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1. Mlakar B: Proctoscopy should be mandatory in men that have sex with men with external anogenital warts. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2009 Mar;18(1):7-11
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Genital Warts.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proctoscopy should be mandatory in men that have sex with men with external anogenital warts.
  • RESULTS: Three of 74 patients (4%) had proctitis and 96% had anogenital condylomata acuminata (warts).
  • 49 out of 71 (69%) had external anogenital as well as intra-anal warts and 13 (18%) had only intra-anal warts.
  • In 14 an intra-anal dysplasia and in 2 patients intra-anal verrucous carcinomas were detected.
  • Half of the patients were previously treated for anogenital warts with ointments and suppositories at other institutions, including 17 that were "treated" with ointments and/or suppositories for hemorrhoids prescribed by family physicians.
  • Therapy with imiquimod was introduced for 3 months in twenty-two cases with intra-anal dysplasia.
  • CONCLUSION: Proctoscopy and histological examination of intra-anal lesions in cases of external anogenital warts should be mandatory in MSM patients.
  • I would like to encourage other physicians to use this approach, which enables detection of intra-anal warts, dysplasia, and even carcinoma in the asymptomatic stage.

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  • (PMID = 19350182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1318-4458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
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2. Jones V, Smith SJ, Omar HA: Nonsexual transmission of anogenital warts in children: a retrospective analysis. ScientificWorldJournal; 2007;7:1896-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Warts.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonsexual transmission of anogenital warts in children: a retrospective analysis.
  • The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of sexual abuse in patients who were referred to a pediatric gynecologist for evaluation based on the clinical findings of anogenital warts.
  • A retrospective analysis was performed on 131 patients between the ages 6 month and 9 years referred to a pediatric gynecologist after the finding of anogenital warts by a clinical provider, parent or caregiver.
  • A complete physical examination under colposcopy by a the same, trained pediatric gynecologist was completed, and a complete medical and family history including maternal and sibling history for evidence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital warts.
  • In 131 patients with anogenital warts, a maternal history of warts, cervical dysplasia or both was present in 66 (50%).
  • Forty-five (34%) of the cases had a positive maternal history for warts, dysplasia or both but also had a sibling.
  • In that cohort, 32 (71%) of the siblings also had anogenital warts.
  • Two had no maternal history for HPV and both of these patients had a sibling without anogenital warts.
  • Most cases of anogenital warts in children are likely to be the result of non-sexual transmission, namely prenatal mode.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Disorders.
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  • (PMID = 18060328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Health Quality Ontario: Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2007;7(4):1-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anal dysplasia screening: an evidence-based analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: This review considered the role of the anal Pap test as a screening test for anal dysplasia in patients at high risk of anal SCC.
  • CLINICAL NEED: TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Anal cancer, like cervical cancer, is a member of a broader group of anogenital cancers known to be associated with sexually transmitted viral HPV infection.
  • Sexual practices involving receptive anal intercourse lead to significantly elevated risk for anal dysplasia and cancer, particularly in those with immune dysfunctions.
  • Certain segments of the population, however, such as HIV-positive men and women, other chronic immune-suppressed patients (e.g., after a transplant), injection drug users, and women with genital dysplasia /cancer, have a high susceptibility to anal cancer.
  • Unlike cervical cancer, there are no universally accepted guidelines or standards of care for anal dysplasia.
  • In addition, no studies were found on the use of HPV DNA testing in the screening or diagnostic setting for anal dysplasia.
  • Nine reports involving studies in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada were identified that evaluated the performance characteristics of anal Pap test screening for anal dysplasia.
  • In general, the treatment options for precancer dysplasia in the cervix and the anus are similar, but treatment involving a definitive surgical resection in the anus is more limited because of the higher risk of complications.
  • A range of ablative therapies has been applied for anal dysplasia, but evidence on treatment effectiveness, tolerability and durability, particularly in the HIV-positive patient, is limited.

