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1. Ragnarsson-Olding BK, Nilsson PJ, Olding LB, Nilsson BR: Primary ano-rectal malignant melanomas within a population-based national patient series in Sweden during 40 years. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(1):125-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary ano-rectal malignant melanomas within a population-based national patient series in Sweden during 40 years.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze 251 patients (101 males and 150 females) diagnosed with ano-rectal malignant melanoma (ARMM) reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1960-1999.
  • 54% of the tumours were primary in the anal canal, 24% engaged the whole ano-rectal unit and 10% were located at the anal verge (11% unknown primary site).
  • The majority of ARMM emerged primary in the anal canal and a primary location exclusively in the colonic mucosa of the rectum is questionable.
  • The concentration of patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma to population-dense urban areas, as previously reported, was not found in cases of ARMM.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Rectal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18607861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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2. Sunesen KG, Buntzen S, Tei T, Lindegaard JC, Nørgaard M, Laurberg S: Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Jan;16(1):68-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perineal healing and survival after anal cancer salvage surgery: 10-year experience with primary perineal reconstruction using the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Salvage surgery of recurrent or persistent anal cancer following radiotherapy is often followed by perineal wound complications.
  • We examined survival and perineal wound complications in anal cancer salvage surgery during a 10-year period with primary perineal reconstruction predominantly performed using vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap.
  • Between 1997 and 2006, 49 patients underwent anal cancer salvage surgery.
  • We conclude that anal cancer salvage surgery can yield long-time survival but obtaining free margins is critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Perineum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Rectus Abdominis / transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


3. Abbasakoor F, Boulos PB: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Br J Surg; 2005 Mar;92(3):277-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor of anal squamous cell cancer and its incidence is rising in high-risk groups, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • The pathological processes involved in the progression of AIN are becoming clearer but the natural history, particularly the rate of progression to invasive cancer, remains unknown.
  • There is no standard management for AIN and this is mainly due to difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15736144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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4. Ben Selma W, Ziadi S, Ben Gacem R, Amara K, Ksiaa F, Hachana M, Trimeche M: Investigation of human papillomavirus in bladder cancer in a series of Tunisian patients. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Nov 15;206(11):740-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Investigation of human papillomavirus in bladder cancer in a series of Tunisian patients.
  • The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of bladder cancer is variable.
  • Furthermore, the prevalence of HPV DNA in bladder carcinoma subtypes varies from study to study.
  • To clarify the impact of HPV infection on the development of bladder carcinoma, we performed a retrospective study on Tunisian patients to determine the status of HPV infection in urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.
  • A total of 125 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue specimens of bladder carcinoma were reviewed and classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors (119 urothelial carcinomas, five squamous carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma).
  • No evidence of HPV infection was detected by morphological examination and PCR in any case of bladder carcinoma.
  • Our study shows that the anogenital HPVs investigated are not associated with the pathogenesis of bladder cancer in Tunisia; however, the question of whether other subtypes of HPV contribute to bladder carcinogenesis remains to be clarified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Diseases / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Tunisia. Urothelium

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20674191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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5. Haboubi N: Anal cancer; do we all have a common treatment strategy? Colorectal Dis; 2009 Nov;11(9):891-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer; do we all have a common treatment strategy?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19832862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Chen YW, Yen SH, Chen SY, Huang PI, Shiau CY, Liu YM, Lin JK, Wang LW: Anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer: retrospective analysis at a single institution. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct 1;96(5):374-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer: retrospective analysis at a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate anus-preservation treatment for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Review of 42 patients (24 M/18 F; median age, 70 years; range, 13-95) with stage I-IIIB disease (squamous cell carcinoma [SqCC], 33; adenocarcinoma, 9) who received curative radiotherapy between 1991 and 2004.
  • Five-year functional anus-preservation rate was 64%.
  • CONCLUSION: With careful monitoring of toxicity, non-surgical anus-preservation treatment with good tumor control is feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 17492635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Bean SM, Chhieng DC: Anal-rectal cytology: a review. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jul;38(7):538-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal-rectal cytology: a review.
  • The incidence of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma, a human papilloma virus (HPV) related cancer, is on the rise, especially in HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is associated with precursor lesions detectable on exfoliative cytology as squamous intraepithelial lesions and on biopsy as intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Anal-rectal cytology screening programs, similar to cervical cytology screening programs, have been developed in an effort to detect and to eradicate precursor lesions prior to progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Either conventional or liquid-based anal-rectal cytology specimens are acceptable, but liquid-based specimens are preferred.
  • A minimum of 2,000-3,000 nucleate squamous cells should comprise adequate specimens.
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a single anal-rectal cytology specimen is comparable with that of a single cervical cytology test, but cytological interpretations do not always correlate with lesion severity.
  • Patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or worse should be referred for anoscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Rectum / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Papillomaviridae / physiology. Specimen Handling

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19941374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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8. Herat A, Shirato K, Damian DL, Finlayson R, Whitfeld M: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 May;47(2):120-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in refractory perianal Bowen's disease in a HIV-positive individual.
  • Perianal Bowen's disease represents high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, which is considered a precursor lesion of invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This patient's anal intraepithelial neoplasia was unresponsive to multiple treatment modalities including cryotherapy, serial curettage and cautery, topical 5-fluorouracil and 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
  • He progressed to develop a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus three and a half years after the Bowen's disease was diagnosed.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma was treated with combined chemoradiation.
  • A recurrence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia was noted 6 months after completion of chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


9. Panther LA, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients. AIDS Read; 2005 Feb;15(2):79-82, 85-6, 88, 91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spectrum of human papillomavirus-related dysplasia and carcinoma of the anus in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • It is likely that long-standing HIV-related immunosuppression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of anal carcinoma; however, a direct HIV-HPV interaction has also been implicated.
  • Using cervical cancer prevention as a paradigm, anal Pap smear screening as part of routine HIV preventive care has been proposed to detect and treat precancerous anal lesions in the hope of decreasing anal cancer rates.
  • All HIV-positive patients with invasive cancer of the anal canal, particularly those with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200/microL and those receiving HAART, should be managed in the same manner as their HIV-negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


10. Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women. AIDS Alert; 2006 Mar;21(3):22-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer incidence rates increased in antiretroviral era. Rates increased for men and women.
  • Investigators compared United States surveillance data for cancer in the pre-HIV era, HIV era, and antiretroviral treatment era and found that squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal incidence rates increased significantly in the latter era.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / drug therapy


11. Jiménez W, Paszat L, Kupets R, Wilton A, Tinmouth J: Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):395-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Presumed previous human papillomavirus (HPV) related gynecological cancer in women diagnosed with anal cancer in the province of Ontario.
  • OBJECTIVE: The oncogenic HPV subtypes responsible for gynecologic malignancies have also been implicated in the development of squamous cell cancer of the anus (SCAC).
  • The aim of this study was determine whether women diagnosed with anal cancer are more likely to have a history of HPV-related gynecological cancer as compared to a matched control group.
  • The exposure of interest was previous HPV-related gynecologic cancer, specifically cervical cancer, vulvar cancer and vaginal cancer.
  • Previous HPV-related gynecological cancer (cervical, vaginal or vulvar cancer) was significantly associated with SCAC (OR: 10.5, 95% C.I.: 3.6 to 30.3).
  • The median time between the diagnosis of anal cancer and previous cervical cancer was 20 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Previous HPV-related gynecological cancers are strongly associated with anal cancer and may occur decades before the anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19501390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Abbas A, Yang G, Fakih M: Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 2: current treatment standards and future directions. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 30;24(5):417-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of anal cancer in 2010. Part 2: current treatment standards and future directions.
  • The treatment of anal squamous cell cancer with definitive chemoradiation is the gold-standard therapy for localized anal cancer, primarily because of its sphincter-saving and colostomy-sparing potential.
  • In the concluding part of this review, we consider the data on chemoradiation with 5-FU/mitomycin vs radiation alone, chemoradiation with 5-FU/mitomycin vs chemoradiation with 5-FU alone, neoadjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-FU followed by cisplatin/5-FU plus radiation vs mitomycin/5-FU plus radiation, the addition of induction or maintenance chemotherapy to chemoradiation, the effect of overall treatment time on tumor control, whether chemotherapy can be eliminated for early-stage anal cancer, and the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Apr 30;24(5):427-30 [20480742.001]
  • [CommentIn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Apr 30;24(5):424-7 [20480741.001]
  • (PMID = 20480740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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13. Oon SF, Winter DC: Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature. J Med Screen; 2010;17(1):44-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal condylomas, anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasms and screening: a review of the literature.
  • Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs) are the precursors to anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus infection has a direct link to ASIL formation and is responsible for up to 80% of anal cancers.
  • But while much importance has been focused on targeting cancer precursors in the cervix, relatively little concern has been afforded to the anal canal.
  • With the advent of cervical Pap smear screening in various regions, the incidence of cervical cancer has declined.
  • However, marked similarities in the biological and pathological profiles of cervical cancer and anal cancer mean that anal cancer should be preventable in the same way - by curbing the progression of ASIL to cancer.
  • This article explores the literature on ASILs and the growing problem of anal cancer in the community, along with the literature surrounding the current progress towards implementing a screening programme for ASIL in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


