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1. Ambinder RF, Bhatia K, Martinez-Maza O, Mitsuyasu R: Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2010 Nov;5(6):531-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update investigations related to cancer biomarkers in HIV-infected populations.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: CD4 lymphocyte count is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (except perhaps for Burkitt lymphoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
  • HIV load is associated with Burkitt lymphoma and systemic NHL (but not PCNSL), with Kaposi's sarcoma and with anal cancer.
  • B-cell activation as manifest in immunoglobulin light chain production may be an important marker for NHL risk.

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  • (PMID = 20978397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274983; NLM/ PMC3055562
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2. Anorlu RI: What is the significance of the HPV epidemic? Can J Urol; 2008 Feb;15(1):3860-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • HPV has been implicated in cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx.
  • The virus is a necessary cause of cervical cancer.
  • HPV DNA is detected in almost 100% of cases of cervical cancer.
  • The vaccination cost, however, is beyond the reach of many individuals in developing countries where 80% of cervical cancer cases of are found.

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  • (PMID = 18304395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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3. Richel O, Wieland U, de Vries HJ, Brockmeyer NH, van Noesel C, Potthoff A, Prins JM, Kreuter A: Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1301-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical treatment of AIN, especially at the intra-anal location.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20716208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Vordermark D: Cause-specific colostomy rates after chemoradiotherapy for anal carcinoma: cancer-related versus treatment-related colostomy. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Jun 20;27(18):3064; author reply 3065
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cause-specific colostomy rates after chemoradiotherapy for anal carcinoma: cancer-related versus treatment-related colostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Colostomy

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1116-21 [19139424.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2009 Oct 1;27(28):4819
  • (PMID = 19414660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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5. Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Tang B, Horberg MA, Klein D, Quesenberry CP Jr, Towner WJ, Abrams DI: HIV infection and the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause. AIDS; 2009 Nov 13;23(17):2337-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV infection and the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause in HIV-infected persons.
  • METHODS: Adult HIV-infected and matched HIV-uninfected members of Kaiser Permanente followed between 1996 and 2007 for incident AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), infection-related non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs; anal squamous cell, vagina/vulva, Hodgkin's lymphoma, penis, liver, human papillomavirus-related oral cavity/pharynx, stomach) and infection-unrelated NADC (all other NADCs).
  • These results were largely influenced by anal squamous cell cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Among infection-unrelated NADCs, other anal, skin, other head and neck, and lung cancer rates were higher and prostate cancer rates lower in HIV-infected persons.
  • Among all infection-unrelated NADCs, the rate ratio decreased over time only for lung cancer (P = 0.007).
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with those without HIV infection, HIV-infected persons are at particular risk for cancers with a known infectious cause, although the higher risk has decreased in the antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Cancers without a known infectious cause are modestly increased in HIV-infected persons compared with HIV-uninfected persons.


6. Zucchini C, Concu M, Martini F, Morelli C, Salfi N, Carinci P, Tognon M, Caramelli E: FHIT oncosuppressor gene expression profile in human anal cancers. Int J Biol Markers; 2007 Jan-Mar;22(1):39-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FHIT oncosuppressor gene expression profile in human anal cancers.
  • The FHIT gene, a member of the histidine triad gene family, is a tumor suppressor gene exhibiting deletions in the majority of human cancers.
  • Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of the lining cells of the anus.
  • In this study FHIT gene expression was investigated in this particular kind of human cancer.
  • FHIT expression was comparatively analyzed at the mRNA level, by RT-PCR, in squamous anal cancers, normal anal tissue and peripheral blood samples. cDNA analyses showed variability in FHIT transcripts, without apparent effects on the predicted amino acid sequence.
  • Our data indicate that the FHIT mRNA detected in anal cancers and in normal samples is heterogeneous.
  • Immunohistochemical data suggest that the Fhit protein is expressed only in a fraction of the tumor cells, while it is strongly expressed in the epithelial cells of glands of the normal anal mucosa.
  • The absence or poor expression of the Fhit protein in anal cancers suggests a role for this tumor suppressor gene product, as a risk factor, in the onset of this human cancer, as reported before for other human gastrointestinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / biosynthesis. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17393360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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7. Sherwood BT, Jones GD, Mellon JK, Kockelbergh RC, Steward WP, Symonds RP: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: the way forward for bladder preservation? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 May;17(3):160-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concomitant chemoradiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: the way forward for bladder preservation?
  • Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a common malignancy with a high mortality rate.
  • In other tumour models, most notably cervical and anal cancer, radiation and chemotherapy delivered concomitantly have resulted in significant survival advantages.
  • Here, we consider the potential value of this approach in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15900999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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8. Giuliano AR, Anic G, Nyitray AG: Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 May;117(2 Suppl):S15-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several cancers of the anogenital tract and upper aero-digestive tract, and their precursor lesions in men are now understood to be caused by infection with sexually transmitted HPV.
  • For example, there is increasing incidence of anal cancer in western countries; however, there are limited data on its primary cause, anal canal HPV infection.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20138345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098803; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA134204; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA098803; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03CA134204-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS645179; NLM/ PMC4254924
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9. Kreuter A, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-associated diseases in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2009 Apr;22(2):109-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This review summarizes recent data on papillomavirus-induced anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in these patients.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasia rises in HIV-positive men who have sex with men despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Increasing evidence indicates that high-grade lesions can progress to anal cancer over time.
  • Anal cytology has been recommended as the primary screening tool for anal dysplasia in the at-risk population.
  • Anal cancer has become one of the most common non-AIDS-defining tumors in HIV-infected individuals.
  • In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the outcome of combined chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals with anal cancer is similar to that in HIV-negative persons.
  • SUMMARY: Diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines should be implemented for at-risk populations for anal dysplasia/anal cancer, such as HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology


10. Bembenek A, Gretschel S, Schlag PM: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastrointestinal cancers. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Sep 15;96(4):342-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastrointestinal cancers.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in gastrointestinal-(GI)-tract cancer is not yet of clinical relevance.
  • SLNB in colon cancer still fails to show high validity to predict the nodal status, but may be helpful to clarify the prognostic role of micrometastases/isolated tumor cells.
  • In anal cancer SLNB is able to guide the indication for groin irradiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17726666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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11. Das P, Crane CH, Ajani JA: Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Jul;19(4):396-400
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  • [Title] Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemoradiation represents the standard of care for most patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This article reviews randomized trials and recent studies on chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • Recent studies have started to evaluate intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer, in an effort to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The role of cisplatin in anal cancer is not completely clear, although an ongoing randomized trial (Anal Cancer Trial II) may help clarify the role of cisplatin.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy appears to be a promising approach for reducing treatment-related toxicity in anal cancer patients.
  • The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) is conducting a phase II trial evaluating the multi-institutional feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17545807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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12. Alcindor T, Tosikyan A, Vuong T, Marcus V: Small-cell anal carcinoma and AIDS: case report and review of the literature. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2008 Jan;23(1):135-6
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  • [Title] Small-cell anal carcinoma and AIDS: case report and review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / virology


13. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • RESULTS: Cytology was abnormal in 67% of patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 12%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 43% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 12%.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling


14. Gingelmaier A, Weissenbacher T, Kost B, Kaestner R, Sovric M, Mylonas I, Friese K, Bergauer F: Anal cytology as a screening tool for early detection of anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women. Anticancer Res; 2010 May;30(5):1719-23
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  • [Title] Anal cytology as a screening tool for early detection of anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: HIV-infected patients show a high rate of anal dysplasia and anal carcinoma but there is no gold standard for early detection.
  • Therefore, the objectives of this prospective study were: a) evaluation of an anal screening using anal/perianal cytology;.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In every HIV-infected woman visiting our gynaecological outpatient clinic, an anal and perianal swab for anal cytology was taken.
  • The results of 13 (13.5%) anal cytologies were classified as suspicious for low-grade or high-grade anal dysplasia and 6 of these were confirmed in an anal biopsy.
  • CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, anal screening using anal cytology showed 13.5% suspected anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women.
  • All performed biopsies revealed the presence of a high-grade anal lesion.
  • In summary, we found anal cytology to be a useful tool to early detect anal dysplasia of high-risk patients such as HIV-infected women.
  • How far this screening method contributes to the prevention of anal cancer has to be evaluated in further investigations.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cytological Techniques / methods. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immune System. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Prospective Studies. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