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  • (PMID = 23074504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1915-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3377578
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4. Jabbar SF, Abrams L, Glick A, Lambert PF: Persistence of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer requires the continuous expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncogene. Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;69(10):4407-14
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Persistence of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer requires the continuous expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncogene.
  • Several mucosotropic human papillomaviruses (HPV), including HPV type 16 (HPV-16), are etiologic agents of a subset of anogenital cancers and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Repressing the expression of E7 caused the regression of high-grade cervical dysplasia and established cervical tumors, indicating that they depend on the continuous expression of E7 for their persistence.

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  • (PMID = 19435895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-290006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-24S19002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-250006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-23S10006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-320006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-230006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-260006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-210006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-23S10006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-259002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-220006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-259002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-23S19002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-270006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-250006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-280006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-209001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-220006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-239002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-239002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-24S19002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-270006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-24S10006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-280006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-229002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-240006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-229002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-320006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-200006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-260006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-209001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-219002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-310006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-300006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-310006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-219002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-300006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-240006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-24S10006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-200006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-249002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098428-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-249002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-210006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-290006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-23S19002; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098428; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-230006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS192972; NLM/ PMC3006677
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5. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Weissenborn SJ, Gambichler T, Stücker M, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Sep;128(9):2316-24
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  • [Title] Penile intraepithelial neoplasia is frequent in HIV-positive men with anal dysplasia.
  • Anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV)-infection is common in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (HIV+MSM).

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  • (PMID = 18385760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00365729
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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6. Kreuter A, Hochdorfer B, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Pfister H, Wieland U, Competence Network HIV/AIDS: A human papillomavirus-associated disease with disseminated warts, depressed cell-mediated immunity, primary lymphedema, and anogenital dysplasia: WILD syndrome. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Mar;144(3):366-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A human papillomavirus-associated disease with disseminated warts, depressed cell-mediated immunity, primary lymphedema, and anogenital dysplasia: WILD syndrome.
  • Although skin cancer frequently develops in the sun-exposed cutaneous lesions of patients with EV, the anogenital area is usually not affected by squamous cell carcinomas related to mucosal HPV types.
  • OBSERVATIONS: We report the case of a patient with clinical similarities to EV who also presented with primary lymphedema, anogenital dysplasias, and depressed cell-mediated immunity.
  • Histological and cytological evaluation revealed multifocal anogenital dysplasia and benign genital and cutaneous warts.
  • We suggest the acronym WILD (warts, immunodeficiency, lymphedema, dysplasia) to characterize this syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 18347293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Schmidt-Petruschkat S: [HPV-infection]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2007 Mar 22;149(12):29-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Moreover, anogenital dysplasia and genital warts represent a major health care problem.


8. Human papillomavirus vaccine for genotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18: new drug. Cervical cancer prevention: high hopes.... Prescrire Int; 2007 Jun;16(89):91-4
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • (1) Most cases of high-grade anogenital dysplasia and malignancy are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18.
  • Anogenital papilloma and condyloma acuminata are mainly caused by HPV6 and HPV11. (2) A recombinant vaccine covering these four genotypes is now marketed in the European Union for the prevention of condyloma, precancerous lesions, and cancers of the female lower genital tract. (3) A three-dose vaccination schedule (0, 2 and 6 months) elicits an immune response in almost all women, but the minimum antibody titre required for clinical protection is not known.
  • Nearly all (around 98%) of women not yet infected with papillomavirus of a genotype covered by the vaccine were protected from dysplasia caused by one of these genotypes.
  • The vaccine did not affect dysplasia caused by other genotypes, nor was it effective in women who were already infected.
  • In total, among women not yet infected with a papillomavirus genotype covered by the vaccine, the vaccine prevented about 38% of high-grade dysplasias of all types (0.5 versus 0.8 cases per 100 woman-years). (5) The vaccine also markedly reduced the incidence of genital warts and high-grade vulvar and vaginal dysplasia.
  • In addition, there were very few cases of dysplasia in each trial, and results were largely based on post hoc subgroup analyses. (7) Apart from local reactions, which occurred in more than 80% of vaccinated women, the only adverse effect of papillomavirus vaccination was fever (12.9% of those on the vaccine versus 11% on placebo). (8) There is no evidence thus far that prenatal exposure due to HPV vaccination during the month preceding conception is harmful. (9) The clinical results are promising but further follow-up is needed to answer ongoing questions, such as the incidence of cervical cancer after vaccination and the duration of protection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. European Union. Female. Genotype. Human papillomavirus 11 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 11 / immunology. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 16 / immunology. Human papillomavirus 18 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 18 / immunology. Human papillomavirus 6 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 6 / immunology. Humans. Immunization Programs. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Pregnancy. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia. Vaccines, Synthetic / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17582921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Prescrire international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prescrire Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Vaccines, Synthetic
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9. Sanclemente G, Herrera S, Tyring SK, Rady PL, Zuleta JJ, Correa LA, He Q, Wolff JC: Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Sep;21(8):1054-60
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) viral load and HPV type in the clinical outcome of HIV-positive patients treated with imiquimod for anogenital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 5% imiquimod in HIV-positive male patients with anogenital warts or anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), and to elucidate whether human papillomavirus (HPV) type and viral load were important for clinical outcome and recurrences.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with histologically proven anogenital warts or AIN were enrolled.
  • Further studies are needed to document its utility to prevent high-grade dysplasia and/or anal cancer.


