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1. Lee J, Corman M: Recurrence of anal adenocarcinoma after local excision and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy: report of a case and review of the literature. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Jan;13(1):150-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrence of anal adenocarcinoma after local excision and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Tumors arising from the anal canal are rare, comprising 1.5% of all gastrointestinal tumors in the USA.
  • The vast majority of these anal cancers are epidermoid (cloacogenic/basaloid and squamous cell carcinomas), while adenocarcinomas reportedly occur 5% to 19% of the time.
  • Because of its rarity, reports about anal adenocarcinoma are limited to small retrospective studies and case reports.
  • Moreover, no series has directly compared outcomes between patients undergoing the various available treatment options, making it difficult to determine the optimal treatment for this aggressive cancer.
  • Current management of this cancer remains controversial, with some authors believing abdominoperineal resection with permanent colostomy should be considered the standard treatment.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of recurrent anal adenocarcinoma after conservative management with local excision and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Colectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18810561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Wilkin T, Lee JY, Lensing SY, Stier EA, Goldstone SE, Berry JM, Jay N, Aboulafia D, Cohn DL, Einstein MH, Saah A, Mitsuyasu RT, Palefsky JM: Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-1-infected men. J Infect Dis; 2010 Oct 15;202(8):1246-53
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  • BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected men are at increased risk for anal cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may prevent anal cancer caused by vaccine types.
  • Men with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal cancer by history or by screening cytology or histology were excluded.
  • The primary end points were seroconversion to vaccine types at week 28, in men who were seronegative and without anal infection with the relevant HPV type at entry, and grade 3 or higher adverse events related to vaccination.

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  • (PMID = 20812850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6613
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00513526
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024996-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000865-26; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024996; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI 55038; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI055038-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00865; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI055038-01
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Human Papillomavirus Recombinant Vaccine Quadrivalent, Types 6, 11, 16, 18; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS285476; NLM/ PMC3118428
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3. Chen HR, Chen JG, Zhan BL, Zhang YX: [Comparative study on the exfoliative cytology of intraoperative peritoneal lavage in patients with rectal cancer pre- and post-tumor resection]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Nov;9(6):517-8
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  • [Title] [Comparative study on the exfoliative cytology of intraoperative peritoneal lavage in patients with rectal cancer pre- and post-tumor resection].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of sequential intraoperative peritoneal lavage in reducing the positive rate of peritoneal exfoliated tumor cells.
  • METHODS: Six sequential intraoperative peritoneal lavages were performed in each of the 63 patients with rectal cancer, with three before resection and three post resection, which were then compared by using cytological smear examination.
  • RESULTS: Exfoliated tumor cells were positive in the first three intraoperative peritoneal lavages of all the 63 patients before resection.
  • CONCLUSION: Sequential intraoperative peritoneal lavages is a useful method in reducing the positive rate of peritoneal exfoliated tumor cells in patients with rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cytological Techniques / methods. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Peritoneal Lavage

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  • (PMID = 17143799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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4. Ambinder RF, Bhatia K, Martinez-Maza O, Mitsuyasu R: Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2010 Nov;5(6):531-7
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  • [Title] Cancer biomarkers in HIV patients.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we update investigations related to cancer biomarkers in HIV-infected populations.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: CD4 lymphocyte count is associated with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (except perhaps for Burkitt lymphoma), Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer, and anal cancer.
  • HIV load is associated with Burkitt lymphoma and systemic NHL (but not PCNSL), with Kaposi's sarcoma and with anal cancer.
  • B-cell activation as manifest in immunoglobulin light chain production may be an important marker for NHL risk.

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  • (PMID = 20978397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA 121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888-05S2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274983; NLM/ PMC3055562
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5. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Hochdorfer B, Weissenborn SJ, Stücker M, Swoboda J, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U: Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Apr;52(4):603-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical spectrum and virologic characteristics of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) represents a precursor lesion of invasive squamous cell carcinoma with a clear association to high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • HIV infection is strongly associated with a higher prevalence of genital HPV infection, a higher incidence of AIN, and, consecutively, an increased risk for anal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical spectrum of AIN and lesional HPV colonization in a cohort of homosexual men who were HIV positive and had a history of receptive anal intercourse.
  • RESULTS: Of all patients, 86% had anal HPV infection at their first visit.
  • Standardized screening programs for anal cancer prevention and treatment protocols for AIN in patients infected with HIV must be implemented.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification


6. Sheikh M, Hussein AY, Kehinde EO, Al-Saeed O, Rad AB, Ali YM, Anim JT: Patients' tolerance and early complications of transrectal sonographically guided prostate biopsy: prospective study of 300 patients. J Clin Ultrasound; 2005 Dec;33(9):452-6
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  • METHODS: Three hundred men referred as part of an investigation to exclude prostate cancer were studied.
  • The reasons for referral were suspected prostate cancer due to increased serum prostate-specific antigen level (>4 ng/ml), the finding of a palpable nodule or greater firmness of one prostatic lobe than the other on digital rectal examination, or the finding of a suspicious area of neoplasm of the prostate on TRS biopsy.
  • They included mild pain, self-limiting hematuria, hematospermia, rectal bleeding, severe hematuria, septicemia, severe hemorrhage of the anus, and vasovagal attack.

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16281270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Merchant NB, Parikh AA, Kooby DA: Should all distal pancreatectomies be performed laparoscopically? Adv Surg; 2009;43:283-300
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  • It is very difficult to make clear recommendations with regard to laparoscopic resection of malignant pancreatic tumors due to the lack of conclusive data.
  • Potential benefits of laparoscopic resection for cancer include the ability to inspect the abdomen and abort the procedure with minimal damage if occult metastases are identified.
  • Although not proven clinically relevant in humans, the reduction in perioperative stress associated with laparoscopic resection may translate to a cancer benefit for some patients.
  • While this report is underpowered, it supports the notion that MIS cancer surgery may induce less of a systemic insult to the body than standard open cancer surgery.
  • Finally, it is important to remember that if the procedure is failing to progress laparoscopically, or if cancer surgery principles are likely to be violated, the surgeon (and the patient) must be willing to abort the laparoscopic approach and complete the operation using standard open technique.
  • Although more retrospective and prospectively maintained data will certainly be presented, it is less likely that randomized data specifically examining the question oflaparoscopic versus open pancreatectomy for cancer will mature, due to some of the limitations discussed above.
  • Can we enucleate a small tumor off the pancreatic body by passing an endoscope through the gastric (or colonic) wall, and bring the specimen out via the mouth or anus?
  • This technology must clear several hurdles before it is cancer ready; however, technology is moving at a rapid pace.

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  • (PMID = 19845186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-3411
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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8. Monk BJ, Tewari KS: The spectrum and clinical sequelae of human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Nov;107(2 Suppl 1):S6-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • HPV infection is an essential factor in cervical carcinogenesis and cervical carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer among women worldwide.
  • In addition to cervical cancer, other malignancies in both men and women such as esophageal, oropharyngeal, and anal cancer have been causally associated with this virus.
  • Other gender-specific HPV-related cancers include penile, vulvar and vaginal cancer.
  • HPV-16 is the most common HPV type associated with a malignant phenotype regardless of organ of origin.
  • HPV-16 together with HPV-18 accounts for approximately 70% of cervical cancers.
  • Other non-oncogenic HPV types including HPV types 6 and 11 are associated with over 90% of benign HPV-related lesions such as genital warts and juvenile respiratory papillomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Child. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Esophageal Neoplasms / virology. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / virology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / virology. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / virology. Male. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Papilloma / virology

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  • (PMID = 18499914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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9. Itabashi M, Tada Y, Bamba Y, Takemoto K, Yoshimura Y, Kimura M, Hirosawa T, Ogawa S, Kameoka S: Case of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer in which PET/CT was useful in determining the indicated surgical procedure. Int Surg; 2009 Jan-Feb;94(1):80-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer in which PET/CT was useful in determining the indicated surgical procedure.
  • The right half of the colon was resected in a 70-year-old woman in August 2002 for ascending colon cancer.
  • Since tumor markers gradually increased, positron emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) revealed peritoneal dissemination.
  • Barium enema findings revealed an ileal constriction approximately 25 cm from the anastomosed site toward the anus.
  • CT did not reveal well-defined tumor shadows.
  • The site was resected and anastomosed.

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  • (PMID = 20099433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Richel O, Wieland U, de Vries HJ, Brockmeyer NH, van Noesel C, Potthoff A, Prins JM, Kreuter A: Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1301-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical 5-fluorouracil treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced potential precursor lesion of anal cancer, is frequent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • So far, only a few prospective studies have been performed on the topical treatment of AIN, especially at the intra-anal location.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20716208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. StatBite: Proportion of specific cancers caused by HPV. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2010 Jun 16;102(12):839
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  • [Title] StatBite: Proportion of specific cancers caused by HPV.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. Penile Neoplasms / epidemiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / virology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20530763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Cranston RD, Hirschowitz SL, Cortina G, Moe AA: A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Feb;19(2):118-20
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  • [Title] A retrospective clinical study of the treatment of high-grade anal dysplasia by infrared coagulation in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus-associated anal squamous cell cancer.
  • Similar to the management of cervical dysplasia, clinicians are treating high-grade anal dysplasia to prevent progression to cancer.
  • Infrared coagulation (IRC) is an outpatient treatment for high-grade anal dysplasia.
  • This retrospective clinical study reports on 68 HIV-positive MSM with 78 biopsy proven high-grade anal lesions.
  • Each lesion was treated with the IRC with re-biopsy of the treatment site a mean of 140 days later.
  • Of the 74 evaluable lesions; 39 had anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 1, 20 had AIN 2, seven had AIN 3, and eight had normal epithelium.
  • The IRC showed 64% efficacy per treated lesion and shows promise as a treatment modality for high-grade anal dysplasia in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Seropositivity / complications. Homosexuality, Male. Infrared Rays / therapeutic use


13. Spano JP, Costagliola D, Katlama C, Mounier N, Oksenhendler E, Khayat D: AIDS-related malignancies: state of the art and therapeutic challenges. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 10;26(29):4834-42
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  • Although the advent of cART has resulted in reductions in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-AIDS-defining malignancies present an increased risk for HIV-infected patients, characterized by some common clinical features, generally with a more aggressive behavior and a more advanced disease at diagnosis, which is responsible for poorer patient outcomes.
  • Specific therapeutic recommendations are lacking for these new nonopportunistic malignancies, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma, anal cancer, lung cancer, hepatocarcinoma, and many others.
  • Special considerations of these AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related malignancies and their clinical and therapeutic aspects constitute the subject of this review.