15. Rödel C: [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer]. Onkologie; 2010;33 Suppl 4:24-5
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  • [Title] [Radiochemotherapy for locally advanced anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiochemotherapie des lokal fortgeschrittenen Analkarzinoms.
  • Standard treatment for anal canal cancer is definitive radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-fluorouracil plus mitomycin C.
  • Because anal cancer overexpresses the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a KRAS wild type is usually present, treatment with the EGFR antibody cetuximab is potentially interesting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 20431309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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16. Pocard M, Sabourin JC: [Sentinel lymph node biopsy in gastro-intestinal surgery: facts and future implications]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Dec;145 Spec no. 4:12S17-12S20
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  • In theory, the concept of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can be applied to cancer surgery for all solid cancers.
  • Yet sentinel lymph node biopsy has not become a standard part of gastrointestinal cancer surgery.
  • It has been of value in the assessment of small early-stage gastric cancers, but has only achieved widespread practice in Japan.
  • Studies of SLN biopsy in colon cancer have not shown it to be a reliable predictor of N+ status and therefore don't permit the omission of lymph node dissection in selected cases.
  • For cancers of the anal canal, SLN biopsy of inguinal nodes has been tested as a means of establishing the indications for inguinal lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19194353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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17. De Vuyst H, Clifford GM, Nascimento MC, Madeleine MM, Franceschi S: Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva, vagina and anus: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer; 2009 Apr 1;124(7):1626-36
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  • [Title] Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva, vagina and anus: a meta-analysis.
  • This meta-analysis investigated human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in vulvar, vaginal and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, VAIN, AIN) grades 1-3 and carcinoma from 93 studies conducted in 4 continents and using PCR assays.
  • Overall HPV prevalence was 67.8%, 85.3% and 40.4% among 90 VIN1, 1,061 VIN2/3 and 1,873 vulvar carcinomas; 100%, 90.1% and 69.9% among 107 VAIN1, 191 VAIN2/3 and 136 vaginal carcinomas; and 91.5%, 93.9% and 84.3% among 671 AIN1, 609 AIN2/3 and 955 anal carcinomas, respectively.
  • HPV16 was found more frequently (>75%) and HPV18 less frequently (<10%) in HPV-positive vulvar, vaginal and anal carcinomas than in cervical carcinoma.
  • HPV prevalence in vulvar carcinoma varied most by histological type (69.4% in warty-basaloid and 13.2% in keratinized type) and was also higher in women 60 years or younger and in studies carried out in North America.
  • HPV prevalence in anal carcinoma was higher among women (90.8%) than men (74.9%), but no difference by gender emerged in North America.
  • In conclusion, approximately 40% of vulvar, 60% of vaginal and 80% of anal carcinoma may be avoided by prophylactic vaccines against HPV16/18.
  • This proportion would be similar for the corresponding high-grade lesions of the vagina and anus, but higher for VIN2/3 (75%) than for vulvar carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / virology. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology


18. Moran MG, Barkley TW Jr, Hughes CB: Screening and management of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected patients: a guide for practice. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care; 2010 Sep-Oct;21(5):408-16
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  • [Title] Screening and management of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected patients: a guide for practice.
  • People living with HIV infection have a significantly higher rate of anal cancer as compared with that of uninfected people.
  • It is believed that high-grade anal dysplasia secondary to human papillomavirus infection is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • Considering this, screening and treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia is a possible means of preventing the development of anal cancer.
  • No national or international guidelines exist to guide practice for screening and management of anal dysplasia.
  • On the basis of a review of research and expert recommendations, a guide to practice for screening and management of anal dysplasia and anal cancer is made for clinicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20409734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care : JANAC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Tirado-Ramos A, Saltz J, Lechowicz MJ: HIV-K: an integrative knowledge base for semantic integration of AIDS-related malignancy data and treatment outcomes. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:239-43
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  • We are working to increase the understanding of available clinical trial data and outcomes of ADM such as lymphoma, as well as nADM such as anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or liver cancer.

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  • [Cites] Blood. 2008 Dec 1;112(12):4384-99 [19029456.001]
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  • (PMID = 20543443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9630
  • [Journal-full-title] Studies in health technology and informatics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050409; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050409; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050409-11; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025008; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025008-04; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000454
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS315000; NLM/ PMC3157699
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20. Parkin DM, Louie KS, Clifford G: Burden and trends of type-specific human papillomavirus infections and related diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Vaccine; 2008 Aug 19;26 Suppl 12:M1-16
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  • We present the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (cancers of the cervix, anogenital areas, and oral cavity and pharynx) in terms of incidence and mortality, for the countries of the Asia Pacific region.
  • The region contains more than half of the world population, and manifests a wide geographic diversity in the prevalence of infection with HPV, and of incidence (and mortality) rates of cancer of the cervix.
  • In general, rates of cancer of the cervix have declined since the 1960's; 67% of cases are associated with HPV-16 and 18.
  • The incidence of other anogenital cancers is low, especially in Asian populations; however, cancers of the mouth and pharynx show a wide range of rates, determined by exposures such as oral tobacco and alcohol and for cancer of the lip, ultraviolet radiation.
  • We also present the estimates of the occurence of genital warts--largely caused by HPV 6 and 11--and the HPV type distribution in the spectrum of women with normal cytology, cervical lesions, and cervical cancer in the region.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Urogenital Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18945410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Katz KA, Clarke CA, Bernstein KT, Katz MH, Klausner JD: Is there a proven link between anal cancer screening and reduced morbidity or mortality? Ann Intern Med; 2009 Feb 17;150(4):283-4; author reply 284-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is there a proven link between anal cancer screening and reduced morbidity or mortality?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Cytological Techniques. Mass Screening

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  • [CommentOn] Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 2;149(5):300-6 [18765699.001]
  • (PMID = 19221387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3704
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / 1U58DP00807-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-54404
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Yumuk PF, Abacioglu U, Demir G, Cabuk D, Dane F, Gumus M, Ozguroglu M, Ekenel M, Basaran G, Turhal NS: Does the incidence of anal canal cancers differ in Moslem societies? Int J Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jan;20(1):76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does the incidence of anal canal cancers differ in Moslem societies?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / ethnology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / ethnology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ethnology. Hygiene. Islam. Registries / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15293063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Fraunholz I, Rabeneck D, Weiss C, Rödel C: Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Jul;186(7):361-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer: current strategies and future directions.
  • BACKGROUND: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) is the treatment of choice for anal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT without induction or maintenance chemotherapy remains the standard of care for anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy


24. Hayanga AJ: HPV, cervical dysplasia and anal cancer screening--a need for liaison between gynecology and colorectal clinics. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Sep;102(3):600-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HPV, cervical dysplasia and anal cancer screening--a need for liaison between gynecology and colorectal clinics.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Cytodiagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology


25. Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S: Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):692-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe?
  • This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the Intergroup RTOG 98-11 trial, which aimed to investigate both the potential role of cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also its role concurrently in combination with radiotherapy, for anal-canal carcinoma.
  • Although chemoradiotherapy has had an important effect on the treatment of anal cancer, and allows preservation of anorectal function with survival rates similar to or better than those of surgical treatment, overall survival rates for advanced tumors are still in the region of 50-60% at 5 years.
  • A strong theoretical rationale for cisplatin-based treatment in anal cancer exists; several phase II trials have demonstrated a high response rate with reduced colostomy rates.

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  • (PMID = 18852720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Jandial DD, Soliman PT, Slomovitz BM, Schmeler KM, Levenback C, Coleman RL, Ramirez PT: Laparoscopic colostomy in gynecologic cancer. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):723-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic colostomy in gynecologic cancer.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to report on our case series of 7 patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent laparoscopic colostomy for elective fecal diversion.
  • Anderson Cancer Center.
  • PATIENTS: All patients with a history of gynecologic cancers who underwent laparoscopic colostomy during the study period.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic colostomy in advanced gynecologic cancer may be a safe and feasible technique with minimal morbidity, rapid return of bowel function, and short hospital stay.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Elective Surgical Procedures. Female. Humans. Laparotomy / methods. Length of Stay. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18971136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Burgi A, Brodine S, Wegner S, Milazzo M, Wallace MR, Spooner K, Blazes DL, Agan BK, Armstrong A, Fraser S, Crum NF: Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Cancer; 2005 Oct 1;104(7):1505-11
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  • [Title] Incidence and risk factors for the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the rates and predictors of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) among a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.
  • Cancer incidence rates were race specific and were adjusted for age; these were compared with national rates using logistic regression to assess predictors of NADC development.
  • The most frequent NADCs were skin carcinomas (basal cell and squamous cell), Hodgkin disease, and anal carcinoma.
  • The results showed that there were higher rates of melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease among the HIV-infected cohort compared with age-adjusted rates for the general United States population.
  • A low CD4 nadir or CD4 count at diagnosis (< 200 cells/mL) was not predictive of NADCs.
  • Melanoma, basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas, anal carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and Hodgkin disease occurred at higher rates among HIV-infected individuals.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Female. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Probability. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. United States / epidemiology


28. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Swoboda J, Stücker M, Schmitt M, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Jun;162(6):1269-77
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men: results of a prospective study from Germany.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • There is a paucity of data published on the progression of high-grade AIN to invasive cancer as well as on clinical and virological characteristics comparing anal margin and anal canal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To search for anal carcinoma and AIN in a large series of HIV-positive MSM, to assess treatment response of anal carcinoma, and to analyse lesional HPV spectrum of anal cancers.
  • METHODS: Detection of anal carcinoma and AIN was performed using cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and histology in case of abnormal findings.
  • Additionally, HPV analyses for 36 high- and low-risk α-HPV types were performed in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • Of these, 116 (26·0%) patients had normal findings, 163 (36·5%) had low-grade AIN, 156 (35·0%) had high-grade AIN, and 11 (2·5%) had anal carcinoma as evidenced by the highest grade of cytology/histology.
  • Five patients with anal cancer, who had refused treatment of their precancerous lesions, had progressed from high-grade AIN to invasive cancer within a median time of 8·6 months.
  • All anal cancers carried high-risk α-HPV types.
  • All five squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the anal canal were HPV16 positive.
  • In contrast, only one of the four anal margin SCCs were HPV16 positive (HPV31, HPV33 and HPV33 + HPV68 were found in the other three anal margin SCCs).
  • In contrast to the cancer biopsies, a broad spectrum of surface high- and low-risk HPV types was found in anal swabs of the patients.
  • Surgical excision resulted in long-term disease control of all anal margin carcinomas, whereas combined chemoradiotherapy in carcinomas of the anal canal was associated with high recurrence rates, high toxicity, and high mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal carcinoma and AIN are frequent in HIV-positive men, even in patients participating in anal cancer prevention programmes.
  • High-grade dysplasia in these patients can progress to invasive cancer within a short period of time.
  • Anal margin carcinoma and anal canal carcinoma differ substantially in their lesional HPV spectrum, prognosis and treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20184584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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29. D'Souza G, Cook RL, Ostrow D, Johnson-Hill LM, Wiley D, Silvestre T: Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men. J Gen Intern Med; 2008 Sep;23(9):1452-7
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  • [Title] Anal cancer screening behaviors and intentions in men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of anal cancer has increased in the past decade, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-infected individuals.
  • There is controversy about whether to routinely screen for anal cancer in MSM.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether current anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern differ by HIV serostatus and to identify characteristics of men who intend to seek anal cancer screening.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported anal cancer screening history, attitudes, and intentions.
  • RESULTS: A history of anal warts was relatively common in these men (39%), whereas having a recent anal Pap test (5%), intention to seek anal cancer screening in the next 6 months (12%), and concern about anal cancer (8.5%) were less common.
  • Intention to seek anal cancer screening was associated with enabling factors (screening availability, health insurance), need factors (HIV-infection, history of anal warts), concern about anal cancer, and recent sexual risk taking.
  • Among four large US cities, there was significant regional variability in anal cancer screening behaviors, intention, and concern (all p<0.001).
  • Most MSM (76%) indicated they would go to their primary care physician for an anal health problem or question.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a low rate of anal cancer screening and intention to screen among MSM.
  • As more evidence emerges regarding screening, primary care physicians should be prepared to discuss anal cancer screening with their patients.

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  • (PMID = 18618198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of general internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gen Intern Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35043; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-M01-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-37613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2518019
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30. Tatchell P: Outing anal cancer. Nurs Stand; 2007 Apr 25-May 1;21(33):28-9
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  • [Title] Outing anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 17494441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-6570
  • [Journal-full-title] Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nurs Stand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Watson M, Saraiya M, Ahmed F, Cardinez CJ, Reichman ME, Weir HK, Richards TB: Using population-based cancer registry data to assess the burden of human papillomavirus-associated cancers in the United States: overview of methods. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):2841-54
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  • [Title] Using population-based cancer registry data to assess the burden of human papillomavirus-associated cancers in the United States: overview of methods.
  • Increased attention to human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in light of the recent release of an HPV vaccine, as well as increased availability of cancer registry data that now include reporting from a large proportion of the US population, prompted the current assessment of HPV-associated cancers.
  • This article describes methods used to assess the burden of HPV-associated cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancers in the United States during 1998 through 2003 using cancer registry data, and it provides a brief overview of the epidemiology of these cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / virology. Humans. Male. Methods. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology. Population Surveillance. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / virology. SEER Program. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18980203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Haboubi NY, Edilbe MW, Hill J: Justification for staging of epidermoid anal carcinoma after salvage surgery: a pathological guideline. Colorectal Dis; 2007 Mar;9(3):238-44
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  • [Title] Justification for staging of epidermoid anal carcinoma after salvage surgery: a pathological guideline.
  • The currently accepted first line treatment for epidermoid anal cancer is chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards

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  • (PMID = 17298622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Gillison ML: Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant HPV and HIV infection. Curr Opin Oncol; 2009 Sep;21(5):439-44
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  • [Title] Oropharyngeal cancer: a potential consequence of concomitant HPV and HIV infection.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the principal cause of a distinct form of oropharyngeal cancer (OPCA) that has been rising in incidence in the United States since 1973, particularly among young men.
  • Analogous to other HPV-related cancers (e.g. cervical and anal cancer), trends over time do not appear to be influenced by highly active antiretroviral (HAART) therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19587593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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34. Franceschi S, Lise M, Clifford GM, Rickenbach M, Levi F, Maspoli M, Bouchardy C, Dehler S, Jundt G, Ess S, Bordoni A, Konzelmann I, Frick H, Dal Maso L, Elzi L, Furrer H, Calmy A, Cavassini M, Ledergerber B, Keiser O, Swiss HIV Cohort Study: Changing patterns of cancer incidence in the early- and late-HAART periods: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Br J Cancer; 2010 Jul 27;103(3):416-22
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  • [Title] Changing patterns of cancer incidence in the early- and late-HAART periods: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.
  • BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 led to a decrease in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but not of other cancers, among people with HIV or AIDS (PWHA).
  • METHODS: We conducted a record-linkage study between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and nine Swiss cantonal cancer registries.
  • Incidence of cancers of the anus, liver, non-melanomatous skin, and Hodgkin's lymphoma increased in the early- compared with the pre-HAART period, but not during the late-HAART period.
  • The incidence of all non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) combined was similar in all periods, and approximately double that in the general population.

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  • (PMID = 20588274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2920013
  • [Investigator] Battegay M; Bernasconi E; Böni J; Bucher HC; Bürgisser P; Calmy A; Cavassini M; Dubs R; Egger M; Elzi L; Fischer M; Flepp M; Fontana A; Francioli P; Furrer H; Fux CA; Gorgievski M; Günthard HF; Hirsch HH; Hirschel B; Hösli I; Kahlert C; Kaiser L; Karrer U; Kind C; Klimkait T; Ledergerber B; Martinetti G; Martinez de Tejada B; Müller N; Nadal D; Paccaud F; Pantaleo G; Rauch A; Regenass S; Rickenbach M; Rudin C; Schmid P; Schultze D; Schöni-Affolter F; Schüpbach J; Speck R; Taffé P; Telenti A; Trkola A; Vernazza P; Weber R; Yerly S
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35. Myerson RJ, Garofalo MC, El Naqa I, Abrams RA, Apte A, Bosch WR, Das P, Gunderson LL, Hong TS, Kim JJ, Willett CG, Kachnic LA: Elective clinical target volumes for conformal therapy in anorectal cancer: a radiation therapy oncology group consensus panel contouring atlas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jul 1;74(3):824-30
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  • [Title] Elective clinical target volumes for conformal therapy in anorectal cancer: a radiation therapy oncology group consensus panel contouring atlas.
  • PURPOSE: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas of the elective clinical target volume (CTV) definitions to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for anal and rectal cancers.
  • They responded to a questionnaire concerning three elective CTVs (CTVA: internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodal regions for both anal and rectal case planning; CTVB: external iliac nodal region for anal case planning and for selected rectal cases; CTVC: inguinal nodal region for anal case planning and for select rectal cases), and to outline these areas on individual computed tomographic images.
  • RESULTS: The panel achieved consensus CTV definitions to be used as guidelines for the adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer and definitive therapy for anal cancer.
  • The most important difference from similar atlases for gynecologic or genitourinary cancer is mesorectal coverage.
  • CONCLUSION: This report serves as a template for the definition of the elective CTVs to be used in IMRT planning for anal and rectal cancers, as part of prospective RTOG trials.

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  • (PMID = 19117696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / U10 CA021661-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA081647; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA81647; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032115
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS121642; NLM/ PMC2709288
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36. Benard VB, Johnson CJ, Thompson TD, Roland KB, Lai SM, Cokkinides V, Tangka F, Hawkins NA, Lawson H, Weir HK: Examining the association between socioeconomic status and potential human papillomavirus-associated cancers. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):2910-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Examining the association between socioeconomic status and potential human papillomavirus-associated cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between county-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and the incidence rate of human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.
  • METHODS: The authors collected data from cancer registries for site-specific invasive cancer diagnoses between 1998 and 2003, inclusive, among adults aged >20 years at the time of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Lower education and higher poverty were found to be associated with increased penile, cervical, and vaginal invasive cancer incidence rates.
  • Higher education was associated with increased incidence of vulvar cancer, male and female anal cancer, and male and female oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.
  • Race was an independent predictor of the development of these potentially HPV-associated cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the association between SES variables and the development of HPV-associated cancers.
  • The findings also highlight the importance of considering SES factors when developing policies to increase access to medical care and reduce cancer disparities in the United States.

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  • (PMID = 18980274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Fesneau M, Champeaux-Orange E, Hennequin C: [Anal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Nov;14 Suppl 1:S120-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers.
  • The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, pararectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21129654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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38. Gu J, Li J, Yao Y, Lu A, Wang H: Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma. Front Med China; 2007 Jul;1(3):333-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal adenocarcinoma.
  • It is difficult to distinguish a rectal carcinoma with anal metastases from coexistent synchronous anorectal carcinomas.
  • The therapeutic strategy for rectal and anal carcinoma is so different that it should be clearly identified.
  • Five months after resection, he developed an adenocarcinoma in the anal canal.
  • For this reason, we believe the present case had synchronous adenocarcinomas arising from anal canal and the rectum separately.
  • It is very important to differentiate the anorectal lesions pathologically because of the impact on the therapeutic options available, especially for the lesion arising in the anal canal.