10. Vinokurova S, Wentzensen N, Einenkel J, Klaes R, Ziegert C, Melsheimer P, Sartor H, Horn LC, Höckel M, von Knebel Doeberitz M: Clonal history of papillomavirus-induced dysplasia in the female lower genital tract. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Dec 21;97(24):1816-21
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  • [Title] Clonal history of papillomavirus-induced dysplasia in the female lower genital tract.
  • BACKGROUND: Dysplastic lesions of the vagina or the vulva often occur in women who have a previous history of cervical dysplasia.
  • We analyzed viral integration sites in multiple metachronous lesions of the lower genital tract from women previously treated for HR-HPV-positive cervical dysplasia or cancer to determine whether the metachronous lesions emerged from a single common preexisting dysplastic cell clone or as consequence of independent HR-HPV infection events in the female lower genital tract.
  • METHODS: From among 1500 patients with anogenital lesions, seven patients with high-grade vaginal or vulvar lesions and with a previous history of cervical disease (five with prior high-grade cervical dysplasia and two with a history of cervical cancer) were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: Identical HPV DNA integration loci were found in vaginal or vulvar and cervical samples of all lesions available for four of the five patients with a prior history of high-grade cervical dysplasia and for both patients with a history of cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Clone Cells. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Dec 21;97(24):1798-9 [16368936.001]
  • (PMID = 16368943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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11. Dillon S, Sasagawa T, Crawford A, Prestidge J, Inder MK, Jerram J, Mercer AA, Hibma M: Resolution of cervical dysplasia is associated with T-cell proliferative responses to human papillomavirus type 16 E2. J Gen Virol; 2007 Mar;88(Pt 3):803-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Resolution of cervical dysplasia is associated with T-cell proliferative responses to human papillomavirus type 16 E2.
  • The 'high-risk' human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause persistent infections of the anogenital region that may resolve spontaneously following activation of a protective immune response.
  • Lymphoproliferative responses to histidine-tagged E2 and antibody responses to VLPs were measured in patients with persistent cervical dysplasia, those whose disease had recently resolved and normal controls.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology. Human papillomavirus 16 / immunology. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / immunology. Papillomavirus Infections / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17325352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1317
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of general virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gen. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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12. Byard RW, Donald TG, Rutty GN: Non-traumatic causes of perianal hemorrhage and excoriation in the young. Forensic Sci Med Pathol; 2008;4(3):159-63
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  • These were, however, due to skin lesions from her previously diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome.
  • There was no evidence of anogenital trauma or sexual assault in any of the cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Airway Obstruction / complications. Anal Canal. Child Abuse, Sexual / diagnosis. Child, Preschool. Cleft Lip / genetics. Dermatitis / microbiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ectodermal Dysplasia / diagnosis. Ectodermal Dysplasia / genetics. Female. Humans. Infant. Intestinal Volvulus / diagnosis. Male. Streptococcal Infections / diagnosis. Syndactyly / genetics. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 19291454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Forensic science, medicine, and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forensic Sci Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Forcier M, Musacchio N: An overview of human papillomavirus infection for the dermatologist: disease, diagnosis, management, and prevention. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Sep-Oct;23(5):458-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common, usually transient, dermatologic infection transmitted by genital contact that can cause a variety of anogenital diseases, including warts (condyloma), dysplasia (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal), and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A number of treatment modalities are available to treat anogenital warts, both patient- and provider-applied.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20868401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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14. Psyrri A, DiMaio D: Human papillomavirus in cervical and head-and-neck cancer. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2008 Jan;5(1):24-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • High-risk HPVs, especially HPV-16, are associated with other anogenital cancers and a subgroup of head-and-neck cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunotherapy, Active / statistics & numerical data. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Oncogenes. Papillomavirus Vaccines / administration & dosage. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology. Viral Proteins / genetics. Viral Proteins / physiology