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  • (PMID = 18591544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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14. Lampejo T, Kavanagh D, Clark J, Goldin R, Osborn M, Ziprin P, Cleator S: Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review. Br J Cancer; 2010 Dec 07;103(12):1858-69
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  • [Title] Prognostic biomarkers in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: recent decades have seen combination chemoradiotherapy become the standard treatment for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Further insight into tumour characteristics and molecular biology may identify novel therapeutic targets.
  • This systematic review examines current prognostic markers in SCC of the anus.
  • METHODS: an extensive literature search was performed to identify studies reporting on biomarkers in anal cancer in the context of clinical outcome following treatment primarily with chemoradiotherapy.
  • The tumour-suppressor genes p53 and p21 were the only markers shown to be of prognostic value in more than one study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: an array of biomarkers have been identified that correlate with survival following chemoradiotherapy in anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genes, p53. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Cancer Resaerch UK.
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  • (PMID = 21063399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3008609
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15. Johnstone PA: Foreword. Curr Probl Cancer; 2009 Sep-Oct;33(5):301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / physiopathology. Anal Canal / surgery. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / trends. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Proctoscopy / trends. Proctoscopy / utilization

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  • (PMID = 20082843.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-6345
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Introductory Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring SK, Rady PL, Zuleta JJ, Correa LA, He Q, Wolff JC: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Sep;21(8):1054-60
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 5% imiquimod in HIV-positive male patients with anogenital warts or anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and to elucidate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type and viral load were important for clinical outcome and recurrences.
  • Eighteen patients had a histopathological diagnosis of AIN-1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The assumption that visible perianal warts are benign lesions in HIV-positive patients has to be reevaluated since an important number of such lesions could correspond to low-grade anal disease, which in turn could progress to high-grade anal disease or cancer.
  • Further studies are needed to document its utility to prevent high-grade dysplasia and/or anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Anus Diseases / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Condylomata Acuminata / drug therapy. Genital Diseases, Male / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / classification. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


17. Gervaz P, Lavertu S, Kazemba B, Pemberton JH, Haddock MG, Gunderson LL: Sphincter-preserving radiation therapy for rectal cancer: a simulation study using three-dimensional computerized technology. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Sep;8(7):570-4
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  • [Title] Sphincter-preserving radiation therapy for rectal cancer: a simulation study using three-dimensional computerized technology.
  • This approach provides, in theory, a means to selectively subtract the anal sphincter from the high-dose field of irradiation in patients with stage II and III adenocarcinomas of the mid-rectum scheduled for low anterior resection (LAR).
  • HYPOTHESIS: Implementation of 3DXRT with sphincter blocking may be a feasible strategy to reduce the dose of radiation distributed to the anal canal without reduction in the dose distribution to the gross tumour volume (GTV) plus adequate margins.
  • METHODS: Pretreatment simulation CT scans of 10 patients with rectal cancers located between 5 and 10 cm from the anal verge were retrieved from a computerized database.
  • Radiation oncologists and colorectal surgeons defined the contours of the GTV and the anal sphincter, respectively, on successive CT scan slices.
  • RESULTS: The mean distance of tumours from the anal verge was 6.3 cm.
  • In the virtual simulation treatment plan, a 2-cm margin separated the sphincter block from the lower limit of the GTV.
  • The mean volume of the anal sphincter was 16.1 +/- 3.5 cm(3).
  • By comparison the mean dose distributed to the anal sphincter was dramatically reduced by using a sphincter block (33.2 +/- 12 Gy vs 6.4 +/- 4.1 Gy, P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: During a course of radiotherapy for most low- or mid-rectal cancers, the anal canal is included within the field of irradiation with a mean dose distribution to the sphincter of 33 Gy.
  • Evaluation of 3DXRT with full sphincter block (mid-rectum) and partial sphincter block (distal rectum) is a feasible strategy to decrease the volume of anal sphincter carried to full dose without reduction in dose to the GTV.
  • This approach, by minimizing treatment-induced damage to the anal sphincter, might improve functional outcome of LAR.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Computer Simulation. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16919108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Moore DH: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one? Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jun;113(3):379-83
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one?
  • The incorporation of radiation therapy and eventually chemotherapy in the primary treatment of vulva cancer also represents a slow evolution in clinical management.
  • The addition of chemotherapy concurrent to radiation therapy for the treatment of vulvar carcinoma was heavily influenced by advances in the treatment of cervical cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • On the basis of many good phase II studies but no randomized controlled trials in the disease, chemoradiation therapy is now inherent to the clinical management of vulvar carcinoma.
  • The rarity of vulva cancer precludes prospective randomized clinical trials in the absence of international collaboration.
  • Nonetheless, patients with locally advanced vulva cancer have derived considerable benefit from chemoradiation studies in other related tumor sites, and will continue to do so in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19232700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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19. Divis P, Vlcek P, Capov I, Divisová K, Katolická J, Vanícek J, Kotulánová E: [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(6):421-7
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy with locally advanced rectal cancer by comparing tumour volume before and after treatment].
  • The aim of the study was to compare the tumour volume reduction before and after the oncological therapy in relation to the change in the CEA value and to the outcome of the histopathological evaluation of response to the treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the years 2004-2008, 274 rectal cancer patients were evaluated, of which 64 underwent neoadjuvant CRT with subsequent surgery and had also completed other inclusion criteria.
  • The tumour volume before and after the CRT, percentage reduction in the tumour volume and the relation to the change in the CAE value and the histopathological evaluation were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The distance between the anus and the tumour was from 3 to 15 centimetres, the average value being 8.1 centimetres.
  • In 5 cases the tumour was not histologically found in the resected specimen.
  • The average tumour volume before CRT was 32.48, range 10.3-88.5, after the CRT the average volume was 20.13, range 4.7-55.1.
  • This relation however has not been proved in the N value change.
  • No relation between the CEA value and the tumour volume change has been proven.

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  • (PMID = 21351419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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20. Singh JC, Kuohung V, Palefsky JM: Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2009 Dec 1;52(4):474-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), particularly AIN 3 is a precursor to anal cancer.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records was performed for all patients with AIN treated at the University of California San Francisco Anal Neoplasia Clinic with TCA as the first-line therapy from January 2000 to December 2004.

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  • (PMID = 19779306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-7884
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR000079-420472; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000079-420472
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS149443; NLM/ PMC2871540
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21. Boscoe FP, Schymura MJ: Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993-2002. BMC Cancer; 2006 Nov 10;6:264
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  • [Title] Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993-2002.
  • BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported.
  • Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers.
  • METHODS: We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available.
  • Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders.
  • Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites.
  • RESULTS: For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva.
  • Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine.
  • No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers.
  • A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers.
  • The relative risks for cancer incidence are similar to those for cancer mortality for most sites.
  • For several sites (breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, other biliary, vulva), the relative risks of mortality are higher, possibly suggesting that the maintenance of adequate vitamin D levels is more critical for limiting tumor progression than for preventing tumor onset.
  • Our findings are generally consistent with the published literature, and include three cancer sites not previously linked with solar UV-B exposure, to our knowledge: leukemia, small intestine, and vulva.

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  • (PMID = 17096841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / U55/CCU22012-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1665523
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22. Branco BC, Sachar DB, Heimann T, Sarpel U, Harpaz N, Greenstein AJ: Adenocarcinoma complicating restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis with mucosectomy performed by Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator. Colorectal Dis; 2009 May;11(4):428-9
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  • The CUSA was introduced to simplify and optimize ileal pouch-anal anastomosis with mucosectomy and has been shown to shorten the operative time and reduce blood loss.
  • In the present case, even though preoperative colonoscopy had clearly shown dysplasia, the surgical pathology report could not detect any neoplasia in the specimen; hence, the patient was not surveyed for pouch cancer.
  • Six years later, the patient presented with intestinal obstruction caused by cancer.
  • While protocols for universal pouch surveillance remain somewhat controversial, we conclude on the basis of this case and a review of the literature that in RPC with mucosectomy performed by CUSA, pouch cancer surveillance is particularly important because remnants of rectal epithelium may have been left behind and tissue ablation may have made the surgical pathology report uninterpretable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Colitis, Ulcerative / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Proctocolectomy, Restorative / methods. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary


23. Nakagawa S, Amano M, Yamashita S, Nishikawa Y, Higaki N, Hayashida H, Niinobu T, Yoshioka Y, Sakon M: [A case of effective chemoradiation therapy against anal fistula carcinoma recurred 10 years after surgery]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1977-9
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  • [Title] [A case of effective chemoradiation therapy against anal fistula carcinoma recurred 10 years after surgery].
  • A male in his eighties underwent abdominoperineal resection under the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma associated with anal fistula (P0, H0, n (-), A1, stage II, ly0, v0).
  • One year thereafter, para-aortic lymph nodes were found to be enlarged, but a good quality of life was obtained without elevation of tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Rectal Fistula / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17212165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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24. Liu BS, Xu L, Yan J, Liu C, Zheng YC: [Experience of ultralow anterior excision for rectal cancer: 508 cases analysis]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Nov 15;46(22):1712-5
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  • [Title] [Experience of ultralow anterior excision for rectal cancer: 508 cases analysis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the operative techniques and postoperative effects of ultralow anterior excision for rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: From October 1996 to October 2006, 508 cases with rectal carcinoma at or below the peritoneal reflection with potential to preserve the anal function were divided into two groups.
  • Of the patients, 365 cases underwent ultralow anterior excision and instrumental anastomosis, and 143 cases underwent manual colon-anal anastomosis (Parks operation).
  • In the Parks operation group, the anastomosis was carried out manually at the anus and in abdominal cavity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19094730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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25. Colvin M, Delis A, Bracamonte E, Villar H, Leon LR Jr: Infiltrating adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma of the anal canal. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 28;15(28):3560-4
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  • [Title] Infiltrating adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma of the anal canal.
  • Primary neoplasms arising in the anal canal are relatively unusual.
  • We describe an infiltrating, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma from the distal anal canal, in an otherwise healthy patient at low risk for gastrointestinal malignancy.
  • Examination revealed a blood-covered pedunculated mass with a long stalk protruding from the anus.
  • This was further evaluated under anesthesia and complete excision of distal anal tissue was performed.
  • Our report is the first describing the possible malignant degeneration of a villous adenoma in the anal canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Villous / pathology. Anal Canal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19630115.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2715986
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26. Yang BL, Shao WJ, Sun GD, Chen YQ, Huang JC: Perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal fistulae: a review from single institution. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2009 Sep;24(9):1001-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: From our retrospective chart review, we identified three patients with chronic perianal fistula-in-ano who were subsequently found to have developed perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma on biopsy.
  • One patient with inguinal lymph node metastases died due to distant metastasis 6 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fistula-associated perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignant transformation of chronic fistula-in-ano.
  • Although radical resection of the tumour with abdominoperineal resection remains the surgical treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Rectal Fistula / complications