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  • (PMID = 24573877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-7342
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of medicine in China
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Med China
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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39. Rapose A: Human papillomavirus and genital cancer. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 May-Jun;75(3):236-43; quiz 243-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus and genital cancer.
  • Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers.
  • Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer.
  • There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated.
  • Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19439875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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40. Piketty C, Kazatchkine MD: Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep; 2005 Aug;2(3):140-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-related cervical and anal disease in HIV-infected individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • HIV-infected men who have sex with men remain at high risk of developing anal cancer despite the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • So far, epidemiologic data provided by cancer registries have shown no reduction in the incidence of cervical and anal cancer in patients with HIV infection since the initiation of HAART in 1996.
  • Recent data suggest that HPV infection occurs in the anal canal of immunocompromised patients, as an opportunistic infection, in the absence of receptive anal intercourse.
  • Taken together, these lines of evidence support the need for developing anal and cervical cancer screening programs for patients with HIV, whether untreated or on HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology


41. Collett D, Mumford L, Banner NR, Neuberger J, Watson C: Comparison of the incidence of malignancy in recipients of different types of organ: a UK Registry audit. Am J Transplant; 2010 Aug;10(8):1889-96
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  • In this study on cancer incidence in solid organ transplant recipients in Britain, we describe the incidence of de novo cancers in the allograft recipient, and compare these incidences following the transplantation of different organs.
  • Data in the UK Transplant Registry held by NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) were linked with data made available by the cancer registries in England, Scotland and Wales.
  • The 10-year incidence of de novo cancer in transplant recipients is twice that of the general population, with the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer being 13 times greater.
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancer, cancer of the lip, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and anal cancer have the largest standardized incidence ratios, but the incidence of different types of malignancy differs according to the organ transplanted.

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  • (PMID = 20659094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-6143
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Mortensen GL: Parental attitudes towards vaccinating sons with human papillomavirus vaccine. Dan Med Bull; 2010 Dec;57(12):A4230
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  • In males, HPV can cause head/neck, penile and anal cancer, as well as genital warts.
  • Parents primarily wanted to protect their sons from cancer and genital warts.

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  • (PMID = 21122463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] Danish medical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dan Med Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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43. Cresti S, Ouaïssi M, Sielezneff I, Chaix JB, Pirro N, Berthet B, Consentino B, Sastre B: Advantage of vacuum assisted closure on healing of wound associated with omentoplasty after abdominoperineal excision: a case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:136
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  • BACKGROUND: Primary closure of the perineum with drainage after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum for carcinoma, is widely accepted.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: In the present report, vacuum assisted drainage was used after abdominoperineal excision for carcinoma in the very first step due to intraoperative gross septic contamination during tumor resection.
  • The first case: A 57-years old man with a 30-years history of peri-anal Crohn's disease, the adenocarcinoma of the lowest part of the rectum and Crohn colitis with multiple area of severe dysplasia required panproctocolectomy with a perineal resection.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed for recurrence epidermoid anal cancer.

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  • [Cites] J Am Coll Surg. 2008 Apr;206(4):694-703 [18387476.001]
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  • (PMID = 19102785.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2621222
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44. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Hochdorfer B, Weissenborn SJ, Stücker M, Swoboda J, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Apr;52(4):603-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) represents a precursor lesion of invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a clear association to high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • HIV infection is strongly associated with a higher prevalence of genital HPV infection, a higher incidence of AIN, and, consecutively, an increased risk for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical spectrum of AIN and lesional HPV colonization in a cohort of homosexual men who were HIV positive and had a history of receptive anal intercourse.
  • RESULTS: Of all patients, 86% had anal HPV infection at their first visit.
  • Standardized screening programs for anal cancer prevention and treatment protocols for AIN in patients infected with HIV must be implemented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification


45. Rasheed S, Yap T, Zia A, McDonald PJ, Glynne-Jones R: Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Feb;11(2):191-7
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  • [Title] Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review.
  • PURPOSE: Since 1943 [1], only 45 patients of squamous cancer of the rectum have been reported in the published reports and the largest series to date consists of 12 patients.
  • Reports suggest that the primary treatment is surgical resection but, in the light of nonsurgical advances in the treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we present a review of the literature and report six patients treated by chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
  • METHOD: A literature search was undertaken using the keywords squamous cell, epidermoid, basaloid and cloacagenic and cancer of rectum and colon to provide evidence for this discussion from studies of surgery, radiation therapy and CRT in rectal SCC.
  • A prospective database of the Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, UK was searched from 1995 to 2005 for patients diagnosed with pure SCC of the rectum.
  • RESULTS: Six patients with histologically confirmed primary SCC of the rectum were treated with primary combination chemo-radiotherapy according to protocols used for SCC of the anal canal over a 15-year period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary CRT, as currently utilized in anal cancer, can be extended to primary SCC of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18462236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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46. Castellano I, Mistrangelo M, Crudo V, Chiusa L, Lupo R, Ricardi U, Morino M, Mussa A, Cassoni P: YKL-40 expression in anal carcinoma predicts shorter overall and disease-free survival. Histopathology; 2009 Aug;55(2):238-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] YKL-40 expression in anal carcinoma predicts shorter overall and disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Lectins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19694834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Lectins
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47. Barriger RB, Johnstone PA: Advanced radiation technology in the treatment of anal cancer. Oncology (Williston Park); 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1096, 1098
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced radiation technology in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2009 Nov 15;23(12):1082-9 [20017291.001]
  • (PMID = 20017293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Wood GA, Sauder BL: Sexual side effects in women with anal carcinoma. Oncol Nurs Forum; 2009 May;36(3):275-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sexual side effects in women with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / nursing. Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / nursing. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Sexuality

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  • (PMID = 19403449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-0688
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology nursing forum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol Nurs Forum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Sato M, Ogawa H, Shibata C, Miura K, Ando T, Saijo F, Haneda S, Kakyo M, Kinouchi M, Fukushima K, Funayama Y, Takahashi K, Sasaki I: [A case of anal cancer with rapidly rising CEA in longstanding perianal Crohn disease after infliximab administration]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Jun;107(6):885-92
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  • [Title] [A case of anal cancer with rapidly rising CEA in longstanding perianal Crohn disease after infliximab administration].
  • However, there is clinical concern about a possible correlation between an increased risk of anorectal cancer and infliximab treatment.
  • We report a case of anorectal cancer in long-standing perianal Crohn disease.
  • We suspected anorectal cancer, so abdominoperineal resection was performed.
  • Monitoring of patients with long-standing perianal Crohn disease is considered essential for early diagnosis of anal cancer after obtaining biopsy samples from perianal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20530924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
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50. Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Gilbert ES, Chen BE, Storm H, Lynch CF, Hall P, Langmark F, Pukkala E, Kaijser M, Andersson M, Fosså SD, Joensuu H, Boice JD, Kleinerman RA, Travis LB: Second cancers among 104,760 survivors of cervical cancer: evaluation of long-term risk. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2007 Nov 7;99(21):1634-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Second cancers among 104,760 survivors of cervical cancer: evaluation of long-term risk.
  • BACKGROUND: Given the extended survival of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, the large number of these women treated with radiotherapy, and the presence in this population of established cancer risk factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cigarette smoking, it is important to clarify long-term trends in second cancer risk.
  • METHODS: Using data from 104,760 one-year survivors of cervical cancer reported to 13 population-based cancer registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, we calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for second cancers overall and cancers at particular sites among women with cervical cancer, including cervical cancer patients who were treated or not treated with radiation, over more than 40 years of follow-up.
  • Cox regression models were used to assess the time-varying association of radiotherapy with risk of second cancers and to assess the interaction of radiation treatment with age at diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Among 104,760 one-year survivors of cervical cancer, the risk of all second cancers taken together was increased to a statistically significant extent (n = 12,496; SIR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28 to 1.33).
  • Compared with the general population, in both radiotherapy (N = 52,613) and no-radiotherapy groups (N = 27,382), risks for HPV-related cancers (of the pharynx, genital sites, and rectum/anus) and smoking-related cancers (of the pharynx, trachea/bronchus/lung, pancreas, and urinary bladder) were elevated to a statistically significant extent.
  • Cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, but not those who did not receive radiotherapy, were at increased risk for all second cancers and cancers at heavily irradiated sites (colon, rectum/anus, urinary bladder, ovary, and genital sites) beyond 40 years of follow-up compared with women in the general population.
  • The association of radiotherapy with second cancer risk was modified by age at cervical cancer diagnosis for rectum/anus, genital sites, and urinary bladder, with higher hazard ratios for second cancer at younger ages of cervical cancer.
  • After adjustment for competing mortality, the 40-year cumulative risk of any second cancer was higher among women diagnosed with cervical cancer before age 50 (22.2%; 95% CI = 21.5% to 22.8%) than among women diagnosed after age 50 (16.4%; 95% CI = 16.1% to 16.9%).
  • CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy are at increased risk of second cancers at sites in close proximity to the cervix beyond 40 years of follow-up.

