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1. el-Aziz MA, Hassan HA, Mohamed MH, Meki AR, Abdel-Ghaffar SK, Hussein MR: The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model. Int J Exp Pathol; 2005 Dec;86(6):383-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model.
  • Worldwide, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women and the third most common cancer.
  • To date, our understanding of the mechanisms of therapeutic effects of these products in mammary cancer is still marginal.
  • An animal model formed of 80 rats was established.
  • (b) carcinogen group injected with the known carcinogenic substance 7,12-di-methylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) that induces mammary carcinoma;.
  • Carcinoma was absent both in the control and in the NS-Pro groups.
  • Mammary carcinoma occurred in DMBA and other Pro and Tr groups.
  • The frequency of mammary carcinoma was high in the carcinogen DMBA group (60%), followed by the Tr (56%) and finally the Pro groups (33%).
  • These tumours included papillary, comedo and cribriform carcinomas.
  • As compared with the control group, the development of carcinoma in the carcinogen DMBA group was associated with increased levels of (a) markers of tumorigenicity (77.0 +/- 3.3 vs. 209.0 +/- 5.6 and P < 0.05 for TSA; 28.7 +/- 1.7 vs. 41.8 +/- 1.2 and P < 0.01 for LSA), (b) markers of endocrine derangement (2.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.3 and P < 0.05 for prolactin; 39.6 +/- 1.3 vs. 24.8 +/- 2.1 and P < 0.01 for progesterone and 31.0 +/- 0.7 vs. 51.1 +/- 3.4 and P < 0.01 for estradiol) and (c) markers of oxidative stress (2.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.7 and P < 0.01 for lipid peroxides and 4.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.8 and P < 0.01 for nitric oxide).
  • When compared with the carcinogen DMBA group, the development of carcinoma in the Pro and Tr groups was associated with decreased levels of (a) markers of tumorigenicity, (b) markers of endocrine derangement and (c) markers of oxidative stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Melatonin / therapeutic use. Nigella sativa. Phytotherapy / methods. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16309544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Plant Extracts; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; GZP2782OP0 / N-Acetylneuraminic Acid; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517452
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2. Overley B, Shofer FS, Goldschmidt MH, Sherer D, Sorenmo KU: Association between ovarihysterectomy and feline mammary carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med; 2005 Jul-Aug;19(4):560-3
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  • [Title] Association between ovarihysterectomy and feline mammary carcinoma.
  • The etiopathogenesis of feline mammary carcinoma is not well understood.
  • An association between age at ovarihysterectomy (OHE) and mammary carcinoma development has not been established.
  • Therefore, a case-control study was performed to determine the effects of OHE age, breed, progestin exposure, and parity on feline mammary carcinoma development.
  • Cases were female cats diagnosed with mammary carcinoma by histological examination of mammary tissue.
  • Controls were female cats not diagnosed with mammary tumors selected from the same biopsy service population.
  • Intact cats were significantly overrepresented (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-5.3, P < .001) in the mammary carcinoma population.
  • Cats spayed prior to 6 months of age had a 91% reduction in the risk of mammary carcinoma development compared with intact cats (OR 0.9, CI = 0.03-0.24).
  • Parity did not affect feline mammary carcinoma development, and too few cats had progestin exposure to determine association with mammary carcinoma.
  • Results indicate that cats spayed before 1 year of age are at significantly decreased risk of feline mammary carcinoma development.

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  • (PMID = 16095174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Queiroga FL, Perez-Alenza MD, Silvan G, Peña L, Lopes C, Illera JC: Cox-2 levels in canine mammary tumors, including inflammatory mammary carcinoma: clinicopathological features and prognostic significance. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6B):4269-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cox-2 levels in canine mammary tumors, including inflammatory mammary carcinoma: clinicopathological features and prognostic significance.
  • Cyclo-oxygenase (Cox-2) plays an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, nevertheless, its role in canine mammary tumors, and particularly in inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC), is unknown.
  • Tumor Cox-2 levels were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay, in post-surgical tumor homogenates of 129 mammary tumors (62 dysplasias and benign tumors, 57 malignant non-IMC and 10 IMC) from 57 female dogs.
  • The high levels found in IMC cases could indicate a special role of Cox-2 in the inflammatory phenotype and open the possibility of additional new therapeutic approaches in this special type of mammary cancer in humans and dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1a):446
  • (PMID = 16309227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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4. Damonte P, Hodgson JG, Chen JQ, Young LJ, Cardiff RD, Borowsky AD: Mammary carcinoma behavior is programmed in the precancer stem cell. Breast Cancer Res; 2008;10(3):R50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary carcinoma behavior is programmed in the precancer stem cell.
  • INTRODUCTION: The 'MINO' (mammary intraepithelial neoplasia outgrowth) mouse model of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) consists of six lines with distinct morphologic phenotypes and behavior, each meeting experimentally defined criteria for 'precancer'.
  • Specifically, these lines grow orthotopically in cleared mammary fat pads and consistently progress to an invasive phenotype that is capable of ectopic growth.
  • Transition to carcinoma has a consistent latency for each line, and three of the lines also exhibit pulmonary metastatic potential.
  • MINO cells were dissociated and cultured in three dimensional culture and transplanted in syngeneic gland cleared mammary fat pads.
  • Telomerase activity is increased in both the MINO and the derived tumors when compared with normal mouse mammary gland.
  • These MINOspheres exhibit features that are intermediate between spheroids that are derived from normal and carcinoma cells.
  • Transplantation of a single cell derived MINOsphere recapitulates the outgrowth of the precancer morphology and progression to carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: These data establish a precancer 'stem' cell that is capable of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation as the origin of invasive cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18522749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR024037; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105490; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5K26RR024037-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2481504
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5. Sarli G, Brunetti B, Benazzi C: Mammary mucinous carcinoma in the cat. Vet Pathol; 2006 Sep;43(5):667-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary mucinous carcinoma in the cat.
  • Mucinous carcinoma of the mammary gland is a rare tumor characterized by excessive mucin production.
  • In human and canine pathology, the diagnosis of mucinous carcinoma is based on the demonstration of an epithelial phenotype of mucus-producing cells and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-diastase positivity of the mucin.
  • The histologic and immunohistologic characteristics of feline mucinous mammary carcinoma were examined.
  • Of 656 cases of feline mammary neoplasms and dysplasias, 3.2% were found to be mucin-producing tumors.
  • Based on these findings, mucinous mammary carcinoma in the cat varies significantly from the human and canine varieties and alcian blue is the prominent stain in the diagnosis of feline mucinous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / veterinary. Cat Diseases / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Mucins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16966443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
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6. Viklund L, Vorontsova N, Henttinen T, Salmivirta M: Syndecan-1 regulates FGF8b responses in S115 mammary carcinoma cells. Growth Factors; 2006 Jun;24(2):151-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Syndecan-1 regulates FGF8b responses in S115 mammary carcinoma cells.
  • In murine mammary carcinoma cells Shionogi 115 (S115) testosterone induces phenotypical transformation which is largely due to expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 8b.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Proteoglycans / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16801134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0897-7194
  • [Journal-full-title] Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Growth Factors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Sdc1 protein, mouse; 0 / Syndecan-1; 0 / Syndecans; 148997-75-5 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 8; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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7. Marconato L, Romanelli G, Stefanello D, Giacoboni C, Bonfanti U, Bettini G, Finotello R, Verganti S, Valenti P, Ciaramella L, Zini E: Prognostic factors for dogs with mammary inflammatory carcinoma: 43 cases (2003-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2009 Oct 15;235(8):967-72