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  • (PMID = 19205706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Steinbrook R: The potential of human papillomavirus vaccines. N Engl J Med; 2006 Mar 16;354(11):1109-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Oncogene Proteins, Viral. United States. Vaccines, Synthetic

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  • [ErratumIn] N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 17;355(7):745
  • (PMID = 16540608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Vaccines, Synthetic; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0 / human papillomavirus vaccine, TA
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28. Saranovic D, Barisic G, Krivokapic Z, Masulovic D, Djuric-Stefanovic A: Endoanal ultrasound evaluation of anorectal diseases and disorders: technique, indications, results and limitations. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Mar;61(3):480-9
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  • CT and conventional barium studies offer limited information in local staging of rectal and perirectal neoplasms, anal carcinomas and extension perianal fistulas in patients with inflamamatory bowel disease, or in evaluating patients with fecal incontinence.
  • During past decade, sonography and MR imaging have resulted in significant improvement in the imaging of rectal and perirectal and anal and perianal disease.
  • The aim of this article is to review possibility of the EAUS in the evaluation both normal anal anatomy and anorectal disease and disorders (anal carcinoma, sphincter defects, anal fistulas, perianal abscesses and other pathological conditions).
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Diseases / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Rectal Diseases / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17188828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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29. McGhee EM, Cotter PD, Weier JF, Berline JW, Turner MA, Gormley M, Palefsky JM: Molecular cytogenetic characterization of human papillomavirus16-transformed foreskin keratinocyte cell line 16-MT. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jul 1;168(1):36-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular cytogenetic characterization of human papillomavirus16-transformed foreskin keratinocyte cell line 16-MT.
  • Anogenital cancers are closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV-infected individuals, particularly those with high-grade dysplasias, are at increased risk for cervical and anal cancers.
  • To address this, we examined an HPV16-transformed foreskin keratinocyte cell line, 16-MT, by GTG-banding, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH); these analyses revealed multiple numerical, complex, and cryptic chromosome rearrangements.
  • The 16-MT cell line showed losses and gains of DNA due to unbalanced translocations and complex rearrangements of regions containing known tumor suppressor genes.
  • Chromosomal changes in these regions might explain the increased risk of cancer associated with HPV.
  • These results provide the basis for the identification of candidate oncogenes responsible for cervical and anal cancer in amplified regions, and for putative tumor suppressor genes in commonly deleted regions like 11q22-23.
  • Furthermore, these data represent the first full characterization of the HPV-positive cell line 16-MT.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Viral / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16. Keratinocytes / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aneuploidy. Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Cell Line, Transformed. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Banding. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Karyotyping. Male. Models, Biological. Penis. Telomerase / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16772119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA088739-05S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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30. Matsuo S, Mizuta Y, Hayashi T, Susumu S, Tsutsumi R, Azuma T, Yamaguchi S: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the transverse colon: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Sep 14;12(34):5573-6
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  • Colonoscopy revealed the tumor's appearance as a IIa plus II c-like early colon cancer as defined according to the macroscopic classification of the Japanese Research Society for Cancer of Colon, Rectum and Anus, measuring less than 2 cm in diameter.
  • Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma because of the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions consisting of diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphocytes and glandular destruction.
  • However, the tumor size gradually increased over the next 4 mo and the patient eventually underwent surgical resection.
  • The tumor measured 45 mm multiply 30 mm in diameter and histological examination showed that the lymphoma cells had infiltrated the muscle layer of the colon without nodal involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / microbiology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / microbiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17007004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4088249
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31. O'Lorcain P, Deady S, Comber H: Mortality predictions for colon and anorectal cancer for Ireland, 2003-17. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Jun;8(5):393-401
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  • [Title] Mortality predictions for colon and anorectal cancer for Ireland, 2003-17.
  • OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer mortality predictions for Ireland are presented for all ages and for the age group 0-64 years.
  • METHODS: Log and log-linear Poisson regression modelling was fitted to colorectal cancer mortality data for each year between 1950 and 2002 to predict average European age standardized mortality rates (EASMRs) per 100,000 person years (100,000 PY(-1)) and average numbers of deaths.
  • RESULTS: EASMRs for colon cancer are predicted to fall to 17.3 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 14.4, 20.2) in men and to 8.4 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 6.9, 10.2) in women by 2013-17.
  • EASMRs for anorectal cancer are also predicted to fall to 8.0 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 6.6, 9.5) in men and to 3.0 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 2.3, 3.8) in women by this time.
  • Truncated EASMRs for colon cancer for those aged between 0 and 64 years are predicted over the next 15 years to fall from their current levels to 4.4 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 3.0, 5.8) in men and to 2.3 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 1.5, 3.2) in women.
  • For anorectal cancer, truncated EASMRs for those aged between 0 and 64 years are also predicted over the next 15 years to fall from their current levels to 2.9 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 2.0, 3.8) in men and to 0.9 100,000 PY(-1) (95%PI 0.4, 1.3) in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Colonic Neoplasms / mortality. Mortality / trends. Rectal Neoplasms / mortality


32. Dwyer MK, Gebski VJ, Jayamohan J: The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer. Australas Radiol; 2006 Feb;50(1):46-51
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  • [Title] The bottom line: outcomes after conservation treatment in anal cancer.
  • At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Westmead Hospital, between 1980 and 2000, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal or margin (including 15 with Stage IIIA or IIIB) were treated radically; 55 received chemoradiation (89% were prescribed mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil).
  • Tumour size was the main factor driving outcomes, especially survival.
  • Most patients with anal cancer can expect to retain a functional sphincter after chemoradiation/radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16499727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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33. Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S: Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Dec;5(12):692-3
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  • [Title] Anal cancer: is neoadjuvant cisplatin chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy friend or foe?
  • This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of the Intergroup RTOG 98-11 trial, which aimed to investigate both the potential role of cisplatin as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and also its role concurrently in combination with radiotherapy, for anal-canal carcinoma.
  • Although chemoradiotherapy has had an important effect on the treatment of anal cancer, and allows preservation of anorectal function with survival rates similar to or better than those of surgical treatment, overall survival rates for advanced tumors are still in the region of 50-60% at 5 years.
  • A strong theoretical rationale for cisplatin-based treatment in anal cancer exists; several phase II trials have demonstrated a high response rate with reduced colostomy rates.

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  • (PMID = 18852720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Chang GJ, Gonzalez RJ, Skibber JM, Eng C, Das P, Rodriguez-Bigas MA: A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal. Dis Colon Rectum; 2009 Aug;52(8):1375-80
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  • [Title] A twenty-year experience with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • PURPOSE: Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy with limited data regarding treatment and outcomes.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate disease control and survival outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: A retrospective consecutive cohort study of all patients in whom adenocarcinoma of the anal canal was diagnosed between 1983 and 2004 was performed.
  • Tumor, patient, and treatment characteristics were categorized.
  • Tumor grade was predictive of overall survival (P = 0.04) and recurrence (P = 0.046).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined modality treatment with radical surgical resection improves survival among patients with adenocarcinoma of the anal canal, but a high risk for distant failure emphasizes the need for effective adjuvant therapeutic regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Texas / epidemiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19617747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Markos AR: The presentation of anogenital cancers as sexually transmissible infection: a case for vigilance. Sex Health; 2007 Mar;4(1):79-80
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  • [Title] The presentation of anogenital cancers as sexually transmissible infection: a case for vigilance.
  • There is sporadically published literature reporting cases of vulval, penile and anal cancers presenting at genitourinary medicine clinics.
  • The recent referral of a series of cases, by medical practitioners, as anogenital warts, which were later diagnosed as vulval, penile and anal cancers, is alarming.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Referral and Consultation

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  • (PMID = 17382045.001).
  • [ISSN] 1448-5028
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexual health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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36. Palefsky JM, Rubin M: The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2009 Mar;36(1):187-200
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  • [Title] The epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus and related neoplasia.
  • The relationship between cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known.
  • Like cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by a series of precancerous changes, raising the possibility that like cervical cancer, anal cancer can be prevented.
  • Further, given the known risk factors for anal cancer, prevention efforts could be targeted to high-risk groups, providing a unique example of a screening program targeted to high-risk individuals.
  • This article describes the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer among men and women, as well as current efforts to prevent anal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Colonoscopy / methods. Human papillomavirus 11. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Risk Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19344856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0474
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 085178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 88739; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR02413,1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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37. Giuliano AR, Anic G, Nyitray AG: Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 May;117(2 Suppl):S15-9
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  • More than 90% of genital warts are caused by non-oncogenic HPV types 6 and 11.
  • Several cancers of the anogenital tract and upper aero-digestive tract, and their precursor lesions in men are now understood to be caused by infection with sexually transmitted HPV.
  • For example, there is increasing incidence of anal cancer in western countries; however, there are limited data on its primary cause, anal canal HPV infection.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20138345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098803; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA134204; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA098803; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03CA134204-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS645179; NLM/ PMC4254924
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38. Christensen AF, Nielsen BM, Engelholm SA: Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer. Acta Radiol; 2008 Mar;49(2):132-7
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional endoluminal ultrasound-guided interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: New techniques using image guidance other than computed tomography (CT) and traditional two-dimensional (2D) endosonography might improve interstitial brachytherapy in patients with anal cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with anal carcinoma were referred to interstitial brachytherapy under 3D endosonographic guidance after external radiotherapy.
  • The procedure was initiated by anal endosonography performed with a 10-MHz rotating endoprobe.
  • Cross-sectional images of the anal sphincters were stored on a 3D system during retraction of the endoprobe through the anal canal.
  • The needles were inserted through holes in an externally fixated anal template.
  • A repeated endosonography assured that optimal tumor coverage could be obtained by adjusting the number, dwell positions, and/or position of the needles.
  • CONCLUSION: 3D endosonography guidance of interstitial brachytherapy in anal carcinoma seems to optimize the implant procedure and offer better information for dose planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Brachytherapy / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 18300134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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39. Herman JM, Thomas CR Jr: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: an obvious yet complicated transition. Oncology (Williston Park); 2010 Aug;24(9):828, 830-1
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer: an obvious yet complicated transition.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Costs and Cost Analysis. Forecasting. Humans. Patient Selection. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentOn] Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Aug;24(9):815-23, 828 [20923035.001]
  • (PMID = 20923036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Sherwood BT, Jones GD, Mellon JK, Kockelbergh RC, Steward WP, Symonds RP: Concomitant chemoradiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: the way forward for bladder preservation? Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 May;17(3):160-6
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  • [Title] Concomitant chemoradiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: the way forward for bladder preservation?
  • Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a common malignancy with a high mortality rate.
  • In other tumour models, most notably cervical and anal cancer, radiation and chemotherapy delivered concomitantly have resulted in significant survival advantages.
  • Here, we consider the potential value of this approach in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer.