14. Bertani E, Chiappa A, Mazzarol G, Contino G, Lazzari R, Zampino MG, Viale G, Andreoni B: Aggressive treatment approach for cloacogenic carcinoma of the anorectum: report from a single cancer center. Dig Surg; 2010;27(4):297-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive treatment approach for cloacogenic carcinoma of the anorectum: report from a single cancer center.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prognosis of cloacogenic carcinoma of the anorectum has rarely been investigated, and its clinical behavior is supposed to be similar to common squamous anal cancers.
  • During the last 10 years, chemoradiation treatment (CRT) has been considered the standard of care for anal cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the treatment of cloacogenic cancers treated within the framework of a multidisciplinary cancer center team during an 8-year period.
  • The medical records of 7 patients affected by cloacogenic carcinoma were analyzed.
  • Three patients presented distant metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data seem to suggest that the cloacogenic origin could present prognostic relevance within the wide spectrum of anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / surgery. Biopsy, Needle. Cancer Care Facilities. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20689291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9883
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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15. Salit IE, Lytwyn A, Raboud J, Sano M, Chong S, Diong C, Chapman W, Mahony JB, Tinmouth J: The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening. AIDS; 2010 Jun 1;24(9):1307-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of cytology (Pap tests) and human papillomavirus testing in anal cancer screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor.
  • METHODS: We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention.
  • The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+.
  • RESULTS: Cytology was abnormal in 67% of patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 12%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 43% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 12%.
  • Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%.
  • CONCLUSION: Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / cytology. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Early Detection of Cancer. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sexual Behavior. Specimen Handling


16. Fesneau M, Champeaux-Orange E, Hennequin C: [Anal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Nov;14 Suppl 1:S120-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers.
  • The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, pararectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21129654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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17. Nilsson PJ, Rubio C, Lenander C, Auer G, Glimelius B: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer. Ann Oncol; 2005 Jun;16(6):893-8
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  • [Title] Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 {gamma}2-chain immunohistochemistry is of prognostic value in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Markers for guidance with regard to individual prognosis and treatment planning are sought in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody for the gamma2 chain of laminin-5 was used to detect tumour budding (defined as dissociated single cancer cells or clusters of up to five cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumour budding detected by laminin-5 immunohistochemistry may be of prognostic value in the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15821121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LAMC2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin
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18. Wakefield LM, Stuelten C: Keeping order in the neighborhood: new roles for TGFbeta in maintaining epithelial homeostasis. Cancer Cell; 2007 Oct;12(4):293-5
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  • A study in this issue of Cancer Cell shows that mice with a targeted knockout of the type II TGFbeta receptor in stratified epithelia specifically develop spontaneous squamous cell carcinomas in the anogenital region, but not in the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Movement. Extracellular Matrix / metabolism. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Homeostasis. Humans. Integrins / metabolism. Keratin-14 / genetics. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papilloma / metabolism. Papilloma / pathology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Skin / physiopathology. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Time Factors. Urogenital Neoplasms / metabolism. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology. Wound Healing. ras Proteins / genetics. ras Proteins / metabolism. src-Family Kinases / metabolism

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  • [CommentOn] Cancer Cell. 2007 Oct;12(4):313-27 [17936557.001]
  • (PMID = 17936552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / KRT14 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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19. Ferrigno R, Nakamura RA, Dos Santos Novaes PE, Pellizzon AC, Maia MA, Fogarolli RC, Salvajoli JV, Filho WJ, Lopes A: Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Mar 15;61(4):1136-42
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  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy in the conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma: retrospective analysis of results and radiation dose effectiveness.
  • PURPOSE: This retrospective analysis reports the results on patients with anal canal carcinoma treated by combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1993 and December 2001, 43 patients with anal canal carcinoma were treated with radiochemotherapy at the Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that the treatment scheme employed was effective for anal sphincter preservation and local control; however, the incidence of distant metastases was relatively high.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15752894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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20. Li AH, Phanuphak N, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Chaithongwongwatthana S, Vermund SH, Jenkins CA, Shepherd BE, Teeratakulpisarn N, van der Lugt J, Avihingsanon A, Ruxrungtham K, Shikuma C, Phanuphak P, Ananworanich J: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative men who have sex with men in Thailand. Sex Transm Infect; 2009 Dec;85(7):503-7
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  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative men who have sex with men in Thailand.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL), the putative anal cancer precursor, in Asian HIV positive and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • METHODS: Men who underwent anal Pap smear reported clinical, sociodemographic and behavioural information collected through questionnaire and interview between January 2007 and April 2008.
  • Overall, 27% had abnormal anal cytology: 13.2% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 11.5% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 2.3% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • Anal condyloma was detected in 22% of HIV positive and 16.1% (9/56) of HIV negative MSM (p = 0.5).
  • In HIV positive MSM, anal condyloma (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 9.04; p = 0.01) was a significant risk factor for ASIL.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy use and CD4+ T cell count were not associated with ASIL.
  • Thus, as greater numbers of HIV positive MSM live longer due to increasing access to HAART worldwide, effective strategies to screen and manage anal precancerous lesions are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Seronegativity / physiology. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 19525263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-3263
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050410; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / TL1 RR024978
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS527353; NLM/ PMC3875384
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21. Clay M, Evans MF, Peng Z, Cooper K: No evidence of human clonally transmissible anogenital cancer. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;18(4):304
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  • [Title] No evidence of human clonally transmissible anogenital cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Chromosome Aberrations. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae. Penile Neoplasms / genetics. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20627958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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22. Jongen J: Letter to the editor concerning "HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)" by Varnai et al. (Int J Colorectal Dis 21:135-142, 2006). Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Oct;22(10):1289
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Letter to the editor concerning "HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN)" by Varnai et al. (Int J Colorectal Dis 21:135-142, 2006).
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology

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  • [CommentOn] Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42 [15864603.001]
  • (PMID = 16703315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Forcier M, Musacchio N: An overview of human papillomavirus infection for the dermatologist: disease, diagnosis, management, and prevention. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):458-76
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  • [Title] An overview of human papillomavirus infection for the dermatologist: disease, diagnosis, management, and prevention.
  • Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common, usually transient, dermatologic infection transmitted by genital contact that can cause a variety of anogenital diseases, including warts (condyloma), dysplasia (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal), and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Both are indicated to prevent cervical cancer, while the quadrivalent vaccine is also approved to prevent vaginal/vulvar cancers as well as genital warts in males and females.
  • [MeSH-major] Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Papillomavirus Infections. Vaginal Neoplasms / virology. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20868401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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24. Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P: Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Br J Surg; 2006 May;93(5):531-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal provides a model for studying the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to the development of neoplasia.
  • This paper reviews the existing literature relating to the molecular biology of anal squamous cell carcinoma and proposes a theory of pathogenesis.
  • METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to identify English articles on the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus; further articles were obtained from the references quoted in the literature initially reviewed.
  • RESULTS: HPV infection and subsequent HPV DNA integration are necessary, but not sufficient, to cause cancer progression.
  • Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumour suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
  • CONCLUSION: In comparison with immunocompetent individuals, HIV-positive patients have persistent HPV infection in the anal canal.
  • In this population, microsatellite instability, rather than chromosomal instability, appears to be a preferred pathway for rapid progression towards invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. HIV Infections / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics


25. Scott H, Khoury J, Moore BA, Weissman S: Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic. Sex Transm Dis; 2008 Feb;35(2):197-202
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  • [Title] Routine anal cytology screening for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in an urban HIV clinic.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with routine anal cancer screening using anal cytology, determine risk factors for abnormal anal cytology, and determine if an association exists between cytology and histology in patients with HIV infection.
  • METHODS: Demographics, CD4+ T-cell count, STD history, and cytology and histology data were extracted from medical charts of patients seen between November 1, 2002, and November 30, 2004.
  • Multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression controlling for age, race, sex, CD4+ T-cell nadir, and HIV exposure category.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 276 of 560 of the clinic patients received a screening anal cytology during the study period.
  • Of these patients, 11 were excluded from the analysis and 74 of 265 (27.9%) patients screened had an abnormal anal cytology.
  • They were also more likely to have a lower CD4+ nadir (142 cells/mm3 vs. 223 cells/mm3, P = 0.005) and CD4+ at time of anal cytology (353 cells/mm3 vs. 497 cells/mm3, P <0.001).
  • Those with an abnormal anal cytology also had higher occurrence of anal disease on perianal visual inspection (30% vs. 9%, P <0.001) and were more likely to have a history of genital warts (23% vs. 12%, P = 0.02) or herpes (35% vs. 22%, P = 0.02).
  • Two patients had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) I, 2 AIN II, 3 AIN III, and 2 squamous cell carcinoma in situ on histology.
  • CONCLUSION: Routine anal cytology screening is a feasible tool to incorporate into HIV care for patients regardless of gender and HIV risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Urban Health Services / organization & administration
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Colonoscopy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis


26. Ferenschild FT, Vermaas M, Hofer SO, Verhoef C, Eggermont AM, de Wilt JH: Salvage abdominoperineal resection and perineal wound healing in local recurrent or persistent anal cancer. World J Surg; 2005 Nov;29(11):1452-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection and perineal wound healing in local recurrent or persistent anal cancer.
  • The primary treatment for anal cancer is chemoradiation (CRT).
  • A major problem of surgery in the anal area is poor healing of the perineal wound.
  • Between 1985 and 2000, 129 patients treated for anal cancer were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 59 (range: 41-83) years.
  • In the present study salvage APR in recurrent or persistent anal cancer results in good local control and 5-year overall survival of 30%.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16222445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Mistrangelo M, Pelosi E, Bellò M, Castellano I, Cassoni P, Ricardi U, Munoz F, Racca P, Contu V, Beltramo G, Morino M, Mussa A: Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 May 1;77(1):73-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of positron emission tomography scanning and sentinel node biopsy in the detection of inguinal node metastases in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. False Positive Reactions. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19632066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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28. Konstantinopoulos PA, Pantanowitz L, Schlecht HP, Dezube BJ: Images in HIV/AIDS. HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. AIDS Read; 2006 Jun;16(6):301-2
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  • [Title] Images in HIV/AIDS. HIV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. HIV Infections / complications


29. Franceschi S, De Vuyst H: Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus vaccines and anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore the possible role of current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • A meta-analysis of 955 SCCA showed that HPV prevalence was 85%, i.e., similar to that in cervical carcinoma, with an even stronger predominance of HPV16.
  • In addition, more than 90% prevalence of HPV was found in anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Answers to some still open questions, notably vaccine efficacy in men and HIV-infected individuals and willingness to expand vaccination programmes to both sexes, are essential to predict the ultimate impact of HPV vaccines on the prevention of cancerous and precancerous anal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19339940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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30. Cook MB, Dawsey SM, Freedman ND, Inskip PD, Wichner SM, Quraishi SM, Devesa SS, McGlynn KA: Sex disparities in cancer incidence by period and age. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Apr;18(4):1174-82
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  • [Title] Sex disparities in cancer incidence by period and age.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer epidemiology articles often point out that cancer rates tend to be higher among males than females yet rarely is this theme the subject of investigation.
  • METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program data to compute age-adjusted (2000 U.S. standard population) sex-specific incidence rates and male-to-female incidence rate ratios (IRR) for specific cancer sites and histologies for the period 1975 to 2004.
  • Only 5 cancers had a higher incidence in females compared with males: breast (0.01), peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery (0.18), thyroid (0.39), gallbladder (0.57), and anus, anal canal, and anorectum (0.81).
  • Between 1975 and 2004, the largest consistent increases in male-to-female IRR were for cancers of the tonsil, oropharynx, skin excluding basal and squamous, and esophagus, whereas the largest consistent decreases in IRR were for cancers of the lip and lung and bronchus.
  • Male-to-female IRRs varied considerably by age, the largest increases of which were for ages 40 to 59 years for tonsil cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The largest decreases in male-to-female IRR by age, meanwhile, were for ages 30 to 49 years for thyroid cancer, ages >70 years for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and ages >30 years for lung and bronchus cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: These observations emphasize the importance of sex in cancer etiopathogenesis and may suggest novel avenues of investigation.

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  • (PMID = 19293308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CP010126-15
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS160092; NLM/ PMC2793271
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31. Fayaz S, Vasishta S, Motawy M: Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy. Gulf J Oncolog; 2007 Jul;(2):65-8
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  • [Title] Case report of long term survivor of metastatic cloacogenic carcinoma of the anal canal with chemotherapy.
  • A fifty-two years old Egyptian lady, case of cloacogenic carcinoma of anal canal with extensive liver metastasis showed complete remission with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) and Cis-Dichlorodiammineplatinum(CDDP) chemotherapy only and remains disease free five & haf years after therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 20084726.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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32. Chandramohan K, Mathew AP, Muralee M, Anila KR, Ramachandran K, Ahamed I: Squamous cell carcinoma arising from long-standing perianal fistula. Int Wound J; 2010 Dec;7(6):515-8
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma arising from long-standing perianal fistula.
  • Ninety percent of perianal fistulae arise from infected anal glands, and they often give rise to perianal abscesses.
  • We are reporting a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from long-standing perianal fistula and how we managed it surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Rectal Fistula / complications

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.
  • (PMID = 20726921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-481X
  • [Journal-full-title] International wound journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Wound J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Kiran RP, Pokala N, Rottoli M, Fazio VW: Is survival reduced for patients with anal cancer requiring surgery after failure of radiation? Analysis from a population study over two decades. Am Surg; 2009 Feb;75(2):163-8
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  • [Title] Is survival reduced for patients with anal cancer requiring surgery after failure of radiation? Analysis from a population study over two decades.
  • Chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment for anal cancer.
  • From a prospective population-based database on radiation and surgical therapy, we compare outcomes for patients with anal cancer undergoing rectal resection after radiation with patients undergoing radiation alone.
  • Patients undergoing surgical resection of the rectum after initial radiation (SRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the anus, anal canal, cloacogenic zone, and overlapping lesions of the rectum and anal canal from 1983 to 2002 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19280811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Ko CY, Stewart AK, Winchester DP, Talamonti MS, Halverson AL: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jul;15(7):1948-58
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: utilization and outcomes of recommended treatment in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, recommended treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has shifted from surgery to primary chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: From the National Cancer Data Base (1985-2005), 38,882 patients with anal canal cancer were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18414951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. de Parades V, Bauer P, Benbunan JL, Bouillet T, Cottu PH, Cuenod CA, Durdux C, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):157-65
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  • [Title] [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Bilan préthérapeutique initial du carcinome épidermoïde invasif de l'anus.
  • Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus.
  • In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17347624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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36. Fox LP, Pasternack FR, Geyer AS, Grossman ME: Perineal squamous cell cancer in a patient with fistulizing and ulcerating Crohn's disease. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2005 Nov;30(6):718-9
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  • [Title] Perineal squamous cell cancer in a patient with fistulizing and ulcerating Crohn's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Crohn Disease / complications. Rectal Fistula / complications

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  • (PMID = 16197402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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37. Nilsson PJ, Lenander C, Rubio C, Auer G, Ljungqvist O, Glimelius B: Prognostic significance of Cyclin A in epidermoid anal cancer. Oncol Rep; 2006 Sep;16(3):443-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of Cyclin A in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • Ultimately aiming at a more individualized therapeutic approach in epidermoid anal cancer, this study explored the prognostic and predictive impact of a set of tumour markers.
  • From a population-based cohort of 276 patients with epidermoid anal cancer, treated according to prospective protocols, 215 pre-treatment biopsies were investigated using immunohistochemistry.
  • Cyclin A may be an indicator of radiosensitivity and a valuable prognostic marker in epidermoid anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16865241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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38. Chan E, Kachnic LA, Thomas CR Jr: Anal cancer: progress on combined-modality and organ preservation. Curr Probl Cancer; 2009 Sep-Oct;33(5):302-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal cancer: progress on combined-modality and organ preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy / trends. Proctoscopy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20082844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6345
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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39. Nilsson PJ, Svensson C, Goldman S, Ljungqvist O, Glimelius B: Epidermoid anal cancer: a review of a population-based series of 308 consecutive patients treated according to prospective protocols. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Jan 1;61(1):92-102
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  • [Title] Epidermoid anal cancer: a review of a population-based series of 308 consecutive patients treated according to prospective protocols.
  • PURPOSE: The primary therapy in epidermoid anal cancer is radiotherapy, generally with chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1985 and 2000, 308 patients with invasive epidermoid anal cancer were diagnosed in the Stockholm Health Care Region.
  • The results further suggest a significant therapeutic gain from including neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15629599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Varnai AD, Bollmann M, Griefingholt H, Speich N, Schmitt C, Bollmann R, Decker D: HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2006 Mar;21(2):135-42
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  • [Title] HPV in anal squamous cell carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Impact of HPV analysis of anal lesions on diagnosis and prognosis.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Majority of cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma are human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced and result from anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
  • This study was conducted to examine methods which may enable the routine diagnosis of HPV-induced changes in the anal rim and the consequences of such detection especially in view of a more sensitive diagnosis of AIN.
  • METHODS: The study included biopsy samples from 87 patients who had been diagnosed with the following disease patterns: 47 invasive anal carcinoma, 33 AIN of varying severity and seven condylomatous lesions.
  • RESULTS: In 38 of 47 cases of anal carcinoma, HPV DNA could be detected via PCR (80.9%), the majority of which were HPV 16 (33/38=86.8%).
  • DISCUSSION: In our series, the clinical diagnosis of the invasive anal carcinoma had a high sensitivity of 93.6%, with a specificity of 80%.
  • In this situation, especially with high-risk patients, our findings recommend anal HPV screening in combination with anal cytology and anoscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we urgently recommend for any histological report on excision of anal lesions to include a statement whether histological markers of HPV infection were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15864603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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41. Kinjo A, Ogawa K, Iraha S, Tamaki W, Toita T, Kakinohana Y, Samura H, Kinjo I, Nishimaki T, Kuniyoshi Y, Murayama S: [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):519-22
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  • [Title] [Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal-report of four cases].
  • We have treated four Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal using concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • These four patients have been alive and free of disease (follow-ups of 55, 14, 7 and 5 months, respectively), with excellent function of the anal sphincter after treatment.
  • These results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18347409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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42. Hogg ME, Popowich DA, Wang EC, Kiel KD, Stryker SJ, Halverson AL: HIV and anal cancer outcomes: a single institution's experience. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 May;52(5):891-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV and anal cancer outcomes: a single institution's experience.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of HIV status on outcome of treatment for squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal treated at a single academic institution between January 1996 and December 2006.
  • RESULTS: Our search identified 87 (21 HIV-positive) patients who had invasive squamous-cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. HIV Infections / mortality