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors for dogs with mammary inflammatory carcinoma: 43 cases (2003-2008).
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome of dogs with inflammatory carcinoma (IC) and identify patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors associated with overall survival time.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that mammary IC is a biologically aggressive condition in dogs associated with a guarded prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19827983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Skorupski KA, Overley B, Shofer FS, Goldschmidt MH, Miller CA, Sørenmo KU: Clinical characteristics of mammary carcinoma in male cats. J Vet Intern Med; 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):52-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical characteristics of mammary carcinoma in male cats.
  • There is little information regarding mammary tumors in male cats.
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical characteristics of mammary carcinoma in male cats, compare this malignancy to the disease in female cats, and identify prognostic factors.
  • Thirty-nine male cats with mammary carcinoma were identified.
  • This study indicates that mammary carcinoma in the male cat has many similarities to the disease in females, with an aggressive clinical course in most cats.

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  • (PMID = 15715048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Progestins
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9. Arulkumaran S, Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P: Restorative effect of Kalpaamruthaa, an indigenous preparation, on oxidative damage in mammary gland mitochondrial fraction in experimental mammary carcinoma. Mol Cell Biochem; 2006 Oct;291(1-2):77-82

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Restorative effect of Kalpaamruthaa, an indigenous preparation, on oxidative damage in mammary gland mitochondrial fraction in experimental mammary carcinoma.
  • Cancer prevention and treatment using phytochemicals have attracted increased interest.
  • The present study examined whether Phyllanthus emblica Linn fruit, rich in vitamin C content synergistically in combination can enhance both the antioxidant and anticancer activity of S. anacardium nut milk extract in 7, 12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced experimental mammary carcinoma in rat model.
  • Three groups were administered DMBA (25mg/rat, orally) dissolved in olive oil to induce mammary carcinoma.
  • The mitochondrial fraction of untreated DMBA-induced mammary gland showed 2.61-fold increase in lipid peroxidation level and abnormal changes in the activities/levels of mitochondrial enzymic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic (glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) antioxidants were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Mitochondria / drug effects. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Semecarpus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16953336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Plant Extracts
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10. McElroy MC, Bassett HF: Mammary carcinoma in a ewe. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2010 Nov;22(6):1006-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary carcinoma in a ewe.
  • Mammary tumors of all types are rare in herbivores, and there is a particular paucity of reports in sheep.
  • The present report describes a case of mammary carcinoma in a 6-year-old uniparous ewe.
  • It was classified as a low-grade carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Sheep Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21088195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Nak D, Cangul IT, Nak Y, Cihan H, Celimli N: Tubulopapillary mammary carcinoma in a brown bear (Ursus arctos). J Wildl Dis; 2008 Apr;44(2):505-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tubulopapillary mammary carcinoma in a brown bear (Ursus arctos).
  • A 28-yr-old, nulliparous female brown bear (Ursus arctos) at the Karacabey Ovakurusu Bear Sanctuary presented with an enlargement of the mammary gland.
  • Three other nodules were also noted in the proximity of the mammary gland and over the vulva.
  • Clinical, hematologic, ultrasonographic, and radiologic examinations were performed; the enlarged mammary gland was removed and the other masses were also excised.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed tubulopapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland, and the other masses were diagnosed as epidermoid cysts.
  • This is the first reported case of tubulopapillary mammary carcinoma accompanied by epidermoid cysts in a bear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / veterinary. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / surgery. Ursidae