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Apr 16;100(8):600; author reply 600-1 [18398096.001]
  • (PMID = 17971527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Karnon J, Jones R, Czoski-Murray C, Smith KJ: Cost-utility analysis of screening high-risk groups for anal cancer. J Public Health (Oxf); 2008 Sep;30(3):293-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost-utility analysis of screening high-risk groups for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cost-utility analysis of screening for anal cancer in high-risk groups from a UK perspective.
  • METHODS: Criteria for the assessment of screening programmes were combined in a Markov model representing the natural history of anal cancer and HIV infection in the UK population of men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Sensitivity analyses identified two important parameters: regression from low-grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and utility effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mass Screening / economics


52. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Wieland U: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients]. Hautarzt; 2010 Jan;61(1):21-6
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal carcinoma: an increasing problem in HIV patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Anale intraepitheliale Neoplasie und Analkarzinom : Ein zunehmendes Problem bei Menschen mit HIV-Infektion.
  • Anal dysplasia is common in HIV patients, especially in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM).
  • High-grade anal dysplasia can progress to invasive anal cancer.
  • As in cervical carcinoma, there is a cause and effect relationship between anal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially with high-risk types such as HPV16.
  • Several experts have recommended screening programs for anal cancer, including anal cytology along the lines of the Pap smear in women.
  • Clinical inspection, lesion biopsy, and treatment of anal dysplasia are performed under high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Anal cancer is divided into cancer of the anal margin and cancer of the anal canal.
  • Early cancer of the anal margin is excised akin to squamous cell cancer of the exposed skin, whereas cancer of the anal canal is treated by radiochemotherapy.
  • Physicians working in the field of HIV/AIDS should regularly screen their patients for the presence of anal dysplasia and anal cancer.
  • Basic diagnostic workup includes clinical inspection of the perianal area, digital rectal examination, and anal cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control

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  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
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53. Gervaz P, Buchs N, Morel P: Diagnosis and management of anal cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2008 Oct;10(5):502-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of anal cancer.
  • During the past three decades, anal cancer has served as a paradigm for the successful application of chemoradiation to solid tumors.
  • Since the early 1990s, the increasing incidence of anal cancer in homosexual men has highlighted the causative role of oncogenic human papilloma-virus infection.
  • This review focuses on significant trends and developments in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, emphasizing three major aspects of diagnosis and treatment: routine screening and eradication of premalignant lesions in high-risk individuals; outcome of chemoradiation therapy in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy; and potential improvements in chemoradiation protocols through improved radiation delivery technique and the combination of mitomycin with cisplatin in current prospective randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18799127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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54. Allison RR, Sheng C, Cuenca R, Bagnato VS, Austerlitz C, Sibata CH: Photodynamic therapy for anal cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Jun;7(2):115-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for anal cancer.
  • Invasive anal cancers are generally successfully treated by combined chemotherapy with radiation therapy (XRT).
  • We examined the treatment and outcome of Photofrin based photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a cohort of patients with anal cancer who failed locally despite chemo-radiation (N=6) and two patients with positive margins of resection after excision of small T(1) squamous cell anal cancers who refused further surgery or chemo-radiation.
  • All patients completed PDT without incident and all have maintained local control of disease in the anal region for the length of follow up (18-48 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Dihematoporphyrin Ether / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 97067-70-4 / Dihematoporphyrin Ether
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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55. van Leeuwen MT, Vajdic CM, Middleton MG, McDonald AM, Law M, Kaldor JM, Grulich AE: Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS; 2009 Oct 23;23(16):2183-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in cancer incidence in people with HIV in Australia since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study of people with HIV (n = 20 232) using data linkage between national registers of HIV/AIDS and cancer in 1982-2004.
  • METHODS: Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare site-specific cancer incidence during the early (1996-1999) and late (2000-2004) HAART periods with that prior to HAART (1982-1995).
  • Incidence of anal cancer was unchanged (Ptrend = 0.451) and remained raised more than 30-fold.
  • Incidence declined significantly for melanoma (Ptrend = 0.041) and prostate cancer (Ptrend = 0.026), and, during the late-HAART period, was lower than in the general population for both cancers.
  • Incidence of colorectal cancer was consistently lower than in the general population.
  • Incidence of anal cancer has remained stable, and it is now the third most common cancer in HIV-infected Australians.
  • Reasons for the reduced incidence of colorectal and prostate cancer, and more recently of melanoma, are unclear.


56. Castellsagué X: Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;110(3 Suppl 2):S4-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer.
  • Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries.
  • Persistent infection by certain oncogenic HPV types is firmly established as the necessary cause of most premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the cervix and of a variable fraction of neoplastic lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx.
  • There are more than 100 known HPV genotypes, at least 15 of which can cause cancer of the cervix and other sites.
  • HPV 16 and 18, the two most common oncogenic types, cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide.
  • Although most women infected with the virus become negative within 2 years, women with persistent high-risk HPV infections are at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer.
  • Since the identification of HPV as the necessary cause of cervical cancer, HPV-based technology has become the centre of novel primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies by the introduction of HPV testing in screening and of HPV vaccines in preadolescent girls and young women.
  • If implemented widely and wisely the deployment of these protocols has the potential to complete Papanicolaou's goal of cervical cancer eradication by extending the benefits of prevention to the developing populations of the world.


57. Ljubojević S, Lipozencić J, Grgec DL, Prstacić R, Skerlev M, Mokos ZB: Human papilloma virus associated with genital infection. Coll Antropol; 2008 Sep;32(3):989-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • HPV is associated with a spectrum of diseases ranging from benign vulgar verrucae and condylomata accuminata to malignant cancers of the cervix, vulva, anus and penis.
  • Such an asymptomatic infection may be an oncogenic factor in the development of cervical cancer Colposcopic examination of the genitalia after the application of 3-5% acetic acid is a reliable method for the identification of subclinical HPV infection.
  • The diagnosis and therapy of HPV infection in men is potentially beneficial because the eradication of penile HPV infection may decrease the reservoir of the virus.

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  • (PMID = 18982779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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58. Ng X, Chiou W, Chang S: Controlling a presacral hemorrhage by using a saline bag: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jun;51(6):972-4
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  • We report our successful use of a saline bag tamponade in a patient with a life-threatening presacral hemorrhage after an abdominoperineal resection of an anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Hemorrhage / therapy. Hemostasis, Surgical / instrumentation. Sacrum

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  • (PMID = 18293040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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59. Moscicki AB, Schiffman M, Kjaer S, Villa LL: Chapter 5: Updating the natural history of HPV and anogenital cancer. Vaccine; 2006 Aug 31;24 Suppl 3:S3/42-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chapter 5: Updating the natural history of HPV and anogenital cancer.
  • The importance of the transformation zone in cervical cancer has been extended to other HPV-induced cancers such as anal or tonsillar cancers.
  • However, none are consistently associated with both except age: young women are less likely to show persistence and older women with persistence are more likely to be at risk of invasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / virology. Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 16950017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA051323
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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60. Gervaz P, Lavertu S, Kazemba B, Pemberton JH, Haddock MG, Gunderson LL: Sphincter-preserving radiation therapy for rectal cancer: a simulation study using three-dimensional computerized technology. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Sep;8(7):570-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sphincter-preserving radiation therapy for rectal cancer: a simulation study using three-dimensional computerized technology.
  • This approach provides, in theory, a means to selectively subtract the anal sphincter from the high-dose field of irradiation in patients with stage II and III adenocarcinomas of the mid-rectum scheduled for low anterior resection (LAR).
  • HYPOTHESIS: Implementation of 3DXRT with sphincter blocking may be a feasible strategy to reduce the dose of radiation distributed to the anal canal without reduction in the dose distribution to the gross tumour volume (GTV) plus adequate margins.
  • METHODS: Pretreatment simulation CT scans of 10 patients with rectal cancers located between 5 and 10 cm from the anal verge were retrieved from a computerized database.
  • Radiation oncologists and colorectal surgeons defined the contours of the GTV and the anal sphincter, respectively, on successive CT scan slices.
  • RESULTS: The mean distance of tumours from the anal verge was 6.3 cm.
  • The mean volume of the anal sphincter was 16.1 +/- 3.5 cm(3).
  • By comparison the mean dose distributed to the anal sphincter was dramatically reduced by using a sphincter block (33.2 +/- 12 Gy vs 6.4 +/- 4.1 Gy, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: During a course of radiotherapy for most low- or mid-rectal cancers, the anal canal is included within the field of irradiation with a mean dose distribution to the sphincter of 33 Gy.
  • Evaluation of 3DXRT with full sphincter block (mid-rectum) and partial sphincter block (distal rectum) is a feasible strategy to decrease the volume of anal sphincter carried to full dose without reduction in dose to the GTV.
  • This approach, by minimizing treatment-induced damage to the anal sphincter, might improve functional outcome of LAR.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Computer Simulation. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16919108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Palefsky J: Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected persons. Top HIV Med; 2007 Aug-Sep;15(4):130-3
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  • Rates of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and abnormal cytology are high in HIV-infected women, as are rates of anal HPV infection and abnormal cytology in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Available evidence indicates that the incidence of anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM has increased in association with prolonged life expectancy achieved with antiretroviral therapy.
  • Routine screening is not yet universally recommended for anal neoplasia, although it should be considered for at-risk patients, particularly given recent improvements in local treatments.
  • Its potential benefit in preventing anal infection in women and men has yet to be determined, and its potential utility in those with HIV infection remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