15. Hepburn HM, Kaufmann AM: [Nobel price for vaccination against cervical cancer: current data and guidelines]. Internist (Berl); 2009 May;50(5):617-26
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Harald zur Hausen received the Nobel price for Medicine in 2008 for his seminal research on human papilloma viruses and their association with anogenital diseases.
  • Clinical studies have shown nearly 100% seroconversion and an excellent safety profile as well as greater than 96% efficacy against HPV infection and premalignant dysplasia, induced by HPV types covered by the vaccine.

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  • (PMID = 19384543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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16. Oon SF, Hanly A, Winter DC: Pap smears for men: a vision of the future? Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;179(3):459-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
  • HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests.
  • CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy.

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  • [CommentIn] Ir J Med Sci. 2010 Jun;179(2):319 [19921312.001]
  • (PMID = 19763675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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17. Feltkamp MC, de Koning MN, Bavinck JN, Ter Schegget J: Betapapillomaviruses: innocent bystanders or causes of skin cancer. J Clin Virol; 2008 Dec;43(4):353-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mucosal HPV types, such as HPV6 and HPV16, are known to cause anogenital warts and dysplasia or neoplasia, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18986829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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18. Glastetter E, Kaufmann AM: [Humoral and cellular immune response in HPV vaccination]. Hautarzt; 2007 Jun;58(6):493-4, 496-500
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect skin or mucosal epithelia causing warts and dysplasia.
  • Infections with certain high-risk HPV types in the anogenital tract can lead to malignant transformation.

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  • (PMID = 17497104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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19. Wentzensen N, Wilson LE, Wheeler CM, Carreon JD, Gravitt PE, Schiffman M, Castle PE: Hierarchical clustering of human papilloma virus genotype patterns in the ASCUS-LSIL triage study. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 1;70(21):8578-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Anogenital cancers are associated with ∼13 carcinogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) types in a broader group that cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20959485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Albers AE, Siniković B, Banko AV, Jovanović S, Kaufmann AM: Developments in therapeutic human papillomavirus vaccination. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2009;56(3):29-37
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Much progress has been made in the prevention and therapy of premalignant and malignant dysplasia caused by human papillomavirus by encouraging screening programs and recently by introducing preventive vaccines.
  • Dysplastic epithelial lesions and cancer of the anogenital and the oropharyngeal region show strong association with HPV.

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  • (PMID = 20218099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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21. Membrilla-Fernández E, Parés D, Alameda F, Pascual M, Courtier R, Gil MJ, Vallecillo G, Fusté P, Pera M, Grande L: [Anal intraepithelial neoplasia: application of a diagnostic protocol in risk patients using anal cytology]. Cir Esp; 2009 Jun;85(6):365-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The groups at risk of this lesion are patients with anogenital condylomata, cervical dysplasia, human immunodeficiency virus infection and, in general, patients with HPV infection.

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  • (PMID = 19303590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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22. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer NH, Altmeyer P, Wieland U, German Competence Network HIV/AIDS: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV infection. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Nov;6(11):925-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Consequently, HPV-associated anogenital malignancies occur with high frequency in patients with HIV infection.
  • These screenings include cytological analysis followed by high resolution anoscopy in case of anal dysplasia.
  • Long-term follow-up of these patients is essential to gain more insight into the natural history of anogenital HPV infection in HIV-positive MSM.