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  • (PMID = 18436688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3558
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wildlife diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Wildl. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Sassi F, Sarli G, Brunetti B, Morandi F, Benazzi C: Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2008 Nov;20(6):766-73
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine.
  • Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area.
  • A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands).
  • Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19.
  • The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Neoplasms / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 18987226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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13. Wensman H, Flama V, Pejler G, Hellmén E: Plasticity of cloned canine mammary spindle cell tumor, osteosarcoma and carcinoma cells. Vet Pathol; 2008 Nov;45(6):803-15
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Plasticity of cloned canine mammary spindle cell tumor, osteosarcoma and carcinoma cells.
  • Female dogs are frequently affected by mammary tumors, both carcinomas and sarcomas.
  • The mechanisms behind mammary-tumor formation and the high degree of heterogeneity are not understood.
  • We studied 3 different tumors (a spindle-cell tumor, an osteosarcoma, and a carcinoma) and followed the change of lineage marker expression between the primary canine mammary tumors, the clones derived from the corresponding tumors and in tumors generated after inoculation of tumor clones into nude mice (n = 75).
  • In contrast to the primary carcinoma, most of the clones derived thereof lacked keratin expression, but keratin expression was recovered in most of the tumors formed after inoculation of clones into nude mice.
  • Moreover, tumors generated from the carcinoma clones, in contrast to the primary tumor, were positive for smooth-muscle-cell markers.
  • Our results point to plasticity in canine mammary tumors, as shown both by morphologic criteria and by expression patterns for lineage specific markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal. Osteosarcoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18984783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Seixas F, Palmeira C, Pires MA, Lopes C: Mammary invasive micropapillary carcinoma in cats: clinicopathologic features and nuclear DNA content. Vet Pathol; 2007 Nov;44(6):842-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary invasive micropapillary carcinoma in cats: clinicopathologic features and nuclear DNA content.
  • Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMC) is a variant of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast associated with poor outcome.
  • In this study, we report 16 carcinomas of the feline mammary gland displaying histologic features that correspond to IMC of the breast in women.
  • The clinicopathologic findings, overall survival time, disease-free survival time, and nuclear DNA content of these cats were compared with 65 more common invasive mammary carcinomas (other feline mammary carcinoma [FMC]) of nonspecified type.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cat Diseases / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. DNA. Female. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Vet Pathol. 2008 Jul;45(4):600-1 [18587110.001]
  • [CommentIn] Vet Pathol. 2008 Sep;45(5):723 [18725480.001]
  • (PMID = 18039897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
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15. Sánchez-Archidona AR, Jiménez MA, Pérez-Alenza D, Silván G, Illera JC, Peña L, Dunner S: Steroid pathway and oestrone sulphate production in canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2007 May;104(3-5):93-9
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Steroid pathway and oestrone sulphate production in canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma.
  • Spontaneous canine mammary inflammatory carcinoma (IMC) shares epidemiologic, histopathologic and clinical characteristics with the inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) disease in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Estrone / analogs & derivatives. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Mastitis / metabolism. Steroids / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17466517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 2DI9HA706A / Estrone; EC 3.1.6.2 / Steryl-Sulfatase; QTL48N278K / estrone sulfate
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16. Heller DA, Clifford CA, Goldschmidt MH, Holt DE, Shofer FS, Smith A, Sorenmo KU: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with histologic tumor type in canine mammary carcinoma. Vet Pathol; 2005 Nov;42(6):776-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with histologic tumor type in canine mammary carcinoma.
  • The role of COX-2 in canine mammary neoplasia remains to be more clearly elucidated.
  • The goal of the study reported here was to determine whether a direct association between levels of COX-2 expression and tumor histologic subtype exists in canine mammary carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic carcinomas had a significantly higher COX-2 staining distribution, intensity, and index, compared with those for adenocarcinomas (P < 0.0001).
  • To the authors' knowledge, these results indicate, for the first time, a direct association between COX-2 expression and tumor histologic subtype in canine mammary carcinomas.
  • Future research directed at measuring tumor response in canine mammary carcinoma patients treated with a selective COX-2 inhibitor is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Carcinoma / veterinary. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Dog Diseases / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16301573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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17. Weng D, Cunin MC, Song B, Price BD, Eller MS, Gilchrest BA, Calderwood SK, Gong J: Radiosensitization of mammary carcinoma cells by telomere homolog oligonucleotide pretreatment. Breast Cancer Res; 2010;12(5):R71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiosensitization of mammary carcinoma cells by telomere homolog oligonucleotide pretreatment.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ionizing radiation (IR) is a widely used approach to cancer therapy, ranking second only to surgery in rate of utilization.
  • Responses of cancer patients to radiotherapy depend in part on the intrinsic radiosensitivity of the tumor cells.
  • METHODS: Mammary tumor cells were treated by a 16-base phosphodiester-linked oligonucleotide homologous to the telomere G-rich sequence TTAGGG (T-oligo: GGTTAGGTGTAGGTTT) or a control-oligo (the partial complement, TAACCCTAACCCTAAC) followed by IR.
  • The efficacy of the combined treatment was assessed in a spontaneous murine mammary tumor model.
  • T-oligo also caused radiosensitization in two in vivo mammary tumor models.
  • Of further significance, treatment with T-oligo and IR led to synergistic inhibition of the growth of spontaneous mammary carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with T-oligo sensitizes mammary tumor cells to radiation in both in vitro and in vivo settings with minimal or no normal tissue side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / radiotherapy. Oligonucleotides / pharmacology. Radiation Tolerance / drug effects. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20846433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-542X
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research : BCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galactosides; 0 / H2AX protein, mouse; 0 / Histones; 0 / Oligonucleotides; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / beta-galactoside
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18. Simeonov R, Simeonova G: Nuclear cytomorphometry in feline mammary gland epithelial tumours. Vet J; 2009 Feb;179(2):296-300