62. Petronella P, Scorzelli M, Manganiello A, Nunziata L, Ferretti M, Campitiello F, Santoriello A, Freda F, Canonico S: Our experience of total mesorectal excision for rectal cancers. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 May-Jun;57(99-100):482-6
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  • [Title] Our experience of total mesorectal excision for rectal cancers.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal tumours was introduced in 1982 by Heald et al. and has led both to a 5% de crease of local recurrences 5 and 10 years after the operation when compared with cases treated with conventional surgery, and to an increase of survival up to five years estimated in 80% of all cases.
  • METHODOLOGY: We have compared two groups of patients operated for rectal carcinoma; the first, "historical control group" (no TME, including 46 patients) was treated with the standard surgery technique, while the second group (TME, 47 patients) underwent the total mesorectal excision technique.
  • The complications taken into consideration were: anastomotic bleeding (3 patients no TME, 6% vs 1 patients TME, 2%), intestinal obstruction (1 patient no TME, 2% vs 1 patient TME, 2%), parietal infection (4 patients no TME, 9% vs 3 patients TME, 6%), anastomotic fistulae (2 patients no TME, 4% vs 2 patients TME, 4%), retention of urine and vesicular disorder (1 patient no TME, 2% vs 1 patient TME, 2%).
  • Tumours closer to the anus have shown more complications compared with tumours at higher levels.
  • As a matter of fact, 9 cases of no TME and TME patients with low located tumours have undergone complications compared with the 3 cases of no TME and TME patients with tumours being more distant from the anus; the rest 7 cases belonged to the middle rectum.

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  • [ErratumIn] Hepatogastroenterology. 2011 Jan-Feb;58(105):264. Pasquale, Petronella [corrected to Petronella, Pasquale]; Marco, Scorzelli [corrected to Scorzelli, Marco]; Amelia, Manganiello [corrected to Manganiello, Amelia]; Luigi, Nunziata [corrected to Nunziata, Luigi]; Marco, Ferretti [corrected to Ferretti, Marco]; Ferdinando, Campitiello [corrected to Campitiello, Ferdinando]; Antonio, Santoriello [corrected to Santoriello, Antonio]; Fulvio, Freda [corrected to Freda, Fulvio]; Silvestro, Canonico [corrected to Canonico, Silvestro]
  • (PMID = 20698213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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63. Meyer J, Czito B, Yin FF, Willett C: Advanced radiation therapy technologies in the treatment of rectal and anal cancer: intensity-modulated photon therapy and proton therapy. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2007 Jan;6(5):348-56
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  • [Title] Advanced radiation therapy technologies in the treatment of rectal and anal cancer: intensity-modulated photon therapy and proton therapy.
  • Application of these technologies in the treatment of rectal and anal cancer is attractive, based on the potential reduction in radiation treatment toxicities that are frequently incurred in the pelvis and perineum.
  • In addition, the rationale and clinical data regarding the efficacy of radiation dose escalation for rectal and anal cancer will be highlighted, as well as tolerance of pelvic organs to RT and chemotherapy.
  • Finally, preliminary results of IMRT in the treatment of lower gastrointestinal tract cancers will be reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17311699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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64. Spizzirri A, Coccetta M, Cirocchi R, La Mura F, Napolitano V, Bravetti M, Giuliani D, De Sol A, Pressi E, Trastulli S, Di Patrizi MS, Avenia N, Sciannameo F: Synchronous colorectal neoplasias: our experience about laparoscopic-TEM combined treatment. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:105
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  • The most voluminous synchronous cancer is called "first primitive" or "index" cancer.
  • The aim of this work is to describe our experience of minimally invasive approach in patients with synchronous colorectal neoplasias.Since January 2001 till December 2009, 557 patients underwent colectomy for colorectal cancer at the Department of General and Emergency Surgery of the University of Perugia; 128 were right colon cancers, 195 were left colon cancers while 234 patients were affected by rectal cancers.
  • We performed 224 laparoscopic colectomies (112 right, 67 left colectomies and 45 anterior resections of rectum), 91 Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgical Excisions (TEM) and 53 Trans Anal Excisions (TAE).
  • Minimal invasive treatment of colorectal cancer offers the opportunity to treat two different neoplastic lesions at the same time, with a shorter post-operative hospitalization and minor complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21108835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224925
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65. Garland SM: Prevention strategies against human papillomavirus in males. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 May;117(2 Suppl):S20-5
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  • Oncogenic HPV is strongly associated with cancers and high-grade dysplasias of the anogenital tract, including the anus, penis, and also a proportion of oropharyngeal cancers.
  • In reducing male disease burden, some consider screening and treatment for high-grade anal dysplasia (AIN) to prevent anal cancer in high-risk populations.
  • Such a vaccination strategy including 12-year-old boys is projected by 2050 to reduce HPV 16 infection by 88-94% in females and 68-82% in males, plus the aforementioned male HPV- related cancers by 22-27%.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20138347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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66. Patel CB, Ramos-Valadez DI, Haas EM: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer: feasibility and technical considerations. Int J Med Robot; 2010 Dec;6(4):399-404
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  • [Title] Robotic-assisted laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for anal cancer: feasibility and technical considerations.
  • BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery is an emerging technology that may prove advantageous for complex colorectal procedures involving the irradiated pelvis, such as abdominoperineal resection for recurrent anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Over a 6 month period, five abdominoperineal resections were performed using the da Vinci® robot for recurrent anal cancer in patients initially treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery for anal cancer was found to be a safe and feasible procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Perineum / surgery. Robotics / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20827795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-596X
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of medical robotics + computer assisted surgery : MRCAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Robot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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67. Geretti AM, Doyle T: Immunization for HIV-positive individuals. Curr Opin Infect Dis; 2010 Feb;23(1):32-8
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  • Studies are also under way to explore the role of human papilloma virus vaccines for the prevention of anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19949327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6527
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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68. Kim YA, Chung HC, Choi HJ, Rha SY, Seong JS, Jeung HC: Intermediate dose 5-fluorouracil-induced encephalopathy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan;36(1):55-9
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  • Here, we report a case of a male with anal cancer who was treated with 5-FU 1000 mg/m(2), continuous infusion for 5 days q4 weeks.
  • In conclusion, we report that encephalopathy can develop even with the dose of 5-FU lower than ever reported, and it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for proper management.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Hyperammonemia / complications. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16436463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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69. Gagne SE, Jensen R, Polvi A, Da Costa M, Ginzinger D, Efird JT, Holly EA, Darragh T, Palefsky JM: High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Oct 1;40(2):182-9
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  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genomic alterations and human papillomavirus integration in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is the likely precursor to anal cancer.
  • AIN is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and HPV-associated genomic instability may play an important role in the progression of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer.
  • HPV16 DNA integration or rearrangement correlated with CNAs in host cell DNA (P = 0.007).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Genome, Viral. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Virus Integration

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  • (PMID = 16186736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01-RR-00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA54053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA66529; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA70019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Wiatrek RL, Thomas JS, Papaconstantinou HT: Perineal wound complications after abdominoperineal resection. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2008 Feb;21(1):76-85
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  • Risk factors such as operative technique, preoperative radiation therapy, and indication for surgery (i.e., rectal cancer, anal cancer, or inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]) are strong predictors of these complications.
  • Wide excision is used to gain local control in cancer patients, and coupled with the increased use of pelvic radiation therapy, we have experienced increased challenges with primary closure of the perineal wound.

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  • (PMID = 20011400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780192
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abdominoperineal resection / perineal wound complication / tissue transfer / vacuum-assisted closure device / wound management
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71. Goodman MT, Shvetsov YB, McDuffie K, Wilkens LR, Zhu X, Ning L, Killeen J, Kamemoto L, Hernandez BY: Acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women: the Hawaii HPV Cohort study. J Infect Dis; 2008 Apr 1;197(7):957-66
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  • [Title] Acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women: the Hawaii HPV Cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: The majority of anal cancer is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about women's risk of acquisition of anal HPV infection.
  • METHODS: Risk factors for the acquisition of anal HPV infection were examined in a longitudinal cohort study of 431 women, via repeated measurement of HPV DNA.
  • RESULTS: Seventy percent of women were positive for anal HPV infection at one or more clinic visits from baseline through a follow-up period that averaged 1.3 years.
  • The presence of an HR anal HPV infection at baseline increased the risk of an incident anal infection by 65%.
  • Baseline HR cervical HPV infection also predicted the acquisition of an HR anal HPV infection (odds ratio, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.09-3.02]).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that women's risk of anal HPV infection is as common as their risk of cervical HPV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 18429348.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA077318; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR11091
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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72. Ponticelli C, Passerini P: Gastrointestinal complications in renal transplant recipients. Transpl Int; 2005 Jun;18(6):643-50
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  • The commonest esophageal disorder is represented by fungal esophagitis usually caused by candida.
  • Diarrhea is a frequent disorder which may be caused by pathogen microorganisms or by immunosuppressive agents.
  • The differential diagnosis may be difficult.
  • Colon cancer, anal carcinoma, and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders are particularly frequent in transplant recipients.

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  • (PMID = 15910287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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73. Bass G, O'Mahony CA, Smith R, Dennison MS, Goss JA: Biliary epithelial metastasis of squamous carcinoma of the anus. Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Dec;179(4):605-6
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  • [Title] Biliary epithelial metastasis of squamous carcinoma of the anus.
  • However, we recently encountered a patient who presented with biliary-tree tumor encasement as a first metastasis from squamous carcinoma of the anus.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As obstructive jaundice is a relatively common presenting sign in the emergency room and in general surgical clinics, we thus recommend early consideration of metastatic disease as a differential diagnosis in patients post-chemoradiotherapy for anal carcinoma who present with obstructive jaundice.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20734157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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74. de Parades V, Bauer P, Benbunan JL, Bouillet T, Cottu PH, Cuenod CA, Durdux C, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):157-65
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  • [Title] [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Bilan préthérapeutique initial du carcinome épidermoïde invasif de l'anus.
  • Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17347624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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75. Ajani JA, Winter KA, Gunderson LL, Pedersen J, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas CR Jr, Mayer RJ, Haddock MG, Rich TA, Willett C: Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA; 2008 Apr 23;299(16):1914-21
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  • [Title] Fluorouracil, mitomycin, and radiotherapy vs fluorouracil, cisplatin, and radiotherapy for carcinoma of the anal canal: a randomized controlled trial.
  • CONTEXT: Chemoradiation as definitive therapy is the preferred primary therapy for patients with anal canal carcinoma; however, the 5-year disease-free survival rate from concurrent fluorouracil/mitomycin and radiation is only approximately 65%.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of cisplatin-based (experimental) therapy vs mitomycin-based (standard) therapy in treatment of anal canal carcinoma.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: US Gastrointestinal Intergroup trial RTOG 98-11, a multicenter, phase 3, randomized controlled trial comparing treatment with fluorouracil plus mitomycin and radiotherapy vs treatment with fluorouracil plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in 682 patients with anal canal carcinoma enrolled between October 31, 1998, and June 27, 2005.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this population of patients with anal canal carcinoma, cisplatin-based therapy failed to improve disease-free-survival compared with mitomycin-based therapy, but cisplatin-based therapy resulted in a significantly worse colostomy rate.
  • These findings do not support the use of cisplatin in place of mitomycin in combination with fluorouracil and radiotherapy in the treatment of anal canal carcinoma.

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Jan;6(1):16-7 [19047998.001]
  • [CommentIn] JAMA. 2008 Sep 24;300(12):1410-1; author reply 1411 [18812528.001]
  • (PMID = 18430910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00003596
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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76. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • Concordance was calculated to assess agreement between American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and actual outcome.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (6th edition) staging system provided good survival discrimination by stage: I, 69.5 percent; II, 59.0 percent; III, 40.6 percent; and IV, 18.7 percent (concordance index, 0.663).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • There was not a significant difference in survival by hospital type or year of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality


77. Reed AC, Reiter PL, Smith JS, Palefsky JM, Brewer NT: Gay and bisexual men's willingness to receive anal Papanicolaou testing. Am J Public Health; 2010 Jun;100(6):1123-9
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  • [Title] Gay and bisexual men's willingness to receive anal Papanicolaou testing.
  • OBJECTIVES: We assessed the willingness of gay and bisexual men, who have high rates of anal cancer that might be prevented through regular screening, to receive anal Papanicolaou tests.
  • Willingness to pay for screening was higher among men who reported greater worry about getting anal cancer (OR [odds ratio] = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06, 2.72), higher perceived likelihood of anal cancer (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.18, 2.99), and higher income (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.18, 3.98), in adjusted analyses.
  • Only 33% (17 of 51) of HIV-positive respondents, who have the highest risk for anal cancer, had received anal Papanicolaou tests.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anal cancer screening was highly acceptable to gay and bisexual men, although cost was a major barrier.
  • Efforts to reduce anal cancer disparities should target beliefs about anal cancer and barriers to anal Papanicolaou testing in this population.

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  • (PMID = 20395576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-0048
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Public Health
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA057726-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA057726; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA057726-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA57726
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS195733; NLM/ PMC2866587
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78. Clivio A, Fogliata A, Franzetti-Pellanda A, Nicolini G, Vanetti E, Wyttenbach R, Cozzi L: Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal: A treatment planning comparison with fixed field IMRT. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Jul;92(1):118-24
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  • [Title] Volumetric-modulated arc radiotherapy for carcinomas of the anal canal: A treatment planning comparison with fixed field IMRT.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT datasets of 10 patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal were included and five plans were generated for each case: fixed beam IMRT, single (RA1)- and double (RA2)-modulated arcs with the RapidArc technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated

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  • (PMID = 19181409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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79. Bodoky G: [Role of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of colorectal cancer]. Magy Onkol; 2007;51(2):139-44
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  • [Title] [Role of angiogenesis inhibitors in the treatment of colorectal cancer].
  • Of these modalities, in colorectal cancer monoclonal antibodies are introduced in routine use.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / drug effects. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17660870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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80. Moe MM, Askill C: Stridor: an unexpected complication from chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer. J R Coll Physicians Edinb; 2009 Dec;39(4):313-4
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  • [Title] Stridor: an unexpected complication from chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • The treatment of choice for anal cancer is chemoradiotherapy.
  • We report a patient who developed stridor as a result of chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer and discuss the pathogenesis and potential consequences.

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  • (PMID = 21152467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-2715
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Coll Physicians Edinb
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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81. Walker F, Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Duval X, Descatoire V, Hénin D, Lehy T, Aparicio T: Growth factor receptor expression in anal squamous lesions: modifications associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus. Hum Pathol; 2009 Nov;40(11):1517-27
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  • [Title] Growth factor receptor expression in anal squamous lesions: modifications associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus.
  • High prevalence of squamous anal lesions is linked to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promotes anal carcinogenesis.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2/neu, c-Met, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1) (tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors) are implicated in tumor progression, but little is known about their role in anal lesions.
  • We investigated their expression and distribution in normal, dysplastic, and carcinomatous anal epithelium and then tried to analyze the effects on these variables of HPV and the HIV-positive status.
  • We studied growth factor receptors, p16 and Ki67 expression, by in situ hybridization, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogen in situ hybridization (CISH), immunocytochemistry, and morphological quantification in 226 lesions, either infected by HPV6 and 11 (31 condylomas acuminata) or infected with oncogenic HPVs (48 invasive cancers, 147 anal intraepithelial neoplasias).
  • The number and intensity of EGFR- and c-Met-immunoreactive cells increased significantly during lesion progression, highlighting the effects of oncogenic HPvs. EGFR, c-Met, VEGFR1, and p16 were coexpressed in 96% of invasive cancers.
  • HIV-modified c-Met expression in condyloma acuminata (P < .008) and invasive cancers (P < .02).
  • HIV-positive anal cancers showed correlated c-Met and VEGFR1 (P < .003), strong p16 labeling, and an increased Ki67 proliferation.
  • The finding that EGFR, c-Met, and VEGFR1 involved in carcinogenesis are well-represented and coexpressed in anal cancers, especially in HIV-positive population, suggests possible novel targeted treatments for anal diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Receptors, Growth Factor / biosynthesis


82. Newsom-Davis T, Bower M: HIV-associated anal cancer. F1000 Med Rep; 2010;2:85
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  • [Title] HIV-associated anal cancer.
  • HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes.
  • The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50.
  • Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings.
  • Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiquimod.
  • The development of cost-effective national screening programs for HIV-associated anal cancer remains a challenge.

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  • (PMID = 21283597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-5931
  • [Journal-full-title] F1000 medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] F1000 Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3026623
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83. Han C, Chen YJ, Liu A, Schultheiss TE, Wong JY: Dosimetric study and in-vivo dose verification for conformal avoidance treatment of anal adenocarcinoma using helical tomotherapy. Med Dosim; 2007;32(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Dosimetric study and in-vivo dose verification for conformal avoidance treatment of anal adenocarcinoma using helical tomotherapy.
  • This study evaluated the efficacy of using helical tomotherapy for conformal avoidance treatment of anal adenocarcinoma.
  • We retrospectively generated step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (sIMRT) plans and helical tomotherapy plans for two anal cancer patients, one male and one female, who were treated by the sIMRT technique.
  • In-vivo skin dose measurements were performed during conformal avoidance helical tomotherapy treatment of an anal cancer patient to verify adequate delivery of skin dose and sparing of OARs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17317533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0958-3947
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical dosimetry : official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Dosim
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Bockbrader M, Kim E: Role of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in gastrointestinal cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2009 May;9(5):637-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in gastrointestinal cancer.
  • Early clinical experience with IMRT in the treatment of gastric, pancreatic, rectal and anal cancers corroborates the dosimetric analyses, with some series reporting lower normal tissue toxicities.
  • This article reviews the radiobiological, physical, technical and clinical aspects of IMRT for gastric, pancreatic, rectal and anal cancer, and summarizes the dosimetric and outcome studies to date.

