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1. Skalicky SE, Giblin M, Conway RM: Diffuse iris melanoma: Report of a case with review of the literature. Clin Ophthalmol; 2007 Sep;1(3):339-42
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  • [Title] Diffuse iris melanoma: Report of a case with review of the literature.
  • Diffuse iris melanoma is an uncommon variant of anterior uveal melanoma.
  • We present a patient who had been managed for left-sided raised intraocular pressure with latanoprost eye drops for 12-months and pigmentary changes were subsequently noted.
  • On referral to the Ocular Oncology Unit, Sydney, iris melanoma was suspected and confirmed on iridectomy, and the eye was eventually enucleated.

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  • [Cites] Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2006 Jan;26(1):120-6 [16390492.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1998 Mar;101(2):128-33 [9494614.001]
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  • (PMID = 19668492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2701136
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cytogenetics / diffuse melanoma / glaucoma / iris / latanoprost
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2. Tóth J: [Clinical signs and differential diagnosis of iris melanoma]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(2):153-5, 158-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical signs and differential diagnosis of iris melanoma].
  • Iris melanoma is the rarest type of uveal melanomas.
  • Only 4-5% of uveal melanomas occur on the iris.
  • Although the iris can be easily examined due to its location, differentiation of melanocytic malformations such as naevi or melanomas is difficult for the examiner.
  • According to publications by Rones and Zimmermann, histological examinations showed 22% of tumors to be malignant and 78% to be benign.
  • Follow-up of the clinical signs, transillumination, ultrasonic biomicroscopy, iris fluorescein angiography and photo-documentation of the clinical signs can be of great help in diagnosis of pigmented iris tumours.
  • Growth of the tumour, secondary glaucoma, hyphaema, significant vascularisation of the tumour and increasing extent of pigmentation can be signs of malignant behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16249812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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3. Tan AN, Hoevenaars JG, Webers CA, Damato B, Beckers HJ: Baerveldt implant for secondary glaucoma due to iris melanoma. Clin Ophthalmol; 2010;4:407-9
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  • [Title] Baerveldt implant for secondary glaucoma due to iris melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is effective in the treatment of iris melanoma.
  • Reported complications after PBT are radiation-induced cataract and raised intraocular pressure (IOP).
  • CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old man presented with a self-discovered, pigmented lesion on his right iris.
  • Four years later, the pigmented lesion was diagnosed as an iris melanoma, because of documented growth.
  • CONCLUSION: Our case demonstrates that Baerveldt implant surgery is a reasonable therapy for glaucoma following successful radiotherapy of iris melanoma.

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  • [Cites] Lancet. 1996 May 4;347(9010):1222-5 [8622452.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 2000 Aug;107(8):1443-9 [10919885.001]
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  • [Cites] Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 Jun;85(6):666-9 [11371484.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Feb;132(2):268-72 [18251588.001]
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  • [Cites] J Glaucoma. 2002 Feb;11(1):71-4 [11821693.001]
  • (PMID = 20463911.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5483
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2866571
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Baerveldt implant surgery / iris melanoma / proton beam therapy / secondary glaucoma
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4. Pe'er J, Blumenthal EZ, Frenkel S: Punch biopsy of iris lesions: a novel technique for obtaining histology samples. Br J Ophthalmol; 2007 May;91(5):660-2
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  • [Title] Punch biopsy of iris lesions: a novel technique for obtaining histology samples.
  • AIM: To obtain iris biopsy samples of sufficient quality and quantity for histopathological analysis using a novel punch biopsy technique.
  • METHODS: Two patients underwent iris tumour biopsy at an ocular oncology service.
  • A trabeculectomy punch (Kelly Descemet's membrane punch) with a 1.0 mm diameter head and a 0.75 mm deep bite was inserted through a clear cornea perforated by a SatinSlit 3.2 mm angled slit knife into a viscoelastic-filled anterior chamber.
  • H&E staining showed spindle cell melanoma.
  • Tissue sections, stained positive with MART-1 (melanoma antigen recognised by T cells) and negative with cytokeratin, established the diagnosis of melanoma of the iris in each of these patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Iris biopsy with the punch technique yields a tissue biopsy specimen, as opposed to cytology samples obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Iris / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 2002 Feb;109(2):235-42 [11825801.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Cytol. 1983 Mar-Apr;27(2):157-65 [6573087.001]
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  • (PMID = 17446506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1954730
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5. Kharrat W, Dureau P, Edelson C, Caputo G: [Iris mammillations: three case reports]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Apr;29(4):413-7
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  • [Title] [Iris mammillations: three case reports].
  • [Transliterated title] Mamelonnements de l'iris. A propos de trois cas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Iris mammillations are congenital abnormalities characterized by vitiliform protuberances regularly spaced on the surface of a velvety iris.
  • They can be either isolated or associated with melanocytosis involving iris, sclera or periocular tissues, resulting in a risk for uveal melanoma.
  • We report three cases of iris mammillations in three children.
  • CASES REPORT: For each patient, age, circumstances of revelation, anterior and posterior segment examination, intraocular pressure, associated anomalies, and progression were noted.
  • Patient no. 1: In a 13-month-old boy examined for a squint, bilateral iris mammillations were fortuitously discovered.
  • Intraocular pressure remained normal over 22 months of follow-up.
  • Patient no. 2: In an eight-year-old boy, bilateral iris mammillations with papillary excavation were fortuitously discovered.
  • Intraocular pressure was normal and the excavation did not change over 20 months of follow-up.
  • The examination found unilateral iris mammillations and ipsilateral ocular melanocytosis.
  • Intraocular pressure and fundus were normal and remained normal over 13 months of follow-up.
  • DISCUSSION: and conclusion: Iris mammillations are congenital abnormalities, generally unilateral, sometimes hereditary.
  • The differential diagnosis includes Lisch nodules of neurofibromatosis and iris melanoma.
  • The etiology of iris mammillations is unknown; these lesions can be complicated by ocular hypertony and, in case of associated melanocytosis of the iris, sclera or periocular tissues, by uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16885809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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6. Martens AL: Unusual presentation of an anterior uveal melanocytoma in a 3-year-old poodle. Can Vet J; 2007 Jul;48(7):748-50
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of an anterior uveal melanocytoma in a 3-year-old poodle.
  • The differential diagnoses included an ocular melanoma or ocular melanosis.
  • The right eye was removed and an anterior uveal melanocytoma was confirmed on light microscopical examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Eye Diseases / veterinary. Melanoma / veterinary. Uveal Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / surgery. Nevus, Pigmented / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Vet Pathol. 1986 Jul;23(4):418-24 [3750735.001]
  • (PMID = 17824163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue vétérinaire canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1899854
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7. Cunha AA, Rodrigues NH, Almeida GA, Picanço BC, Netto JA: [Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2010 Mar-Apr;73(2):193-6
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  • [Title] [Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso.
  • Ocular melanomas correspond to 5% of all melanomas and 85% of them have its origin in the uveal tract.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult.
  • In this article, a case of uveal melanoma in a 31 year-old female patient, with photopsia, hyperemia and low visual acuity in the left eye with evolution of 4 months is presented.
  • In the ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was lower than 20/400, a large tumoral mass was noted at the nasal region behind the iris with anterior lens displacement, anterior chamber narrowing and serous retinal detachment.
  • The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body.
  • The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ciliary Body. Melanoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20549054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-2925
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. Sahin A, Kiratli H, Tezel GG, Soylemezoglu F, Bilgic S: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor a, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and extravascular matrix patterns in iris and ciliary body melanomas. Ophthalmic Res; 2007;39(1):40-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor a, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and extravascular matrix patterns in iris and ciliary body melanomas.
  • PURPOSE: It was the aim of this study to assess the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and extravascular matrix patterns (EMPs) in iris and ciliary body melanomas and their correlations with histopathologic parameters.
  • METHODS: The study was conducted on 3 iris and 15 ciliary body melanomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that VEGF-A and MMP-9 were positive in the majority of iris and ciliary body melanomas.
  • No correlation was found between VEGF-A and MMP-9 immunoreactivity and EMPs and occurrence of metastases in cases of anterior uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / metabolism. Iris Neoplasms / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / biosynthesis. Melanoma / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17164576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3747
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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9. Donaldson D, Sansom J, Scase T, Adams V, Mellersh C: Canine limbal melanoma: 30 cases (1992-2004). Part 1. Signalment, clinical and histological features and pedigree analysis. Vet Ophthalmol; 2006 Mar-Apr;9(2):115-9
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  • [Title] Canine limbal melanoma: 30 cases (1992-2004). Part 1. Signalment, clinical and histological features and pedigree analysis.
  • OBJECTIVES:. (1) To review the signalment, clinical, and histological features of canine limbal melanoma;.
  • (2) to perform pedigree analysis on breeds predisposed to limbal melanoma to establish if common ancestry exists; and (3) to investigate if any ancestral relationship exists between canine limbal melanoma and canine anterior uveal melanoma (CAUM).
  • ANIMALS STUDIED: Thirty dogs with limbal melanoma.
  • RESULTS The mean age (+/- SD) at diagnosis was 6.2 (+/- 2.75) years with a range from 1 to 11 years.
  • Twenty-five (83%) of the limbal melanomas occurred within a dorsal arc from the dorsomedial to the ventrolateral limbus.
  • Golden retrievers were four times more common in the melanoma group compared to the Animal Health Trust population (P < 0.0001).
  • Labrador retrievers were three times more common in the melanoma group (P=0.01).
  • Pedigree analysis on eight Golden retrievers [limbal melanoma (n=5), CAUM (n=2) and diffuse ocular melanosis (n=1)], revealed a pattern of inter-relatedness consistent with the condition(s) being caused, at least in part, by a genetic mutation(s).
  • A similar level of inter relatedness was evident in six Labrador retrievers (limbal melanoma (n=2) and CAUM (n=4)).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In Golden and Labrador retrievers there is evidence that limbal melanomas, CAUM and ocular melanosis are at least in part heritable and that the same genetic mutation(s) may be causally associated with melanocytic disease at different ocular sites.
  • Histology should be performed on all cases to identify those with greater malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16497236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Henderson E, Margo CE: Iris melanoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Feb;132(2):268-72
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  • [Title] Iris melanoma.
  • The iris is the least common site of primary uveal melanoma.
  • The prognosis of iris melanoma is better than that of melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid, but the reason for this difference is unclear.
  • One possible explanation is that iris melanoma is smaller than its posterior segment counterparts at the time of diagnosis.
  • Most iris melanomas are spindle cell types, according to a modified Callender classification system.
  • There is evidence that the proliferation of melanocytes of the anterior iris surface (iris plaque) and diffuse stromal invasion may be risk factors for local recurrence and metastasis, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18251588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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11. Romanowska-Dixon B: [Surgical management of iris melanoma]. Klin Oczna; 2005;107(10-12):622-6
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  • [Title] [Surgical management of iris melanoma].
  • PURPOSE: To describe the own experiences of surgical treatment of iris melanomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 56 patients with iris melanoma were treated between January 1995 and June 2001.
  • Local recurrence of melanoma successfuly treated with ruthenium plaque appeared in one person.
  • Histologically, the majority were spindle B melanomas (70%), mixed in 27% and epithelioid in 3%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management of iris melanoma seems to be save and effective treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Iridectomy / methods. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Iris / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 16619805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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12. Trichopoulos N, Damato B: Photodynamic therapy for recurrent hyphema after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2007 Oct;245(10):1573-5
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for recurrent hyphema after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Recurrent hemorrhage with secondary glaucoma is a rare but serious complication following proton beam irradiation (PBI) of iris melanoma.
  • METHODS: The history, clinical features and management of a patient with iris melanoma who was treated with PBI and later developed recurrent hyphema and increased intraocular pressure are presented.
  • PDT was used to treat the abnormal intralesional blood vessels which caused the recurrent intraocular haemorrhage.
  • The patient did not experience any further episodes of hyphema or elevated intraocular pressure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our case demonstrates that the vascular abnormalities following irradiation of iris melanoma may respond favorably to PDT in selected cases.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which PDT was used to treat recurrent hyphema caused by abnormal intralesional blood vessels after proton beam irradiation of iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyphema / drug therapy. Iris Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Coloring Agents. Female. Fluorescein Angiography. Glaucoma / etiology. Humans. Indocyanine Green. Intraocular Pressure. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use. Recurrence