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  • (PMID = 15900999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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41. Karmiris K, Roussomoustakaki M, Tzardi M, Romanos J, Grammatikakis J, Papadakis M, Polychronaki M, Kouroumalis EA: Ileal malignant melanoma causing intussusception: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(6):506-9
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  • [Title] Ileal malignant melanoma causing intussusception: report of a case.
  • Cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) often metastasizes to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; however, primary MM of the small intestine is a controversial diagnosis.
  • After clinical evaluation, the radiological workup, which included magnetic resonance enteroclysis (MRE), revealed a large polypoid intraluminal tumor.
  • Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of MM and a detailed postoperative examination failed to identify a primary lesion on the skin, anus, oculus, or any other site.

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  • (PMID = 17522772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
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42. Pitts MK, Fox C, Willis J, Anderson J: What do gay men know about human papillomavirus? Australian gay men's knowledge and experience of anal cancer screening and human papillomavirus. Sex Transm Dis; 2007 Mar;34(3):170-3
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  • [Title] What do gay men know about human papillomavirus? Australian gay men's knowledge and experience of anal cancer screening and human papillomavirus.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine levels of experience and knowledge concerning anal dysplasia, anal Pap smear tests, and human papillomavirus (HPV) among gay and other homosexually active men.
  • On a range of measures, it was clear that the men knew very little about anal cancer (19% scored zero on a 12-point knowledge scale) and virtually nothing about HPV (47% scored zero on an 8-point knowledge scale).
  • A total of 55.1% had never heard of an anal Pap smear and 44.8% had ever heard of HPV; 56.4% did not know whether it affected men and/or women.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The test for anal dysplasia is still largely unknown among Australian gay men and they currently have poor sense of personal susceptibility to the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma in Situ / prevention & control. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Homosexuality, Male / psychology. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16837830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Daley EM, Marhefka SL, Buhi ER, Vamos CA, Hernandez ND, Giuliano AR: Human papillomavirus vaccine intentions among men participating in a human papillomavirus natural history study versus a comparison sample. Sex Transm Dis; 2010 Oct;37(10):644-52
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  • HPV has been associated with anogenital warts and cancers in males and females, affecting the cervix, penis, anus, vulvar, and vaginal regions; and more recently, has been associated with oropharyngeal cancers.

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  • (PMID = 20879088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4521
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098803; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA123346; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA123346-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS410502; NLM/ PMC3471777
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44. Palefsky JM, Berry JM, Jay N, Krogstad M, Da Costa M, Darragh TM, Lee JY: A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS; 2006 May 12;20(8):1151-5
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  • [Title] A trial of SGN-00101 (HspE7) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive individuals.
  • OBJECTIVES: To test a therapeutic vaccine consisting of a fusion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein and the Mycobacterium bovis heat shock protein 65 (SGN-00101) to treat high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN) in HIV-positive individuals.
  • Anal disease was assessed at baseline, 8, 12, 24 and 48 weeks and was classified as the more severe of anal cytology and anal biopsy.
  • Anal HPV DNA was detected using L1 consensus primer-based PCR followed by type-specific probing and dot-blot hybridization (DBH).
  • At 48 weeks, two of five participants in both the 100 and 500 microg cohorts regressed to AIN 1 and one of five participants in the 1000 microg cohort regressed to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. HIV Seropositivity / complications

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  • (PMID = 16691066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR 00079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA 70047
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Chaperonin 60; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 0 / heat-shock protein 65, Mycobacterium; EC 3.6.1.- / Chaperonins
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45. Wu M, Zhang SW, Han RQ, Zhou JY, Zou XN, Chen WQ: [Analysis on the mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in China during 2004 - 2005]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 May;44(5):403-7
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  • [Title] [Analysis on the mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in China during 2004 - 2005].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in the Chinese population during 2004 - 2005.
  • METHODS: Mortality of colorectal and anal cancer from The 3rd National Death Retrospective Sampling Survey (2004 - 2005) were analyzed, with that the total population was 142 660 482 person-year and the number of death cases was 10 586.
  • Crude death rate, age-standardized death rate by Chinese standard population (CASR) and world standard population (WASR), the constitute proportion to all cancer deaths and rank of cancer death were calculated and compared with The 1st (during 1973 - 1975) and The 2nd (during 1990 - 1992) National Death Retrospective Surveys.
  • RESULTS: The mortality of colorectal and anal cancer in China was 7.42/100 000 (10 586/142 660 482) during 2004 - 2005, accounting for 5.46% of total cancer deaths and ranked the 5th leading cause of death from cancer.
  • Compared to the crude death rate 5.30/100 000 and CASR 4.54/100 000 during 1990 - 1992, the crude death rate and CASR from colorectal and anal cancer increased by 40.00% and 5.51%, whereas compared to the crude death rate 4.17/100 000 and CASR 4.27/100 000 during 1973 - 1975, the crude death rate and CASR had increased by 77.94% and 12.18% respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The mortality of colorectal and anal cancer has been increasing rapidly in China.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality


46. Dittmer DP: An appraisal of non-AIDS-defining cancers: comment on "Spectrum of cancer risk late after AIDS onset in the United States". Arch Intern Med; 2010 Aug 9;170(15):1345-6
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  • [Title] An appraisal of non-AIDS-defining cancers: comment on "Spectrum of cancer risk late after AIDS onset in the United States".
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. United States / epidemiology. Viral Load


47. Patel HS, Silver AR, Northover JM: Anal cancer in renal transplant patients. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Jan;22(1):1-5
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  • [Title] Anal cancer in renal transplant patients.
  • PURPOSE: A comprehensive literature review was performed to examine the prevalence of anal cancer, anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in renal transplant recipients who are at risk of anal cancer due to iatrogenic immunosuppression.
  • METHODS: Pertinent articles were identified from searches performed on the National Center for Biotechnology Information database using the following keywords: anal cancer, AIN, screening, renal transplant (or kidney transplant), organ transplant recipients and post-transplant malignancies.
  • The prevalence of anal HPV infection in established transplant patients is 47%, and the prevalence of anal HPV infection in new transplant patients is 23%.
  • The relative risk for anal cancer in renal transplant patients is 10.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As compared to HIV-positive male patients who practise anal intercourse, renal transplant patients showed a modest rise in relative risk for anal cancer.
  • Screening programmes to detect AIN in HIV-positive patients who practise anal intercourse have been introduced on a preliminary basis in sexual health clinics in the US and may become standard practise in this population.
  • The case for screening in renal transplant patients is unclear and would merit further investigation, especially with reference to the prevalence of anal HPV infection in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Kidney Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Humans. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16133005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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48. Altieri A, Hemminki K: Number of siblings and the risk of solid tumours: a nation-wide study. Br J Cancer; 2007 Jun 4;96(11):1755-9
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  • We analysed the effects of number of siblings on the risk of solid tumours using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, including population-based information on over 11 million individuals and more than 178,000 cancer patients diagnosed between 1958 and 2004.
  • Having eight or more siblings vs none increased the risk of stomach cancer (RR=1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.34).
  • Anal cancer diagnosed before age 40 showed the strongest association with the total siblings (RR=3.27, 95% CI, 2.04-5.26 for five or more siblings vs none).
  • Endometrial (RR=0.76, 95% CI, 0.70-0.82), testicular (RR=0.71, 95% CI, 0.62-0.82), skin cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI, 0.69-0.97) and melanoma (RR=0.72, 95% CI, 0.65-0.79) showed strong decreased risks for five or more siblings vs none.
  • Prostate cancer risk for those with five or more older siblings vs none was 1.38 (95% CI, 1.23-1.55).
  • Having five or more younger siblings was most strongly associated with stomach cancer (RR=1.59, 95% CI, 1.29-1.95) and melanoma (RR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.59-0.79).
  • We conclude that sibship characteristics are strong correlates of cancer risk at several sites; plausible interpretations include socioeconomic status.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Social Class. Sweden / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17453006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359906
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49. Kreuter A, Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Swoboda J, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Aug;128(8):2078-83
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  • [Title] Imiquimod leads to a decrease of human papillomavirus DNA and to a sustained clearance of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected men.
  • Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), a human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated precursor lesion of anal carcinoma, is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM).
  • Standardized follow-up examinations included high-resolution anoscopy, anal cytology/histology, HPV typing, and DNA load determination for HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 33.
  • A total of 74% (14/19) of the patients remained free of AIN at the previously treated site.
  • During follow-up, 58% of all patients (11/19) developed new anal cytological abnormalities in previously normal, untreated anal regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. DNA, Viral / drug effects. HIV Infections / complications. Papillomaviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18273049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Investigator] Adam A; Schewe K; Weitner L; Aratesh K; Arendt G; Bartz C; Behrens G; Beichert M; Bieniek B; Cordes C; Bochow M; Brockmeyer N; Buchholz B; Bogner JR; Buhk T; Clad A; Dannecker M; Dupke S; von Einsiedel R; Esser S; Faetkenheuer G; Fischer K; Freiwald M; Friebe-Hoffmann U; Fenske S; Funk M; Ganschow R; Gingelmaier A; Glaunsinger T; Goebel FD; Gölz J; Grosch-Wörner I; Haberl A; Hamouda O; Harrer T; Hartmann M; Hartl H; Hölscher M; Hower M; Husstedt IW; Jansen K; Jäger H; Jessen H; Jessen A; Karwat M; Klausen G; Kirchhoff F; Knechten H; Köppe S; Kreuter A; Kuhlmann B; Langer P; Lauenroth-Mai; Lehmacher W; Lehmann M; Levin C; Lübke M; Maschke M; Marcus U; Mauss S; Meyerhans A; Meyer-Olson D; ter Meulen V; Michalik C; Moll A; Mosthaf FA; Mutz A; Neuen-Jacob E; Niehues T; Oette M; Paulus U; Plettenberg A; Potthoff A; Racz P; Racz K; Rasokat H; Rausch M; Reichelt D; Reitter A; Rieke A; Rockstroh J; Salzberger B; Schafberger A; Schauer J; Schlote F; Schmidt B; Schranz D; Scholten S; Schuler C; Schwab M; Schmidt W; Schmidt R; Schwarze S; Siffert W; Skaletz-Rorowski A; Sonnenberg-Schwan U; Sopper S; Spengler U; Staszewski S; Steffan E; Stellbrink HJ; Stoll M; Goecke T; Taubert S; Telschik A; Ulmer A; Ullrich R; Uberla K; Usadel S; Vogel M; Wagner R; Walter H; Warnatz K; Wasem J; Wiesel W; Von Weizsäcker K; Wieland U; Wintergerst U; Wolf E; Wolf H; Wünsche T; Wyen Ch; Zeitz M; Zylka-Menhorn V
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50. Abramowitz L, Benabderrahmane D, Ravaud P, Walker F, Rioux C, Jestin C, Bouvet E, Soulé JC, Leport C, Duval X: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors. AIDS; 2007 Jul 11;21(11):1457-65
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  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma in HIV-infected heterosexual men, homosexual men and women: prevalence and associated factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions and condyloma [human papillomavirus (HPV)-related lesions) in HIV-infected patients.
  • RESULTS: Of 473 patients examined, (200 homosexual men, 123 heterosexual men, 150 women), 108 (23%) had histologically confirmed anal HPV-related lesions (36, 15 and 11% of the respective populations), including 51 (47%) with only endoanal localization.
  • Among these 108 patients, histological dysplasia of grades I or II and grade III were noted in 59 and two patients, respectively, invasive endoanal cancer in one; three patients also had high-risk oncogenicity HPV without dysplasia.
  • Independent identified associated factors of HPV-related condyloma were the number of incidents of sexual intercourse per month [odds ratio (OR) 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06], CD4 cell count below 200 x 10 cells/l (OR 3.22; 95% CI 1.37-7.60), history of anal HPV lesion (OR 4.57; 95% CI 2.13-9.81), and receptive anal intercourse (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.11-4.77).
  • The two latter factors remained associated with histological dysplasia (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.38-5.76 for history of anal condyloma, and OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.18-8.44 for receptive anal intercourse).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / virology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / diagnosis. HIV Infections / virology. Sexual Behavior
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Heterosexuality. Homosexuality. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / virology. Prevalence. Risk


