for prevention of a majority of cervical as well as noncervical HPV-related cancers through prophylactic HPV vaccination.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cost of Illness. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20307840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1972
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Adolesc Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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90. Wiatrek RL, Thomas JS, Papaconstantinou HT: Perineal wound complications after abdominoperineal resection. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2008 Feb;21(1):76-85
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  • Risk factors such as operative technique, preoperative radiation therapy, and indication for surgery (i.e., rectal cancer, anal cancer, or inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]) are strong predictors of these complications.
  • Wide excision is used to gain local control in cancer patients, and coupled with the increased use of pelvic radiation therapy, we have experienced increased challenges with primary closure of the perineal wound.

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  • (PMID = 20011400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780192
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abdominoperineal resection / perineal wound complication / tissue transfer / vacuum-assisted closure device / wound management
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91. van Leeuwen MT, Vajdic CM, Middleton MG, McDonald AM, Law M, Kaldor JM, Grulich AE: Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS; 2009 Oct 23;23(16):2183-90
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  • [Title] Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in cancer incidence in people with HIV in Australia since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study of people with HIV (n = 20 232) using data linkage between national registers of HIV/AIDS and cancer in 1982-2004.
  • METHODS: Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare site-specific cancer incidence during the early (1996-1999) and late (2000-2004) HAART periods with that prior to HAART (1982-1995).
  • Incidence of anal cancer was unchanged (Ptrend = 0.451) and remained raised more than 30-fold.
  • Incidence declined significantly for melanoma (Ptrend = 0.041) and prostate cancer (Ptrend = 0.026), and, during the late-HAART period, was lower than in the general population for both cancers.
  • Incidence of colorectal cancer was consistently lower than in the general population.
  • Incidence of anal cancer has remained stable, and it is now the third most common cancer in HIV-infected Australians.
  • Reasons for the reduced incidence of colorectal and prostate cancer, and more recently of melanoma, are unclear.

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  • [Cites] Melanoma Res. 2009 Apr;19(2):63-8 [19194340.001]
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  • (PMID = 19734774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069907; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI069907-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01AI069907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS199813; NLM/ PMC2873230
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92. Mortensen GL, Larsen HK: [The quality of life of male homosexual patients with condyloma]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Aug 31;171(36):2561-5
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  • These participants' fears of developing anal cancer corresponded to the concerns of female genital warts patients about cervical cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Ano-genital HPV infection is common among MSM.

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  • (PMID = 19732547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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93. Moreau MV, Tournier-Rangeard L, Kaminsky MC, Peiffert D: [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Jul;13(4):329-32
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