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  • (PMID = 18410393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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23. Jayasinghe Y, Garland SM: Genital warts in children: what do they mean? Arch Dis Child; 2006 Aug;91(8):696-700
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  • In contrast, persistent infection with oncogenic genotypes in a minority is a strong risk factor, for subsequent development of high grade dysplasia, the precursor lesion to cervical neoplasia, which generally occurs after a long latency period.
  • Long term follow up for children with anogenital warts is recommended, although there are no longitudinal studies available to clarify whether they are at risk of developing carcinoma in young adulthood.

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  • (PMID = 16670117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2044
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of disease in childhood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dis. Child.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 45
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2083049
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24. Payal R, Gupta S, Aggarwal R, Handa S, Radotra BD, Arora SK: Detection of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16/18 in cutaneous warts in immunocompetent patients, using polymerase chain reaction. Dermatol Online J; 2006;12(6):1
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Warts.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • None of the cutaneous warts demonstrated histopathological features associated with dysplasia or neoplasia.
  • It remains of critical interest to determine whether these types are specifically associated with the development of malignant lesions analogous to those seen in anogenital cancer.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Dandruff, Cradle Cap, and Other Scalp Conditions.
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  • (PMID = 17083881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / DNA, Viral
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25. Human papillomavirus: often harmless but in some cases carcinogenic. Prescrire Int; 2007 Jun;16(89):115-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A systematic literature review was carried out to answer these questions based on methods developed by Prescrire. (3) The most frequent clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus infection are cutaneous and anogenital growths such as warts, papillomata and condylomata.
  • The HPV genotypes linked to skin infections differ from those infecting the anogenital area.
  • Genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18 are frequently associated with high-grade cervical dysplasia. (4) The frequency of HPV infections varies widely from one population to another.
  • Most anogenital infections are sexually transmitted. (6) Most papillomavirus infections are asymptomatic, latent or transient.
  • About 5% of high-grade lesions progress to invasive cancer. (9) Other anogenital cancers, such as cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina and penis, appear to be linked to HPV (usually genotype 16). (10) Skin cancer due to HPV is rare.

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  • (PMID = 17585425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Prescrire international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prescrire Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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26. Garland S, Park SN, Ngan HY, Frazer I, Tay EH, Chen CJ, Bhatla N, Pitts M, Shin HR, Konno R, Smith J, Pagliusi S, Park JS: The need for public education on HPV and cervical cancer prevention in Asia. Opinions of experts at the AOGIN conference. Vaccine; 2008 Oct 9;26(43):5435-40
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The conferences of the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infection and Neoplasia (AOGIN) bring together clinicians and scientists whose work is related to genital infections, particularly HPV, cervical dysplasia and neoplasia, as well as other anogenital cancers, with the aim of improving communication on prevention through human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening in Asian countries.


27. Garland SM: Prevention strategies against human papillomavirus in males. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 May;117(2 Suppl):S20-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Oncogenic HPV is strongly associated with cancers and high-grade dysplasias of the anogenital tract, including the anus, penis, and also a proportion of oropharyngeal cancers.
  • In reducing male disease burden, some consider screening and treatment for high-grade anal dysplasia (AIN) to prevent anal cancer in high-risk populations.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20138347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
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28. Chocolatewala NM, Chaturvedi P: Role of human papilloma virus in the oral carcinogenesis: an Indian perspective. J Cancer Res Ther; 2009 Apr-Jun;5(2):71-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Oral Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The role of HPV in the etiology of anogenital cancers has been firmly established, and infection with this virus has also been shown to have prognostic significance.
  • Its prevalence increases from normal to dysplasia and finally to cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19542661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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29. Hakim AA, Lin PS, Wilczynski S, Nguyen K, Lynes B, Wakabayashi MT: Indications and efficacy of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2007 Dec;8(6):393-401
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • HPV types 6 &11 are responsible for 90% of anogenital warts.
  • This vaccination strategy can prevent the above HPV infections, cervical dysplasia, and possibly cervical cancer.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HPV.
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  • (PMID = 18172770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6277
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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