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  • (PMID = 19445580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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85. Cotter SE, Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Dehdashti F, Malyapa RS, Fleshman JW, Birnbaum EH, Wang X, Abbey E, Tan B, Kodner IJ, Hunt SR, Lowney JK, Mutch MG, Dietz DW, Myerson RJ: FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 1;65(3):720-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy.
  • In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16626889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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86. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • RESULTS: HPV infection and subsequent HPV DNA integration are necessary, but not sufficient, to cause cancer progression.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


87. Morton LM, Curtis RE, Linet MS, Bluhm EC, Tucker MA, Caporaso N, Ries LA, Fraumeni JF Jr: Second malignancy risks after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences by lymphoma subtype. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Nov 20;28(33):4935-44
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated second cancer and leukemia risks among 43,145 1-year survivors of CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), or follicular lymphoma (FL) from 11 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based registries during 1992 to 2006.
  • RESULTS: Among patients without HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma, lung cancer risks were significantly elevated after CLL/SLL and FL but not after DLBCL (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], CLL/SLL = 1.42, FL = 1.28, DLBCL = 1.00; Poisson regression P for difference among subtypes, P(Diff) = .001).
  • Patients with HIV/AIDS-related lymphoma (n = 932) were predominantly diagnosed with DLBCL and had significantly and substantially elevated risks for second anal cancer (SIR = 120.50) and Kaposi's sarcoma (SIR = 138.90).

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  • (PMID = 20940199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3020697
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88. Singh JC, Kuohung V, Palefsky JM: Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Dec 1;52(4):474-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), particularly AIN 3 is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records was performed for all patients with AIN treated at the University of California San Francisco Anal Neoplasia Clinic with TCA as the first-line therapy from January 2000 to December 2004.

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  • (PMID = 19779306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000079-420472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079-420472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149443; NLM/ PMC2871540
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89. Chen YJ, Liu A, Tsai PT, Vora NL, Pezner RD, Schultheiss TE, Wong JY: Organ sparing by conformal avoidance intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: dosimetric evaluation of coverage of pelvis and inguinal/femoral nodes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Sep 1;63(1):274-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Organ sparing by conformal avoidance intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: dosimetric evaluation of coverage of pelvis and inguinal/femoral nodes.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data of 2 patients with anal cancer were used as example cases to illustrate details and advantages of conformal avoidance IMRT technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphatic Irradiation / methods. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 16111597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Kauh J, Koshy M, Gunthel C, Joyner MM, Landry J, Thomas CR Jr: Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Nov;19(12):1634-8; discussion 1638-40, 1645 passim
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  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in the HIV-positive population.
  • Squamous cell anal cancer remains an uncommon entity; however, the incidence appears to be increasing in at-risk populations, especially those infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Given the ability to cure this cancer using synchronous chemoradiotherapy, management practices of this disease are critical.
  • This article considers treatment strategies for HIV-positive patients with anal cancer, including the impact on chemoradiation-induced toxicities and the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of this patient population.
  • The impact of the immune system in patients with HIV and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and the associated response to therapy remains unknown.
  • Continued studies and phase III trials will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with squamous cell cancer of the anus to determine which treatment protocols provide the greatest benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology


91. Lund JA, Wibe A, Sundstrom SH, Haaverstad R, Kaasa S, Myrvold HE: Anal carcinoma in mid-Norway 1970-2000. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(7):1019-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in mid-Norway 1970-2000.
  • The treatment of anal carcinoma changed from surgery to chemoradiotherapy 20-25 years ago.
  • The aim of this observational study was to compare surgery with chemoradiotherapy with regard to side effects, local recurrence and survival during and after the implementation of a new treatment policy for anal carcinoma.
  • The study includes all 111 patients with anal carcinoma diagnosed between 1970 and 2000 in mid-Norway.
  • Late side effects were moderate after combined therapy; only one patient preferred getting a stoma due to radiation damage of the anal sphincter.
  • The change of strategy for anal cancer treatment from surgery to combined therapy has probably reduced local recurrence and improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17882558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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92. Wright JL, Patil SM, Temple LK, Minsky BD, Saltz LB, Goodman KA: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 15;78(4):1064-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: patterns and predictors of failure and implications for intensity-modulated radiation treatment planning.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) is increasingly used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC).
  • All patients with common iliac failure had cT3 or N+ disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20350793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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93. Ferris DG: Vaccines for preventing HPV-related anogenital infection and neoplasia. J Am Osteopath Assoc; 2006 Mar;106(3 Suppl 1):S9-13
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  • Although most anogenital HPV infections resolve within several years, persistent infection may lead to neoplasia of the cervix, vagina, vulva, anus, and penis, and also genital warts.
  • High-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are known to cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancers, and low-risk HPV types 6 and 11 are the main causes of genital warts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / prevention & control. Genital Diseases, Female / prevention & control. Genital Diseases, Male / prevention & control. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines. Viral Vaccines

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  • (PMID = 16729555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-6151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Osteopath Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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94. Sirera G, Videla S, Piñol M, Cañadas MP, Llatjos M, Ballesteros AL, García-Cuyás F, Castellá E, Guerola R, Tural C, Rey-Joly C, Clotet B: High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the anus, penis and mouth in HIV-positive men. AIDS; 2006 May 12;20(8):1201-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the anus, penis and mouth in HIV-positive men.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with squamous cell cancers.
  • HIV infection is linked with a higher prevalence of anal HPV infection.
  • It is important to assess whether HPV is present in other body parts involved in sexual practices to establish a cancer prevention program.
  • A high prevalence of high-risk HPV types was present in the anus, penis and mouth (78, 36 and 30%, respectively) in a cohort of HIV-infected males (men who have sex with men and heterosexual), without evidence of pathology in these areas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anus Diseases / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Diseases / virology. Penile Diseases / virology. Risk Factors. Sexual Behavior

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  • (PMID = 16691074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Goldberg RM, Niedzwiecki D, Bertagnolli M, Blackstock AW, Tepper JE, Mayer RJ: Cancer and leukemia group B gastrointestinal cancer committee. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 2):3589s-95s
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer and leukemia group B gastrointestinal cancer committee.
  • The Cancer and Leukemia Group B Gastrointestinal Cancer Committee was organized in the late 1970s under the leadership of Michael Perry and Philip Schein and began full-scale operations in the mid-1980s.
  • The Committee has done trials in patients with esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colon, rectal, and anal cancers.
  • New initiatives are under way in hepatocellular cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors originating in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Future efforts aim to evolve new standards of care, evaluate new therapies, and answer relevant biological questions in gastrointestinal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16740790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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96. Seo Y, Kinsella MT, Reynolds HL, Chipman G, Remick SC, Kinsella TJ: Outcomes of chemoradiotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and mitomycin C for anal cancer in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):143-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of chemoradiotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and mitomycin C for anal cancer in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient patients.
  • PURPOSE: Information is limited as to how we should treat invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with chronic immunosuppression, since the majority of clinical studies to date have excluded such patients.
  • The objective of this study is to compare treatment outcomes in immunocompetent (IC) versus immunodeficient (ID) patients with invasive anal SCC treated similarly with combined modality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 19203845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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97. Joseph KJ, Syme A, Small C, Warkentin H, Quon H, Ghosh S, Field C, Pervez N, Tankel K, Patel S, Usmani N, Severin D, Nijjar T, Fallone G, Pedersen J: A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jan;94(1):60-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A treatment planning study comparing helical tomotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of anal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: A planning study to compare helical tomotherapy (HT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of anal canal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen (8 males and 8 females) patients with anal cancer previously treated radically were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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98. Piperkova E, Raphael B, Altinyay M, Castellon I, Libes R, Sandella N, Abdel-Dayem H: Impact of PET/CT on initial staging, restaging and treatment management of anal cancer: a clinical case with literature review. J BUON; 2006 Oct-Dec;11(4):523-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of PET/CT on initial staging, restaging and treatment management of anal cancer: a clinical case with literature review.
  • Distant extrapelvic metastases appear in approximately in 10% of the patients with squamous cell anal cancer (SCAC) and survival depends on the treatment strategy.
  • Diagnosis and staging of SCAC are commonly performed using contrast-enhanced computerized tomography(CT) and interpretation of the findings for tumor biological behavior.
  • Radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy achieved a good therapeutic response but early follow up revealed new paraaortic lymph node (LN) metastases, as well as an uncommon left supraclavicular LN metastasis from the same primary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiography. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17309188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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99. Pocard M, Sabourin JC: [Not Available]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Dec;145(6S1):12S17-20
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  • Sabourin In theory, the concept of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can be applied to cancer surgery for all solid cancers.
  • Yet sentinel lymph node biopsy has not become a standard part of gastrointestinal cancer surgery.
  • It has been of value in the assessment of small early-stage gastric cancers, but has only achieved widespread practice in Japan.
  • Studies of SLN biopsy in colon cancer have not shown it to be a reliable predictor of N+ status and therefore don't permit the omission of lymph node dissection in selected cases.
  • For cancers of the anal canal, SLN biopsy of inguinal nodes has been tested as a means of establishing the indications for inguinal lymph node dissection.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22794067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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100. Sahai A, Kodner IJ: Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):88-93
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  • [Title] Premalignant neoplasms and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin.
  • Premalignant and malignant lesions of the anal margin are rare.
  • Understanding anal anatomy and performing a biopsy of any suspicious lesions are essential in avoiding a delay in diagnosis and appropriately treating these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 20011315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780101
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anus neoplasms / Bowen's disease / Paget's disease / squamous cell cancer
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