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  • [Title] [Curative salvage treatment of mediastinal and pleuropulmonar metastatis from anal canal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimioradiothérapie de rattrapage pour métastases médiastinales et pleuropulmonaires d'un cancer du canal anal.
  • This case report presents a 57 years-old woman treated for a squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal by radiochemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • This observation is interesting for its curative treatment in metastatic cancer of the anal canal.
  • It also illustrates the radiosensibility of anal canal cancers, including metastatic situations, and raises the contribution of PET-scanner to evaluate the response to treatment and detect a recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19467897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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94. Phillips AA, Justman JE: Screening HIV-infected patients for non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2009 May;6(2):83-92
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  • Cervical cancer screening clearly differs for HIV-seropositive women, with two Pap tests 6 months apart in the first year and then annually if normal.
  • Anal cancer screening consists of an annual digital rectal examination, and some (but not all) guidelines also recommend annual anal Pap tests.
  • Screening for breast and colorectal cancer should follow standard, age-appropriate screening recommendations that apply to the general population.
  • Screening HIV-infected men for prostate cancer, as with the general population, lacks a clear benefit.
  • Despite increasing rates of hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancers among PLWH, there is insufficient evidence to support routine screening.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Mass Screening / methods. Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19358779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-3576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current HIV/AIDS reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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95. Raghunathan G, Mortele KJ: Magnetic resonance imaging of anorectal neoplasms. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Apr;7(4):379-88
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  • Among imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved as the most robust technique for the detection, characterization, and staging of anorectal cancers.
  • In this article we aim to outline the various types of anorectal cancers, highlight the complex anatomy of this region, and discuss the immensely useful role of MRI in the management of anorectal cancers.
  • This will be followed by an overview of MRI in anal carcinoma and other less common anorectal neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19340959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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96. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus-related disease in people with HIV. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):52-6
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased among people with HIV infection compared with the general population.
  • This review will describe recent findings in HPV-associated cancer incidence since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, HPV/disease prevalence at sites other than cervix and anus, and recent data on screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent with high prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, new data on cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men and women show that the incidence of cervical cancer has not declined since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy and that the incidence of anal cancer is rising.
  • Several studies also highlight high rates of HPV infection and HPV-associated disease at sites other than the cervix and anus, including the penis and the mouth.
  • Treatment methods for anal intraepithelial neoplasia have been described and show reasonable efficacy.
  • SUMMARY: New data imply that the problem of HPV-related cancers will not decline among HIV-positive men and women in the antiretroviral therapy era, highlighting the need to perform studies to determine if screening and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia will prevent development of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19339939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA054053-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA088739-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS94538; NLM/ PMC2756707
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97. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Nov;6(11):925-34
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  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • In HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), anal HPV prevalence is more than 90% and infections with multiple HPV types are common.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a potential precursor lesion of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Like its cervical counterpart, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), AIN is causally linked to persistent infections with high-risk HPV types such as HPV16 or HPV18.
  • As AIN and CIN share distinct biological similar-ities, AIN screenings analogous to Pap smear programs for CIN have been recommended in high-risk populations to reduce the incidence of anal carcinoma.
  • These screenings include cytological analysis followed by high resolution anoscopy in case of anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18410393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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98. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Swoboda J, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Aug;128(8):2078-83
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Standardized follow-up examinations included high-resolution anoscopy, anal cytology/histology, HPV typing, and DNA load determination for HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 33.
  • During follow-up, 58% of all patients (11/19) developed new anal cytological abnormalities in previously normal, untreated anal regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. DNA, Viral / drug effects. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18273049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Investigator] Adam A; Schewe K; Weitner L; Aratesh K; Arendt G; Bartz C; Behrens G; Beichert M; Bieniek B; Cordes C; Bochow M; Brockmeyer N; Buchholz B; Bogner JR; Buhk T; Clad A; Dannecker M; Dupke S; von Einsiedel R; Esser S; Faetkenheuer G; Fischer K; Freiwald M; Friebe-Hoffmann U; Fenske S; Funk M; Ganschow R; Gingelmaier A; Glaunsinger T; Goebel FD; Gölz J; Grosch-Wörner I; Haberl A; Hamouda O; Harrer T; Hartmann M; Hartl H; Hölscher M; Hower M; Husstedt IW; Jansen K; Jäger H; Jessen H; Jessen A; Karwat M; Klausen G; Kirchhoff F; Knechten H; Köppe S; Kreuter A; Kuhlmann B; Langer P; Lauenroth-Mai; Lehmacher W; Lehmann M; Levin C; Lübke M; Maschke M; Marcus U; Mauss S; Meyerhans A; Meyer-Olson D; ter Meulen V; Michalik C; Moll A; Mosthaf FA; Mutz A; Neuen-Jacob E; Niehues T; Oette M; Paulus U; Plettenberg A; Potthoff A; Racz P; Racz K; Rasokat H; Rausch M; Reichelt D; Reitter A; Rieke A; Rockstroh J; Salzberger B; Schafberger A; Schauer J; Schlote F; Schmidt B; Schranz D; Scholten S; Schuler C; Schwab M; Schmidt W; Schmidt R; Schwarze S; Siffert W; Skaletz-Rorowski A; Sonnenberg-Schwan U; Sopper S; Spengler U; Staszewski S; Steffan E; Stellbrink HJ; Stoll M; Goecke T; Taubert S; Telschik A; Ulmer A; Ullrich R; Uberla K; Usadel S; Vogel M; Wagner R; Walter H; Warnatz K; Wasem J; Wiesel W; Von Weizsäcker K; Wieland U; Wintergerst U; Wolf E; Wolf H; Wünsche T; Wyen Ch; Zeitz M; Zylka-Menhorn V
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99. Menkarios C, Azria D, Laliberté B, Moscardo CL, Gourgou S, Lemanski C, Dubois JB, Aillères N, Fenoglietto P: Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans. Radiat Oncol; 2007;2:41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal organ-sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) regimen for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: a comparison of conventional and IMRT plans.
  • BACKGROUND: To compare the dosimetric advantage of three different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to a three dimensional (3D) conventional radiation treatment for anal cancer with regards to organs-at-risk (OAR) avoidance, including iliac bone marrow.
  • METHODS: Five patients with T1-3 N0-1 anal cancer and five with T4 and/or N2-3 tumors were selected.
  • Clinical tumor volume (CTV) included tumor, anal canal and inguinal, peri-rectal, and internal/external iliac nodes (plus pre-sacral nodes for T4/N2-3 tumors).
  • CONCLUSION: IMRT is superior to 3D conformal radiation treatment for anal carcinoma with respect to OAR sparing, including bone marrow sparing.

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  • (PMID = 18005443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2204019
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100. Shepherd NA: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2007 Dec;36(4):969-87, ix
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and other neoplastic precursor lesions of the anal canal and perianal region.
  • Anal cancer is rare and this helps to explain why anal pre-neoplastic conditions are poorly understood, especially with regard to their natural history and management.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is closely linked to human papillomavirus infection and is particularly common in homosexuals and in immunosuppressed patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS.
  • The high regression rates of low-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia may simply reflect inconsistent pathologic reporting.
  • Higher grades of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may remain static for long periods of time in immunocompetent patients, but those with HIV/AIDS show early and rapid malignant transformation.
  • In general, most anal pre-neoplastic conditions are best diagnosed by biopsy and treated by surgical excision, although local recurrence is a problem.
  • In anal Paget's disease, it is important to ascertain, at the time of diagnosis, whether it is due to a primary in-situ apocrine-type of neoplasia of the anus or if the disease is secondary to an invasive primary carcinoma of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17996800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8553
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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