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. INDOCYANINE GREEN .
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  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1999 Sep;117(9):1177-87 [10496389.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005 Sep 1;63(1):109-15 [16111578.001]
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  • (PMID = 17429673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0X9PA28K43 / verteporfin; IX6J1063HV / Indocyanine Green
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13. Damato B, Kacperek A, Chopra M, Sheen MA, Campbell IR, Errington RD: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Sep 1;63(1):109-15
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  • [Title] Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions.
  • The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%.
  • Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16111578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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14. Dunavoelgyi R, Dejaco-Ruhswurm I, Zehetmayer M: [Foreign bodies of the iris as a rare differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma of the iris]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2007 May;224(5):431-3
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  • [Title] [Foreign bodies of the iris as a rare differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma of the iris].
  • [Transliterated title] Irisfremdkörper als seltene Differenzialdiagnose zum Irismelanom.
  • BACKGROUND: Lesions of the iris require a thorough examination to differentiate them from malignant melanoma because of the severe therapeutic consequences of the latter entity.
  • METHODS: We observed two cases with a unilateral lesion on the iris, both suspicious of malignant melanoma of the iris.
  • RESULTS: The cases of a 66-year-old man with a metallic foreign body and a 37-year-old man with a foreign body, both located on the iris, are presented.
  • CONCLUSION: In both patients an unclear lesion of the iris, suspicious of a malignant melanoma of the iris, turned out to be a foreign body after ophthalmoscopic examination.
  • Both echography and ultrasound biomicroscopy were carried out and proved to be useful to confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Foreign Bodies / diagnosis. Iris / injuries. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17516375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Qian Y, Zakov ZN, Schoenfield L, Singh AD: Iris melanoma arising in iris nevus in oculo(dermal) melanocytosis. Surv Ophthalmol; 2008 Jul-Aug;53(4):411-5
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  • [Title] Iris melanoma arising in iris nevus in oculo(dermal) melanocytosis.
  • A 50-year-old white man with oculo(dermal) melanocytosis and longstanding iris nevus was found to have growth of the iris mass.
  • Excision and histopathologic examination revealed a mixed cell type malignant melanoma.
  • Benign nevus cells were present at the periphery of the tumor surrounding the entire melanoma.
  • White patients with oculo(dermal) melanocytosis have a predisposition to uveal melanoma, which is usually choroidal in origin.
  • Literature review showed only three confirmed cases of iris melanoma in this setting.
  • Two additional cases initially published as spindle A melanoma have been reclassified as iris nevi based on the modified Callender classification of uveal melanomas.
  • It is recommended that patients with oculo(dermal) melanocytosis be followed for the occurrence of uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nevus of Ota / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18572057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Henriquez F, Janssen C, Kemp EG, Roberts F: The T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2007 Nov;48(11):4897-900
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  • [Title] The T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: An activating mutation in exon 15 of the BRAF gene has been found in a high proportion of cutaneous pigmented lesions, but only in one case of uveal melanoma.
  • Iris melanoma is the least common uveal melanoma and displays a less aggressive clinical course compared with posterior uveal melanoma.
  • To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the T1799A mutation in iris melanoma.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether the T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma.
  • METHODS: DNA was extracted from 19 archival, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of iris melanomas.
  • RESULTS: The T1799A mutation was identified by sequencing in 9 of 19 iris melanomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, the T1799A BRAF mutation was identified in almost half of the iris melanoma tissues samples examined.
  • This finding suggests that there may be genetic as well as clinical differences between iris and posterior uveal melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / genetics. Melanoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17962436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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17. Rundle P, Singh AD, Rennie I: Proton beam therapy for iris melanoma: a review of 15 cases. Eye (Lond); 2007 Jan;21(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Proton beam therapy for iris melanoma: a review of 15 cases.
  • AIM: To report results of proton beam therapy for iris melanoma.
  • METHODS: A retrospective case series of 15 patients with nonresectable iris melanomas treated with proton beam therapy between August 1998 and August 2004.
  • RESULTS: Of the 15 cases, 11 patients showed documented growth (including two cases of local recurrence following iridocyclectomy) while a further three cases were biopsy-proven melanoma.
  • One patient presented with a newly acquired vascular nodule of the iris associated with angle seeding and glaucoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Proton beam therapy is an effective treatment for cases of nonresectable iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16410818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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18. Thomson RM, Furutani KM, Pulido JS, Stafford SL, Rogers DW: Modified COMS plaques for 125I and 103Pd iris melanoma brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Nov 15;78(4):1261-9
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  • [Title] Modified COMS plaques for 125I and 103Pd iris melanoma brachytherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Novel plaques are used to treat iris melanoma at the Mayo Clinic Rochester.
  • The plaques are a modification of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) 22 mm plaque design with a gold alloy backing, outer lip, and silicone polymer insert.
  • This article describes dosimetry for these plaques and others used in the treatment of anterior eye melanomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The Mayo Clinic plaques offer several advantages for anterior eye tumor treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Iris Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Palladium / therapeutic use. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20472360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radioisotopes; 5TWQ1V240M / Palladium
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19. Millodot M, Hendler K, Pe'er J: Iris melanoma: a case report and review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt; 2006 Jan;26(1):120-6
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  • [Title] Iris melanoma: a case report and review.
  • Iris melanoma is a rare ocular tumour, which can be detected early in its development.
  • Slit-lamp examination revealed a mass on the inferior part of the iris of the left eye.
  • It was found that a tumour had spread throughout the iris stroma and invaded the anterior chamber angle.
  • Although enucleation would have been the treatment of choice in the past, the trend today in the treatment of a growing, large circumscribed iris tumour is to excise it.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Intraocular Pressure / physiology. Iris / pathology. Male. Postoperative Period. Trabeculectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16390492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-5408
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Physiol Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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20. Tran TA, Hirst LW, Axelsen RA, Welch R: Iris melanoma in 12-year-old boy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Jul;34(5):489-90
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  • [Title] Iris melanoma in 12-year-old boy.
  • A 12-year-old boy presented with an incidental finding of an iris lesion after blunt injury.
  • Ocular examination revealed a large atypical brown vascular nodule in the nasal iris, extending to the pupillary margin.
  • There were smaller scattered nodules scattered within the iris and anterior chamber.
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy examination revealed no tumour behind the iris.
  • Sector iridectomy revealed mixed spindle and epitheliod melanoma.
  • Histopathologic examination confirmed malignant melanoma confined to the iridocorneal angle, iris, ciliary body and inner layer of the anterior sclera.
  • Iris melanomas are very rare in the prepubertal age group.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Ciliary Body / pathology. Eye Enucleation. Eye Injuries / complications. Humans. Iris / injuries. Male. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / complications

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  • (PMID = 16872348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-6404
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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21. Sukavatcharin S, Cursino S, Li G, Green RL, Lim JI, Rao NA: Xanthogranuloma of the iris simulating melanoma in an adult. Am J Ophthalmol; 2007 Mar;143(3):529-31
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  • [Title] Xanthogranuloma of the iris simulating melanoma in an adult.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case in an adult of xanthogranuloma of the iris that clinically simulated iris melanoma.
  • METHODS: Clinical and histopathologic examination of iris mass obtained from a 77-year-old white woman.
  • RESULTS: High-frequency ultrasonography of the right eye revealed a small, echodense lesion involving the iris root.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Xanthogranuloma of the iris can occur in elderly patients.
  • Such lesions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Diseases / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Xanthogranuloma, Juvenile / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histiocytes / metabolism. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17317408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY03040
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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22. Laham A, Corrêa ZM, Augsburger JJ, Heur M: Complete ring cyst of iris pigment epithelium documented by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2009 Sep-Oct;40(5):495-7
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  • [Title] Complete ring cyst of iris pigment epithelium documented by ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • The authors report a complete ring cyst of the iris pigment epithelium confirmed by ultrasound biomicroscopy.
  • In this case, ultrasound biomicroscopy effectively excluded the differential diagnoses of ring melanoma of the iris and multiple separate cysts of the iris pigment epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / ultrasonography. Iris Diseases / ultrasonography. Microscopy, Acoustic / methods. Pigment Epithelium of Eye / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Iris. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 19772275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Schalenbourg A, Uffer S, Zografos L: Utility of a biopsy in suspicious pigmented iris tumors. Ophthalmic Res; 2008;40(5):267-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Utility of a biopsy in suspicious pigmented iris tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: In the presence of pigmented iris lesions evocative of malignant melanoma and implying oncological treatment, a foregoing biopsy to exclude a benign lesion may seem a reasonable approach.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective, consecutive histopathologic case series of 10 pigmented iris tumor specimens excised since 1993.
  • Histopathologic diagnosis was compared with final diagnosis and outcome in the patient's medical chart.
  • RESULTS: Five biopsies had only nevus cells, whereas ulterior clinical data or histopathologic examinations were compatible with the diagnosis of malignant melanoma.
  • Four biopsies confirmed clinical suspicion of iris melanoma.
  • Modern management techniques such as ultrasound biomicroscopy and proton therapy of the whole anterior segment have equally diminished indications for a biopsy.
  • In cases clinically evocative of iris melanoma, a biopsy has only a relative value.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18437037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0259
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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24. Mudhar HS, Saunders E, Rundle P, Rennie IG, Sisley K: The in vivo modulatory effects of an anterior-chamber microenvironment on uveal melanoma. Br J Ophthalmol; 2009 Apr;93(4):535-40
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  • [Title] The in vivo modulatory effects of an anterior-chamber microenvironment on uveal melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary melanoma of the iris, for reasons unknown has a lower metastatic rate compared with primary ciliary-body melanoma.
  • Six histology cases of ciliary-body melanoma were identified that had spread onto the iris surface and into the stroma, representing a change in tumour microenvironment from aqueous humour non-exposure (ciliary-body component) to aqueous humour exposure (iris surface component).
  • This provided an ideal paradigm for investigating the effects of different environments on melanoma.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis was conducted on the paraffin sections for changes of chromosomes 3 and 8, associated with poor uveal melanoma prognosis.
  • RESULTS: Iris surface melanoma cells were smaller compared with the adjacent deeper iris stromal melanoma cells and with those in the ciliary body.
  • Fewer iris surface melanoma cells expressed Cyclin D1 protein, but more expressed p27 protein, compared with the larger iris stromal melanoma cells (paired Wilcoxon signed ranks test: Cyclin D1 p = 0.028; p27 p = 0.046) and with the ciliary-body melanoma cells (paired Wilcoxon signed ranks test: Cyclin D1 p = 0.028; p27 p = 0.028).
  • With FISH, chromosome 3 and 8 alterations were less common among the iris surface melanoma cells than the deeper iris stromal melanoma cells and the ciliary-body melanoma cells, which were consistently characterised by a relative genetic imbalance for chromosomes 3 and 8.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there are tumour-modulatory factors within the anterior chamber environment that probably select populations of ciliary-body melanoma cells, with a less aggressive, better-differentiated status.
  • Furthermore, it may help explain why iris melanomas generally have a less aggressive course than ciliary-body and choroidal melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Chamber / physiopathology. Ciliary Body. Melanoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Iris / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Tissue Fixation / methods