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nuclear cytomorphometry in feline mammary gland epithelial tumours.
  • Stained cytological specimens from 35 feline mammary gland epithelial tumours (4 adenomas, 11 tubulopapillary carcinomas 13 solid carcinomas and 7 cribriform carcinomas) were analysed by computer-assisted nuclear morphometry.
  • The study aimed to evaluate (1) the possibility of using nuclear cytomorphometry as an auxiliary diagnostic method to differentiate between benign and malignant feline mammary gland epithelial tumours, and (2) the prognostic value of nuclear morphometry in feline mammary carcinomas.
  • The results indicated that MNA, MNP, MND and NR could be a useful adjunct in diagnosis but are not reliable prognostic indicators for feline mammary gland carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cytological Techniques / veterinary. Mammary Glands, Animal / cytology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / veterinary. Animals. Automation. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Female

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  • (PMID = 17959399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Chang SC, Liao JW, Wong ML, Lai YS, Liu CI: Mammary carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2007 Jul;44(4):525-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation in a dog.
  • This report describes an invasive mammary carcinoma with a rare distinctive feature characterized by sebaceous differentiation of tumor cells.
  • The patient had two masses in the left fifth mammary gland.
  • Microscopically, the tumors were composed of two distinctive neoplastic components, intraductal papillary adenocarcinoma and sebaceous carcinoma.
  • The cells with abundant foamy cytoplasm that resembled sebaceous cells were also found within the intraductal papillary-like nests of mammary carcinoma, providing evidence of sebaceous metaplasia.
  • Sebaceous differentiation in a mammary gland tumor is possible, because skin appendages and ductal apparatus of the mammary gland share a common anlagen.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Sebaceous Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17606516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Becks L, Prince M, Burson H, Christophe C, Broadway M, Itoh K, Yamamoto M, Mathis M, Orchard E, Shi R, McLarty J, Pruitt K, Zhang S, Kleiner-Hancock HE: Aggressive mammary carcinoma progression in Nrf2 knockout mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. BMC Cancer; 2010 Oct 08;10:540
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ(A)ANTHRACENE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive mammary carcinoma progression in Nrf2 knockout mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.
  • BACKGROUND: Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, is a strategy for cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals.
  • We hypothesized that (1) the citrus coumarin auraptene may suppress premalignant mammary lesions via activation of Nrf2/ARE, and (2) that Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice would be more susceptible to mammary carcinogenesis.
  • METHODS: Premalignant lesions and mammary carcinomas were induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene treatment.
  • In the KO mice, there was a dramatic increase in mammary carcinoma growth rate, size, and weight.
  • Although there was no difference in overall survival, the KO mice had significantly lower mammary tumor-free survival.
  • Also, in the KO mammary carcinomas, the active forms of NF-κB and β-catenin were increased ~2-fold whereas no differences in oxidized proteins were observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report, for the first time, that there was no apparent difference in the formation of premalignant lesions, but rather, the KO mice exhibited rapid, aggressive mammary carcinoma progression.

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  • (PMID = 20932318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIH HHS / OD / R25 OD010954; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1K22CA102005-01A2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / R25RR026019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coumarins; 0 / NF-E2-Related Factor 2; 0 / Nfe2l2 protein, mouse; 495-02-3 / aurapten; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964634
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21. Bangari DS, Stevenson GW: Carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama (Lama glama). J Vet Diagn Invest; 2007 Jul;19(4):450-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama (Lama glama).
  • A 13-year-old female llama was presented to the referring veterinarian for swelling and firmness of the right rear mammary gland, for a duration of 2 months, which had been unresponsive to antibiotics.
  • A formalin-fixed wedge biopsy specimen from the affected quarter was submitted to Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for histopathology.
  • Mammary neoplasia is rare in camelids.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama.
  • [MeSH-major] Camelids, New World. Carcinoma / veterinary. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17609363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Yoshimura H, Kimura N, Nakahira R, Michishita M, Ohkusu-Tsukada K, Takahashi K: Lipid-rich carcinoma in the mammary gland of a Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). J Vet Diagn Invest; 2010 Mar;22(2):305-9

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  • [Title] Lipid-rich carcinoma in the mammary gland of a Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).
  • A lipid-rich carcinoma of the mammary gland was diagnosed in a female Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), which was kept as an indoor pet.
  • The animal underwent surgery for a primary tumor arising in the mammary gland at the age of 16 months, and also for a recurrent tumor 6 months later.
  • Presumably, this high-grade, lipid-rich mammary carcinoma had developed from a low-grade mammary adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20224099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Behling-Kelly E, Petersen S, Muthuswamy A, Webb JL, Young KM: Neoplastic pleocytosis in a dog with metastatic mammary carcinoma and meningeal carcinomatosis. Vet Clin Pathol; 2010 Jun;39(2):247-52
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  • [Title] Neoplastic pleocytosis in a dog with metastatic mammary carcinoma and meningeal carcinomatosis.
  • Approximately 1 year before presentation, multiple mammary cysts had been surgically excised.
  • A mammary mass was noted on physical examination, and 2 separate parenchymal brain lesions were found on imaging studies.
  • The dog was euthanized, and on necropsy a primary solid mammary carcinoma was identified as well as multiple metastatic foci in the brain with diffuse meningeal involvement.
  • The cells in the CSF had a morphologic appearance similar to the cells in the primary mammary tumor and in the metastatic tumors in the brain.
  • On immunostaining, cells from the primary mammary tumor, the brain tumors, and the CSF expressed cytokeratin.
  • A final diagnosis of mammary carcinoma with brain metastasis and meningeal carcinomatosis was made.