51. Seaberg EC, Wiley D, Martínez-Maza O, Chmiel JS, Kingsley L, Tang Y, Margolick JB, Jacobson LP, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): Cancer incidence in the multicenter AIDS Cohort Study before and during the HAART era: 1984 to 2007. Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;116(23):5507-16
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  • [Title] Cancer incidence in the multicenter AIDS Cohort Study before and during the HAART era: 1984 to 2007.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals declined after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s, but the cancer risk associated with HIV infection during the HAART era remains to be clarified.
  • METHODS: Cancer incidence among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants in the Multicenter AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Cohort Study (MACS) between 1984 and 2007 was compared with the expected incidence using US population-based data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program.
  • Age- and race-adjusted cancer incidence rates were also compared HIV by status and over time within the MACS.
  • RESULTS: A total of 933 incident cancers were observed during 77,320 person-years of follow-up.
  • Compared with SEER, MACS HIV-infected men had significantly (P<.05) elevated rates of KS (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 139.10), NHL (SIR, 36.80), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)(SIR, 7.30), and anal cancer (SIR, 25.71).
  • Within MACS, HIV infection was found to be independently associated with each of these cancers across the entire follow-up period, and KS (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 54.93), NHL (IRR, 11.18), and anal cancer (IRR, 18.50) were each found to be significantly elevated among HIV-infected men during the HAART era.
  • Among these men, the incidence of KS and NHL declined (IRR, 0.13 and 0.23, respectively), the incidence of anal cancer increased (IRR, 5.84), and the incidence of HL remained statistically unchanged (IRR, 0.75) from the pre-HAART to the HAART era.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cancer risk remains elevated among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, highlighting the continuing need for appropriate cancer screening in this population.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 20672354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35042; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000052-46; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041-17; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5-M01-RR-00052; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035039-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035042-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035041; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035042-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035043-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UM1 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035040-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043-17; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000052; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040-17; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035043; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35039; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035040; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035039
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS218249; NLM/ PMC2991510
  • [Investigator] Margolick JB; Jacobson LP; Phair JP; Wolinsky SM; Detels R; Rinaldo CR
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52. Nielson CM, Harris RB, Dunne EF, Abrahamsen M, Papenfuss MR, Flores R, Markowitz LE, Giuliano AR: Risk factors for anogenital human papillomavirus infection in men. J Infect Dis; 2007 Oct 15;196(8):1137-45
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  • BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17955431.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098803; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA078447; United States / PHS HHS / / MM-0579-03/03; United States / PHS HHS / / U36/CCU319276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS56671; NLM/ PMC3877918
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53. Jiang Y, Mackley H, Cheng H, Ajani JA: Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy? J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2010 Jan;8(1):135-44
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  • [Title] Anal carcinoma therapy: can we improve on 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin/radiotherapy?
  • Use of definitive chemoradiation as primary therapy for locoregional squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal has been the standard approach in the United States since the 1980s.
  • Further improvement is likely depending on an increased understanding of the molecular biology of anal carcinoma and the addition of relevant biologic agents to chemoradiation to overcome chemoradiation resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 20064295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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54. Harper DM: Prevention of human papillomavirus infections and associated diseases by vaccination: a new hope for global public health. Public Health Genomics; 2009;12(5-6):319-30
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  • Cervarix and Gardasil, 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, have been approved and implemented globally in young adolescent women with the hope of reducing the incidence of cervical cancer several decades hence.
  • Likewise, realizing a decline in cervical cancer from young adolescent female vaccination depends on the duration of vaccine efficacy, and the population coverage reached.
  • This same concept of immunobridging supported by limited efficacy data offers the potential to reduce cervical cancer precursors within just a few years in our young sexually active adult women, a population secondary to our young adolescents.
  • Neither vaccine will inhibit an already HPV-infected basal epithelial cell which continues to transform differentiated epithelial layers into cervical dysplasias.
  • There is a clinical hope, though, already supported by early data, that the vaccines are capable of neutralizing HPV virions in host tissues from both auto-inoculated infections and infections in other organs than the cervix, thereby making it possible for these vaccines to prevent less common HPV-associated cancers of the penis, vagina, vulva, anus, oral cavity and oro-pharynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19684444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1662-8063
  • [Journal-full-title] Public health genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Public Health Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / human papillomavirus vaccine, L1 type 16, 18
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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55. Poggi MM, Suh WW, Saltz L, Konski AA, Mohiuddin M, Herman J, Johnstone PA: ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer. J Am Coll Radiol; 2007 Jul;4(7):448-56
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  • [Title] ACR Appropriateness Criteria on treatment of anal cancer.
  • Anal cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm, accounting for roughly 4,500 cases per year.
  • The evolution of the definitive treatment of anal cancer from a surgical to a nonsurgical approach, however, has been viewed as a model disease site in a larger paradigm shift in medicine.
  • Organ preservation, in this case a functional anal sphincter, and durable cure are obtainable goals.
  • To this end, anal cancer is a disease best treated primarily with chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17601586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-349X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Coll Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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56. Wisniewski B, Vuong PN, Balaton A, Bauer P, Brugger S, Janzen J: [Anal metastasis from a lung cancer]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2006 Mar;30(3):471-2
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  • [Title] [Anal metastasis from a lung cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase anale d'un cancer broncho-pulmonaire.
  • We report an anal metastasis from a lung cancer which was diagnosed on symptoms mimicking an acute anal abcess.
  • The diagnosis was based on specific immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Anus Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


57. Truesdale MD, Goldstone SE: The fear factor: drivers and barriers to follow-up screening for human papillomavirus-related anal cancer in men who have sex with men. Int J STD AIDS; 2010 Jul;21(7):482-8
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  • [Title] The fear factor: drivers and barriers to follow-up screening for human papillomavirus-related anal cancer in men who have sex with men.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer incidence is rising in men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Retrospective chart review identified MSM with anal dysplasia.
  • Questionnaires were completed after anal dysplasia diagnosis.
  • RF were more likely to describe their HPV diagnosis as 'upsetting' (P = 0.003).
  • Positive predictors for screening compliance include an upsetting experience during the HPV diagnosis, physical symptoms driving the initial visit and HSIL.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / psychology. Early Detection of Cancer / psychology. Homosexuality, Male. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Patient Compliance / statistics & numerical data


58. Van Damme N, Deron P, Van Roy N, Demetter P, Bols A, Van Dorpe J, Baert F, Van Laethem JL, Speleman F, Pauwels P, Peeters M: Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:189
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used.
  • For the K-RAS gene, PCR was performed using exon 2 specific primers.
  • RESULTS: EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas.
  • EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours.From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21.
  • CONCLUSION: EGFR mutations were absent from squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and tonsils, but EGFR protein expression was detected in the majority of the cases.
  • EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas.
  • In our investigated panel, only one mutation in the K-RAS gene of a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma was identified.
  • This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not useful as a screening test for sensitivity to anti-EGFR therapy in anal canal and tonsil squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Tonsillar Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal / chemistry. Anal Canal / pathology. Base Sequence. Belgium. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20459770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887399
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59. de Parades V, Etienney I, Bauer P, Bourguignon J, Meary N, Mory B, Sultan S, Taouk M, Thomas C, Atienza P: Formalin application in the treatment of chronic radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis--an effective but not risk-free procedure: a prospective study of 33 patients. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Aug;48(8):1535-41
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  • There were 11 anal cancers (33 percent), 11 prostate cancers, 9 cervical or endometrial cancers, 1 bladder cancer, and 1 rectal cancer.
  • Six anal or rectal strictures occurred: 4 patients had been treated for anal cancer (36 percent) and 2 patients had been treated for other cancers (9 percent).
  • None of the strictures was malignant.
  • Anal incontinence worsened in 5 patients of the 11 who had been treated for anal cancer (45 percent) and occurred in 4 of the 22 other patients (18 percent).
  • This result may be related to the high proportion of anal cancers in the series.
  • In our opinion, therefore, formalin application should be reserved for severe hemorrhagic proctitis refractory to medical treatment and should be thoroughly discussed in cases of anorectal radiation-induced stricture, prior anal incontinence, or treated anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anus Diseases / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Blood Transfusion. Constriction, Pathologic / etiology. Fecal Incontinence / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retreatment. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Apr;49(4):530-1; author reply 531-2 [16416079.001]
  • (PMID = 15933799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemostatics; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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60. Palefsky JM: HPV infection in men. Dis Markers; 2007;23(4):261-72
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  • While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men.
  • Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood.
  • Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men.
  • However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Anus Neoplasms / etiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Condylomata Acuminata / etiology. Condylomata Acuminata / virology. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / etiology. Penile Neoplasms / virology. Sexual Partners