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  • (PMID = 19019926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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25. Planellas M, Pastor J, Torres MD, Peña T, Leiva M: Unusual presentation of a metastatic uveal melanoma in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol; 2010 Nov;13(6):391-4
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  • [Title] Unusual presentation of a metastatic uveal melanoma in a cat.
  • A 10 year-old, spayed female Domestic Short-Haired (DSH) cat was diagnosed with a large primary uveal melanoma and exenteration was recommended.
  • Histopathologic study of the eye confirmed a diffuse iris melanoma.
  • Five months later, the cat presented with a lameness of the right anterior extremity.
  • On physical exam the right elbow was swollen and painful.
  • Fine needle aspiration of the radius head identified a round cell neoplasm with scattered cells containing intracytoplasmatic pigmented granules, compatible with metastatic melanoma.
  • Two months later, the cat died and necropsy was performed confirming bone metastasis of the uveal melanoma.
  • A diagnosis of generalized metastasis from primary diffuse iris melanoma was made.
  • This report describes, for the first time, long bone metastasis from an uveal melanoma in a cat.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / veterinary. Uveal Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
  • (PMID = 21182725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5224
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Shields JA, Shields CL, Davidson R, Eagle RC Jr: Iris melanoma arising from sector congenital ocular melanocytosis in a child. Cornea; 2009 Dec;28(10):1191-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Iris melanoma arising from sector congenital ocular melanocytosis in a child.
  • PURPOSE: To report a clinicopathologic correlation of a melanoma arising from iris component of ocular melanocytosis in a child.
  • METHODS: A 13-year-old boy developed a progressive iris nodule arising from sector iris pigmentation that was a component of congenital ocular melanocytosis involving the iris, ciliary body and choroid.
  • RESULTS: Clinically, the pigmented nodule was 3 mm in diameter, located within the sector iris pigmentation, and was 2.4 mm in thickness as measured by UBM.
  • Histopathologically, it was composed predominately of spindle B melanoma cells with adjacent spindle and dendritic melanocytes compatible with iris melanocytosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although highly unusual, melanoma can arise in the sector iris pigmentation that is often a component of congenital ocular melanocytosis.
  • Even young patients with ocular melanocytosis should be examined periodically for development of melanoma in the ciliary body and choroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Diseases / complications. Eye Diseases / congenital. Iris Neoplasms / etiology. Melanoma / etiology. Melanosis / complications. Melanosis / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Humans. Iris. Male. Melanocytes / pathology. Microscopy, Acoustic. Pigmentation. Postoperative Period. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 19770714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4798
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Fernandes BF, Krema H, Fulda E, Pavlin CJ, Payne DG, McGowan HD, Simpson ER: Management of iris melanomas with 125Iodine plaque radiotherapy. Am J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan;149(1):70-6
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  • [Title] Management of iris melanomas with 125Iodine plaque radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To report the experience of the Princess Margaret Hospital/University Health Network with the treatment of iris melanoma (IM) with (125)Iodine plaque brachytherapy.
  • Cataract was the most common complication (8; 75%), followed by persistent glaucoma (2; 17%) and anterior uveitis (1; 8%).
  • This treatment scheme circumvents an intraocular procedure and may avoid the dissemination of malignant cells, and provides a margin of safety in the treatment of clinically undetectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Iris Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19892312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1891
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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28. Colitz CM: Feline uveitis: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2005 May;20(2):117-20
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  • [Title] Feline uveitis: diagnosis and treatment.
  • Uveitis is the inflammation of any or all parts of the vascular tunic of the eye; the vascular tunic includes the iris, the ciliary body, and choroid.
  • A good knowledge base, up-to-date reference materials, and good instruments will improve the diagnosis of uveitis.
  • Iris melanoma is the most common primary uveal neoplasia and trauma-associated sarcoma is the second most common primary uveal neoplasia.
  • Treatment for the clinical signs of anterior uveitis include topical steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, parasympatholytic agents for ciliary spasm, to keep the pupil dilated, and to prevent posterior synechia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / therapy. Uveitis / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15948426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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29. Lumbroso-Le Rouic L, Delacroix S, Dendale R, Levy-Gabriel C, Feuvret L, Noel G, Plancher C, Nauraye C, Garcia P, Calugaru V, Asselain B, Desjardins L: Proton beam therapy for iris melanomas. Eye (Lond); 2006 Nov;20(11):1300-5
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  • [Title] Proton beam therapy for iris melanomas.
  • AIMS: To describe the results in terms of local control, eye preservation and systemic evolution of iris melanomas treated by proton beam irradiation.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of the charts of patients with iris melanoma treated by proton beam therapy between April 1998 and September 2002.
  • Ciliary body melanomas with iris involvement or tumours with extrascleral invasion were excluded.
  • Raised intraocular pressure was observed in 15% of patients but no neovascular glaucoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Proton beam therapy shows potential utility for selected cases of localised iris melanomas allowing excellent local tumour control and eye preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16294207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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30. Garcia-Arumi J, Montolio Gil M, Morral Palau M, Segura Garcia A: Sympathetic ophthalmia after surgical resection of iridociliary melanoma. A case report. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Oct;244(10):1353-6
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  • [Title] Sympathetic ophthalmia after surgical resection of iridociliary melanoma. A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of sympathetic ophthalmia with systemic findings following resection of a malignant melanoma of the iris and ciliary body, and describe the treatment and clinical outcome.
  • METHODS: A 49-year-old man underwent sector iridocyclectomy of a malignant iridociliary melanoma of the right eye.
  • RESULTS: Five weeks after resection of an iridociliary melanoma, our patient had reported acute bilateral vision loss.
  • Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed to treat a dense cataract of the right eye.
  • After 24 months of follow-up, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left; no signs of intraocular inflammation were observed and neurological signs had resolved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic ophthalmia is a rare, but severe disease that can occur after resection of iridociliary melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / surgery. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Ophthalmia, Sympathetic / etiology. Postoperative Complications. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Cites] Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 May;131(5):647-52 [11336942.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 May;113(5):597-600 [7748129.001]
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  • (PMID = 16523295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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31. Tokosová E, Hermanová M, Uhmannová R, Smardová J, Hlinomazová Z: [Immunohistochemical detection of the gene p53 and p21 expression in cells of the malignant melanoma of the uvea]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol; 2008 Jul;64(4):153-6
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical detection of the gene p53 and p21 expression in cells of the malignant melanoma of the uvea].
  • AIM: To examine by means of immunohistochemistry the expression of the tumor suppressing gene p53 and gene p21 in cells of malignant melanoma of the uvea from formalin-paraffin material from patients, who were during the period 2000 - 2006 surgically treated due to malignant melanoma of the uvea at the Department of Ophthalmology in the University Hospital in Brno (Brunn), Czech Republic, E.U., and to correlate the results of the immunohistochemical detection with clinical signs of the tumor of each patient.
  • METHODS: Twenty-nine malignant melanomas of the uvea were examined by means of monoclonal antibody DO-1 (Novocastra company) and all 29 samples of malignant melanoma of the uvea were immunohistochemically examined for the p21 gene expression by means of the monoclonal antibody SX 118 (DAKO company).
  • RESULTS: Results suitable for evaluation we obtained in 28 samples of malignant melanomas, one sample was not suitable for evaluation due to extremely high presence of melanin pigment.
  • In one of those 4 patients with p53 gene expression it was the malignant melanoma of the iris, in one of them it was malignant melanoma of the ciliary body, and in 2 of them it was malignant melanoma of the choroid.
  • From the above-mentioned results we can assume that stabilizing mutations of p53 gene are rare in the melanoma of the uvea.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Genes, p53. Melanoma / genetics. Uveal Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18780655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceská a slovenská oftalmologie : casopis Ceské oftalmologické spolecnosti a Slovenské oftalmologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Slov Oftalmol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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32. Sakellaris D, Goossens C, Tassignon MJ: Customized iris clip anterior chamber intraocular lenses designed for iris reconstruction. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2009 Nov-Dec;19(6):1084-7
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  • [Title] Customized iris clip anterior chamber intraocular lenses designed for iris reconstruction.
  • PURPOSE: To present three cases of partial aniridia reconstructed by a customized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) iris print and iris clipped anterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) (Ophtec BV).
  • METHODS: In two cases, the partial aniridia was originally caused by an eye trauma leaving one eye phakic and the second eye aphakic but without capsular support, whereas in the third case, surgically induced sectorial iridectomy was justified by a slowly growing cystic iris melanoma.
  • RESULTS: All three cases showed very good results with useful visual recovery after customized phakic or aphakic iris print, toric or spheric PMMA, anterior chamber iris fixated IOLs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Customized PMMA iris print and iris clipped anterior chamber IOL is a possible solution to repair aniridia with or without correction of aphakia and corneal astigmatism
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Chamber / surgery. Iris / surgery. Lens Implantation, Intraocular / methods. Lenses, Intraocular. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Eye Injuries, Penetrating / surgery. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Polymethyl Methacrylate