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  • (PMID = 20070645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-165X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Smith JM, Rao SS, Stump KC, Benazzi C, Sarli G, DeTolla LJ: Mammary ductal carcinoma with comedo pattern in a rhesus macaque. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci; 2005 Jul;44(4):29-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary ductal carcinoma with comedo pattern in a rhesus macaque.
  • This animal was a retired breeder, currently in an aging study.
  • No exogenous hormone treatments were noted in the animal's history.
  • Differential diagnoses included sebaceous or mammary adenoma, carcinoma in situ, and lobular or ductular carcinoma.
  • Histopathology was consistent with a mammary ductal carcinoma with comedo pattern.
  • Further treatment was not performed and the animal remained clinically normal five years after the initial diagnosis.
  • Spontaneous mammary neoplasia is a major concern in human medicine, yet it rarely has been reported to occur in nonhuman primates.
  • This case is important in documenting an additional case of spontaneous mammary tumor development.

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  • (PMID = 16050665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-0558
  • [Journal-full-title] Contemporary topics in laboratory animal science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. DuPré SA, Redelman D, Hunter KW Jr: The mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1: characterization of the cellular landscape of primary tumours and metastatic tumour foci. Int J Exp Pathol; 2007 Oct;88(5):351-60
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  • [Title] The mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1: characterization of the cellular landscape of primary tumours and metastatic tumour foci.
  • The murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 causes a leukemoid reaction with profound granulocytosis coincident with the production of tumour-derived growth factors.

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  • (PMID = 17877537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016464; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR16464
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Ccl2 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Chemokine CCL3; 0 / Chemokine CCL4; 0 / Chemokine CCL5; 0 / Chemokine CXCL1; 0 / Cxcl1 protein, mouse; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2517332
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26. Tybitanclova K, Macejova D, Liska J, Brtko J, Zorad S: AT1 receptor and ACE mRNA are increased in chemically induced carcinoma of rat mammary gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2005 Dec 1;244(1-2):42-6
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  • [Title] AT1 receptor and ACE mRNA are increased in chemically induced carcinoma of rat mammary gland.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme and AT(1) receptor, in rat mammary gland and in chemically induced carcinoma of this gland.
  • The expressions in control and carcinoma tissue were investigated using RT-PCR and activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was measured.
  • The amount of angiotensin-converting enzyme and AT(1) receptor mRNA and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity always showed a significant increase in the carcinoma tissue in comparison with the control.
  • Administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid to rats with induced mammary gland carcinoma was without significant effect on either tumour numbers or tumour burden and volume.
  • Our results demonstrate the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme and AT(1) receptor in control and carcinoma tissue of mammary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression / drug effects. Isotretinoin / pharmacology. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / metabolism. Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16225983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1; 11002-13-4 / Angiotensinogen; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; EC 3.4.15.1 / Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A; EC 3.4.23.15 / Renin; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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27. Luth JA, Hubbard GB, Dick EJ Jr, Frazier SR, Barrier BF: Characterization of spontaneous mammary gland carcinomas in female baboons. J Med Primatol; 2008 Feb;37(1):55-61
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  • [Title] Characterization of spontaneous mammary gland carcinomas in female baboons.
  • Spontaneous mammary gland carcinomas occurred in five baboons during a 13-year period at Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research.
  • All five animals had typical invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Applying a grading system used for breast cancer in women, four tumors were graded as poorly differentiated carcinomas and one was graded as moderately differentiated.
  • Co-existent ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was observed in three of the mammary tumors.
  • Distant metastases were observed in only one animal.
  • Although the incidence appears to be low, these five cases of mammary carcinoma in female baboons suggest that when present baboon mammary carcinoma is usually of ductal origin and behaves similar to a human breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / veterinary. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Papio

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  • (PMID = 18199073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical primatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Primatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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28. Pupa SM, Iezzi M, Di Carlo E, Invernizzi A, Cavallo F, Meazza R, Comes A, Ferrini S, Musiani P, Ménard S: Inhibition of mammary carcinoma development in HER-2/neu transgenic mice through induction of autoimmunity by xenogeneic DNA vaccination. Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;65(3):1071-8
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  • [Title] Inhibition of mammary carcinoma development in HER-2/neu transgenic mice through induction of autoimmunity by xenogeneic DNA vaccination.
  • Both the full-length and the deleted vaccines were significantly (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.06, respectively) more active than the empty vector (VR1012/EV) in preventing and delaying HER-2/neu-driven mammary carcinogenesis.
  • Nontransgenic mice treated with the vaccines produced autoreactive antibodies targeting mouse (m)-p185(neu) and showed impaired function of the lactating mammary gland and accelerated involution of the gland after weaning.
  • Together, these data indicate that xenogeneic DNA immunization breaks tolerance against the endogenous m-p185(neu), impairing the development of mammary TDLU in which m-p185(neu) expression is concentrated.
  • The reduction in the number of TDLU decreases the number of glandular structures available for r-p185(neu)-dependent mammary carcinogenesis, resulting in a significant inhibition of mammary carcinoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / immunology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / immunology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / immunology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Receptor, ErbB-2 / immunology. Vaccines, DNA / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Autoimmunity / immunology. Conserved Sequence. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mammary Glands, Animal / immunology. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Transgenic. Plasmids / genetics. Plasmids / immunology. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 15705909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Vaccines, DNA; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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29. Derksen PW, Liu X, Saridin F, van der Gulden H, Zevenhoven J, Evers B, van Beijnum JR, Griffioen AW, Vink J, Krimpenfort P, Peterse JL, Cardiff RD, Berns A, Jonkers J: Somatic inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 in mice leads to metastatic lobular mammary carcinoma through induction of anoikis resistance and angiogenesis. Cancer Cell; 2006 Nov;10(5):437-49
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Somatic inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 in mice leads to metastatic lobular mammary carcinoma through induction of anoikis resistance and angiogenesis.
  • Metastatic disease is the primary cause of death in breast cancer, the most common malignancy in Western women.
  • Loss of E-cadherin is associated with tumor metastasis, as well as with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), which accounts for 10%-15% of all breast cancers.
  • Combined loss of E-cadherin and p53 resulted in accelerated development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which show strong resemblance to human ILC.
  • Our results suggest that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Anoikis / physiology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Lobular / metabolism. Gene Silencing. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Humans. Mammary Glands, Human / anatomy & histology. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured


30. Bar-Sinai A, Bassa N, Fischette M, Gottesman MM, Love DC, Hanover JA, Hochman J: Mouse mammary tumor virus Env-derived peptide associates with nucleolar targets in lymphoma, mammary carcinoma, and human breast cancer. Cancer Res; 2005 Aug 15;65(16):7223-30
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  • [Title] Mouse mammary tumor virus Env-derived peptide associates with nucleolar targets in lymphoma, mammary carcinoma, and human breast cancer.
  • We have previously shown that the leader peptide (p14) of the Env-precursor of mouse mammary tumor virus is translocated into the nucleoli of murine T cell lymphomas that harbor this virus.
  • Using a polyclonal antibody against recombinant p14, we show here that p14 is also localized to the nucleoli of murine mammary carcinomas and some human breast cancer samples.
  • Taken together, these findings point towards a more general involvement of p14 in lymphomagenesis and mammary carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / virology. Cell Nucleolus / virology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / virology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / metabolism. Viral Envelope Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16103073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins
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31. Yi N, Li N: Transient expression of chicken antimicrobial peptides by mouse mammary carcinoma cells C127. Protein Pept Lett; 2010 Dec;17(12):1517-23
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  • [Title] Transient expression of chicken antimicrobial peptides by mouse mammary carcinoma cells C127.
  • Thus, transfected C127 cells may serve as an in vitro transgenic cell system that can be used to evaluate if specific gene constructs can be efficiently expressed in the mammary glands of transgenic mice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chickens. Female. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal. Mice. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20937033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5305
  • [Journal-full-title] Protein and peptide letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Protein Pept. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / Cathelicidins; 0 / fowlicidin-3, chicken
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32. Lopez-Barcons LA, Polo D, Llorens A, Reig F, Fabra A: Targeted adriamycin delivery to MXT-B2 metastatic mammary carcinoma cells by transferrin liposomes: effect of adriamycin ADR-to-lipid ratio. Oncol Rep; 2005 Nov;14(5):1337-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted adriamycin delivery to MXT-B2 metastatic mammary carcinoma cells by transferrin liposomes: effect of adriamycin ADR-to-lipid ratio.
  • In the protein-targeted therapy for cancer, transferrin (Tf) is used to reach a selective and specific target in cancer cells.
  • The biological activity of Tf-liposome was tested using MXT-B2 cells, a metastatic mammary carcinoma cell line.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacokinetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Transferrin / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16211306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Transferrin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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33. Döpke C, Fehr M, Thiele A, Pohlenz J, Wohlsein P: Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous mammary tumours in European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus). J Comp Pathol; 2007 Jul;137(1):22-9
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  • [Title] Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous mammary tumours in European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus).
  • Mammary tumour samples (11 surgical and five post-mortem) from 16 adult European hedgehogs submitted between 1980 and 2004 were examined.
  • Histologically, the tumours were classified as simple tubulo-papillary carcinomas with local invasive growth.
  • CK expression did not differ from that in normal mammary gland tissue.
  • CK20 was expressed in the mammary tissue of hedgehogs, in contrast to that of dogs and cats; CK7 immunolabelling, however, which commonly occurs in mammary epithelial cells, was negative.
  • CK20 expression, together with the lack of CK7 as determined by a protein-specific antibody, represented an important difference from the CK profile shown by mammary epithelial cells of other mammalian species, including the dog and cat.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Carcinoma, Papillary / veterinary. Hedgehogs. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17467727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9975
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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34. Haveman J, Bergs JW, Franken NA, van Bree C, Stalpers LJ: Effect of hyperthermia on uptake and cytotoxicity of cisplatin in cultured murine mammary carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep; 2005 Aug;14(2):561-7
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  • [Title] Effect of hyperthermia on uptake and cytotoxicity of cisplatin in cultured murine mammary carcinoma cells.
  • The cytotoxicity of cisplatin, applied alone or in combination with hyperthermia, to mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cells (M8013S) was studied with the cells either treated in medium [Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM), supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum, 100 IU/ml penicillin, 200 mM glutamine and 0.35 g/l NaHCO(3)] or in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) without serum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fever. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Mice. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16012745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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35. Matsuda K, Kobayashi S, Yamashita M, Hirayama K, Kadosawa T, Taniyama H: Tubulopapillary carcinoma with spindle cell metaplasia of the mammary gland in a cat. J Vet Med Sci; 2008 May;70(5):479-81
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  • [Title] Tubulopapillary carcinoma with spindle cell metaplasia of the mammary gland in a cat.
  • Sarcomatous proliferation of spindle cells was present in the mammary gland and many metastatic sites in a 10-year-old female domestic cat with tubulopapillary carcinoma in the mammary gland.
  • Transition from neoplastic tubular structures to spindle cells in the primary site and fascicular proliferation of the spindle cells with or without coexistance of tubulopapillary carcinoma in the primary and metastatic sites were observed.
  • From these results, this case was diagnosed as tubulopapillary carcinoma with spindle cell metaplasia and it was clarified that neoplastic luminal epithelial cells can transform to sarcomatous appearence.