43. Ghouti L, Houvenaeghel G, Moutardier V, Giovannini M, Magnin V, Lelong B, Bardou VJ, Delpero JR: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Jan;48(1):16-22
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  • [Title] Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy alone or with combined chemotherapy is the first therapeutic option for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite high incidence of perineal morbidity, salvage abdominoperineal resection for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal has a high long-term survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Perineum / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15690652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Das P, Crane CH, Ajani JA: Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 Jul;19(4):396-400
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  • [Title] Current treatment for localized anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemoradiation represents the standard of care for most patients with localized squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • This article reviews randomized trials and recent studies on chemoradiation for anal cancer.
  • Recent studies have started to evaluate intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer, in an effort to reduce acute and long-term toxicity from radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The role of cisplatin in anal cancer is not completely clear, although an ongoing randomized trial (Anal Cancer Trial II) may help clarify the role of cisplatin.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy appears to be a promising approach for reducing treatment-related toxicity in anal cancer patients.
  • The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) is conducting a phase II trial evaluating the multi-institutional feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17545807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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45. Nadal SR, Horta SH, Calore EE, Manzione CR: [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2007 Jul-Aug;53(4):365-9
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  • [Title] [Outcome of treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor in HIV-infected patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Resultados do tratamento do carcinoma espinocelular anal e do seu precursor em doentes HIV-positivos.
  • OBJECTIVE: Incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma is increasing mainly among HIV-positive patients.
  • The objective was to evaluate the follow-up of such patients to verify recurrences and evolution from HAIN to cancer.
  • This is a report of cases treated at the "Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas", Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  • Thirty patients had high grade anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (HAIN), treated with local resection, and 15 with anal canal invasive squamous cell carcinoma were first submitted to chemo radiation, while biopsies were obtained during follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Patients with HAIN had recurrences in 16.7% of cases and remained cancer free for up to five years.
  • Chemoradiation was not possible in five patients with invasive carcinoma (40%) because three had advanced AIDS and two refused treatment.
  • Eight (88.8%) out of nine patients had complete response to chemoradiation and remained cancer free for a period from three to six years.
  • CONCLUSION: We concluded that HAIN can recur after local resection in HIV-positive patients but does not evolve to invasive carcinoma.
  • Invasive cancer can be treated in the same way as in HIV seronegative persons, when clinical conditions permit.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local


46. Grabenbauer GG, Lahmer G, Distel L, Niedobitek G: Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells but not regulatory T cells predict outcome in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 1;12(11 Pt 1):3355-60
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  • [Title] Tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells but not regulatory T cells predict outcome in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We have evaluated the effect of T-cell subsets on survival in patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma following radiochemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Biopsy specimens from 38 patients with anal carcinomas were evaluated using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry for the presence of tumor-infiltrating immune cells using CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 antibodies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TILs were identified as negative prognostic indicators in anal squamous cell carcinomas with granzyme B+ cytotoxic cells showing highest effect on outcome.
  • This is possibly explained by the selection of therapy-resistant tumor cell clones.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16740757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Yakovlev AE, Ellias Y: Spinal cord stimulation as a treatment option for intractable neuropathic cancer pain. Clin Med Res; 2008 Dec;6(3-4):103-6
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  • [Title] Spinal cord stimulation as a treatment option for intractable neuropathic cancer pain.
  • Nearly 6,750,000 people suffer moderate to severe cancer-related pain each year.
  • Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used with increased frequency for successful treatment of intractable cancer pain.
  • We present two cases of intractable, refractory-to-conventional treatment cancer pain that were successfully treated with SCS.
  • Case 1 reports a 51-year-old male with burning pain at the left groin site of inguinal metastases, post-surgical and intraoperative radiation therapy for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • Case 2 reports a 43-year-old woman with intractable, burning, throbbing, and shooting pain, post-debulking followed by radiation of a metastatic colon carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Electric Stimulation Therapy. Neuralgia / therapy. Spinal Cord. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
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48. Seya T, Tanaka N, Shinji S, Yokoi K, Oguro T, Oaki Y, Ishiwata T, Naito Z, Tajiri T: Squamous cell carcinoma arising from recurrent anal fistula. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Aug;74(4):319-24
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  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma arising from recurrent anal fistula.
  • Here, we report on a patient with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from recurrent anal fistula.
  • Six months before her admission to our hospital, anal pain developed.
  • Physical examination revealed three external fistulous openings at the two o'clock position, 2 cm from the anal verge.
  • Microscopic examination showed SCC arising from the anal fistula, which was accompanied by vessel invasion.
  • Histopathological examination revealed no remnant cancer tissue or lymph node metastasis.
  • Urological examination revealed urinary bladder cancer, and transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed.
  • Histopathological examination revealed transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
  • Two years later, the patient died of metastatic urinary bladder cancer, without recurrence of the fistula cancer.
  • Because the patients mother had died of urinary bladder cancer and she herself had metachronous urinary bladder cancer in addition to fistula cancer, we investigated whether microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosomal instability correlated with fistula cancer development.
  • Our patient had MSI and one of the smallest reported SCCs arising from recurrent anal fistulae.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Rectal Fistula / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Recurrence. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


49. Guasch G, Schober M, Pasolli HA, Conn EB, Polak L, Fuchs E: Loss of TGFbeta signaling destabilizes homeostasis and promotes squamous cell carcinomas in stratified epithelia. Cancer Cell; 2007 Oct;12(4):313-27
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  • [Title] Loss of TGFbeta signaling destabilizes homeostasis and promotes squamous cell carcinomas in stratified epithelia.
  • Moreover, rectal and genital epithelia, which are naturally proliferative, develop spontaneous squamous cell carcinomas with age when TbetaRII is absent.

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  • (PMID = 17936557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cell
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027883; None / None / / R01 AR027883-28; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR027883-28
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrins; 0 / KRT14 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS44885; NLM/ PMC2424201
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50. Amano K, Ishibashi K, Nakada H, Okada N, Miyazaki T, Gonda T, Ishida H, Takahashi T: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2025-8
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in the elderly showing complete response following radiotherapy--a case report].
  • We reported an elderly case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following radiotherapy alone.
  • An 86-year-old man complaining of anal bleeding and pain was admitted.
  • Biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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51. Oehler-Jänne C, Huguet F, Provencher S, Seifert B, Negretti L, Riener MO, Bonet M, Allal AS, Ciernik IF: HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 20;26(15):2550-7
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  • [Title] HIV-specific differences in outcome of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: a multicentric cohort study of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To define clinical outcome after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) of anal carcinoma in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Local disease control (LC), relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), toxicity, and prognostic factors were investigated.
  • RESULTS: HIV-positive patients were younger (mean age, 48 v 62 years; P < .0005), predominantly male (93% v 25%; P < .0005), and with early-stage (P = .06) and large-cell histology (90% v 67%; P = .005) disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term LC and acute toxicity represent major clinical challenges in HIV-positive patients with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy


52. Nigriny JF, Wu P, Butler CE: Perineal reconstruction with an extrapelvic vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Dec;20(9):1609-12
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  • METHODS: A 54-year-old woman with a prior history of anal squamous cell carcinoma underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by abdominoperineal resection, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • Three years later, she developed vulvar squamous cell carcinoma with vascular and lymphatic invasion and underwent radical vulvectomy and distal urethrectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a rectus abdominis flap to the perineum through an extrapelvic route is preferred if laparotomy is not used for the resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Pelvis / surgery. Perineum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Rectus Abdominis / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Muscles. Skin. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21119371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Roohipour R, Patil S, Goodman KA, Minsky BD, Wong WD, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Weiser MR, Neuman HB, Shia J, Schrag D, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Feb;51(2):147-53
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anal canal: predictors of treatment outcome.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma is increasing.
  • METHODS: Using one database, we identified 131 Stages I-III patients treated for primary anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution from December 1986 to August 2006, with minimum six-month follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 May;51(5):620
  • (PMID = 18180997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. West D: A palliative approach to the management of malodour from malignant fungating tumours. Int J Palliat Nurs; 2007 Mar;13(3):137-42
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  • The aim of this case study is to explore the role of palliative care and the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach for the management of malodour from malignant fungating tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / nursing. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / nursing. Odors. Palliative Care / methods. Skin Care / nursing