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  • (PMID = 19882559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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33. Bianciotto C, Saornil MA, Muiños Y, Méndez MC, Blanco G, Frutos-Baraja JM, López-Lara F, Esteban R: [Ocular hypertension as the principal indicator of onset of uveal melanoma]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2005 Jan;80(1):27-34
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  • [Title] [Ocular hypertension as the principal indicator of onset of uveal melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hipertensión ocular como principal forma de presentación del melanoma uveal.
  • PURPOSE: To present a series of patients with uveal melanoma masquerading as ocular hypertension.
  • METHODS: Patients diagnosed with uveal melanoma were reviewed, selecting those cases with initial presentation as secondary unilateral glaucoma.
  • Clinical and histopathological information useful for prognosis was examined, such as anterior border localization, size and shape of the tumor, associated ocular pathology, cell type and degree of extraocular extension.
  • RESULTS: Seven patients out of a total of 160 diagnosed with melanoma presented with ocular hypertension (4.3% of the total).
  • Four cases had neovascular glaucoma, two pseudo-phacolytic glaucoma and the remaining case had invasion of the anterior chamber angle.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with the association of unilateral glaucoma and asymmetric cataract, it is crucial to perform imaging studies, such as ultrasound, in order to rule out the presence of an intraocular tumor, and to achieve an early diagnosis, improving the patient's prognosis and the morbidity of treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Intraocular Pressure. Melanoma / diagnosis. Ocular Hypertension / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 15692891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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34. Groskopf BS, Dubielzig RR, Beaumont SL: Orbital extraskeletal osteosarcoma following enucleation in a cat: a case report. Vet Ophthalmol; 2010 May;13(3):179-83
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  • COPLOW diagnosed the left eye with feline diffuse iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Cysts / pathology. Cysts / veterinary. Male. Melanoma / surgery. Melanoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20500718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5224
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Liang SY, Lee GA, Whitehead K: Histopathology of a functioning mitomycin-C trabeculectomy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2009 Apr;37(3):316-9
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  • We compare and contrast the histopathology of a normally functioning mitomycin-C trabeculectomy site obtained from an eye enucleated for iris melanoma with abnormal blebs discussed in the literature.
  • The scleral trapdoor was evident as a cleft in the scleral wall in communication with the anterior chamber at the surgically created sclerostomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anterior Eye Segment / pathology. Eye Enucleation. Glaucoma / etiology. Glaucoma / surgery. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / etiology. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Melanoma / etiology. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Uveitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19459872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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36. Bakri SJ, Singh AD, Lowder CY, Chalita MR, Li Y, Izatt JA, Rollins AM, Huang D: Imaging of iris lesions with high-speed optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2007 Jan-Feb;38(1):27-34
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  • [Title] Imaging of iris lesions with high-speed optical coherence tomography.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To image and measure iris tumors with optical coherence tomography (OCT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: High-speed (2,000-4,000 axial-scan/sec and 4-16 frames/sec) 1.3-micron wavelength anterior segment OCT prototypes were used to image 6 eyes of 6 patients with a variety of iris lesions, including focal iris nevus, diffuse iris nevus, amelanotic iris nevus, iris melanocytosis, and iris melanoma.
  • RESULTS: OCT at 1.3-micron wavelength could penetrate the full thickness of the iris lesions and allow three-dimensional measurement of lesion size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: OCT is a new imaging modality that complements slit-lamp photography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for serial evaluation of iris
  • [MeSH-major] Iris / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Acoustic. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17278533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R24 EY13015
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Dragne C, Filip M, Magureanu M, Nicodin A: [Anterior uveal malignant melanoma with subconjunctival extension--a clinical case]. Oftalmologia; 2005;49(1):22-5
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  • [Title] [Anterior uveal malignant melanoma with subconjunctival extension--a clinical case].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanom malign de tract uveal anterior diseminat, posibil iatrogen--caz clinic.
  • The authors present the case of a patient with intraocular tumour and secondary glaucoma, which has been surgically treated for acute angle-closure glaucoma in a local hospital.
  • Multiple conjunctiva pigmented metastasis are present at physical examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Conjunctival Neoplasms. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure. Melanoma. Uveal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15934332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0875
  • [Journal-full-title] Oftalmologia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oftalmologia
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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38. Steiber Z, Ehlers N, Heegaard S, Hjortdal J, Berta A, Prause JU: Brown cornea. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2008 Apr;246(4):537-41
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  • Later the patient developed an iris melanoma.
  • A perforating keratoplasty was performed, and two small pigmented iris nodules were now noted.
  • Three years after grafting, growth of the two iris tumours was obvious.
  • The iris contained two melanomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The brown pigmentation of the cornea was due to pigment granules from the iris tumours liberated to the anterior chamber.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Corneal Diseases / pathology. Corneal Stroma / ultrastructure. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosis / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Keratoplasty, Penetrating. MART-1 Antigen. Melanocytes / ultrastructure. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • [Cites] Br J Ophthalmol. 1992 Jul;76(7):444-6 [1627518.001]
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  • (PMID = 18193447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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39. Shields CL, Furuta M, Thangappan A, Nagori S, Mashayekhi A, Lally DR, Kelly CC, Rudich DS, Nagori AV, Wakade OA, Mehta S, Forte L, Long A, Dellacava EF, Kaplan B, Shields JA: Metastasis of uveal melanoma millimeter-by-millimeter in 8033 consecutive eyes. Arch Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;127(8):989-98
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  • [Title] Metastasis of uveal melanoma millimeter-by-millimeter in 8033 consecutive eyes.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of metastasis of uveal melanoma on the basis of tumor thickness in millimeters.
  • Of the 285 eyes with iris melanoma, the mean tumor thickness was 2.7 mm and metastasis occurred in 0.5%, 4%, and 7% at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively.
  • Of the 492 eyes with ciliary body melanoma, the mean tumor thickness was 6.6 mm and metastasis occurred in 12%, 19%, and 33% at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively.
  • Of the 7256 eyes with choroidal melanoma, the mean tumor thickness was 5.5 mm and metastasis occurred in 8%, 15%, and 25% at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively.
  • For all uveal melanoma, metastasis at 5, 10, and 20 years was 6%, 12%, and 20% for small melanoma (0-3.0 mm thickness), 14%, 26%, and 37% for medium melanoma (3.1-8.0 mm), and 35%, 49%, and 67% for large melanoma (>8.0 mm).
  • Clinical factors predictive of metastasis by multivariate analysis included increasing patient age, ciliary body location, increasing tumor diameter, increasing tumor thickness, having a brown tumor, and the presence of subretinal fluid, intraocular hemorrhage, or extraocular extension.
  • CONCLUSION: Increasing millimeter thickness of uveal melanoma is associated with increasing risk for metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19667335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Notting IC, Missotten GS, Sijmons B, Boonman ZF, Keunen JE, van der Pluijm G: Angiogenic profile of uveal melanoma. Curr Eye Res; 2006 Sep;31(9):775-85
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  • [Title] Angiogenic profile of uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma develops in one of the most capillary-rich tissues of the body and is disseminated hematogenously.
  • Knowledge of the nature and the spatiotemporal expression of angiogenic factors in uveal melanoma is essential to the development of new treatment strategies, especially with regard to improving survival.
  • In this study, we measured the angiogenic potential of several angiogenic factors in different uveal melanoma cell lines, in an in vivo model, and in primary tumor material from patients with melanoma.
  • Most uveal melanoma cell lines expressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A (isoforms 121, 165, 189), VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and basic fibroblastic growth factor (b-FGF) to various extents.
  • Similarly, significant amounts of mRNA for VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and b-FGF were detected in uveal melanoma material from patients.
  • Most uveal melanoma cell lines, but not normal melanocytes, strongly synthesized and secreted VEGF-A 165 and b-FGF during cell culture.
  • Our data suggest that the expression of (lymph) angiogenic factors may play a causal role in the angiogenesis and progression of uveal melanoma and distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Melanoma / genetics. Uveal Neoplasms / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Anterior Eye Segment / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / genetics. Humans. Male. Melanocytes / metabolism. Mice. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Protein Isoforms. RNA / isolation & purification. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16966150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-3683
  • [Journal-full-title] Current eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 63231-63-0 / RNA
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41. Detorakis ET, Engstrom RE Jr, Wallace R, Straatsma BR: Iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization after iodine 125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology; 2005 Mar;112(3):505-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization after iodine 125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: Iris neovascularization (INV) and anterior chamber angle neovascularization after radiotherapy for uveal melanoma may lead to neovascular glaucoma and enucleation.
  • However, neovascularization of the anterior ocular segment may respond favorably to treatment with panretinal photocoagulation.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, interval to development, and predisposing factors of anterior ocular segment neovascularization following iodine 125 (I125) brachytherapy for uveal melanoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five patients (65 eyes), consecutively treated with I125 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma from 1995 through 2000 and followed up after radiation therapy for 24 months or more.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After I125 brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma, INV developed in 23% of eyes and was correlated with larger tumor size, greater tumor vascularity, and disinsertion of a horizontal rectus muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Chamber / blood supply. Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Iris / blood supply. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Uveal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15745782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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42. Kavanagh MC, Everman KR, Opremcak EM, Foster JA: Uveal melanoma with massive extrascleral extension via pars plana vitrectomy sites. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Jul-Aug;24(4):334-6
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  • [Title] Uveal melanoma with massive extrascleral extension via pars plana vitrectomy sites.
  • The hyphema recurred after anterior chamber washout.
  • The hemorrhage was evacuated via a second pars plana vitrectomy, during which profuse, uncontrollable hemorrhage from the vitreous cavity prevented intraocular visualization; the sclerotomy sites were closed without identification of the bleeding source.
  • Histopathologic examination confirmed malignant melanoma.
  • The rapid, massive extrascleral extension of uveal melanoma through surgical sclerotomy sites demonstrated in this case has not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Scleral Diseases / pathology. Sclerostomy. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology. Vitrectomy