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  • (PMID = 18525170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Illera JC, Pérez-Alenza MD, Nieto A, Jiménez MA, Silvan G, Dunner S, Peña L: Steroids and receptors in canine mammary cancer. Steroids; 2006 Jul;71(7):541-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Steroids and receptors in canine mammary cancer.
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the serum and tissue content of androgens and estrogens in canine inflammatory mammary carcinomas (IMC) as well as in non-inflammatory malignant mammary tumors (MMT), and assessed the immunoexpression of estrogen and androgen receptors using immunohistochemistry.
  • Profiles for the androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (A4), and testosterone (T), and for the estrogens 17beta estradiol (E2) and estrone-sulphate (SO4E1) were measured both in tissue homogenates and in serum of MMT and IMC by EIA techniques in 42 non-inflammatory malignant mammary tumors (MMT) and in 14 inflammatory mammary carcinomas (IMC), prospectively collected from 56 female dogs.
  • ERbeta and AR were intensely expressed in highly malignant inflammatory mammary carcinoma cells.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report relative to AR immunohistochemistry in canine mammary cancer and to estrogens or androgens in serum of dogs with benign or malignant mammary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Estrogens / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16631217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-128X
  • [Journal-full-title] Steroids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Steroids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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37. Andrade FH, Figueiroa FC, Bersano PR, Bissacot DZ, Rocha NS: Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants.
  • Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival.
  • There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed.
  • In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor.
  • High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age.
  • Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma.
  • This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC.
  • Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis.
  • Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens, Environmental / adverse effects. Carcinoma / chemically induced. Dog Diseases / chemically induced. Insecticides / adverse effects. Mammary Glands, Animal / drug effects. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / chemically induced. Pyrethrins / adverse effects

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  • [Cites] Carcinogenesis. 2000 Mar;21(3):427-33 [10688862.001]
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  • (PMID = 20587072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental; 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Pyrethrins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2909155
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38. Bae BK, Kim CW, Choi US, Choi EW, Jee H, Kim DY, Lee CW: Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related peptide concentration in a dog with a complex mammary carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol; 2007 Dec;36(4):376-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hypercalcemia and high parathyroid hormone-related peptide concentration in a dog with a complex mammary carcinoma.
  • A 10-year-old female Dachshund was presented with a history of mammary masses, slight lethargy, polyuria, and polydipsia.
  • Physical examination findings included masses involving the first, second, and fourth mammary glands of the left side.
  • The masses were surgically removed, and the histopathologic diagnosis was complex mammary carcinoma.
  • Resolution of the hypercalcemia and clinical signs supported a diagnosis of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy associated with mammary gland carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18041707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-6382
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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39. Paltian V, Alldinger S, Baumgärtner W, Wohlsein P: Expression of CD44 in canine mammary tumours. J Comp Pathol; 2009 Nov;141(4):237-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of CD44 in canine mammary tumours.
  • In human breast cancer, the interaction of tumour cells with the ECM via CD44 is favoured as a major candidate for tumour progression and metastasis.
  • The present study was designed to investigate immunohistochemically the expression of the standard form of CD44 in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic canine mammary tissue.
  • CD44 was expressed in normal and hyperplastic mammary tissue predominantly by ductal and alveolar epithelial cells and to a minor extent by myoepithelial cells.
  • In simple and complex adenomas and benign mixed tumours there was significant up-regulation of CD44 expression in alveolar epithelial cells compared with adjacent non-neoplastic mammary tissue.
  • Peripheral epithelial cells of simple and complex adenomas, benign mixed tumours and complex carcinomas expressed significantly more CD44 compared with adjacent non-neoplastic mammary tissue.
  • Peripheral epithelial cells of simple adenomas revealed a significantly higher CD44 expression compared with simple carcinomas.
  • A statistical trend to greater CD44 expression was found in peripheral epithelial cells of complex adenomas, benign mixed tumours and complex carcinomas compared with simple carcinomas.
  • Up-regulation of CD44 therefore appears to be associated with benign or relatively benign biological behaviour of canine mammary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Dog Diseases. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Dogs. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 19592009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44
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40. Fusaro L, Panarese S, Brunetti B, Zambelli D, Benazzi C, Sarli G: Quantitative analysis of telomerase in feline mammary tissues. J Vet Diagn Invest; 2009 May;21(3):369-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of telomerase in feline mammary tissues.
  • TRAP-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactivity was compared with telomerase reverse transcription (TERT) IHC staining in 22 feline mammary tissues (6 normal mammary glands, 2 dysplastic mammary glands, 1 fibroadenoma, and 13 malignant neoplasms [6 solid mammary carcinomas, 2 squamous-cell carcinomas, 4 tubulopapillary mammary carcinomas, and 1 mammary carcinosarcoma]).
  • With TERT IHC staining, the absolute number and percentage of cells with positive nuclei and nucleoli within the same cell were the variables with the greatest discrimination between benign and malignant mammary lesions (analysis of variance [ANOVA], average P < 0.0001; percentage P < 0.001).
  • For TRAP-ELISA-positive versus TRAP-ELISA-negative tissues, a positive test result provided greater differentiation between malignant versus benign mammary lesions (ANOVA, average P = 0.00038; percentage P = 0.0022).
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Mammary Glands, Animal / enzymology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis. Telomerase / analysis. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Cats. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19407092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-6387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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41. Walt H, Nap M, Dorward AM, Leers MP, Tennent BJ, Varga Z, Stallmach T, Björklund V, Beamer WG: Early apoptotic responses in transgenic mouse mammary carcinoma for photodynamic therapy. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2006 Dec;3(4):227-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early apoptotic responses in transgenic mouse mammary carcinoma for photodynamic therapy.
  • We have utilized this mammary tumour model to investigate apoptotic responses following photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a chlorin-based, water-soluble photosensitizer.
  • Mice bearing multiple tumours were injected with the photosensitizer intraperitoneally, and following a drug-light interval of 96h, 40J/cm(2) of 652nm laser light was applied to one tumour per animal, while the other tumours were protected from light to serve as host controls.