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  • (PMID = 17505407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-6321
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of palliative nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Palliat Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Silver Compounds; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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55. Krengli M, Milia ME, Turri L, Mones E, Bassi MC, Cannillo B, Deantonio L, Sacchetti G, Brambilla M, Inglese E: FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:10
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT imaging for staging and target volume delineation in conformal radiotherapy of anal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: FDG-PET/CT imaging has an emerging role in staging and treatment planning of various tumor locations and a number of literature studies show that also the carcinoma of the anal canal may benefit from this diagnostic approach.
  • We analyzed the potential impact of FDG-PET/CT in stage definition and target volume delineation of patients affected by carcinoma of the anal canal and candidates for curative radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Twenty seven patients with biopsy proven anal carcinoma were enrolled.
  • Pathology was squamous cell carcinoma in 20 cases, cloacogenic carcinoma in 3, adenocarcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT has a potential relevant impact in staging and target volume delineation of the carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 20137093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851594
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56. Schiller DE, Cummings BJ, Rai S, Le LW, Last L, Davey P, Easson A, Smith AJ, Swallow CJ: Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):2780-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of salvage surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • BACKGROUND: For patients with anal canal cancer who fail combined modality treatment (CMT), salvage surgery (SS) offers the potential for long term survival.
  • METHODS: We identified 60 patients with persistent or recurrent anal cancer who had undergone SS; 20 were excluded.
  • CONCLUSION: SS for anal canal cancer was associated with significant morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Cancer Care Facilities. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ontario. Registries. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17638059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Chapet O, Gerard JP, Mornex F, Goncalves-Tavan S, Ardiet JM, D'hombres A, Favrel V, Romestaing P: Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Feb;22(2):191-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin treated by radiotherapy: the Lyon experience.
  • BACKGROUND: To report our patient experience with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal margin and to evaluate the prognostic factors influencing outcome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 2001, 26 patients with anal margin squamous cell carcinoma were treated in Lyon-Sud: 7 T1, 14 T2, 4 T3, and 1 T4 with 20 N0, 3 N1, and 3 N2.
  • The anal canal was invaded in five patients.
  • Three factors correlated with specific survival: cell differentiation (P=0.038) and T (P=0.001) and N category (P=0.0005).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the dominating place of definitive irradiation and radiochemotherapy in the treatment of anal margin squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma is correlated to T and N staging and cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16799791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Tachezy R, Jirasek T, Salakova M, Ludvikova V, Kubecova M, Horak L, Mandys V, Hamsikova E: Human papillomavirus infection and tumours of the anal canal: correlation of histology, PCR detection in paraffin sections and serology. APMIS; 2007 Mar;115(3):195-203
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus infection and tumours of the anal canal: correlation of histology, PCR detection in paraffin sections and serology.
  • Human papillomavirus infection is an important etiological factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA).
  • Different histological variants of anal carcinomas displaying squamous differentiation, previously classified as separate tumours, were recently reclassified as SCCA by the WHO.
  • In our recent study the presence of HPV was detected by PCR in biopsy specimens of 42 different anal tumours, including SCCA and its histological variants (n=22), adenocarcinomas (n=5), tubulovillous adenomas (n=5) and anal condylomas (n=10).
  • All histological variants, i.e. tumours with basaloid, squamous and mixed histological patterns, were represented among the HPV-positive cancers.
  • Seven anal condylomas (70%) were LR HPV 6 and/or 11 positive, while three were HPV negative.
  • The presence of HR HPV types was not observed in anal condylomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications

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  • (PMID = 17367464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9004-22-2 / Globins
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59. Uronis HE, Bendell JC: Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist; 2007 May;12(5):524-34
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: an overview.
  • Anal cancer is a rare tumor with an incidence that has been rising over the last 25 years.
  • HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there is a higher incidence in HIV-positive patients but the direct relationship between HIV and anal cancer has been difficult to separate from the prevalence of HPV in this population.
  • HIV infection is also associated with anal cancer; there are increasing numbers of HIV-positive patients being diagnosed with the disease.
  • Treatment of anal cancer prior to the 1970s involved abdominoperineal resection, but the standard of care is now concurrent chemoradiation therapy, with surgery reserved for those patients with residual disease.
  • We present a case of anal cancer followed by a general discussion of both risk factors and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17522240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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60. Berrada S, Khaiz D, Alloubi I: [Pseudocontinent perineal colostomy]. Ann Chir; 2005 Jan;130(1):15-20
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  • AIM: This prospective study was designed to evaluate functional results of a pseudocontinent perineal colostomy (PCPC) using Schmidt's technique.
  • METHODS: Functional results in eight patients whose rectum were resected due to cancer or anal epidermoid carcinoma and reconstructed by PCPC between January 1995 and July 2002 in our institution were evaluated.
  • DISCUSSION: PCPC is a reliable technique, which can be proposed as an alternative to a left iliac colostomy following amputation of the rectum due to cancer, provided that certain requirements are met: careful selection of patients, informed consent, flawless surgical technique and lifetime daily colic irrigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Colostomy / methods. Perineum / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15664371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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61. Dyson T, Draganov PV: Squamous cell cancer of the rectum. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep 21;15(35):4380-6
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  • [Title] Squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy.
  • The clear association seen between Human Papilloma Virus and various squamous cancers has not been firmly established for the squamous cell cancer of the rectum.
  • Diagnosis relies on endoscopic examination with biopsy of the lesion.
  • Distinction from squamous cell cancer of the anus can be difficult, but can be facilitated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins.
  • Staging of the cancer with endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography provides essential information on prognosis and can guide therapy.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a distinct entity and it is of crucial importance for the practicing Gastroenterologist to be thoroughly familiar with this disease.
  • Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum has different epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis but, most importantly, requires a different therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19764088.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747057
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62. Ramamoorthy S, Liu YT, Luo L, Miyai K, Lu Q, Carethers JM: Detection of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in anal carcinoma. Infect Agent Cancer; 2010;5:17
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  • [Title] Detection of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in anal carcinoma.
  • Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major risk factor for development of anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Despite over 100 genotypes of the virus, HPV 16 and 18 are considered pathogenic as they are seen in the majority of cervical and anal cancers.
  • We aimed to determine the accuracy of our microarray in anal cancer DNA for HPV genotypes compared to the DNA sequencing gold standard.
  • METHODS: We utilized a sensitive microarray platform to classify 37 types of mucosal HPVs including 14 known high-risk and 23 low-risk types based on cervical cancer data.
  • We utilized DNA from pathologically confirmed cases of anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: HPV was detected in 18/20 (90%) anal cancers.
  • Eighty percent of anal cancers had at least two HPV types.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Microarray technology is an accurate way to screen for various genotypes of HPV in anal cancer, with 100% correlation with genomic DNA detection of HPV.
  • The majority of anal cancers in our study associated with pathogenic HPV 16 and/or 18.

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  • (PMID = 20939896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK067287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA137346; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R24 DK080506
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964599
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63. Longacre TA, Kong CS, Welton ML: Diagnostic problems in anal pathology. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):263-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic problems in anal pathology.
  • Anal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions are increasing in incidence in the United States and Europe.
  • This trend predates human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and has been associated with persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype infection, previous lower genital tract dysplasia/carcinoma, high frequency anoreceptive intercourse, heavy cigarette smoking, immunosuppression in solid organ transplant and immune disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.
  • Screening protocols for at-risk patients are under active investigation and pathologists are often asked to assess anal canal and perianal biopsies for the presence of dysplasia and/or invasive carcinoma.
  • Because underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of anal cancer and precancer may lead to inappropriate treatment, it is important for the pathologist to be aware of current screening strategies, specific risk lesions, and the role of pathology in initial diagnosis and evaluation of anal biopsy and/or resection specimens.
  • Standardized histologic criteria and uniform terminology should be used for reporting all anal canal and perianal squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • HPV subtyping, anal cytology, and recently identified biomarkers, such as p16 and Becton Dickinson ProEx C may provide additional information in problematic cases, but it is important to be aware of the limitations of these assays.
  • HPV has been linked to all the major histologic subtypes of anal carcinoma (eg, basaloid, cloacogenic, transitional, etc.) and this association is strongest for anal canal lesions.
  • With the possible exception of the microcystic pattern, histologic subtype does not seem to predict prognosis; and anal squamous cell carcinomas should be classified as either keratinizing or nonkeratinizing.
  • Poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas have a worse prognosis and should be distinguished from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Very well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pushing margins (so-called giant condyloma of Buschke and Lowenstein) should be classified as verrucous carcinoma; this tumor shows aggressive local infiltration but does not metastasize.
  • As all anal condylomata may harbor foci of high-grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma, careful sectioning and complete histologic examination is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Condylomata Acuminata / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18724100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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64. Nordenvall C, Nyrén O, Ye W: Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions. Gut; 2006 May;55(5):703-7
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  • [Title] Elevated anal squamous cell carcinoma risk associated with benign inflammatory anal lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between benign anal lesions and anal cancer is still unclear.
  • METHODS: We conducted a register based retrospective cohort study including 45,186 patients hospitalised for inflammatory anal lesions (anal fissures, fistulas, and perianal abscesses) as well as 79,808 haemorrhoid patients, from 1965 to 2002.
  • Multiple record linkages identified all incident anal (squamous cell carcinoma only) and colorectal cancers through to 2002.
  • Among inflammatory lesion and haemorrhoid patients, a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer was observed only in the first year after hospitalisation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory benign anal lesions are associated with a significantly increased long term risk of anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Diseases / complications. Anus Diseases / immunology. Female. Fissure in Ano / complications. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhoids / complications. Humans. Inflammation. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Fistula / complications. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 16299038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1856114
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65. Rasheed S, Yap T, Zia A, McDonald PJ, Glynne-Jones R: Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Feb;11(2):191-7
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  • [Title] Chemo-radiotherapy: an alternative to surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum--report of six patients and literature review.
  • PURPOSE: Since 1943 [1], only 45 patients of squamous cancer of the rectum have been reported in the published reports and the largest series to date consists of 12 patients.
  • Reports suggest that the primary treatment is surgical resection but, in the light of nonsurgical advances in the treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we present a review of the literature and report six patients treated by chemoradiation therapy (CRT).
  • METHOD: A literature search was undertaken using the keywords squamous cell, epidermoid, basaloid and cloacagenic and cancer of rectum and colon to provide evidence for this discussion from studies of surgery, radiation therapy and CRT in rectal SCC.
  • A prospective database of the Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, UK was searched from 1995 to 2005 for patients diagnosed with pure SCC of the rectum.
  • RESULTS: Six patients with histologically confirmed primary SCC of the rectum were treated with primary combination chemo-radiotherapy according to protocols used for SCC of the anal canal over a 15-year period.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary CRT, as currently utilized in anal cancer, can be extended to primary SCC of the rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18462236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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66. Tsai TF, Kuo GT, Kuo LT, Hsiao CH: Prevalence status and association with human papilloma virus of anal squamous proliferative lesions in a patient sample in Taiwan. Sex Transm Dis; 2008 Aug;35(8):721-4
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  • [Title] Prevalence status and association with human papilloma virus of anal squamous proliferative lesions in a patient sample in Taiwan.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Anal squamous proliferative lesions, including condyloma, anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (AHSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.
  • The objectives of the study were to investigate the HPV prevalence of anal squamous proliferative lesion in Taiwan.
  • RESULTS: Anal condyloma mainly occurred in young males, but AHSIL and anal SCC developed in older patients.
  • Multiple HPV infection was found in AHSIL (4 of 12) and condyloma (11 of 34) but was rare in invasive cancer (1 of 12).
  • In our study, emerging HIV-positive AHSIL in recent years indicates that we should devote more efforts to promote sexual safety among the people who engaged in anal intercourse.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Warts / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18650771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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67. Nahas CS, Shia J, Joseph R, Schrag D, Minsky BD, Weiser MR, Guillem JG, Paty PB, Klimstra DS, Tang LH, Wong WD, Temple LK: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the rectum: a rare but curable tumor. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Sep;50(9):1393-400
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the rectum: a rare but curable tumor.
  • PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate one institution's experience with treatment outcomes for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Using our prospective Colorectal Database, we identified patients diagnosed with rectal squamous-cell carcinoma at our institution between 1983 and 2005.
  • Pathology was rereviewed, tumor immunophenotype was compared to control cases of anal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, treatment modalities and outcomes were analyzed.
  • Median distal extent of tumors was 7 (range, 5-8) cm from the anal verge.
  • Immunophenotypical analysis showed similar keratin expression profile between rectal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 5) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 5), which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma (n = 10).
  • Immunohistochemistry suggests a common cellular origin for rectal squamous-cell carcinoma and rectal adenocarcinoma, which is different from anal squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colectomy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17661147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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68. Tajima Y, Ishibashi K, Gonda T, Miyazaki T, Nakada H, Takahashi T, Ishida H: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Nov;34(12):2050-2
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report].
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following chemoradiotherapy.
  • A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (T2N0M0 stage II).
  • This case suggests that we should take measures to prevent distant metastases in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18219895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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69. Blumetti J, Bastawrous AL: Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2009 May;22(2):77-83
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  • [Title] Epidermoid cancers of the anal canal: current treatment.
  • Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal is an uncommon disease, but has increased in incidence with the HIV epidemic.
  • This review provides an overview of the historical, current, and future treatments of epidermoid anal canal malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 20436831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780240
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anal canal malignancy / Nigro protocol / chemoradiation / epidermoid carcinoma
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70. Rubio CA, Nilsson PJ: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4C):2469-72
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma of the anus with high intratumoral lymphocytosis and its clinical implications.
  • BACKGROUND: It has been claimed that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) showing intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Lymphocytosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18751436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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71. Pepek JM, Willett CG, Wu QJ, Yoo S, Clough RW, Czito BG: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Dec 1;78(5):1413-9
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal malignancies: a preliminary toxicity and disease outcomes analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to reduce toxicities associated with chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • This study reports the results of using IMRT in the treatment of anal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Records of patients with anal malignancies treated with IMRT at Duke University were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Forty-seven patients with anal malignancy (89% canal, 11% perianal skin) were treated with IMRT between August 2006 and September 2008.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer results in significant reductions in normal tissue dose and acute toxicities versus historic controls treated without IMRT, leading to reduced rates of toxicity-related treatment interruption.
  • IMRT is emerging as a standard therapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Diarrhea / etiology. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / etiology. Male. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy. Sarcoma / radiotherapy. Thrombocytopenia / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20231064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Fuller CD, Thomas CR Jr: Chemoradiation for anal cancer: the more things change, the more they stay the same. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Apr 30;24(5):427-30
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  • [Title] Chemoradiation for anal cancer: the more things change, the more they stay the same.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Apr 30;24(5):417-24 [20480740.001]
  • (PMID = 20480742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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73. Greenberg R, Greenwald B, Roth JS, Ioffe O, Cross R: Squamous dysplasia of the rectum in a patient with ulcerative colitis treated with 6-mercaptopurine. Dig Dis Sci; 2008 Mar;53(3):760-4
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  • [Title] Squamous dysplasia of the rectum in a patient with ulcerative colitis treated with 6-mercaptopurine.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been found to be a precursor and risk factor for both cervical and anal dysplasia.
  • Cervical dysplasia, which is the precursor to carcinoma, is associated with immunosuppression from a variety of causes; reports of anal dysplasia associated with immune suppression exist as well.
  • We report a case of a 50-year-old woman with refractory ulcerative colitis chronically treated with 6-mercaptopurine that developed severe squamous dysplasia of the rectum.
  • This case highlights the importance of immune suppression in the development of dysplasia of the anus/cervix secondary to HPV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Rectal Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 17717741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine
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74. Karaitianos IG, Archondakis SK, Korkolis D, Koundouris C, Xenitidis M, Daskalopoulou D, Tsigris C: The role of cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant anal lesions. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2006;53(2):39-42
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  • [Title] The role of cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant anal lesions.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is a rather infrequent neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is a slowly and locally growing neoplasm which metastasizes in advanced stages.
  • Its diagnosis must be accomplished by the least traumatic examinations possible.
  • In 89 of them cytological material from ulcerated positions of the anal region was examined.
  • In the rest 27 cytological material was obtained by fine needle aspiration of subcutaneous or submucosal anal lesions.
  • Cytological evaluation revealed 29 cases of normal anal epithelium, 13 granulomas, 12 cases of HPV infection, 28 anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL), 17 post radiation injuri-es of the anal mucosa and 17 carcinomas.
  • The neoplasms were further subclassified in 12 well differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, 4 cloacogenic carcinomas and 1 leiomyosarcoma.
  • Histological examination followed the initial cytological diagnosis in 75 cases.
  • It is well accepted by the patients and of paramount clinical utility for the initial diagnostic assessment, the long-term follow up after treatment of anal cancer patients.
  • It is also valuable for the differential diagnosis among benign, premalignant and malignant anal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biopsy, Needle
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cytodiagnosis. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17139883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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75. Parés D, Mullerat J, Pera M: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia]. Med Clin (Barc); 2006 Nov 18;127(19):749-55
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  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for anal condylomata, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AIN is a premalignant condition that can progress to invasive carcinoma through different grades of severity of the disease called AIN I, AIN II and AIN III.
  • The groups at risk are mainly patients with infection with human immunodeficiency virus, immunossuppressed patients and patients affected by HPV related diseases (e.g., cervical cancer or anal condyloma).
  • Accurate diagnosis of AIN lesions consists of accurate grading and disease extension.
  • Low grade AIN (AIN I) or in extensive lesions, follow-up is advised to determine the possible evolution to anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17198654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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76. Troicki F, Pappas A, Noone R, Denittis A: Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:67
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy of recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma in-situ: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, also referred to as anal squamous carcinoma in-situ, or Bowen's disease of the anus, make up less than 1% of all digestive system cancers in the United States.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection with anal mapping.
  • This can compromise the anal sphincter leading to leakage.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Caucasian woman presented with post-excisional persistent/recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in-situ.
  • The initial lesion measured 3 cm in diameter on the right lateral side of the anal margin.
  • A standard surgery consisting of wide local excision with anal mapping was performed.
  • Our patient recurred with a 1.2 x 0.8 cm lesion on the left anal verge extending to the anal canal.
  • A biopsy along with mapping was done, and 2 of the 17 mapping specimens were positive for carcinoma in-situ, one in the anal canal.
  • Due to the location of the positive anal mapping, and in order to prevent sphincter compromise on re-excision, our patient was offered definitive radiation therapy.

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  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2841077
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77. Gervaz P, Buchs N, Morel P: Diagnosis and management of anal cancer. Curr Gastroenterol Rep; 2008 Oct;10(5):502-6
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of anal cancer.
  • During the past three decades, anal cancer has served as a paradigm for the successful application of chemoradiation to solid tumors.
  • Since the early 1990s, the increasing incidence of anal cancer in homosexual men has highlighted the causative role of oncogenic human papilloma-virus infection.
  • This review focuses on significant trends and developments in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, emphasizing three major aspects of diagnosis and treatment: routine screening and eradication of premalignant lesions in high-risk individuals; outcome of chemoradiation therapy in HIV-positive individuals in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy; and potential improvements in chemoradiation protocols through improved radiation delivery technique and the combination of mitomycin with cisplatin in current prospective randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18799127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-312X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current gastroenterology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Gastroenterol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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78. D'Souza G, Wiley DJ, Li X, Chmiel JS, Margolick JB, Cranston RD, Jacobson LP: Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2008 Aug 1;48(4):491-9
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  • [Title] Incidence and epidemiology of anal cancer in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and risk factors for anal cancer in a multicenter cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men followed between 1984 and 2006 (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study).
  • RESULTS: There were 28 cases of anal cancer among the 6,972 men who were evaluated.
  • Among HIV-positive men, anal cancer incidence was higher in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era than the pre-HAART era (incidence rate = 137 vs 30 per 100,000 person-years).
  • In multivariate analysis restricted to the HAART era, anal cancer risk increased significantly with HIV infection (relative hazard = 4.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.3 to 17) and increasing number of unprotected receptive anal sex partners at the first 3 study visits (P trend = 0.03).
  • Among HIV-positive men, current HAART use did not decrease anal cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive men had increased risk of anal cancer.
  • Improved survival of HIV-positive individuals after HAART initiation may allow for sufficient time for human papillomavirus-associated anal dysplasias to develop into malignancies, thus explaining the increased incidence of anal cancer in the HAART era.

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  • (PMID = 18614927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37984; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI037613; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35041; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-MO1-RR-00722; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-37613
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS562648; NLM/ PMC3991563
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79. Joseph DA, Miller JW, Wu X, Chen VW, Morris CR, Goodman MT, Villalon-Gomez JM, Williams MA, Cress RD: Understanding the burden of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancers in the US. Cancer; 2008 Nov 15;113(10 Suppl):2892-900
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  • [Title] Understanding the burden of human papillomavirus-associated anal cancers in the US.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy in the US; up to 93% of anal cancers are associated with human papillomavirus.
  • METHODS: Cases diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 from 39 population-based cancer registries were analyzed.
  • The following anal cancer histologies were included in the analysis: squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, and small cell/neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: From 1998 through 2003, the annual age-adjusted invasive anal cancer incidence rate was 1.5 per 100,000 persons.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most common histology overall, accounting for 18,105 of 21,395 (84.6%) cases of anal cancer.
  • Incidence rates of anal SCC increased 2.6% per year on average.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rates of anal SCC varied by sex, race, and ethnicity.
  • Continued surveillance and additional research are needed to assess the potential impact of the HPV vaccine on the anal cancer burden in the US.

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  • (PMID = 18980293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / N01 PC035137; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01 PC035137; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U50 DP424071-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS104103; NLM/ PMC2729501
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80. Oehler C, Provencher S, Donath D, Bahary JP, Lütolf UM, Ciernik IF: Chemo-radiation with or without mandatory split in anal carcinoma: experiences of two institutions and review of the literature. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:36
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  • [Title] Chemo-radiation with or without mandatory split in anal carcinoma: experiences of two institutions and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The split-course schedule of chemo-radiation for anal cancer is controversial.
  • METHODS: Eighty-four patients with invasive anal cancer treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy (RT) with a mandatory split of 12 days (52 patients, Montreal, Canada) or without an intended split (32 patients, Zurich, Switzerland) were reviewed.
  • Patients from Zurich with prolonged treatment interruption (> or = 7 d) had impaired cancer-specific survival compared with patients with only minor interruption (<7 d) (P = 0.06).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 20465811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2879246
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81. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Ravaud P, Walker F, Rioux C, Jestin C, Bouvet E, Soulé JC, Leport C, Duval X: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS; 2007 Jul 11;21(11):1457-65
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  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma [human papillomavirus (HPV)-related lesions) in HIV-infected patients.
  • RESULTS: Of 473 patients examined, (200 homosexual men, 123 heterosexual men, 150 women), 108 (23%) had histologically confirmed anal HPV-related lesions (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) with only endoanal localization.
  • Among these 108 patients, histological dysplasia of grades I or II and grade III were noted in 59 and two patients, respectively, invasive endoanal cancer in one; three patients also had high-risk oncogenicity HPV without dysplasia.
  • Independent identified associated factors of HPV-related condyloma were the number of incidents of sexual intercourse per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06], CD4 cell count below 200 x 10 cells/l (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.37-7.60), history of anal HPV lesion (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.13-9.81), and receptive anal intercourse (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.77).
  • The two latter factors remained associated with histological dysplasia (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.38-5.76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. HIV Infections / virology. Sexual Behavior
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Heterosexuality. Homosexuality. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / virology. Prevalence. Risk


82. Zurada JM, Ward KM, Grossman ME: Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with malignancy in adults. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Nov;55(5 Suppl):S65-70
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  • The most frequent tumors were lung (nonsmall-cell) (n = 8), multiple myeloma (n = 5), prostate (n = 5), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 3).
  • The majority of patients (55%) developed HSP within 1 month of cancer diagnosis or detection of metastases.
  • We present 3 cases of adults who, in the absence of known precipitating factors, developed HSP within 2 months of diagnosis of a solid tumor or metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / complications. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / complications. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17052537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Johnstone PA: Foreword. Curr Probl Cancer; 2009 Sep-Oct;33(5):301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / physiopathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / trends. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proctoscopy / trends. Proctoscopy / utilization

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  • (PMID = 20082843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6345
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Introductory Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Fritsch H, Zehm S, Illig R, Moser P, Aigner F: New insights into the development and differentiation of the human anorectal epithelia. Are there clinical consequences? Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Oct;25(10):1231-42
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  • PURPOSE: The epithelial lining of the anorectum still raises discussions concerning the levels of transition between the various zones and leads to an incomplete understanding of the immmunoprofile of rectal carcinoma.
  • Since the expression of cytokeratins depends on the epithelial cell-type and the parahox-gene CDX2 is important for the development of the colorectal epithelium, we investigated different cytokeratins and CDX2 in the anorectum of human prenatal stages and in adult normal and neoplastic anorecta.
  • In comparison, 17 specimens of ultralow rectal adenocarcinoma and 4 specimens of anal carcinoma were investigated.
  • We showed that anorectal epithelial differentiation including the squamous epithelia ran in a craniocaudal direction, and that the anorectal zone was a transitional zone between rectal zone and anal transitional zone where CK 7, 18, 20 and CDX2 are simultaneously expressed.
  • All cases of rectal adenocarcinoma showed positivity for CK 18, 20 and CDX2, and three also labelled for CK 7, whereas CK 14 was only expressed in the cases of anal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results elucidate the connection between the prenatal pattern and the origin of the different types of anorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / growth & development. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Epithelium / pathology. Rectum / growth & development
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Child, Preschool. Fetus / cytology. Homeodomain Proteins. Humans. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20563874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2928443
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85. Czito BG, Willett CG: Current management of anal canal cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2009 May;11(3):186-92
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  • [Title] Current management of anal canal cancer.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal historically has been treated with abdominoperineal resection, resulting in high rates of morbidity and local recurrence.
  • At present, RT with 5-FU and mitomycin is the standard of care for anal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19336010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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86. Grulich AE, Jin F, Conway EL, Stein AN, Hocking J: Cancers attributable to human papillomavirus infection. Sex Health; 2010 Sep;7(3):244-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was introduced primarily as a cervical cancer prevention vaccine, HPV has a causal role in several types of cancer.
  • This article reviews the epidemiological evidence for the role of HPV in human cancer, and describes Australian trends in these cancers.
  • HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer.
  • The currently vaccine-preventable subtypes of HPV 16 and 18 are responsible for ~70% of cervical cancer.
  • The prevalence of HPV in penile cancer is ~50% and incidence has not recently changed.
  • For anal cancer, ~85% of cases are HPV positive, and incidence has increased significantly in both men and women over the past 20 years.
  • Overall, 1154 HPV-related cancer cases were potentially preventable by vaccination.
  • If HPV-related cancers at non-cervical sites are prevented by vaccination, then a similar number of cancer cases will be prevented as in the cervix.
  • However, almost one-quarter of the potentially preventable cancer cases are in men, who are not included in the current national immunisation program.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Cross-Cultural Comparison. Human papillomavirus 16. Human papillomavirus 18. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


87. Wood GA, Sauder BL: Sexual side effects in women with anal carcinoma. Oncol Nurs Forum; 2009 May;36(3):275-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sexual side effects in women with anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / nursing. Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / nursing. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Sexuality

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  • (PMID = 19403449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-0688
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology nursing forum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol Nurs Forum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. De Dosso S, Martin V, Zanellato E, Frattini M, Saletti P: Molecular characterization and response to cetuximab in a patient with refractory squamous cell anal carcinoma. Tumori; 2010 Jul-Aug;96(4):627-8
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization and response to cetuximab in a patient with refractory squamous cell anal carcinoma.
  • There are no standard chemotherapeutic options for patients with squamous cell anal carcinoma, relapsing and progressing on palliative cisplatin-based regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 20968146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 7673326042 / irinotecan; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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89. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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90. Wexler A, Berson AM, Goldstone SE, Waltzman R, Penzer J, Maisonet OG, McDermott B, Rescigno J: Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2008 Jan;51(1):73-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the HIV-positive patient: outcome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of invasive anal squamous-cell carcinoma in patients with HIV is increasing.
  • We report the outcome after combined chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous-cell carcinoma in HIV-infected individuals.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two HIV-positive patients treated at the St. Vincent's Cancer Care Center for anal squamous-cell carcinoma from 1997 through mid 2005 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Overall survival, anal cancer-specific survival, local recurrence, and toxicity were assessed.
  • Five-year locoregional relapse, anal cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were 16 , 75, and 65 percent, respectively.
  • In multivariate analysis, locoregional recurrence, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were all significantly associated with tumor size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Outcome after chemoradiotherapy for HIV-related anal squamous-cell carcinoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy is comparable to outcome in patients without HIV.
  • Earlier diagnosis and risk-adapted therapy could lead to improved survival and decreased treatment-related morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications


91. Karamouzis MV, Linardou H, Papadopoulos G, Bousboukea E, Kanaloupiti D, Bitza M, Spourlis N, Bafaloukos D: Gastrointestinal solitary metastases from squamous cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2007 Feb;55(2):251-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gastrointestinal solitary metastases from squamous cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary


92. Patel H, Polanco-Echeverry G, Segditsas S, Volikos E, McCart A, Lai C, Guenther T, Zaitoun A, Sieber O, Ilyas M, Northover J, Silver A: Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;121(12):2668-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is considered as an important aetiological factor for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) but is not sufficient for tumour progression.
  • This carcinoma is poorly understood at the molecular level.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Mutation. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17721920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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93. Herat A, Whitfeld M, Hillman R: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 Aug;48(3):143-53; quiz 154-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer in dermatological practice.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is considered to be a precursor lesion of invasive anal cancer.
  • Human papillomaviruses are considered to be an important aetiological agent in both anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer.
  • Dermatologists are likely to encounter these conditions among the differential diagnoses to be considered in high-risk patients presenting with perianal and anal lesions.
  • Anal cancer rates are also increasing among the HIV-infected and HIV-non-infected population.
  • The successful treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia may reduce the risk of subsequent development of anal cancer.
  • However, current therapies for anal intraepithelial neoplasia may be associated with treatment-related morbidity and are not well validated.
  • It is currently not proven that they reduce the likelihood of the development of anal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia is being advocated for high-risk groups and may become standard dermatological care for these patients.
  • In view of recent developments in the understanding of this condition, this article reviews the current understanding of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and its treatment from a dermatological perspective.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Papillomavirus Infections
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 17680964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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94. Lefevre JH, Parc Y, Kernéis S, Shields C, Touboul E, Chaouat M, Tiret E: Abdomino-perineal resection for anal cancer: impact of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneus flap on survival, recurrence, morbidity, and wound healing. Ann Surg; 2009 Nov;250(5):707-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abdomino-perineal resection for anal cancer: impact of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneus flap on survival, recurrence, morbidity, and wound healing.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneus (VRAM) flap after abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for anal cancer (AC).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing


95. Caricato M, Ausania F, Marangi GF, Cipollone I, Flammia G, Persichetti P, Trodella L, Coppola R: Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jun 21;15(23):2918-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of locally advanced anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery.
  • We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation.
  • This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Transsexualism / surgery

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  • [Cites] Ann Plast Surg. 2007 Aug;59(2):168-72 [17667411.001]
  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 1980 Sep;66(3):401-6 [6999512.001]
  • (PMID = 19533817.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699013
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96. Kang J, Min BS, Lee KY, Jang SJ, Kim WH, Kim NK: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in a patient with perianal Crohn's disease. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Mar;25(3):411-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus in a patient with perianal Crohn's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Crohn Disease / complications


97. Deniaud-Alexandre E, Touboul E, Tiret E, Sezeur A, Hannoun L, Houry S, Huguet F, Pène F, Parc R, Schlienger M: [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)]. Cancer Radiother; 2006 Dec;10(8):572-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinomas of anal canal treated with radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin)].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinomes épidermoïdes du canal anal traités par association concomitante de radiothérapie et de chimiothérapie. Evaluation des résultats fonctionnels.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our results after radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy in terms of local control, survival and toxicity in patients with anal cancer.
  • LC rate with a good anal function scoring (score 0 and 1) was 70%.
  • Among 43 pts who preserved their anus, 98% had a good anal function scoring.
  • Late severe complication was observed in 3 pts: 2 pts with painful necrosis of the anus requiring colostomy and 1 pt with grade 3 rectal bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17110148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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98. Sikora AG, Morris LG, Sturgis EM: Bidirectional association of anogenital and oral cavity/pharyngeal carcinomas in men. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Apr;135(4):402-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis of a bidirectional association of anogenital and oral cavity/pharyngeal human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in men.
  • DESIGN: Population-based epidemiological study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer database.
  • SETTING: Population-based cancer study involving patients receiving care in the United States.
  • PARTICIPANTS: The study included 47,308 men 20 years and older with an index oral cavity/pharyngeal or anogenital cancer.
  • RESULTS: The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was elevated for both anogenital cancer following oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (SIR, 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.7) and oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer following anogenital cancer (SIR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.1-4.2).
  • The increase in SIR was most pronounced for tonsillar cancer following anal cancer (SIR, 8.4; 95% CI, 2.7-19.6).
  • The risk of second primary HPV-associated cancers did not vary significantly by age, race, year of diagnosis, or geographic location but was greater among never-married men, particularly for anal cancer following oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (SIR, 6.5; 95% CI,1.8-16.7 in never-married men, but SIR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7-3.1 in ever-married men) and for tonsillar cancer following anogenital cancer (SIR, 13.0; 95% CI, 3.5-33.2 in never-married men, but SIR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.0-9.7 in ever-married men).
  • Other than a slightly increased risk of tongue cancer following colon cancer (SIR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6), there was no increased risk of oral cavity/pharyngeal or anogenital cancer following HPV-unrelated cancers or vice versa.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology. Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basosquamous / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Marital Status. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. SEER Program

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  • (PMID = 19380365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Chou YP, Saito Y, Matsuda T, Nakajima T, Mashimo Y, Moriya Y, Shimoda T: Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Endoscopy; 2009;41 Suppl 2:E283-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel diagnostic methods for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal successfully resected by endoscopic submucosal dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Colonoscopy / methods. Dissection / methods. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery


100. Page BR, McDonald T, Gagnon P, Lu K, Thomas CR: A unique case of Hajdu-Cheney syndrome and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Colorectal Dis; 2009 Jun;11(5):535-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A unique case of Hajdu-Cheney syndrome and squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • There have been several reports associating polycystic kidneys with HCS and several other connective tissue disorders, suggesting a possibility of a hyperproliferative component to the syndrome.
  • No articles exist in the current literature describing a case of HCS with concurrent carcinoma.
  • Here, we present a case of a 54-year-old nonimmune compromised woman with multiple stigmata of HCS and recently diagnosed anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHOD: This is a case report of HCS and stage T3N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • RESULTS: This is the first report of a patient with HCS with malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient with HCS who developed anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The mechanism of HCS, which is still unknown, may either make patients more susceptible to carcinoma or may just be a reflection of the normal incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma given attributable risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome / complications






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