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  • (PMID = 18645453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Ulmer A, Beutel J, Süsskind D, Hilgers RD, Ziemssen F, Lüke M, Röcken M, Rohrbach M, Fierlbeck G, Bartz-Schmidt KU, Grisanti S: Visualization of circulating melanoma cells in peripheral blood of patients with primary uveal melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jul 15;14(14):4469-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Visualization of circulating melanoma cells in peripheral blood of patients with primary uveal melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: In patients with uveal melanoma, tumor cell dissemination and subsequent formation of metastases are confined mainly to the hematogenous route.
  • Here, we sought to isolate circulating melanoma cells in peripheral blood of patients with primary uveal melanoma and clinically localized disease.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Blood samples from 52 patients with clinically localized uveal melanoma and from 20 control individuals were prospectively collected before therapy of the primary tumor.
  • Tumor cells expressing the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were enriched by immunomagnetic cell sorting and visualized by immunocytologic staining.
  • RESULTS: In 10 of 52 patients [19%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 10-33%], between 1 and 5 circulating melanoma cells were detected in 50 mL peripheral blood.
  • No melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-positive cells were detected in any of the 20 controls examined.
  • The presence of tumor cells in peripheral blood was associated with ciliary body invasion [odds ratio (OR), 20.0; 95% CI, 3.0-131.7], advanced local tumor stage (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.8-25.4), and anterior tumor localization (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7), all established factors for uveal melanoma progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunomagnetic enrichment enables detection of intact melanoma cells in peripheral blood of patients with clinically localized ocular disease.
  • Visualization and capturing of these cells provide a unique tool for characterizing potentially metastasizing tumor cells from a primary melanoma at an early stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / blood. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / blood. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18628461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Cheng H, Wu ZY, Zheng JL, Yang HS, Yan JH, Huang DP, Xia Y: [A preliminary study in establishment of mice model of experimental uveal melanoma]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Aug;42(8):733-7
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  • [Title] [A preliminary study in establishment of mice model of experimental uveal melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the methods to establish a nude mice model of experimental uveal melanoma by the implantation the primary cultured cells into anterior chamber or subcutaneous injection.
  • METHODS: 35 nude mice, which applied with the SPF grade standard by national healthy department, were divided into 3 groups: anterior chamber group (15), subcutaneous A group (10) and subcutaneous B group (10), respectively. (2 - 3) x 10(5) melanoma cells were inoculated into the anterior chamber of each nude mouse, while 2 x 10(6) cells were inoculated into every subcutaneous of the hind legs in A group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Uveal melanoma can be induced successfully by inoculation the primary cultured human uveal melanoma cells into anterior chamber or subcutaneous in nude mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Experimental / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17081447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-4081
  • [Journal-full-title] [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Krohn J, Frøystein T, Dahl O: Posterior uveal melanoma. Distribution of the sites of origin and patterns of tumour extent in the ocular fundus. Br J Ophthalmol; 2008 Jun;92(6):751-6
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  • [Title] Posterior uveal melanoma. Distribution of the sites of origin and patterns of tumour extent in the ocular fundus.
  • AIMS: To analyse the distribution of posterior uveal melanoma origin sites and to visualise the patterns of tumour extent in the ocular fundus.
  • METHODS: Data on the size and location of 110 posterior uveal melanomas were converted into a database of two-dimensional retinal charts by means of computer-drawing software.
  • Seventy-six initiation sites (69%) were located posterior and 34 (31%) anterior to the equator.
  • More initiation sites anterior to the equator were observed in large versus small/medium tumours (p = 0.0003), in tumours with a largest basal diameter/height ratio <2 versus > or =2 (p = 0.002), in tumours with a ruptured versus intact Bruch membrane (p = 0.03), in tumours with a mixed/epithelioid versus spindle cell type (p = 0.02) and in tumours leading to metastatic disease (p = 0.003).
  • CONCLUSION: The temporal hemisphere posterior to the equator is the preferential area of melanoma occurrence and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18523080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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46. Harris MS, Harris GJ, Simons KB, Campbell BH: Massive extraocular extension and parotid lymph node metastasis of uveal melanoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Sep-Oct;23(5):430-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Massive extraocular extension and parotid lymph node metastasis of uveal melanoma.
  • Biopsy demonstrated uveal melanoma, and staging revealed enhancing ipsilateral parotid lymph nodes.
  • The site of tumor origin is speculative, but a ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle is suspected.
  • Lymph node metastasis of uveal melanoma is rare; to our knowledge, this is the most advanced of the few reported cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Parotid Gland / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17882007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY01931
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Ardjomand N, Komericki P, Langmann G, Mattes D, Moray M, Scarpatetti M, El-Shabrawi Y: Lymph node metastases arising from uveal melanoma. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Jun;117(11-12):433-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymph node metastases arising from uveal melanoma.
  • Since the eye lacks lymphatic vessels, uveal melanomas primarily metastasize hematogenously.
  • Here we report the case of a patient with ciliary body ring melanoma who developed lymph node metastases after a fistulating glaucoma operation.
  • Pigment dispersion glaucoma was diagnosed and since the intraocular pressure could not be managed with topical medication, transscleral cyclophotocoagulation and two trabeculectomies had to be performed.
  • Due to enlargement of the pigmented iris mass and cell deposits in the chamber angle, a ciliary body ring melanoma was presumed and the eye enucleated.
  • Histology confirmed the diagnosis of "ciliary body ring melanoma".
  • Lymph node metastases arising from ciliary body melanomas are very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Glaucoma, Open-Angle / surgery. Light Coagulation. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Trabeculectomy. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anterior Chamber / pathology. Eye Enucleation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iris / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Microscopy. Neck. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Ophthalmoscopy. Reoperation. Trabecular Meshwork / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16053201.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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48. Torres VL, Allemann N, Erwenne CM: Ultrasound biomicroscopy features of iris and ciliary body melanomas before and after brachytherapy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2005 Mar-Apr;36(2):129-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound biomicroscopy features of iris and ciliary body melanomas before and after brachytherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) features of iris and ciliary body melanomas before and after brachytherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four uveal anterior melanoma cases undergoing brachytherapy were retrospectively studied.
  • RESULTS: Before brachytherapy, UBM examination showed a solid mass in the iris, ciliary body, or both in all four cases and allowed its characterization, sizing, and positioning.
  • Complications related to brachytherapy were demonstrated, including cataract, peripheral anterior synechiae at tumor location, and secondary scleral thinning.
  • CONCLUSION: UBM played an important role as a complementary diagnostic method for anterior uveal melanomas, particularly ciliary body melanomas, but also allowed therapeutic planning (brachytherapy or surgery) and follow-up after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Iris Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15792314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Baptista CS, Villagrasa M, Marinho AA: Standardised B-scan and A-scan echographic evaluation of spontaneous anterior uveal melanomas in the dog. Vet J; 2006 Mar;171(2):322-30
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  • [Title] Standardised B-scan and A-scan echographic evaluation of spontaneous anterior uveal melanomas in the dog.
  • In humans, A-scan echographic characteristics of choroidal and ciliary body malignant melanomas permit the prediction of histopathological findings in >95% of cases.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the echographic characteristics, in A-mode and B-mode, of 16 spontaneous anterior uveal melanomas in the dog using a 10 MHz sector transducer.
  • We believe that standardised A-scan echography can be used in the evaluation and diagnosis of a very high percentage of anterior uveal melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / ultrasonography. Melanoma / veterinary. Uveal Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16490716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Coupland SE, Campbell I, Damato B: Routes of extraocular extension of uveal melanoma: risk factors and influence on survival probability. Ophthalmology; 2008 Oct;115(10):1778-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Routes of extraocular extension of uveal melanoma: risk factors and influence on survival probability.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred forty-seven patients with uveal melanoma treated by primary enucleation between January 1993 and December 2006.
  • METHODS: Baseline variables were age, gender, largest basal tumor dimension, tumor height, anterior tumor margin, route of extraocular spread (i.e., aqueous channels, vortex veins, ciliary arteries, or ciliary nerves), tumor cell type, mitotic rate, closed connective tissue loops, and monosomy 3.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and route of extraocular extension and correlation with intraocular tumor characteristics and metastatic death.
  • Extraocular spread correlated with anterior tumor extension, large basal tumor diameter, epithelioid cellularity, closed loops, high mitotic rate, and monosomy 3.
  • Extraocular spread along aqueous drainage channels correlated inversely with intraocular tumor dimensions.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / mortality. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18554722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Notting I, Buijs J, Mintardjo R, van der Horst G, Vukicevic S, Lowik C, Schalij-Delfos N, Keunen J, van der Pluijm G: Bone morphogenetic protein 7 inhibits tumor growth of human uveal melanoma in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2007 Nov;48(11):4882-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bone morphogenetic protein 7 inhibits tumor growth of human uveal melanoma in vivo.
  • In the present study, the association of tumorigenicity and malignant behavior of human uveal melanoma with BMP7 expression and the possibility that overexpression of BMP7 in uveal melanoma affects intraocular tumor growth in vivo were investigated.
  • METHODS: To establish the role of BMP7 in uveal melanoma progression, the human OCM-1 cell line was stably transfected to overexpress BMP7 (OCM-1 FRT/BMP7) using targeted homologous recombination.
  • RESULTS: Transcriptional profiling revealed low or no detectable expression of BMP7 in primary tumor tissue of patients with uveal melanoma.
  • In line with these clinical observations, BMP7 mRNA levels were low or not detectable in cultured human uveal melanoma cell lines, when compared with normal cultured melanocytes.
  • Inoculation of OCM-1 FRT/BMP7 cells into the anterior chamber of the eye of nude mice inhibited tumor progression significantly, compared with progression in the control cell line (no BMP7 expression).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the data provide novel evidence that decreased BMP7 expression contributes to progression of uveal melanoma.
  • Furthermore, BMP7 may represent a novel therapeutic molecule for repression of tumor growth in uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology. Melanoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Anterior Chamber / pathology. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17962434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMP7 protein, human; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7; 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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52. Hamrouni Z, Levy C, Lumbroso L, D'Hermies F, Frau E, Mazal A, Delacroix S, Nauraye C, Dendale R, Schlienger P, Desjardins L: [Results of treating uveal melanoma with proton beam radiation: 10-year follow-up]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2005 Oct;28(8):833-9
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  • [Title] [Results of treating uveal melanoma with proton beam radiation: 10-year follow-up].
  • [Transliterated title] Résultats du traitement du mélanome malin de l'uvée par faisceau de protons: 10 ans de recul.
  • PURPOSE: We analyzed the long-term results of uveal melanoma treatment with proton beam irradiation in a series of patients with a follow-up of at least 10 years.
  • Thirteen tumors were anterior to the equator, 76 overlapped the equator and 78 were posterior to the equator.
  • Risk factors for metastasis were the anterior site of the tumor, its volume greater than 0.4 cc and the presence of retinal detachment at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / radiotherapy. Uveal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16249762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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53. Laccarino GF, Forte R, Tranfa F, Cennamo G, Rosa N: [Intracorneal invasion of the ciliary body by melanoma]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Feb;29(2):e3
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  • [Title] [Intracorneal invasion of the ciliary body by melanoma].
  • At B-scan and standardized A-scan echography, the mass was shown to be localized to the ciliary body, with characteristics of a malignant melanoma.
  • Therefore, enucleation was performed and light microscopy revealed a pigmented malignant melanoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral growth and infiltration of the anterior third of the corneal stroma.
  • The corneal infiltration, limited to the anterior third of the stroma, could be due to the fact that at this level the collagen fibers are disposed less regularly than those of the posterior two-thirds, with this different disposition responsible for the weak resistance opposed to the tumoral invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Corneal Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16523149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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54. Tay E, Cree IA, Hungerford J, Franks W: Recurrence of treated ciliary body melanoma following trabeculectomy. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2009 Jul;37(5):503-5
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  • [Title] Recurrence of treated ciliary body melanoma following trabeculectomy.
  • A 69-year-old man was treated for a right ciliary body melanoma with plaque radiotherapy.
  • The tumour remained unchanged on yearly ultrasound B scans but intraocular pressures became uncontrolled despite maximal medical therapy.
  • The melanoma recurred with extrascleral extension under the trabeculectomy bleb 14 years after plaque radiotherapy and 5 years after trabeculectomy surgery.
  • Enucleation was performed and histological analysis showed a ring melanoma involving the root of the iris, filling the trabecular meshwork and extending into the anterior chamber.
  • Trabeculectomy surgery may increase the risk of extrascleral extension of ciliary body melanoma even after apparently successful plaque radiotherapy and long-term local tumour control.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / radiation effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Trabeculectomy. Uveal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19624348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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55. Evans PM, Lynch GL, Dubielzig RR: Anterior uveal spindle cell tumor in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol; 2010 Nov;13(6):387-90
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  • [Title] Anterior uveal spindle cell tumor in a cat.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a case of anterior uveal spindle cell tumor in a cat with features similar to spindle cell tumor of blue eyed dogs.
  • METHODS: A 10-year-old female spayed domestic short-haired cat was referred for an iris mass OS.
  • A diagnosis of a benign epithelial tumor was suggested by a FNA of the mass.
  • RESULTS: Histopathology of the enucleated globe revealed the superior iris to be infiltrated and effaced by a large population of neoplastic spindle cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on its histopathologic characteristics, this iris tumor was diagnosed as a Schwann cell variant of a peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) closely resembling the spindle cell tumor of blue-eyed dogs.
  • Anterior uveal PNST has not been previously reported in cats to the authors' knowledge.
  • The presence of Antoni type A and type B tissue patterns along with immunohistochemical staining may facilitate a diagnosis of PNST and rule out malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
  • (PMID = 21182724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5224
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Piña Y, Cebulla CM, Murray TG, Alegret A, Dubovy SR, Boutrid H, Feuer W, Mutapcic L, Jockovich ME: Blood vessel maturation in human uveal melanoma: spatial distribution of neovessels and mature vasculature. Ophthalmic Res; 2009;41(3):160-9
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  • [Title] Blood vessel maturation in human uveal melanoma: spatial distribution of neovessels and mature vasculature.
  • PURPOSE: The aims of this study are (1) to evaluate the spatial distribution of neovessels and mature vessels in human uveal melanoma tumors and (2) to determine whether vessel maturation is associated with the major indicators for poor prognosis.
  • Tumor morphology was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and modified periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining.The spatial distribution of neovessels and mature vessels was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and correlated with major indicators of poor prognosis (i.e., aggressive PAS patterns, epithelioid cytology, mitotic figures, extraocular extension, anterior tumor location, ciliary body involvement, large tumor size, cell proliferation, and angiogenic activity).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences exist in the spatial distribution of mature versus neovessels in human uveal melanoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • (PMID = 19321938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0259
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY014801; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013629; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01EY013629; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY12651; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY012651
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3713740
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57. Rosenberg C, Finger PT: Cutaneous malignant melanoma metastatic to the eye, lids, and orbit. Surv Ophthalmol; 2008 May-Jun;53(3):187-202
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  • [Title] Cutaneous malignant melanoma metastatic to the eye, lids, and orbit.
  • The incidence of malignant cutaneous melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer.
  • At the time of ocular diagnosis, nearly all reported patients had a known history of cutaneous melanoma and synchronous non-ocular metastases.
  • Several aspects help in differentiating the tumors from primary uveal melanomas such as the presence of symptoms, rapidly growing multifocal tumors, vitreous seeding, and histopathological findings.
  • Intraocular metastases (uvea, vitreous, retina, and anterior-segment) are more common and occur in younger patients than extraocular metastases (eyelids, orbit, and extraocular muscles).
  • Palliative radiation therapy is often used for intraocular disease.
  • Orbital metastases from cutaneous melanoma commonly involve the extraocular muscles resulting in diplopia and exophthalmos.
  • Unfortunately, there are few good options for systemic treatment of diffusely metastatic melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Eyelid Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18501266.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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58. Notting IC, Buijs JT, Que I, Mintardjo RE, van der Horst G, Karperien M, Missotten GS, Jager MJ, Schalij-Delfos NE, Keunen JE, van der Pluijm G: Whole-body bioluminescent imaging of human uveal melanoma in a new mouse model of local tumor growth and metastasis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2005 May;46(5):1581-7
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  • [Title] Whole-body bioluminescent imaging of human uveal melanoma in a new mouse model of local tumor growth and metastasis.
  • PURPOSE: Human uveal melanoma develops in one of the most capillary-rich tissues of the body and has a pure hematogenous dissemination.
  • METHODS: A luciferase (Luc)-positive human uveal melanoma cell line (OCM-1 FRT/luc) was established.
  • Tumor cells were inoculated into the anterior chamber of murine eyes for induction of orthotopic growth or into the left heart ventricle to mimic hematogenous micrometastatic spread.
  • RESULTS: Injection of cancer cells into the anterior chamber of the eye of mice closely mimicked orthotopic tumor growth of uveal melanoma.
  • This model will accelerate the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of uveal melanoma and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anterior Chamber / pathology. Female. Heart Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Luciferases / genetics. Luciferases / metabolism. Luminescent Agents / metabolism. Luminescent Measurements. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Transplantation. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15851554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Luminescent Agents; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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59. Gray ME, Corrêa ZM, Augsburger JJ, Barrett W: Ciliary body melanoma with limited nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse iris-angle infiltration treated by whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy. Int Ophthalmol; 2007 Aug;27(4):273-6
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  • [Title] Ciliary body melanoma with limited nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse iris-angle infiltration treated by whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary uveal malignant melanoma of the ciliary body associated with nodular extrascleral extension, diffuse iris-angle infiltration, and secondary glaucoma is usually treated by prompt enucleation.
  • We report a patient with ciliary body melanoma associated with nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse infiltration of the iris and angle treated conservatively because the fellow eye was blind.
  • METHODS: The clinical features and surgical management of a melanoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral extension and diffuse infiltration of the iris and angle are presented.
  • The tumor was treated with focal I-125 plaque radiotherapy followed by supplemental whole anterior segment I-125 plaque radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The patient has been followed for over 2.5 years since the initial plaque radiotherapy and over 1.5 years since the supplemental whole anterior segment radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy for ciliary body melanoma with diffuse iris-angle infiltration provided palliative local tumor control without significant local complications through available follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Ciliary Body / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Scleral Diseases / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17468833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5701
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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60. Esson D, Fahrer CS, Zarfoss MK, Dubielzig RR: Suspected uveal metastasis of a nail bed melanoma in a dog. Vet Ophthalmol; 2007 Jul-Aug;10(4):262-6
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  • [Title] Suspected uveal metastasis of a nail bed melanoma in a dog.
  • The dog exhibited no signs of systemic illness, but had a history of a melanoma of the nail bed of the first digit of the right hind limb, excised 1 year previously.
  • Ophthalmologic examination revealed diffuse corneal edema, mild anterior uveitis, glaucoma and a mass within the right iris.
  • Enucleation was performed and histopathologic evaluation of the globe revealed the iris to be infiltrated with an anaplastic melanoma, suspected to represent a metastasis of the original nail bed tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Melanoma / veterinary. Nail Diseases / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary. Uveal Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Eye Enucleation / veterinary. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17565559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Finger PT, Chin KJ, Yu GP, Palladium-103 for Choroidal Melanoma Study Group: Risk factors for radiation maculopathy after ophthalmic plaque radiation for choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2010 Apr;149(4):608-15
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  • [Title] Risk factors for radiation maculopathy after ophthalmic plaque radiation for choroidal melanoma.
  • METHODS: A consecutive case series of 384 uveal melanomas irradiated (mean apical dose, 71.2 Gy) were followed up for a mean 47.2 months.
  • Tumor locations included: 122 (32%) centered anterior to the equator, 27 (7%) equatorial, and 235 (61%) posterior.
  • RESULTS: RM occurred in 8 (7%) eyes with anterior uveal melanomas.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed the risk related to posterior location was greater compared with anterior location with a hazard ratio of 6.66 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.94 to 22.50; P = .0001).
  • Of interest, those anterior melanomas with RM had a mean apical height of 9.4 mm, as compared with a mean height of 3.3 mm for anterior tumors not associated with RM.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Choroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Macula Lutea / radiation effects. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1891
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioisotopes; 5TWQ1V240M / Palladium
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62. Conway RM, Poothullil AM, Daftari IK, Weinberg V, Chung JE, O'Brien JM: Estimates of ocular and visual retention following treatment of extra-large uveal melanomas by proton beam radiotherapy. Arch Ophthalmol; 2006 Jun;124(6):838-43
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  • [Title] Estimates of ocular and visual retention following treatment of extra-large uveal melanomas by proton beam radiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes of proton beam radiotherapy for the treatment of extra-large uveal melanomas in patients specifically referred to the University of California, San Francisco, for ocular conservation therapy.
  • DESIGN: In a retrospective, nonrandomized cohort study, 21 patients with extra-large choroidal or ciliochoroidal melanomas measuring at least 10 mm in maximum thickness or 20 mm in maximum basal diameter or tumors located within 3 mm of the optic nerve measuring at least 8 mm in maximum thickness or 16 mm in maximum basal diameter met inclusion criteria.
  • Main outcome measures were frequency of (1) anterior segment complications (lash loss, keratopathy, cataract, and neovascular glaucoma), (2) posterior segment complications (vitreous hemorrhage, radiation retinopathy, and radiation papillopathy), (3) treatment failure (tumor growth, enucleation, or metastases), and (4) final visual acuity.
  • CONCLUSION: Proton beam radiotherapy is an ocular-conserving option that may be considered for the treatment of extra-large uveal melanoma in carefully selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Enucleation. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Uveal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Visual Acuity / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16769837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY02162; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY13812
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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63. Galán A, Martín-Suárez EM, Molleda JM, Raya A, Gómez-Laguna J, Martín De Las Mulas J: Presumed primary uveal melanoma with brain extension in a dog. J Small Anim Pract; 2009 Jun;50(6):306-10
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  • [Title] Presumed primary uveal melanoma with brain extension in a dog.
  • Mode B ocular ultrasonography revealed a mass extended intraocular from anterior chamber to posterior pole without evidence of extraocular extension.
  • A presumptive diagnosis of melanocytic tumour was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Eye Enucleation / veterinary. Melanoma / veterinary. Uveal Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Euthanasia, Animal. Female. Intraocular Pressure. Ocular Hypertension / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19527424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Conway RM, Chew T, Golchet P, Desai K, Lin S, O'Brien J: Ultrasound biomicroscopy: role in diagnosis and management in 130 consecutive patients evaluated for anterior segment tumours. Br J Ophthalmol; 2005 Aug;89(8):950-5
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  • [Title] Ultrasound biomicroscopy: role in diagnosis and management in 130 consecutive patients evaluated for anterior segment tumours.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is an important tool for assessing anterior segment pathology.
  • This study sought to evaluate UBM in the management of anterior segment tumours.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of consecutive patients referred to the ocular oncology unit, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), for suspected anterior segment tumours from 1999 to 2004.
  • RESULTS: 132 eyes from 130 patients were evaluated, including 55 uveal melanomas (UM), 21 iris naevi, 30 iris cysts, and 26 remaining lesions.
  • Of the melanomas, 45 were also evaluated with conventional A/B-scan.
  • There was 29% correspondence between the anatomical structures invaded by melanoma as identified by B-scan v disease extent defined by UBM.
  • Ciliary body and peripheral iris involvement by melanomas was significantly more frequently observed by UBM than B-scan.
  • In three cases, neuroepithelial cysts were associated with intercurrent pathology including iris naevus (n = 2) and ciliary body melanoma (n = 1).
  • Two ciliary body melanomas showed cavitation, including one patient with a pseudocyst.
  • CONCLUSION: UBM is an indispensable tool for the management of anterior segment tumours.
  • This study demonstrates the superiority of UBM v conventional B-scan for the precise localisation of uveal melanoma, especially involving the ciliary body and peripheral iris.