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  • (PMID = 25046987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-1000
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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42. Millanta F, Caneschi V, Ressel L, Citi S, Poli A: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in canine inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma. J Comp Pathol; 2010 Jan;142(1):36-42
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in canine inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma.
  • Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) is the most aggressive type of mammary tumour in the dog and has been proposed as a model for human inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Tissues from 19 cases of IMC were compared with tissues from 27 cases of invasive mammary carcinoma without inflammation (non-IMC).
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19632688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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43. Kamstock DA, Fredrickson R, Ehrhart EJ: Lipid-rich carcinoma of the mammary gland in a cat. Vet Pathol; 2005 May;42(3):360-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lipid-rich carcinoma of the mammary gland in a cat.
  • Histologically, this was a discrete, unencapsulated, multilobular, expansile mass, which compressed the surrounding normal mammary tissue.
  • Histomorphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemial analysis support a diagnosis of lipid-rich mammary carcinoma.
  • This is the first report of a cat with a lipid-rich variant of mammary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Lipid Metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15872384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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44. Kondo H, Onuma M, Shibuya H, Sato T: Morphological and immunohistochemical studies of spontaneous mammary tumours in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). J Comp Pathol; 2009 Feb-Apr;140(2-3):127-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphological and immunohistochemical studies of spontaneous mammary tumours in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).
  • Mammary tumours from 12 domestic Siberian hamsters (11 females, 1 male) were examined.
  • Histopathology revealed three subtypes: simple adenoma, tubulopapillary carcinoma, and complex carcinoma.
  • In five cases of malignant mammary tumour, focal infiltration into the surrounding fibrous connective tissue was present; however, no invasion of either lymphatics or blood vessels was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19110261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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45. Okugawa H, Yamamoto D, Uemura Y, Sakaida N, Tanano A, Tanaka K, Kamiyama Y: Effect of perductal paclitaxel exposure on the development of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in female S-D rats. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 May;91(1):29-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of perductal paclitaxel exposure on the development of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in female S-D rats.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma and precancer are thought to start in the lining of the milk duct or lobule.
  • After mammary tumors were identified macroscopically using fiberscope, the rats were treated with perductal (pd) or ip injection of paclitaxel tri-weekly.
  • At 36 weeks after MNU injection, tumor burden (No. of >1cm palpable mammary tumors/rat), total number of mammary carcinoma, apoptosis (AI), and microvessel density (MVD) were measured.
  • The tumor burden and total number of mammary carcinoma in the pd paclitaxel-treated group were significantly reduced compared to those seen in the ip paclitaxel-treated group.
  • CONCLUSION: Local administration of paclitaxel may be useful for treatment of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkylating Agents / administration & dosage. Animals. Female. Infusions, Parenteral. Mammary Glands, Animal. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental. Methylnitrosourea / administration & dosage. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 15868429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkylating Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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46. Wood CE, Usborne AL, Starost MF, Tarara RP, Hill LR, Wilkinson LM, Geisinger KR, Feiste EA, Cline JM: Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland in macaques. Vet Pathol; 2006 Jul;43(4):471-83
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  • [Title] Hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the mammary gland in macaques.
  • Macaques provide an important animal model for the study of hormonal agents and their effects on risk biomarkers for breast cancer.
  • A common criticism of this model is that spontaneous breast cancer has rarely been described in these animals.
  • In this report, we characterize 35 mammary gland lesions ranging from ductal hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques.
  • Based on a retrospective analysis, we estimated the lifetime incidence of mammary gland neoplasia in aged female macaques to be about 6%.
  • In situ carcinomas (n = 8) included solid, comedo, cribriform, and micropapillary elements, encompassing 4 of the major architectural patterns seen in human lesions.
  • Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 8) were generally solid, with prominent central necrosis and mineralization, often on a background of micropapillary ductal hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma.
  • Axillary lymph-node metastases were confirmed in 5 of the 8 invasive carcinomas.
  • On immunohistochemistry, intraductal and invasive carcinomas had increased Ki67/MIB1 and HER2 expression and selective loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • These findings suggest that breast cancer is an underreported lesion in macaques and highlight unique morphologic and molecular similarities in breast cancer between human and macaque species.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / veterinary. Carcinoma, Ductal / veterinary. Macaca fascicularis. Macaca mulatta. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Monkey Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Gene Expression. Genes, erbB-2. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Oncogenes. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16846989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / AT00639; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51RR000167; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51RR000169; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / T32 RR07009
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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47. Swarbrick A, Roy E, Allen T, Bishop JM: Id1 cooperates with oncogenic Ras to induce metastatic mammary carcinoma by subversion of the cellular senescence response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Apr 8;105(14):5402-7
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  • [Title] Id1 cooperates with oncogenic Ras to induce metastatic mammary carcinoma by subversion of the cellular senescence response.
  • Using a mouse model of breast cancer, we tested the importance of the senescence response in solid cancer and identified genetic pathways regulating this response.
  • Mammary expression of activated Ras led to the formation of senescent cellular foci in a majority of mice.
  • Although overexpression of Id1 in the mammary epithelium was not sufficient for tumorigenesis, mice with expression of both Id1 and activated Ras developed metastatic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Aging. Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1 / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / etiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. ras Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Transplantation. Cells, Cultured. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Epithelial Cells. