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1. Krengli M, Milia ME, Turri L, Mones E, Bassi MC, Cannillo B, Deantonio L, Sacchetti G, Brambilla M, Inglese E: FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:10
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: FDG-PET/CT imaging has an emerging role in staging and treatment planning of various tumor locations and a number of literature studies show that also the carcinoma of the anal canal may benefit from this diagnostic approach.
  • We analyzed the potential impact of FDG-PET/CT in stage definition and target volume delineation of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal and candidates for curative radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Twenty seven patients with biopsy proven anal carcinoma were enrolled.
  • Pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 20 cases, cloacogenic carcinoma in 3, adenocarcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 2.
  • RESULTS: PET/CT fused images led to change the stage in 5/27 cases (18.5%): 3 cases from N0 to N2 and 2 from M0 to M1 leading to change the treatment intent from curative to palliative in a case.Based on PET/CT imaging, GTV and CTV contours changed in 15/27 (55.6%) and in 10/27 cases (37.0%) respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT has a potential relevant impact in staging and target volume delineation of the carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Clinical stage variation occurred in 18.5% of cases with change of treatment intent in 3.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 20137093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851594
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2. Ben-Josef E, Moughan J, Ajani JA, Flam M, Gunderson L, Pollock J, Myerson R, Anne R, Rosenthal SA, Willett C: Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec 1;28(34):5061-6
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  • [Title] Impact of overall treatment time on survival and local control in patients with anal cancer: a pooled data analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 87-04 and 98-11.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether increased duration of radiation therapy (RT) and overall treatment (RX) time has a detrimental effect in anal cancer.
  • Cox proportional hazards models were used with the following variables: RT duration, RT intensity, RX duration, treatment group, age, sex, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), T stage, N stage, and RT dose.
  • Age, sex, KPS, T stage, N stage, and RT dose, but not RT duration, RT intensity, or RX duration, were found to be statistically significant predictors of OS and colostomy-free survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Total treatment time, but not duration of radiation therapy, seems to have a detrimental effect on local failure and colostomy rate in anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20956625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3018356
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3. Toubarro D, Lucena-Robles M, Nascimento G, Santos R, Montiel R, Veríssimo P, Pires E, Faro C, Coelho AV, Simões N: Serine protease-mediated host invasion by the parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. J Biol Chem; 2010 Oct 1;285(40):30666-75
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  • Steinernema carpocapsae is an insect parasitic nematode used in biological control, which infects insects penetrating by mouth and anus and invading the hemocoelium through the midgut wall.
  • A serine protease cDNA from the parasitic stage was sequenced (sc-sp-1); the recombinant protein was produced in an Escherichia coli system, and a native protein was purified from the secreted products.
  • Only the nematode parasitic stage expressed sc-sp-1.
  • Ex vivo, Sc-SP-1 was able to bind to insect midgut epithelium and to cause cell detachment from basal lamina.

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  • (PMID = 20656686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY600457/ AY968052
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Helminth Proteins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9076-44-2 / chymostatin; EC 3.4.- / Serine Proteases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2945561
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4. Taweevisit M, Wisadeopas N, Phumsuk U, Thorner PS: Increased mast cell density in haemorrhoid venous blood vessels suggests a role in pathogenesis. Singapore Med J; 2008 Dec;49(12):977-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hemorrhoids.

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  • [Title] Increased mast cell density in haemorrhoid venous blood vessels suggests a role in pathogenesis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Haemorrhoids are an abnormal, tortuous dilatation of the arteriovenous plexus of the anus.
  • METHODS: 48 cases of haemorrhoids were retrospectively collected at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, with normal anorectal tissue from surgically-removed colorectal cancer serving as controls.
  • Similar values were found for haemorrhoids showing chronic changes and those in a more acute stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / blood supply. Hemorrhoids / pathology. Hemorrhoids / physiopathology. Mast Cells / pathology. Veins / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19122946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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5. Ortholan C, Ramaioli A, Peiffert D, Lusinchi A, Romestaing P, Chauveinc L, Touboul E, Peignaux K, Bruna A, de La Roche G, Lagrange JL, Alzieu C, Gerard JP: Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors < or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jun 1;62(2):479-85
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Anal canal carcinoma: early-stage tumors < or =10 mm (T1 or Tis): therapeutic options and original pattern of local failure after radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical history, management, and pattern of recurrence of very early-stage anal canal cancer in a French retrospective survey.
  • METHODS: The study group consisted of 69 patients with Stage Tis and T1 anal canal carcinoma < or =1 cm treated between 1990 and 2000 (12 were in situ, 57 invasive, 66 Stage N0, and 3 Stage N1).
  • Of the 69 patients, 66 received radiotherapy (RT) and 3 with in situ disease were treated by local excision alone without RT.
  • These small anal cancers could be treated by RT using a small volume and moderate dose (40-50 Gy for subclinical lesions and 50-60 Gy for T1).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / physiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15890590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Oehler-Jänne C, Seifert B, Lütolf UM, Ciernik IF: Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Radiat Oncol; 2006;1:29
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  • [Title] Local tumor control and toxicity in HIV-associated anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy in the era of antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the outcome of HIV-seropositive patients under highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with anal cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy (CT).
  • 10 TNM-stage and age matched HIV-seronegative patients (1992-2003) were compared with the 10 HIV-seropositive patients.
  • Pattern of care, local disease control (LC), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and toxicity were assessed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / virology. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Radiotherapy / methods


7. Garrett K, Kalady MF: Anal neoplasms. Surg Clin North Am; 2010 Feb;90(1):147-61, Table of Contents
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal neoplasms.
  • A variety of lesions comprise tumors of the anal canal, with carcinoma in situ and epidermoid cancers being the most common.
  • Less common anal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, and Buschke-Lowenstein tumors.
  • In this article different tumors and management of each, including a brief review of local excision for rectal cancer, are discussed in turn.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20109639.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-3171
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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8. Joseph DA, Miller JW, Wu X, Chen VW, Morris CR, Goodman MT, Villalon-Gomez JM, Williams MA, Cress RD: Understanding the burden of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancers in the US. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):2892-900
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  • [Title] Understanding the burden of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancers in the US.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy in the US; up to 93% of anal cancers are associated with human papillomavirus.
  • METHODS: Cases diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 from 39 population-based cancer registries were analyzed.
  • The following anal cancer histologies were included in the analysis: squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, and small cell/neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: From 1998 through 2003, the annual age-adjusted invasive anal cancer incidence rate was 1.5 per 100,000 persons.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common histology overall, accounting for 18,105 of 21,395 (84.6%) cases of anal cancer.
  • Incidence rates of anal SCC increased 2.6% per year on average.
  • The majority of SCC cases were diagnosed at the in situ or localized stage (58.1%).
  • API were more likely to be diagnosed with regional or distant stage disease than were other racial/ethnic groups (27.5% and 11.8%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rates of anal SCC varied by sex, race, and ethnicity.
  • A higher proportion of API were diagnosed at regional/distant stage.
  • Continued surveillance and additional research are needed to assess the potential impact of the HPV vaccine on the anal cancer burden in the US.

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  • (PMID = 18980293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / N01 PC035137; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01 PC035137; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS104103; NLM/ PMC2729501
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9. Widder J, Kastenberger R, Fercher E, Schmid R, Langendijk JA, Dobrowsky W, Pötter R: Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):367-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyse a large consecutive cohort of patients with anal cancer for treatment-related factors influencing local control and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for primary radiotherapy at Medical University of Vienna in 1990-2002 with anal canal carcinoma without distant metastases were analysed.
  • RESULTS: Median age was 67 years (n=129), the UICC stage distribution was 15%, 58%, and 27% for stages I, II, and III, respectively.
  • Stage and age were significant factors for overall and colostomy-free-survival, N-stage for disease-free-survival.
  • Shorter overall treatment time favoured local control in stage T1-2 (p=.015), higher total radiation dose and female gender were associated with improved local control in T3-4 tumours (p=.021).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results support potential improvement of anal cancer treatment by studying advanced technology such as IMRT, making it possible to tailor high-dose regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18501453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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10. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Of 131 patients (median age, 58.3 years; median follow-up, 2.9 (range, 0.6-11.2) years), 66 percent were females, 43.5 percent were Stage II, and 11 (8 percent) were HIV-positive.
  • Almost all patients undergoing radiotherapy (96.7 percent, 118/122) also had chemotherapy: 118 (100 percent, Stages I-III) had concurrent chemotherapy: (98 (83.8 percent) mitomycin/5-fluorouracil, 12 (10.2 percent) cisplatin/5-fluorouracil, 8 (6.8 percent) 5-fluorouracil alone); 35 of 46 (76 percent) Stage III patients received induction chemotherapy (34 (97.1 percent) cisplatin/5-fluorouracil, 1 (2.8 percent) 5-fluorouracil alone).
  • Many (44 percent Stages I/II, 48.9 percent Stage III) required dose adjustments.
  • Bivariate analyses demonstrated that T stage (P=0.0019), completion of radiotherapy, and total radiotherapy dose (P=0.03) were all significantly associated with treatment failure.
  • On multivariate analyses, disease stage (P=0.05) and completion of radiotherapy (P=0.01) remained significant predictors of relapse-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • The T-stage according to the 2001 UICC classification were: 2 T1, 26 T2, 25 T3, and 7 T4.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • Late severe complication was observed in 3 pts: 2 pts with painful necrosis of the anus requiring colostomy and 1 pt with grade 3 rectal bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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12. Chen YW, Yen SH, Chen SY, Huang PI, Shiau CY, Liu YM, Lin JK, Wang LW: Anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer: retrospective analysis at a single institution. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct 1;96(5):374-80
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  • [Title] Anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer: retrospective analysis at a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Review of 42 patients (24 M/18 F; median age, 70 years; range, 13-95) with stage I-IIIB disease (squamous cell carcinoma [SqCC], 33; adenocarcinoma, 9) who received curative radiotherapy between 1991 and 2004.
  • Five-year functional anus-preservation rate was 64%.
  • In multivariate analysis, OS was affected by performance status (P < 0.001), N stage (P = 0.009), and pathological type (P = 0.006).
  • Only N stage (P = 0.001) affected DFS.
  • CONCLUSION: With careful monitoring of toxicity, non-surgical anus-preservation treatment with good tumor control is feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 17492635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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13. Nakao T: Micro RNA expression to predict side effects of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22211

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Micro RNA expression to predict side effects of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.
  • : e22211 Background: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in lower rectal cancer is used to prevent from local recurrence and preserve anus by avoiding to rectal amputation.
  • METHODS: Rectal cancer patients (n=22) who underwent preoperative CRT (40Gy radiotherapy combined with S- 1) were studied.
  • RNA harvested from biopsy specimens of rectal cancer before preoperative CRT was hybridized to miRNA microarrays (821 genes).
  • Before CRT, 3 patients are stage I, 1 patient is stage IIA, 7 patients are stage IIIB, 8 patients are stage lllC, 3 patients are stage lV in TMN classification.

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  • (PMID = 27964166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Dai Y, Jiang JB, Bi DS, Jin ZT, Sun JZ, Hu SY: Preservation of the continence function after intersphincteric resection using a prolapsing technique in the patients with low rectal cancer and its clinical prognosis. Chin Med J (Engl); 2008 Oct 20;121(20):2016-20
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  • [Title] Preservation of the continence function after intersphincteric resection using a prolapsing technique in the patients with low rectal cancer and its clinical prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND: The technique of intersphincteric resection of tumors combined with coloanal anastomosis has been used to avoid permanent colostomy for patients with a rectal cancer located < 5 cm from the anal verge.
  • This study aimed at assessing the preservation of continence function of the residual rectum and the clinical prognosis of patients with lower rectal cancer after intersphincteric resection using a prolapsing technique.
  • (1) pathological evidence of rectal cancer and the tumors within distal margins located 5 cm or less from the anus by preoperative endoscopic examination;.
  • From January 2000 to June 2004, 23 patients with low rectal cancer were included in this study.
  • The patients were followed for assessment of the function of the residual rectum and of cancer recurrence after the operations.
  • RESULTS: The median tumor distance from the anal margin was 4.5 (range 3.5 - 5.0) cm and the mean distal surgical margin 1.6 (range 1.0 - 2.0) cm.
  • Cancer was classified into Stage I (30.4%), Stage II (47.8%), and Stage III (21.7%) according to the TNM classification.
  • Anal manometer measurements showed a decrease of pressure during the resting time after intersphincteric resection and this change remained during the period of follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: More residual rectum function after the surgery may be preserved by intersphincteric resection of low rectum cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19080267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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15. Mell LK, Schomas DA, Salama JK, Devisetty K, Aydogan B, Miller RC, Jani AB, Kindler HL, Mundt AJ, Roeske JC, Chmura SJ: Association between bone marrow dosimetric parameters and acute hematologic toxicity in anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Apr 1;70(5):1431-7
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  • [Title] Association between bone marrow dosimetric parameters and acute hematologic toxicity in anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that the volume of pelvic bone marrow (PBM) receiving 10 and 20 Gy or more (PBM-V(10) and PBM-V(20)) is associated with acute hematologic toxicity (HT) in anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We analyzed 48 consecutive anal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
  • Endpoints included the white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), hemoglobin, and platelet count nadirs.
  • RESULTS: Twenty patients (42%) had Stage T3-4 disease; 15 patients (31%) were node positive.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis supports the hypothesis that increased low-dose radiation to PBM is associated with acute HT during chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • Techniques to limit bone marrow irradiation may reduce HT in anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Marrow / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 17996390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. Chiao EY, Krown SE, Stier EA, Schrag D: A population-based analysis of temporal trends in the incidence of squamous anal canal cancer in relation to the HIV epidemic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2005 Dec 1;40(4):451-5
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  • [Title] A population-based analysis of temporal trends in the incidence of squamous anal canal cancer in relation to the HIV epidemic.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is etiologically linked to human papillomavirus, and its incidence is increased among the immunosuppressed.
  • Men were more likely to be diagnosed with early-stage disease, but they were less likely than women to receive radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology


17. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Rock CE, Stewart AK, Ko CY, Halverson A: Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Apr;52(4):624-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes and prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: analysis of patients from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess survival and prognostic factors for anal carcinoma in the population.
  • METHODS: Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2000).
  • Concordance was calculated to assess agreement between American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and actual outcome.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients with anal carcinoma were identified (Stage I, 25.3 percent; Stage II, 51.8 percent; Stage III, 17.1 percent; Stage IV, 5.7 percent).
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (6th edition) staging system provided good survival discrimination by stage: I, 69.5 percent; II, 59.0 percent; III, 40.6 percent; and IV, 18.7 percent (concordance index, 0.663).
  • On multivariable analysis, patients with anal carcinoma had a higher risk of death if they were male, >or=65 years old, black, living in lower median incomes areas, and had more advanced T stage tumors, nodal or distant metastases, or poorly differentiated cancers (P < 0.0001).
  • There was not a significant difference in survival by hospital type or year of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although tumor characteristics and staging affect prognosis, patient factors, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, are also important prognostic factors for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19404066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kidd EA, Dehdashti F, Siegel BA, Grigsby PW: Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jun;95(3):288-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer maximum F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography is correlated with prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate anal cancer uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measured as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) by positron emission tomography (PET) and its correlation with prognostic factors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 77 patients with stages 0-IIIB anal cancer who underwent pre-treatment FDG-PET.
  • Tumor histology included 65 squamous cell, 11 basaloid, and 1 small cell cancers.
  • The stage distribution included: 2 stage 0, 7 stage I, 49 stage II, 10 stage IIIA, 9 stage IIIB.
  • Histology did not significantly influence SUV(max) (mean SUV(max) 10.0 for squamous versus 9.90 for basaloid).
  • Higher SUV(max) was associated with an increased risk of nodal metastasis at diagnosis (p<0.0001).
  • Patients with high anal tumor SUV(max) at diagnosis were at an increased risk of persistent or recurrent disease on post-therapy FDG-PET performed less than 4months after completing therapy (p=0.0402).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SUV(max) is a valuable biomarker of anal cancer prognosis, predicting increased risk of lymph node metastasis and worse disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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19. Renehan AG, Saunders MP, Schofield PF, O'Dwyer ST: Patterns of local disease failure and outcome after salvage surgery in patients with anal cancer. Br J Surg; 2005 May;92(5):605-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of local disease failure and outcome after salvage surgery in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Salvage surgery for anal cancer is usually reserved for local disease failure, but issues relating to the prediction of local failure and surgical outcome are ill defined.
  • METHODS: Between 1988 and 2000, 254 patients with non-metastatic anal epidermoid carcinoma were treated at a regional cancer centre with radiotherapy (n = 127) or chemoradiotherapy (n = 127).
  • Increasing age (P < 0.001, Cox model), total radiation dose (P = 0.004) and tumour stage (P = 0.010) were independent predictors of local failure.
  • CONCLUSION: In the management of anal cancer, local disease failure is a major clinical problem requiring early detection followed by radical surgery, often accompanied by plastic reconstruction.
  • By implication, these factors favour the centralization of treatment for this uncommon cancer to a multidisciplinary oncology team.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15739215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Zhou HT, Zhou ZX, Zhang HZ, Bi JJ, Zhao P: Wide local excision could be considered as the initial treatment of primary anorectal malignant melanoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Mar 5;123(5):585-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment strategies of anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • RESULTS: Rectal bleeding and anal mass were found to be common symptoms of anorectal malignant melanoma.
  • The preoperative diagnosis rate of anorectal malignant melanoma was 48.6%.
  • The 3-year survival rates of stage I and II patients were 63.0% and 16.7% respectively (P = 0.000), and the 5-year survival rates were 33.3% and 11.1% (P = 0.001), which both had significant statistic differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20367986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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21. Rogers LJ, Howard B, Van Wijk L, Wei W, Dehaeck K, Soeters R, Denny LA: Chemoradiation in advanced vulval carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 May;19(4):745-51
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  • [Title] Chemoradiation in advanced vulval carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Vulval carcinoma is uncommon, affecting approximately 2 per 100,000 women annually.
  • Advanced vulval carcinomas involve midline structures (such as clitoris, urethra, or anus) and/or adjacent pelvic organs or bone, and adequate excision may require urinary diversion, colostomy, or pelvic exenteration.
  • Less morbid and less mutilating therapeutic alternatives have been investigated, particularly chemoradiation, which has shown success in the management of anal carcinomas.
  • This is a retrospective study of the GSH's experience of the use of chemoradiation as primary therapy for women with advanced vulval carcinoma.
  • Other prognostic factors for survival were performance status and tumor stage.
  • Performance status, age, and tumor stage were also associated with survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19509582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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22. Vuong T, Kopek N, Ducruet T, Portelance L, Faria S, Bahoric B, Devic S: Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):1394-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conformal therapy improves the therapeutic index of patients with anal canal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with anal canal cancer, in terms of local control (LC), freedom from relapse (FFR), and overall survival (OS) rates, and to estimate long-term toxicity data.
  • RESULTS: No differences in stage and age distribution were observed between the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of 3D-CRT allows patients with anal canal cancer to complete radiation and chemotherapy without interruption for toxicity, with significant improvements in LC, FFR, and OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 17276620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Wang JP, Ding WX, Deng YH, Lan P, Pan K, Dong GH, Deng JZ, Wang L, Wu XJ, Guo XF, Zheng J: [Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX in low rectal cancer: a multicenter study]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Mar;11(2):116-9
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  • [Title] [Preoperative chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX in low rectal cancer: a multicenter study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxicity and safety of FOLFOX regimen concurrent with radiotherapy in neoadjuvant setting in patients with low rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: Fifty-six patients with stage T(3-4)N(0)M(0) and T(1-4)N(1-2)M(0) were eligible from Aug.
  • Fifty-two patients received operation after CRT, 50 with anal interior sphincter reservation, 19 with prophylactic ileac stoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Concomitant treatment of FOLFOX regimen and RT in neoadjuvant setting of rectal cancer was safe and tolerable, and it suggests that protective ileostomy for anastomotic leakage following anus-preserving operation should be performed.

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  • (PMID = 18344075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Formyltetrahydrofolates; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. Stewart D, Yan Y, Kodner IJ, Birnbaum E, Fleshman J, Myerson R, Dietz D: Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors? J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Dec;11(12):1744-51
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery after failed chemoradiation for anal canal cancer: should the paradigm be changed for high-risk tumors?
  • It is common belief that patients failing chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCCA) can be salvaged with subsequent surgery.
  • Initial tumors were AJCC stage 2 (16 cases), 3A (3 cases), and 4 (1 case).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy

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  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 1992 Jun;35(6):574-7; discussion 577-8 [1587176.001]
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  • (PMID = 17846856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Chang GJ, Gonzalez RJ, Skibber JM, Eng C, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Aug;52(8):1375-80
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  • [Title] A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy with limited data regarding treatment and outcomes.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate disease control and survival outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective consecutive cohort study of all patients in whom adenocarcinoma of the anal canal was diagnosed between 1983 and 2004 was performed.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were identified; six underwent palliative treatment (Stage IV, n = 4; poor performance, n = 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined modality treatment with radical surgical resection improves survival among patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal, but a high risk for distant failure emphasizes the need for effective adjuvant therapeutic regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19617747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Albright JB, Bonatti H, Stauffer J, Dickson RC, Nguyen J, Harnois D, Jeanpierre C, Hinder R, Steers J, Chua H, Aranda-Michel J: Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation. Colorectal Dis; 2010 Jul;12(7):657-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colorectal and anal neoplasms following liver transplantation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease.
  • Data on neoplasms of the colon, rectum and anus in LT are limited.
  • METHOD: A retrospective evaluation of the incidence and clinical course of colorectal and anal malignancies and colonic polyps in a series of 467 consecutive LTs in 402 individuals between 1998 and 2001 was performed.
  • RESULTS: During a median follow up of 5.2 years, three colon adenocarcinomas, one EBV associated cecal posttransplant lymphoproliferative tumour and two HPV associated anal tumours were identified.
  • No patient died from colorectal/anal malignancy.
  • Viral-associated malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and anal cancer, are important entities in the LT population suggesting that complete screening of the colon, rectum and anus including pre-LT and post-LT colonoscopy should be utilized.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19508543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Myerson RJ, Outlaw ED, Chang A, Birnbaum EH, Fleshman JW, Grigsby PW, Kodner IJ, Malayapa RS, Mutch MG, Parikh P, Picus J, Tan BR: Radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus: thirty years' experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Oct 1;75(2):428-35
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus: thirty years' experience.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the factors associated with disease control and morbidity after radiotherapy for anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1975 and 2005, 194 patients with localized epidermoid anal carcinoma underwent radiotherapy.
  • Univariate analysis for UNED survival showed a strong association with the T and N stage (5-year UNED rate, 88.5% +/- 3.4% for those with Stage T1-T2N0; 70.1% +/- 4.2% for Stage T3N0; and 52.7% +/- 6.6% for Stage III; p > .001) and mobility on palpation (5-year UNED rate, 89.2% +/- 4.6% for those with mobile tumors vs. 59.3% +/- 6.1% for those with tethered/fixed tumor; p > .001).
  • Of the 194 patients, 56 had 68 additional malignancies, mainly either antedating the anal cancer or outside the radiation fields.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19251377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Mai SK, Welzel G, Hermann B, Bohrer M, Wenz F: Long-term outcome after combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer - retrospective analysis of efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity. Onkologie; 2008 May;31(5):251-7
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome after combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer - retrospective analysis of efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity.
  • BACKGROUND: This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy, prognostic factors, and toxicity of combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer.
  • Tumor stage, nodal status, age, sex, tumor site, tumor resection, and radiation dose were analyzed for prognostic value.
  • Higher T category was associated with inferior prognosis for colostomy-free survival (p = 0.000), male sex for local control (p = 0.004) and diseasespecific survival (p = 0.002), and tumor site at the anal margin for local control (p = 0.03).
  • 4 of 7 patients with recurrent anal margin tumors had human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined radiochemotherapy for anal cancer is a highly effective therapy with pronounced acute and minor late toxicity.
  • In the case of higher T stage, male sex, and cancer at the anal margin, treatment intensification should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18497514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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29. Ferri M, Laghi A, Mingazzini P, Iafrate F, Meli L, Ricci F, Passariello R, Ziparo V: Pre-operative assessment of extramural invasion and sphincteral involvement in rectal cancer by magnetic resonance imaging with phased-array coil. Colorectal Dis; 2005 Jul;7(4):387-93
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  • [Title] Pre-operative assessment of extramural invasion and sphincteral involvement in rectal cancer by magnetic resonance imaging with phased-array coil.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pre-operative staging of rectal cancer should identify patients with extrarectal spread, who might benefit from pre-operative radiotherapy, and patients with minimal sphincteral involvement, who can avoid permanent colostomy.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to predict tumour stage and sphincter status.
  • MRI correctly evaluated the infiltration of the anal sphincters in 87% of patients (7 of 8 patients with low rectal tumour).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / instrumentation. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15932564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. Barriger RB, Calley C, Cárdenes HR: Treatment of anal carcinoma in immune-compromised patients. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Sep;11(9):609-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of anal carcinoma in immune-compromised patients.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and toxicity in immune-compromised patients with anal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: We identified 25 patients with anal carcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or history of solid-organ transplant on chronic medical immune-suppression.
  • AJCC T-stages were Tis (4%), T1 (8%), T2 (58%) and T3 (29%).
  • One patient had metastatic disease at diagnosis.
  • T-stage and CD4 level in HIV-positive patients predict for LC.
  • T-stage and TT predict for OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Immunocompromised Host

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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Sep 1;66(1):206-11 [16904522.001]
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  • (PMID = 19776001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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31. Oehler-Jänne C, Seifert B, Lütolf UM, Studer G, Glanzmann C, Ciernik IF: Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma. Brachytherapy; 2007 Jul-Sep;6(3):218-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome after definitive whole pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by brachytherapy (BT) boost after treatment break vs. external beam boost without break in the treatment of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty-one consecutive patients with invasive anal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy (CT) with mitomycin C was applied during whole pelvis EBRT depending on tumor stage.
  • Pattern of care, local disease control (LC), cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), toxicity, and quality of life (QOL) were assessed.
  • In early stage tumors, (192)Ir-HDR BT boost with CT resulted in a 5-year LC and CSS of 100%.
  • In all patients, BT boost did not result in improved LC, OS, and CSS compared with EBRT boost, despite stage and treatment bias favoring small tumors to be treated with BT.
  • BT boost is most beneficial in early stage tumors but the advantage of BT seems to be limited due to its invasiveness, doctor dependence, and logistic circumstances.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Carcinoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17681244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4721
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • Stage distribution was as follows: I, 3 (7%); II, 23 (53.5%); IIIA, 8 (18.6%); and IIIB, 9 (21%).
  • Patient's age, tumor stage, overall treatment time, and RT dose at primary tumor were variables analyzed for survival and local control.
  • Overall survival according to clinical stage was as follows: I, 100%; II, 82%; IIIA, 73%; and IIIB, 18% (p = 0.0049).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • The clinical stage was the main prognostic factor for overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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33. Kiran RP, Pokala N, Rottoli M, Fazio VW: Is survival reduced for patients with anal cancer requiring surgery after failure of radiation? Analysis from a population study over two decades. Am Surg; 2009 Feb;75(2):163-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is survival reduced for patients with anal cancer requiring surgery after failure of radiation? Analysis from a population study over two decades.
  • Chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment for anal cancer.
  • From a prospective population-based database on radiation and surgical therapy, we compare outcomes for patients with anal cancer undergoing rectal resection after radiation with patients undergoing radiation alone.
  • Patients undergoing surgical resection of the rectum after initial radiation (SRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, anal canal, cloacogenic zone, and overlapping lesions of the rectum and anal canal from 1983 to 2002 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database.
  • SRT had more patients with regional stage of disease (66.7 vs 42.4%, P = 0.001).
  • For patients with localized stage, survival for SRT and RT was similar (105 vs 98 months, P = 0.7).
  • For patients with regional stage, survival for SRT and RT was similar (95 vs 83 months, P = 0.6).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19280811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Abramowitz L, Mathieu N, Roudot-Thoraval F, Lemarchand N, Bauer P, Hennequin C, Mitry E, Romelaer C, Aparicio T, Sobhani I: Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Aug 15;30(4):414-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermoid anal cancer prognosis comparison among HIV+ and HIV- patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a poor prognosis of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ patients.
  • AIM: To investigate the long-term outcome of epidermoid anal cancer in HIV+ and HIV- patients in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era.
  • METHODS: We included all patients with epidermoid anal cancer referred to six hospitals from 1998 to 2004.
  • No significant differences were observed in the tumour stage, pelvic radiotherapy dose or concomitant chemotherapy, according to the HIV status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical outcome of HIV+ patients with epidermoid anal cancer is similar to that of HIV- patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


35. Otto SD, Lee L, Buhr HJ, Frericks B, Höcht S, Kroesen AJ: Staging anal cancer: prospective comparison of transanal endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Jul;13(7):1292-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Staging anal cancer: prospective comparison of transanal endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • PURPOSE: The staging of anal cancer is extremely important for therapy and prognosis.
  • METHODS: Forty-five anal cancer patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • For six patients who were operated upon because of tumor progression, the results were evaluated against the histological tumor stage.
  • Cancer patients were correctly identified with 100% sensitivity (45/45) by endoscopic ultrasound and with 88.9% (40/45) sensitivity by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • In the six operated patients, T stage was correctly assessed in four of six patients by endoscopic ultrasound and in three of six patients by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Endosonography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Cites] World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jun 14;14 (22):3504-10 [18567078.001]
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  • (PMID = 19365694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Seo Y, Kinsella MT, Reynolds HL, Chipman G, Remick SC, Kinsella TJ: Outcomes of chemoradiotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and mitomycin C for anal cancer in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):143-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of chemoradiotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil and mitomycin C for anal cancer in immunocompetent versus immunodeficient patients.
  • PURPOSE: Information is limited as to how we should treat invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with chronic immunosuppression, since the majority of clinical studies to date have excluded such patients.
  • The objective of this study is to compare treatment outcomes in immunocompetent (IC) versus immunodeficient (ID) patients with invasive anal SCC treated similarly with combined modality therapy.
  • There were no significant differences in tumor size, T stage, N stage, chemotherapy doses, or radiation doses between the two groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 19203845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Lund JA, Wibe A, Sundstrom SH, Haaverstad R, Kaasa S, Myrvold HE: Anal carcinoma in mid-Norway 1970-2000. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(7):1019-26
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma in mid-Norway 1970-2000.
  • The treatment of anal carcinoma changed from surgery to chemoradiotherapy 20-25 years ago.
  • The aim of this observational study was to compare surgery with chemoradiotherapy with regard to side effects, local recurrence and survival during and after the implementation of a new treatment policy for anal carcinoma.
  • The study includes all 111 patients with anal carcinoma diagnosed between 1970 and 2000 in mid-Norway.
  • Stage, age and treatment were all significant indicators of survival in uni- and multivariable analysis.
  • Late side effects were moderate after combined therapy; only one patient preferred getting a stoma due to radiation damage of the anal sphincter.
  • The change of strategy for anal cancer treatment from surgery to combined therapy has probably reduced local recurrence and improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17882558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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38. Chuwa EW, Seow-Choen F: Outcomes for abdominoperineal resections are not worse than those of anterior resections. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Jan;49(1):41-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent radical rectal resection for rectal carcinoma at the Colorectal Surgery Department, Singapore General Hospital, during the period from April 1989 to April 2002 were reviewed.
  • Independent predictors for local recurrence included advanced tumor stage, tumor depth, and poorly differentiated tumors.
  • The five-year cancer-specific survival was 70 percent.
  • The independent factors for poor survival were age greater than 65 years, advanced tumor stage, tumor depth, and poorly differentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Colectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16283562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Cañadas MP, Darwich L, Sirera G, Cirigliano V, Bofill M, Clotet B, Videla S, HIV-HPV Study Group: New molecular method for the detection of human papillomavirus type 16 integration. Clin Microbiol Infect; 2010 Jul;16(7):836-42
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  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of cervical cancer.
  • Integration of HPV-16 DNA in cervical cells is considered to be a key event in the progression towards invasive cancer, but little is known about this event in anal carcinogenesis.
  • The integration could be a useful biomarker for cancer progression.
  • The aim of this study was to develop a new multiplex real-time PCR assay based on simultaneous amplification of the E2 and E6 HPV open reading frames (ORFs) in order to assess the physical status (episomal and/or integrated) of HPV-16 in anal cells of HIV-positive men.
  • The multiplex real-time PCR was tested in 77 consecutive samples from individual HIV-infected patients with HPV-16 anal infection.
  • The integration occurs in the early stage of anal lesions and was associated with the severity of the lesions (p 0.004).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / virology. Anus Diseases / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / physiology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Virus Integration
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Viral / analysis. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics. Open Reading Frames. Repressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19840031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0691
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Microbiol. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Repressor Proteins
  • [Investigator] Piñol M; García-Cuyas F; Castella E; Llatjós M; Rey-Joly C; Bonjoch A; Jabaloyas M; Jou T; Moltó J; Negredo E; Romeu J; Tural C; Cobarsi P; Fernández I; Rueda L; Ordoñez E
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40. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, Stewart AK, Winchester DP, Talamonti MS, Halverson AL: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jul;15(7):1948-58
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, recommended treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has shifted from surgery to primary chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: From the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2005), 38,882 patients with anal canal cancer were identified.
  • Patients were significantly less likely to receive guideline treatment if male, older, black or Hispanic, more severe comorbidities, or Stage I (vs Stage II or III).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18414951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. El-Gazzaz G, Kiran RP, Lavery I: Wound complications in rectal cancer patients undergoing primary closure of the perineal wound after abdominoperineal resection. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Dec;52(12):1962-6
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  • [Title] Wound complications in rectal cancer patients undergoing primary closure of the perineal wound after abdominoperineal resection.
  • PURPOSE: Perineal wound complications have a significant impact on postoperative morbidity after excision of the rectum and anus.
  • METHODS: Data were reviewed from all patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma between 1982 and 2007.
  • Group A and Group B patients were similar with respect to age (P = 0.1), gender (P = 0.7), grade (P = 0.4), and stage of disease (P = 0.5).

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  • (PMID = 19934916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Lefevre JH, Parc Y, Kernéis S, Shields C, Touboul E, Chaouat M, Tiret E: Abdomino-perineal resection for anal cancer: impact of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneus flap on survival, recurrence, morbidity, and wound healing. Ann Surg; 2009 Nov;250(5):707-11
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  • [Title] Abdomino-perineal resection for anal cancer: impact of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneus flap on survival, recurrence, morbidity, and wound healing.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneus (VRAM) flap after abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for anal cancer (AC).
  • The groups (VRAM vs. No VRAM) differed in age at surgery (56.3 vs. 62.1; P = 0.0263); administration of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy (81% vs. 59%; P = 0.0218); and stage (ypT3-T4 67.6% vs. 38.4%; P = 0.0394).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 19801930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Nilsson PJ, Ragnarsson-Olding BK: Importance of clear resection margins in anorectal malignant melanoma. Br J Surg; 2010 Jan;97(1):98-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: From the Swedish National Cancer Registry, 251 patients with anorectal melanoma were identified from 1960 to 1999.
  • Multivariable analysis showed resection status and tumour stage to be independent prognostic variables.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery. Rectum / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20013935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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44. Fogliata A, Yartsev S, Nicolini G, Clivio A, Vanetti E, Wyttenbach R, Bauman G, Cozzi L: On the performances of Intensity Modulated Protons, RapidArc and Helical Tomotherapy for selected paediatric cases. Radiat Oncol; 2009;4:2
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  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the performance of three different advanced treatment techniques on a group of complex paediatric cancer cases.
  • The tumour types were: extraosseous, intrathoracic Ewing Sarcoma; mediastinal Rhabdomyosarcoma; metastasis of base of skull with bone, para-nasal and left eye infiltration from Nephroblastoma of right kidney; metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma of the anus; Wilm's tumour of the left kidney with multiple liver metastases.
  • Cases were selected for their complexity regardless the treatment intent and stage.

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  • (PMID = 19144155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2672932
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45. Oono Y, Fu K, Nakamura H, Iriguchi Y, Yamamura A, Kishi D, Oda J, Ikematsu H, Mizutani M, Takayanagi S, Tomino Y: Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal. Endoscopy; 2010;42 Suppl 2:E183-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colonoscopy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Narrowband imaging colonoscopy with a transparent hood for diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma in situ in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20640982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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