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  • (PMID = 16024841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY002162; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY013812; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY02162; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY13812
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1772796
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65. Criss JS, Shields CL, Materin MA, Reichel E, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Progressive enlargement of cavity within melanoma masquerading as iris cyst. Cornea; 2006 Aug;25(7):863-5
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  • [Title] Progressive enlargement of cavity within melanoma masquerading as iris cyst.
  • PURPOSE: To describe progressive enlargement of intralesional cavities within a mass that masqueraded clinically as an iris pigment epithelial cyst for 2 years but later proved to be a melanoma.
  • METHODS: An 81-year-old woman developed asymptomatic focal elevation of the iris, and ultrasound biomicroscopy showed a fluid-filled mass that was interpreted as an iris pigment epithelial cyst.
  • The affected right eye displayed a pigmented mushroom-shaped ciliary body mass with anterior chamber invasion, distorting the pupil and occupying 40% of the anterior chamber.
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy and B-scan ultrasonography revealed many cavities within the 14-mm-thick mass, suggestive of ciliary body melanoma.
  • After enucleation, histopathology disclosed multiple cavities, some with granular eosinophilic material, within a mushroom-shaped mixed-cell melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Cavitation can occur in ciliary body melanoma and can lead to misinterpretation as a cyst.
  • Cavitary melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the anterior segment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Cysts / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Microscopy, Acoustic