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  • (PMID = 17627061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 78
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3851123
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61. Korbel JO, Tirosh-Wagner T, Urban AE, Chen XN, Kasowski M, Dai L, Grubert F, Erdman C, Gao MC, Lange K, Sobel EM, Barlow GM, Aylsworth AS, Carpenter NJ, Clark RD, Cohen MY, Doran E, Falik-Zaccai T, Lewin SO, Lott IT, McGillivray BC, Moeschler JB, Pettenati MJ, Pueschel SM, Rao KW, Shaffer LG, Shohat M, Van Riper AJ, Warburton D, Weissman S, Gerstein MB, Snyder M, Korenberg JR: The genetic architecture of Down syndrome phenotypes revealed by high-resolution analysis of human segmental trisomies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Jul 21;106(29):12031-6
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  • Down syndrome (DS), or trisomy 21, is a common disorder associated with several complex clinical phenotypes.
  • By using state-of-the-art genomics technologies we mapped segmental trisomies at exon-level resolution and identified discrete regions of 1.8-16.3 Mb likely to be involved in the development of 8 DS phenotypes, 4 of which are congenital malformations, including acute megakaryocytic leukemia, transient myeloproliferative disorder, Hirschsprung disease, duodenal stenosis, imperforate anus, severe mental retardation, DS-Alzheimer Disease, and DS-specific congenital heart disease (DSCHD).

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  • (PMID = 19597142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007205
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2709665
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62. StatBite: Cancer incidence among HIV-infected individuals in the U.S., 2000-2003. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2008 Sep 3;100(17):1199
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  • [Title] StatBite: Cancer incidence among HIV-infected individuals in the U.S., 2000-2003.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Anus Neoplasms / virology. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Humans. Incidence. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / virology. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18728278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Karamanou M, Matsaggas A, Skarpas G, Gkeneralis G, Androutsos G: Hallmarks in colorectal cancer surgery. J BUON; 2010 Oct-Dec;15(4):803-8
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  • [Title] Hallmarks in colorectal cancer surgery.
  • Starting from the first attempts of artificial anus creation to the successful excision of the rectum for cancer, the lumbar colostomy and the creation of caecostomy and ileostomy, we present the major hallmarks in the history of colorectal cancer surgery.

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  • (PMID = 21229654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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64. Dhir AA, Sawant SP: Malignancies in HIV: the Indian scenario. Curr Opin Oncol; 2008 Sep;20(5):517-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical cancer were found to occur in a higher proportion among the HIV-infected individuals in India as compared with non-HIV-infected individuals.
  • Amongst the non-AIDS defining cancers anal cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, colon cancer and certain head and neck cancer sites in men and vaginal cancers among women were found to occur more frequently.
  • As India is a large country and geographically and culturally diverse, large-scale studies need to be done linking the regional cancer centres with the AIDS centres across the country to evaluate the exact burden of HIV-related malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 19106653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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65. Tirado-Ramos A, Saltz J, Lechowicz MJ: HIV-K: an integrative knowledge base for semantic integration of AIDS-related malignancy data and treatment outcomes. Stud Health Technol Inform; 2010;159:239-43
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  • At the same time, large numbers of randomized clinical trial and outcomes data on AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) have been produced during the last few years.
  • We are working to increase the understanding of available clinical trial data and outcomes of ADM such as lymphoma, as well as nADM such as anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or liver cancer.

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stud Health Technol Inform
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050409; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050409; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050409-11; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025008; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025008-04; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000454
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS315000; NLM/ PMC3157699
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66. Membrilla-Fernández E, Parés D, Alameda F, Pascual M, Courtier R, Gil MJ, Vallecillo G, Fusté P, Pera M, Grande L: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology]. Cir Esp; 2009 Jun;85(6):365-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoplasia intraepitelial anal: resultados de la aplicación de un protocolo diagnóstico en pacientes de riesgo mediante el uso de citología anal.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor condition of squamous anal carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the results of a diagnostics protocol of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in high risk population using anal cytology.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: The protocol is based on a visit in the outpatient department, clinical interview, physical examination and anal cytology evaluated by Bethesda criteria.
  • The cross-sectional observational study was designed to study the anal smear results and their relationship with risk factors.
  • In the overall series, 25 patients have been diagnosed with abnormal anal cytology: 9 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 15 low-grade and 1 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • There were no significant associations between abnormal cytology results and the presence of anal condyloma (p = 0.22).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnostic protocol of anal intraepithelial neoplasia revealed 25% of patients with pre-invasive lesions of squamous anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19303590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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67. Zbar AP, Shenoy RK, Chiappa A: Extended abdominoperineal resection in women: the Barbadian experience. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2007;4:1
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We report our results of a selective approach to primary direct appositional vaginal repair versus transverse rectus abdominis flap repair (TRAM) in patients with extensive rectal/anal cancer or in cases with primary cancer of cervix, vagina or vulva involving the anal canal and anal sphincters.
  • Exenterative procedures were performed in 2 cases of primary vaginal cancer, following Wertheim hysterectomy for carcinoma of the cervix with recurrence after radiation and in 2 further cases of anal cancer with extensive pelvic recurrence after primary chemoradiation.
  • Fifteen cases are alive on follow-up with no evidence of disease; 2 patients who had recurrent carcinoma of the cervix and who underwent TRAM flap reconstruction, have recurrent disease after 5 and 6 months of follow-up, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 17214895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1779795
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68. Patel H, Polanco-Echeverry G, Segditsas S, Volikos E, McCart A, Lai C, Guenther T, Zaitoun A, Sieber O, Ilyas M, Northover J, Silver A: Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;121(12):2668-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activation of AKT and nuclear accumulation of wild type TP53 and MDM2 in anal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is considered as an important aetiological factor for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) but is not sufficient for tumour progression.
  • This carcinoma is poorly understood at the molecular level.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Mutation. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Amino Acid Substitution. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Mutagenesis, Insertional. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Retrospective Studies. Sequence Deletion. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / virology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17721920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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69. Hoots BE, Palefsky JM, Pimenta JM, Smith JS: Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions. Int J Cancer; 2009 May 15;124(10):2375-83
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus type distribution in anal cancer and anal intraepithelial lesions.
  • A systematic review was conducted of HPV type distribution in anal cancer and anal high-grade and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and LSIL).
  • A total of 1,824 cases were included: 992 invasive anal cancers, 472 HSIL cases and 360 LSIL cases.
  • Crude HPV prevalence in anal cancer, HSIL, and LSIL was 71, 91 and 88%, respectively.
  • HPV16/18 prevalence was 72% in invasive anal cancer, 69% in HSIL and 27% in LSIL.
  • The HPV 16 and/or 18 prevalence in invasive anal cancer cases was similar to that reported in invasive cervical cancer.
  • If ongoing clinical trials show efficacy in preventing anal HPV infection and associated anal lesions, prophylactic HPV vaccines may play an important role for the primary prevention of these cancers in both genders.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Species Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19189402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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70. Kälkner KM, Bengtsson E, Eriksson S, Holmberg C, Nilsson S, Levitt S, Lundell M: Dosimetry of anal radiation in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Brachytherapy; 2007 Jan-Mar;6(1):49-52
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  • [Title] Dosimetry of anal radiation in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to determine the radiation dose to the anus during brachytherapy using high-dose-rate Ir-192 sources.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thermoluminescence dosimeters were used for measuring the dose to the distal part of the anus in 10 patients, and in a prostate phantom to measure the radiation dose during the transport of the radiation source.
  • RESULTS: The measured dose to the anus in vivo was on average 0.85 Gy (range, 0.48-1.37 Gy) per treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The dose delivered to the anus using high-dose-rate brachytherapy with Ir-192 sources is quite low.
  • There is a contribution to the anal radiation dose during the transport of the Ir-192 source into the needles.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17284386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4721
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Clay M, Evans MF, Peng Z, Cooper K: No evidence of human clonally transmissible anogenital cancer. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;18(4):304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] No evidence of human clonally transmissible anogenital cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Chromosome Aberrations. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae. Penile Neoplasms / genetics. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20627958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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72. Chiao EY, Giordano TP, Palefsky JM, Tyring S, El Serag H: Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis; 2006 Jul 15;43(2):223-33
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  • [Title] Screening HIV-infected individuals for anal cancer precursor lesions: a systematic review.
  • Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk for human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus.
  • Screening HIV-infected patients for squamous cell cancer of the anus and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia may prevent excess morbidity and mortality.
  • We have conducted a systematic review of the indirect evidence in the literature regarding the utility of anal Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening of HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.
  • Although there are no published studies evaluating the efficacy of anal Pap smear screening for preventing squamous cell cancer of the anus or anal intraepithelial neoplasia, we reviewed data regarding the burden of disease, anal Pap smear sensitivity and specificity, the prevalence of anal dysplasia, and 1 cost effectiveness study.
  • The available evidence demonstrates that HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk for squamous cell cancer of the anus and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This review identifies important areas for further study before routine anal Pap smear screening can be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. HIV Infections / complications. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / etiology. Female. Humans. Male. Mass Screening. Papillomaviridae