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  • (PMID = 17068469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3740
  • [Journal-full-title] Cornea
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cornea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Gambrelle J, Grange JD, Devouassoux Shisheboran M, Rivoire M, Baggetto LG, Jean-Louis B, Fleury J, Kodjikian L: Survival after primary enucleation for choroidal melanoma: changes induced by the introduction of conservative therapies. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2007 May;245(5):657-63
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  • [Title] Survival after primary enucleation for choroidal melanoma: changes induced by the introduction of conservative therapies.
  • BACKGROUND: Most uveal melanomas are currently treated by eye-preserving radiotherapies.
  • However, for melanomas of the largest size or with initial complications, enucleation remains the reference treatment.
  • Enucleation is called primary when it is proposed as the only local treatment option for a melanoma.
  • Our main goal was to evaluate the survival of melanoma patients treated by primary enucleation since the introduction of proton-beam therapy in France in 1991.
  • METHODS: All melanoma patients undergoing primary enucleation in our department between 1991 and 2002 were included in this retrospective study.
  • The 5-year melanoma-specific survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • RESULTS: Forty patients, representing 8% of all patients with choroidal uveal melanoma diagnosed and followed up in our department during an 11-year period, were included in the study.
  • The 5-year melanoma-specific survival rate was 31.45% (SE: 7.8) after primary enucleation.
  • Significant prognosis factors in the multivariate analysis were: tumor thickness > 12 mm (p = 0.03), anterior margin of the tumor involving the iris (p = 0.018), and presence of epithelioid cells (p = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The very low survival rate reported reflects the evolution of primary enucleation, which is currently indicated only for melanomas with the worst prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / mortality. Eye Enucleation / mortality. Melanoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17119996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. Odashiro M, Odashiro A, Leite L, Melo M, Odashiro P, Miiji L, Odashiro D, Fernandes P, Burnier M Jr: Melanocytoma of ciliary body and choroids simulating melanoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Feb 15;206(2):130-3
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  • [Title] Melanocytoma of ciliary body and choroids simulating melanoma.
  • Melanocytoma is a rare intraocular tumor.
  • It is believed that most of these tumors are clinically diagnosed as nevi or melanoma, and are followed up or treated without surgical resection, respectively.
  • Some clinical features can give a clue as to the correct diagnosis.
  • Intraocular pressure was normal, and the pupillary reflex was present in both eyes.
  • An ultrasound of the OD showed an elevated tumor on topography of the ciliary body and anterior choroid at the ora serrata level.
  • Melanoma was the main diagnosis considered, and enucleation was indicated due to poor prognosis for visual acuity.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Ciliary Body / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19410384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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68. Grahn BH, Peiffer RL, Cullen CL, Haines DM: Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling. Vet Ophthalmol; 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):395-403
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  • [Title] Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling.
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of well-differentiated and anaplastic intraocular neoplasms of cats, and to develop a diagnostic algorithm for, and investigate the association of ruptured lenses with these neoplasms.
  • Seventy-five feline globes with intraocular neoplasms were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy.
  • Morphologic diagnoses included 33 intraocular sarcomas, 17 diffuse iris melanomas, 15 lymphosarcomas, three ciliary adenomas, one metastatic carcinoma, and six undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms.
  • These included four neoplasms morphologically diagnosed as lymphosarcomas but which expressed differentiation antigens consistent with melanoma (n = 3) or ciliary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), and four tumors morphologically diagnosed as intraocular sarcomas that expressed differentiation antigens for melanoma (n = 2), metastatic carcinoma (n = 1), or remained undifferentiated (n = 1).
  • Immunohistochemical labeling suggested a diagnosis in 5/6 morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms including one intraocular sarcoma, two diffuse iridal melanomas, and two ciliary adenocarcinomas.
  • Based upon morphologic, histochemical, and IHC characterization, ruptured lens capsules were detected in 28/30 intraocular sarcomas, 3/24 diffuse iris melanomas and 1/11 lymphosarcomas, but not in ciliary epithelial neoplasms, metastatic carcinomas, or undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms.
  • An algorithm is provided that facilitates stain and IHC label selection for differentiating anaplastic intraocular feline neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / veterinary. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cats. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / veterinary. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / veterinary. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17076872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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69. Ly LV, Baghat A, Versluis M, Jordanova ES, Luyten GP, van Rooijen N, van Hall T, van der Velden PA, Jager MJ: In aged mice, outgrowth of intraocular melanoma depends on proangiogenic M2-type macrophages. J Immunol; 2010 Sep 15;185(6):3481-8
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  • [Title] In aged mice, outgrowth of intraocular melanoma depends on proangiogenic M2-type macrophages.
  • Macrophages are part of the tumor microenvironment and have been associated with poor prognosis in uveal melanoma.
  • We determined the presence of macrophages and their differentiation status in a murine intraocular melanoma model.
  • Inoculation of B16F10 cells into the anterior chamber of the eye resulted in rapid tumor outgrowth.
  • We conclude that tumor-associated macrophages are directly involved in tumor outgrowth of intraocular melanoma and that macrophages in aged mice have a predisposition for an M2-type profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging / immunology. Eye Neoplasms / immunology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Macrophages / immunology. Macrophages / pathology. Melanoma, Experimental / immunology. Melanoma, Experimental / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20713886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-6606
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Liposomes; 0813BZ6866 / Clodronic Acid
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70. Kiratli H, Ustünel S, Balci S, Söylemezoğlu F: Ipsilateral ciliary body schwannoma and ciliary body melanoma in a child. J AAPOS; 2010 Apr;14(2):175-7
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  • [Title] Ipsilateral ciliary body schwannoma and ciliary body melanoma in a child.
  • An 11-year-old boy presented with a mid-zonal pigment epithelial iris cyst.
  • Histopathology revealed a ciliary body schwannoma filling the anterior chamber and a small, incidental noncontiguous ciliary body melanoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20451861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Peyman M, Ong MJ, Iqbal T, Subrayan V: Iris mammillations in two female siblings with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Iris mammillations in two female siblings with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  • Iris mammillations are dark brown, smooth, mound- or dome-shaped protuberances that are typically found on the anterior iris surface and are presumed to be congenital in origin.
  • Lisch nodules in neurofibromatosis, tapioca melanoma of the iris, inflammatory iris granulomata and Cogan-Reese syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • In this case report, the authors present a case of a bilateral iris mammillations in two siblings with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case where bilateral iris mammilations have been found to be associated with a systemic condition.
  • Iris mammillations can be considered as one of the clinical signs in CAH in view of the pathogenesis discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / complications. Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics. Iris / abnormalities


72. Wei WB, Yang WL, Hu SM, Li B: Local excision of ciliary body tumors: a long-term prospective cohort study in China. Chin Med J (Engl); 2008 Nov 5;121(21):2152-6

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  • In some cases, vitrectomies, scleral graft transplantations, and further excisions of the anterior choroid were performed.
  • Their visual acuity, intraocular pressure and local recurrence were recorded with descriptive percentages.
  • Only two patients had intraocular pressure (IOP) of less than 10 mmHg and the other patients maintained normal IOP.
  • Nine cases (40.91%) were given confirmed diagnosis of malignant melanoma, four (18.18%) of melanocytoma, six (27.27%) of nonpigmented ciliary epithelial adenoma, two (9.09%) of neurofibroma, and one (4.55%) of neurinoma.
  • One patient, whose operation removed a malignant melanoma with a diameter of 16 mm, died of hepatic metastasis five years after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Uveal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 19080176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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73. Gyetvai T, Kolozsvári L: [Ultrasound biomicroscopy examination of tumors of the iris and ciliary body]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(1):43-6
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  • [Title] [Ultrasound biomicroscopy examination of tumors of the iris and ciliary body].
  • [Transliterated title] Az iris és a corpus ciliare térfoglaló folyamatainak ultrahangbiomikroszkópos vizsgálata.
  • The ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) has a major role in detecting and following different types of intra-ocular masses in the anterior part of the eye.
  • In the last six years 30 patients with iris and ciliary body tumour were found in our laboratory.
  • Melanocytoma, retinoblastoma and ring melanoma were revealed.
  • Although the symptoms of the anterior uveal tumours are uncommon, and these tumours show very slow progression, early detection and regular follow-up is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Microscopy / methods. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Retinoblastoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15902333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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74. Gündüz K, Hoşal BM, Zilelioğlu G, Günalp I: The use of ultrasound biomicroscopy in the evaluation of anterior segment tumors and simulating conditions. Ophthalmologica; 2007;221(5):305-12
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  • [Title] The use of ultrasound biomicroscopy in the evaluation of anterior segment tumors and simulating conditions.
  • PURPOSE: To report the ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) findings of anterior segment tumors and simulating conditions.
  • RESULTS: The study material comprised 13 iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cysts, 7 ciliary body melanomas, 4 iris melanomas, 4 iris nevi, 3 intraocular invasions of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, 2 ring melanomas of the anterior chamber angle, 1 medulloepithelioma and 1 pars plana cyst.
  • All ciliary body melanomas showed low to medium reflectivity, with cavitation in one case and extraocular extension in another.
  • Iris melanomas presented as anterior (stromal) iris lesions with medium to high internal reflectivity.
  • There was irregularity and convex bowing of the posterior iris plane in iris melanomas, a feature not seen in iris nevi.
  • Intraocular invasion of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma was evidenced as areas of medium to high reflectivity in the ciliary body and iris, loss of the acute angle shape and highly reflective spots in the anterior chamber.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UBM was particularly useful in the diagnosis of IPE cysts, in the visualization of small ciliary body melanomas, in the differentiation of iris melanomas from iris nevi and in the demonstration of intraocular invasion from conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Eye Segment / ultrasonography. Eye Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Microscopy, Acoustic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / ultrasonography. Ciliary Body. Conjunctival Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Cysts / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iris Diseases / ultrasonography. Iris Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Male. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nevus / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17728552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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75. Canovas D, Rennie IG, Nichols CE, Sisley K: Local environmental influences on uveal melanoma: vitreous humor promotes uveal melanoma invasion, whereas the aqueous can be inhibitory. Cancer; 2008 Apr 15;112(8):1787-94
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  • [Title] Local environmental influences on uveal melanoma: vitreous humor promotes uveal melanoma invasion, whereas the aqueous can be inhibitory.
  • BACKGROUND: Uveal melanomas of the choroid and ciliary body are aggressive tumors causing the death of approximately 50% of patients.
  • In contrast, iris melanomas only infrequently metastasize; why these differences exist is not known.
  • The local environment can regulate cancer growth and development, and it is probable the aqueous and vitreous humors have an important role in regulating uveal melanoma behavior.
  • METHODS: To explore this possibility cultures of uveal melanoma were exposed to aqueous and vitreous and the effects investigated using invasion and proliferation assays.
  • RESULTS: The vitreous universally promoted uveal melanoma invasion, whereas the aqueous mainly had no effect or was inhibitory.
  • Tumor location, and the baseline invasion of the melanoma, affected the ability of aqueous and vitreous from different patients to regulate invasive behavior.
  • The ability of the humors to regulate uveal melanomas may involve TIMP-2, TIMP-3, and TGF-beta2, as high expression was found by ChemiArray analysis and there were differences in the levels of the regulators in the aqueous compared with the vitreous.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that in situ uveal melanoma development reflects an interaction between the tumor and the environment of the eye.
  • Exposure to the aqueous would therefore contribute to the benign nature of iris melanomas, whereas potential interaction with the vitreous appears to promote the aggressive behavior of posterior uveal melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Aqueous Humor / physiology. Melanoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology. Vitreous Body / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinogens / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chemotaxis / physiology. Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Ciliary Body / pathology. Cytokines / drug effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tissue Culture Techniques. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / drug effects. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 / drug effects. Transforming Growth Factor beta2 / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18300240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta2; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
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76. Onken MD, Worley LA, Long MD, Duan S, Council ML, Bowcock AM, Harbour JW: Oncogenic mutations in GNAQ occur early in uveal melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2008 Dec;49(12):5230-4
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  • [Title] Oncogenic mutations in GNAQ occur early in uveal melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: Early/initiating oncogenic mutations have been identified for many cancers, but such mutations remain unidentified in uveal melanoma (UM).
  • RESULTS: Activating mutations at codon 209 were identified in GNAQ in 33 (49%) of 67 primary UMs, including 2 (22%) of 9 iris melanomas and 31 (54%) of 58 posterior UMs.
  • The presence of this mutation in tumors at all stages of malignant progression suggests that it is an early event in UM.


77. Knox DL, Eagle RC Jr, Green WR: Optic nerve hydropic axonal degeneration and blocked retrograde axoplasmic transport: histopathologic features in human high-pressure secondary glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol; 2007 Mar;125(3):347-53
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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe histopathologic features of anterior optic nerves of 12 eyes enucleated for sustained high ocular pressure from iris-ciliary body melanomas in 10 and choroidal melanomas with chronic angle closure in 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Axonal Transport. Axons / pathology. Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / pathology. Intraocular Pressure. Nerve Degeneration / pathology. Optic Nerve Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Eye Enucleation. Humans. Male. Melanoma / complications. Middle Aged. Neuroglia / pathology. Optic Atrophy / pathology. Optic Disk / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Uveal Neoplasms / complications. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17353405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Finger PT, Reddy S, Chin K: High-frequency ultrasound characteristics of 24 iris and iridociliary melanomas: before and after plaque brachytherapy. Arch Ophthalmol; 2007 Aug;125(8):1051-8
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  • [Title] High-frequency ultrasound characteristics of 24 iris and iridociliary melanomas: before and after plaque brachytherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate size, characteristics, and regression of iris and iridociliary melanomas on high-frequency ultrasound images before and after plaque brachytherapy.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of high-frequency ultrasound characteristics of 24 consecutive iris and iridociliary melanomas before and after radiation therapy.
  • Nineteen iris melanomas (79%) involved the ciliary body, 18 (75%) involved the iris pigment epithelium, 11 (46%) were club shaped, and 4 (17%) caused disinsertion of the iris root.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Iris Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brachytherapy. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17698751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Char DH, Kemlitz AE, Miller T, Crawford JB: Iris ring melanoma: fine needle biopsy. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Apr;90(4):420-2
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  • [Title] Iris ring melanoma: fine needle biopsy.
  • AIMS: To delineate the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle biopsy in iris ring melanoma and determine the tumour related mortality of this neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 22 patients with iris melanomas that involve the entire 360 degrees of the anterior chamber angle.
  • RESULTS: Iris ring melanomas were correctly diagnosed in all cases.
  • In 11 of 16 cases (69%) a fine needle biopsy performed 180 degrees away from the main mass was positive for an iris ring melanoma.
  • The tumour related mortality in iris ring melanoma cases was four of 22 patients (18%).
  • CONCLUSION: A fine needle aspiration biopsy can be used to diagnose an iris ring melanoma.
  • Iris ring melanomas have significant mortality compared with focal tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • [Cites] Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 Sep;132(3):336-42 [11530045.001]
  • [Cites] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2001 Sep;218(9):632-4 [11590473.001]
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  • (PMID = 16547317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1856995
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80. Gallego Y, Mendicute J, Ruiz M, Ruiz I, Ubeda M: [Melanocytoma of the ciliary body]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2005 Feb;80(2):109-12
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  • [Transliterated title] Melanocitoma de cuerpo ciliar.
  • CLINICAL CASE: We report the case of a 25 year old woman who attended our Hospital with a pigmented lesion in anterior chamber angle of her right eye.
  • On examination, and once complementary tests were performed, a pigmented lesion located on the iris root and ciliary body of her right eye was confirmed.
  • Histology results confirmed the diagnosis of ciliary body melanocytoma.
  • A local resection of this benign lesion should be considered as alternative to enucleation, even though differential diagnosis with malignant melanoma must also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Ciliary Body / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15750890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0365-6691
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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81. Isager P, Engholm G, Overgaard J, Storm H: Uveal and conjunctival malignant melanoma in denmark 1943-97: observed and relative survival of patients followed through 2002. Ophthalmic Epidemiol; 2006 Apr;13(2):85-96
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  • [Title] Uveal and conjunctival malignant melanoma in denmark 1943-97: observed and relative survival of patients followed through 2002.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the observed and relative survival of patients diagnosed with a malignant melanoma in the ocular region in Denmark during the period 1943-97.
  • METHODS: The study included 2,504 patients (1,292 men and 1,212 women) diagnosed with a melanoma in the ocular region, of which 2,434 cases could be topographically subclassified into 2,178 in the choroid/ciliary body, 141 in the iris, and 115 in the conjunctiva.
  • RESULTS: For the total ocular region and the choroid/ciliary body, the observed survival did not vary statistically significantly with the year of diagnosis.
  • A statistically insignificant higher observed survival for women than men was found for tumors in the ocular region and the subgroups choroid/ciliary body, iris, and conjunctiva.
  • The 5- and 10-year relative survival for the iris was for men 90% and 85% and for women 99% and 101%, respectively, and for the conjunctiva for men 83% and 70% and for women 93% and 82%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The observed and relative survival of patients diagnosed with a melanoma in the ocular region and choroid/ciliary body in Denmark during the period 1943-97 and followed through 2002 has remained stable.
  • The highest observed and relative survival was found for iris melanomas, the lowest for choroid/ciliary body melanomas, and intermediate for conjunctival melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / mortality. Melanoma / mortality. Uveal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16581612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Epidemiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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82. Berges O: [Applications of noninvasive high-resolution ultrasound imaging in ophthalmology]. J Radiol; 2006 Dec;87(12 Pt 2):1962-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Applications de l'échographie haute résolution à l'étude de l'oeil.
  • Recent developments since the 1990s have made devices available that are well suited for examining the anterior segment as well as the posterior pole, providing precise data for corneal lesions, iris, chamber angle, and ciliary body abnormalities, and lesions of the papilla and macula.
  • [MeSH-minor] Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Cornea / ultrasonography. Eye Diseases, Hereditary / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Infant. Iris / ultrasonography. Male. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Middle Aged. Papilledema / ultrasonography. Retinal Perforations / ultrasonography. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17211310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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83. Isager P, Østerlind A, Engholm G, Heegaard S, Lindegaard J, Overgaard J, Storm HH: Uveal and conjunctival malignant melanoma in Denmark, 1943-97: incidence and validation study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol; 2005 Aug;12(4):223-32
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  • [Title] Uveal and conjunctival malignant melanoma in Denmark, 1943-97: incidence and validation study.
  • PURPOSE: To study the incidence of malignant melanoma in the ocular region in Denmark during the period 1943-97.
  • Age-period-cohort modelling of the incidence rates was done based on age at diagnosis, calendar period and birth cohort in 5-year groups and for each gender.
  • RESULTS: The age-standardized incidence of malignant melanoma in the ocular region was 0.78 for men (N = 1327) and 0.65 for women (N = 1242) per 100,000 person-years.
  • However, the incidence increased with birth cohort for iris melanomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of malignant melanoma in the ocular region was stable in contrast to a major increase in cutaneous melanoma in Denmark during the period 1943-97.
  • The incidence of iris melanomas increased substantially, whereas the rate was stable for choroid/ciliary body and conjunctival melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology. Registries. Uveal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2005 Aug;12(4):221-2 [16033742.001]
  • (PMID = 16033743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Epidemiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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84. Yoshikawa H, Nakamoto Y, Ozawa T, Dickinson RM: A dog with osteosarcoma which metastasized to the eye months before metastasis to other organs. J Vet Med Sci; 2008 Aug;70(8):825-8
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  • During chemotherapy, the right eye was enucleated due to refractory glaucoma, and was diagnosed as anterior uveal malignant melanoma.
  • Metastasis of appendicular osteosarcoma to the anterior chamber is quite rare, and the clinical course which showed clinically detectable metastases to the eye before systemic multi-organ metastases was quite unique.

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  • (PMID = 18772558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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85. Krohn J, Dahl O: Incidence of iris melanoma in western Norway. Acta Ophthalmol; 2008 Feb;86(1):116-7
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  • [Title] Incidence of iris melanoma in western Norway.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / epidemiology. Melanoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17725612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-3768
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta ophthalmologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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86. Grahn BH, Cullen CL: Diagnostic ophthalmology. Nodular iris melanoma of the right eye. Can Vet J; 2005 May;46(5):459-60
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  • [Title] Diagnostic ophthalmology. Nodular iris melanoma of the right eye.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Iris Neoplasms / veterinary. Melanoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological / veterinary. Male

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  • (PMID = 16018570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue vétérinaire canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831591
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87. Bianciotto C, Shields CL, Kang B, Shields JA: Treatment of iris melanoma and secondary neovascular glaucoma using bevacizumab and plaque radiotherapy. Arch Ophthalmol; 2008 Apr;126(4):578-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of iris melanoma and secondary neovascular glaucoma using bevacizumab and plaque radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Glaucoma, Neovascular / therapy. Iris Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Gonioscopy. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Male. Middle Aged. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18413538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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88. Song WK, Yang WI, Lee SC: Iris naevus with recurrent spontaneous hyphema simulating an iris melanoma. Eye (Lond); 2009 Jun;23(6):1486-8
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  • [Title] Iris naevus with recurrent spontaneous hyphema simulating an iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyphema / pathology. Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18617910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5454
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Lee ES, Baratz KH, Pulido JS, Salomão DR: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in iris melanoma. Arch Ophthalmol; 2006 Sep;124(9):1349-50
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in iris melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16966635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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90. de Keizer RJ, Razzaq L, Tassignon MJ, Verbeek AM: Iris melanoma in a child treated with iridectomy and a phakic iris repair implant lens: a case report of 8 years postoperative follow-up. Br J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jul;94(7):953-4
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  • [Title] Iris melanoma in a child treated with iridectomy and a phakic iris repair implant lens: a case report of 8 years postoperative follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Iridectomy / methods. Iris Neoplasms / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Phakic Intraocular Lenses
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lens Implantation, Intraocular / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 20606031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Maat W, Missotten GS, Luyten GP, de Keizer RJ: Retained intraocular foreign body masquerading as malignant melanoma of the iris. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2008 Apr;246(4):623-4
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  • [Title] Retained intraocular foreign body masquerading as malignant melanoma of the iris.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Chamber / injuries. Eye Foreign Bodies / diagnosis. Eye Injuries, Penetrating / diagnosis. Iris Neoplasms / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Metals. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography

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  • [Cites] Br J Ophthalmol. 2000 May;84(5):546-7 [10847707.001]
  • [Cites] Surv Ophthalmol. 2002 Aug;47 Suppl 1:S162-75 [12204714.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1965 Jul;74:9-18 [14303355.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 1983 Jun;90(6):716-20 [6888862.001]
  • [Cites] Surv Ophthalmol. 1984 Mar-Apr;28(5):409-11 [6719337.001]
  • (PMID = 18087713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals
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92. Weisbrod D, Pavlin CJ, McGowan H, Yücel YH: Clinical detection of melanoma-associated spongiform scleropathy by ultrasound biomicroscopy and its correlation with pathological diagnosis. Arch Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;127(8):1064-6
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  • [Title] Clinical detection of melanoma-associated spongiform scleropathy by ultrasound biomicroscopy and its correlation with pathological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Eye Segment / ultrasonography. Ciliary Body / ultrasonography. Collagen. Eye Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Melanoma / ultrasonography. Scleral Diseases / ultrasonography. Uveal Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19667352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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93. Pick ZS, Wilson GA: Tapioca melanoma of the iris. Clin Exp Optom; 2009 Mar;92(2):154-6
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  • [Title] Tapioca melanoma of the iris.
  • [MeSH-major] Iris Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19278465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1444-0938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Optom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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