73. Li AH, Phanuphak N, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Chaithongwongwatthana S, Vermund SH, Jenkins CA, Shepherd BE, Teeratakulpisarn N, van der Lugt J, Avihingsanon A, Ruxrungtham K, Shikuma C, Phanuphak P, Ananworanich J: Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative men who have sex with men in Thailand. Sex Transm Infect; 2009 Dec;85(7):503-7
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  • [Title] Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative men who have sex with men in Thailand.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL), the putative anal cancer precursor, in Asian HIV positive and HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • METHODS: Men who underwent anal Pap smear reported clinical, sociodemographic and behavioural information collected through questionnaire and interview between January 2007 and April 2008.
  • Overall, 27% had abnormal anal cytology: 13.2% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 11.5% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 2.3% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • Anal condyloma was detected in 22% of HIV positive and 16.1% (9/56) of HIV negative MSM (p = 0.5).
  • In HIV positive MSM, anal condyloma (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 9.04; p = 0.01) was a significant risk factor for ASIL.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy use and CD4+ T cell count were not associated with ASIL.
  • Thus, as greater numbers of HIV positive MSM live longer due to increasing access to HAART worldwide, effective strategies to screen and manage anal precancerous lesions are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. HIV Seronegativity / physiology. HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 19525263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-3263
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI050410; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / TL1 RR024978
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS527353; NLM/ PMC3875384
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74. Hatfield P, Cooper R, Sebag-Montefiore D: Involved-field, low-dose chemoradiotherapy for early-stage anal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):419-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Involved-field, low-dose chemoradiotherapy for early-stage anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report the results of patients with early-stage anal cancer treated using a low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy protocol.
  • Of the 21 patients, 17 had had lesions that were excised with close (<1 mm) or involved margins, 1 had had microinvasive disease on biopsy, and 3 had had macroscopic tumor <2 cm in diameter (T1).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study have shown that for patients with anal carcinoma who have residual microscopic or very-small-volume disease, a policy of low-dose, reduced-volume, involved-field chemoradiotherapy produces excellent local control and disease-free survival, with low rates of acute and late toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Dose Fractionation. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17919842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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75. Veit-Haibach P, Treyer V, Strobel K, Soyka JD, Husmann L, Schaefer NG, Tschopp A, Hany TF: Feasibility of integrated CT-liver perfusion in routine FDG-PET/CT. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Oct;35(5):528-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six consecutive patients (mean age: 60 (34-82) years; 20 f, 26 m) with known liver lesions (colorectal metastases (n = 34), primary liver cancer (n = 4), breast cancer (n = 3), anal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, GIST, duodenal cancer (all: n = 1) who were referred for staging or therapy follow-up by [18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron-emission-tomography/computed-tomography imaging (FDG-PET/CT) were included.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Contrast Media. Feasibility Studies. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Radiopharmaceuticals. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19593563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide
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76. Lian P, Gu WL, Zhang Z, Cai GX, Wang MH, Xu Y, Sheng WQ, Cai SJ: Retrospective analysis of perianal Paget's disease with underlying anorectal carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Jun 21;16(23):2943-8
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  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of perianal Paget's disease with underlying anorectal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: PPD patients were retrospectively collected in the institutional colorectal database of the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center.
  • Detailed patient histories of past medical condition, diagnosis, treatment, and pathological findings were reviewed.
  • Surgical specimen from diagnosis and surgery were reviewed by two independent pathologists for confirmation of diagnoses.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 65 (range 29-81 years), and the male/female ratio was 7:1.
  • Underlying anorectal cancer was not unusual and was a significant prognostic factor.
  • Rational treatment of both anorectal cancer and PPD lesion is essential for long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20556842.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887592
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77. Elit L, Voruganti S, Simunovic M: Invasive vulvar cancer in a woman with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):151-4
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  • [Title] Invasive vulvar cancer in a woman with human immunodeficiency virus: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: : HIV is associated with a decrease in cellular immunity which allows for persistence of high-risk HPV types and this can predispose the woman to dysplasia or cancer of the gynecologic tract.
  • CASE: : We present a case of Stage 3 vulvar cancer in a 33-year-old HIV positive woman.
  • CONCLUSION: : The optimal treatment of advanced vulvar cancer in HIV positive patients remains unclear given the small number of cases reported in the literature.
  • Lessons from the anal cancer literature may help inform the care of vulvar cancer patients given the comparable high prevalence of this disease in the patients infected with HIV.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging


78. Durães Lde C, Sousa JB: [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):265-8
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  • [Title] [Anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases: what is the correlation?].
  • [Transliterated title] Câncer anal e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis: qual a correlação?
  • OBJECTIVE: Anal cancer is a rare tumor, which incidence is influenced by sexual behavior.
  • The purpose of this paper is to verify the correlation between anal cancer and sexually transmitted diseases, such as HPV, HIV, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection, syphilis and others.
  • METHODS: All the internments due to anal cancer, HIV, HPV, syphilis, Gonococci infection, Chlamydia infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in public healthy in Brazil were collected at Datasus site between 1998 and 2007.
  • RESULTS: There was a high correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions (r=0.98, p<0.001).
  • There was negative correlation between anal cancer and Gonococci infection admissions (r=-0.81, p=0.005) and anal cancer and Chlamydia infection (r=-0.74, p=0.014).
  • There was not statistic significant correlation between anal cancer and HIV admissions (r=0.40, p=0.245), between anal cancer and other sexually transmitted diseases (r=0.55, p=0.1), and between anal cancer and syphilis (r=-0.61, p=0.059).
  • CONCLUSION: There was a high positive correlation between anal cancer and HPV admissions in Brazil.
  • There were negative correlations between anal cancer and Gonococci infection and between anal cancer and Chlamydia infection admissions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / complications. Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21085842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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79. Haboubi N: Anal cancer; do we all have a common treatment strategy? Colorectal Dis; 2009 Nov;11(9):891-2
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  • [Title] Anal cancer; do we all have a common treatment strategy?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19832862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-1318
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Sirera G, Videla S, Piñol M, Cañadas MP, Llatjos M, Ballesteros AL, García-Cuyás F, Castellá E, Guerola R, Tural C, Rey-Joly C, Clotet B: High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the anus, penis and mouth in HIV-positive men. AIDS; 2006 May 12;20(8):1201-4
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  • [Title] High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the anus, penis and mouth in HIV-positive men.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with squamous cell cancers.
  • HIV infection is linked with a higher prevalence of anal HPV infection.
  • It is important to assess whether HPV is present in other body parts involved in sexual practices to establish a cancer prevention program.
  • A high prevalence of high-risk HPV types was present in the anus, penis and mouth (78, 36 and 30%, respectively) in a cohort of HIV-infected males (men who have sex with men and heterosexual), without evidence of pathology in these areas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anus Diseases / virology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Diseases / virology. Penile Diseases / virology. Risk Factors. Sexual Behavior

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  • (PMID = 16691074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Fraser A, Haines SR, Stuart EC, Scandlyn MJ, Alexander A, Somers-Edgar TJ, Rosengren RJ: Deer velvet supplementation decreases the grade and metastasis of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in the male rat. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 May;48(5):1288-92
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  • [Title] Deer velvet supplementation decreases the grade and metastasis of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in the male rat.
  • At necropsy, tumours were measured and the distance from the anus was recorded.
  • The results showed that there were no significant differences in most parameters examined (i.e. body weight gain, multiplicity, tumour volume and incidence).
  • The only statistically significant differences seen were associated with metastasis and tumour grade.
  • Specifically, more of the tumours in the DV-treated rats were of a lower grade compared to the controls, both when all tumour sites were considered (0.91 vs. 0.66, p<0.0001), as well as those located only in the colon (0.95 vs. 0.84, p<0.03).
  • Therefore, this study can confidently conclude that DV does not increase the incidence, multiplicity, metastasis or tumour volume of AOM-induced colon cancer in the rat.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Azoxymethane / toxicity. Disease Models, Animal. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20176070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tissue Extracts; MO0N1J0SEN / Azoxymethane
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82. Daling JR: Risk of anogenital cancer in women with CIN. Lancet Oncol; 2007 Apr;8(4):281-2
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  • [Title] Risk of anogenital cancer in women with CIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / complications. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications


83. Berton F, Gola G, Wilson SR: Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2008 Jun;190(6):1495-504
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  • [Title] Perspective on the role of transrectal and transvaginal sonography of tumors of the rectum and anal canal.
  • Our purpose is to describe the current status of sonography in the evaluation of rectal and anal tumors and in the staging of rectal cancer.
  • They are considered the reference standard for the preoperative staging of rectal and anal cancers and have relatively high accuracy in categorization of tumors and nodes in TNM staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Image Enhancement / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Rectum / ultrasonography. Vagina / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18492898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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84. Antonescu CR, Busam KJ, Francone TD, Wong GC, Guo T, Agaram NP, Besmer P, Jungbluth A, Gimbel M, Chen CT, Veach D, Clarkson BD, Paty PB, Weiser MR: L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;121(2):257-64
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  • [Title] L576P KIT mutation in anal melanomas correlates with KIT protein expression and is sensitive to specific kinase inhibition.
  • Activating mutations in either BRAF or NRAS are seen in a significant number of malignant melanomas, but their incidence appears to be dependent to ultraviolet light exposure.
  • Thus, BRAF mutations have the highest incidence in non-chronic sun damaged (CSD), and are uncommon in acral, mucosal and CSD melanomas.
  • In this study, we investigated a group of anal melanomas for the presence of BRAF, NRAS, KIT and PDGFRA mutations.
  • NRAS mutation was identified in one tumor.
  • No BRAF or PDGFRA mutations were identified in either KIT positive or negative anal melanomas.
  • These results suggest that a subset of anal melanomas show activating KIT mutations, which are susceptible for therapy with specific kinase inhibitors.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17372901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA047179; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA064593; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / HL/DK55748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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85. Valenti G, Campisi C, Testa A, Arturi A, Torino G: The blind colonic J-pouch: an original technique to reduce the surgical risk in the treatment of extra-peritoneal rectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2007 Nov;22(11):1361-7
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  • [Title] The blind colonic J-pouch: an original technique to reduce the surgical risk in the treatment of extra-peritoneal rectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Low and ultra-low anterior resection with colo-rectal or colo-anal anastomosis is accompanied by high frequency of postoperative anastomotic leakage.
  • It consists of a simple colo-rectal or colo-anal apposition with latero-terminal modality, with the creation of a colonic J-pouch called "blind" because it remains closed in the external site and the anus is sealed up.
  • Within 4-6 weeks from the first, the blind pouch is opened, the communication between the anus and the colon is established, and the colostomy is closed and reduced in the peritoneal cavity.

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  • (PMID = 17551744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-1958
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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86. Bennett MH, Feldmeier J, Hampson N, Smee R, Milross C: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for late radiation tissue injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2005;(3):CD005005
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  • BACKGROUND: Cancer is a significant global health problem.
  • Radiotherapy is a treatment for many cancers and about 50% of patients having radiotherapy with be long-term survivors.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: These small trials suggest that for people with LRTI affecting tissues of the head, neck, anus and rectum, HBOT is associated with improved outcome.

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD005005 [22592699.001]
  • (PMID = 16034961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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87. Stoidis CN, Spyropoulos BG, Misiakos EP, Fountzilas CK, Paraskeva PP, Fotiadis CI: Diffuse anorectal melanoma; review of the current diagnostic and treatment aspects based on a case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:64
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  • Patients commonly complain for changes in bowel habits and rectal bleeding, and proctoscopically they mostly appear as non pigmented or lightly pigmented polypoid lesions.
  • Such a lesion should always raise a high index of suspicion in any gastroenterologist or surgeon to prompt surgery, since early radical excision is the only treatment option.Herein, we report a case of a 57-year-old man with a diffuse anal canal melanoma and give reference to the current diagnostic and treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19671138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2731760
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88. Okamura K, Yamamoto H, Ishimaru Y, Takayasu H, Otani Y, Yamagishi J, Takahashi A, Kuwano H, Nagashima K, Ikeda H: Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of perianal and perineal rhabdomyosarcoma: analysis of Japanese patients and comparison with IRSG reports. Pediatr Surg Int; 2006 Feb;22(2):129-34
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  • Two patients with a group I/stage 2 tumor and one with a group II/stage 3 tumor survived for more than 2 years with no evidence of the disease.
  • Based on these data, complete tumor resection prior to chemotherapy should be pursued and the inguinal lymph nodes should be at least sampled because nodal involvement is closely associated with the patient's prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Perineum. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16308704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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89. Squires J: Anal fissures associated with targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2009 Dec;13(6):638-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal fissures associated with targeted therapies in ovarian cancer.
  • Although ovarian cancer remains a leading cause of gynecologic cancer death, targeted therapies are improving patient outcomes.
  • Anal fissures are a side effect of targeted therapies that can disrupt or stop treatment regimens.
  • Diagnosis and management of anal fissures by advanced practice nurses are crucial for maintaining the quality of life of patients with ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy


90. Badgwell BD, Chang GJ, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Smith K, Lupo PJ, Frankowski RF, Delclos G, Du XL, Cormier J: Management and outcomes of anorectal infection in the cancer patient. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Oct;16(10):2752-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management and outcomes of anorectal infection in the cancer patient.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this retrospective cohort study is to examine the presentation and outcomes for a contemporary series of cancer patients with anorectal infection.
  • METHODS: The study cohort was identified from International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes for diagnosis of infection of the anal and rectal region and patients who underwent a surgical oncology consultation at The University of Texas M.D.
  • Anderson Cancer Center between 1/2000 and 12/2006.
  • Factors associated with surgical intervention based on logistic multivariable analysis included diagnosis of an abscess [odds ratio (OR) 10.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9-38.5] and documentation of erythema on physical examination (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.4).
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / therapy. Bacterial Infections / therapy. Neoplasms / microbiology. Rectal Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19649556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
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91. Nyitray A, Nielson CM, Harris RB, Flores R, Abrahamsen M, Dunne EF, Giuliano AR: Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men. J Infect Dis; 2008 Jun 15;197(12):1676-84
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  • [Title] Prevalence of and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men.
  • In US men, the incidence of anal cancer, the primary cause of which is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, has increased almost 3-fold in 3 decades; however, little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV infection, especially in heterosexual men.
  • In 2 US cities, behavioral data and anal biological specimens were collected from 253 men who acknowledged having engaged in sexual intercourse with a woman during the preceding year.
  • On the basis of DNA analysis, overall prevalence of anal HPV infection was found to be 24.8% in 222 men who acknowledged having had no prior sexual intercourse with men.
  • Of the men with anal HPV infection, 33.3% had an oncogenic HPV type.
  • Risk factors independently associated with anal HPV were lifetime number of female sex partners and frequency of sex with females during the preceding month.
  • These results suggest that anal HPV infection may be common in heterosexual men.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / epidemiology. Anus Diseases / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18426367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1899
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / U36/CCU319276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Handisurya A, Schellenbacher C, Kirnbauer R: Diseases caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV). J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2009 May;7(5):453-66; quiz 466, 467
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  • Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are non-enveloped tumor viruses with a double stranded DNA approximately 8 kilobases in length.
  • They infect the squamous epithelia of skin and mucosa and usually cause benign papillomas or warts.
  • Persistent infection with high-risk oncogenic HPV causes all cervical cancers, most anal cancers, and a subset of vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers.
  • In recent years cutaneous beta-HPV types have been associated with the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Skin Diseases, Viral / diagnosis. Skin Diseases, Viral / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19302229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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93. Ilias EJ: [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992); 2008 Sep-Oct;54(5):380-1
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  • [Title] [How to stage and treat squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal ?].
  • [Transliterated title] Como estadiar e tratar o carcinoma espinocelular do canal anal?
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18989550.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-4230
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira (1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992)
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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94. Illert B, Bueter M, Eck M: Manifestation of an intra-abdominal angiosarcoma of the peritoneum 5 years after radiotherapy of an anal carcinoma. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2009 Apr;24(4):465-6
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  • [Title] Manifestation of an intra-abdominal angiosarcoma of the peritoneum 5 years after radiotherapy of an anal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hemangiosarcoma / etiology. Peritoneum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18696084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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95. Meropol NJ, Niedzwiecki D, Shank B, Colacchio TA, Ellerton J, Valone F, Budinger S, Day JM, Hopkins J, Tepper J, Goldberg RM, Mayer RJ: Induction therapy for poor-prognosis anal canal carcinoma: a phase II study of the cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9281). J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 01;26(19):3229-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Induction therapy for poor-prognosis anal canal carcinoma: a phase II study of the cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 9281).
  • PURPOSE: Although most patients with anal canal cancer are cured with sphincter-preserving, nonsurgical, combined-modality therapy, those with large tumors and lymph node involvement have a poor prognosis.
  • To establish the safety and efficacy of induction chemotherapy with infusional fluorouracil (FU) plus cisplatin followed by FU plus mitomycin C with concurrent radiation in patients with poor-prognosis squamous cell cancers of the anal canal.
  • METHODS: Patients with previously untreated anal canal cancers with T3 or T4 tumors and/or extensive nodal involvement (bulky N2 or N3) received two 28-day cycles of induction treatment with infusional FU plus cisplatin followed by two 28-day cycles of FU plus mitomycin C with concurrent split-course radiation.
  • A third cycle of FU and cisplatin with radiation boost was given to patients with persistent primary site disease or bulky N2 or N3 disease at presentation.
  • CONCLUSION: A combined-modality approach that includes induction treatment with FU and cisplatin followed by combined-modality therapy with FU, mitomycin C, and concurrent radiation results in long-term disease control in the majority of patients with poor-prognosis anal canal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18490648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04326; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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96. Romassi M, Nagle D: Images in HIV/AIDS. The changing face of anal cancer. AIDS Read; 2008 Apr;18(4):185-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Images in HIV/AIDS. The changing face of anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. HIV. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Male. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Rectal Fistula / pathology. Skin Ulcer / pathology


97. Muñoz N, Castellsagué X, de González AB, Gissmann L: Chapter 1: HPV in the etiology of human cancer. Vaccine; 2006 Aug 31;24 Suppl 3:S3/1-10
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  • [Title] Chapter 1: HPV in the etiology of human cancer.
  • The causal role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in all cancers of the uterine cervix has been firmly established biologically and epidemiologically.
  • Most cancers of the vagina and anus are likewise caused by HPV, as are a fraction of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx.
  • HPV-16 and -18 account for about 70% of cancers of the cervix, vagina, and anus and for about 30-40% of cancers of the vulva, penis, and oropharynx.
  • Other cancers causally linked to HPV are non-melanoma skin cancer and cancer of the conjunctiva.
  • Although HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, it is not a sufficient cause.
  • Thus, other cofactors are necessary for progression from cervical HPV infection to cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16949995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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98. Bologna-Molina RE, Castañeda-Castaneira RE, Molina-Frechero N, Pérez-Rodríguez E: [Human papilloma virus and its association with oral cancer]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc; 2006 Mar-Apr;44(2):147-53
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  • [Title] [Human papilloma virus and its association with oral cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Virus del papiloma humano y su asociación con cáncer bucal.
  • Oral cancer it a pathology of multifactorial etiology, where some factors such as age, sex, race, genetic predisposition, nutrition, and the use of tobacco and alcohol have a bearing on.
  • In the last years, some authors showed the implication of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the development of precarcinogenic lesions and of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The infection by HPV has been associated to hyperplastic epithelial lesions, papilloma and warty carcinoma in skin and in different types of mucosa, including the anus-genital, cervical, urethral, tracheobronchial, nasal, laryngeal and oral mucosa tracts.
  • The viral high-risk geno-types (oncogenic) such as 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are frequently associated to leukoplakia and squamous carcinoma.
  • An association of HPV with oral squamous carcinoma in patients that consume tobacco and alcohol has been fundamentally established.
  • It is important to study and to frequently review the role that viral infections and cancer have, and maybe in the future, it would be possible to create a vaccine that diminishes the frequency of oncological problems.

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  • (PMID = 16674861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0443-5117
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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99. Ikenaga M, Miyazaki M, Yasui M, Mishima H, Tsujie M, Miyamoto A, Hirao M, Fujitani K, Nakamori S, Yoshitatsu S, Tsujinaka T: [A case of total pelvic exenteration and reconstruction of perianal skin defect using a VY advancement of bilateral gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flaps for anal canal cancer associated with anal fistula]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2650-2
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  • [Title] [A case of total pelvic exenteration and reconstruction of perianal skin defect using a VY advancement of bilateral gluteus maximus musculocutaneous flaps for anal canal cancer associated with anal fistula].
  • A 53-year-old man, who was diagnosed as having an anal canal cancer associated with anal fistula, was introduced to our hospital.
  • Total pelvic exenteration was performed under the consideration of keeping the margin for the large skin defect.
  • This constructive technique was effective for anal defects.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Pelvic Exenteration. Rectal Fistula / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 21224668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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100. Oehler-Jänne C, Seifert B, Lütolf UM, Studer G, Glanzmann C, Ciernik IF: Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma. Brachytherapy; 2007 Jul-Sep;6(3):218-26
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome after treatment with a brachytherapy boost versus external beam boost for anal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome after definitive whole pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by brachytherapy (BT) boost after treatment break vs. external beam boost without break in the treatment of anal carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eighty-one consecutive patients with invasive anal carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy (CT) with mitomycin C was applied during whole pelvis EBRT depending on tumor stage.
  • Pattern of care, local disease control (LC), cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), toxicity, and quality of life (QOL) were assessed.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Carcinoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Equipment Design. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17681244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4721
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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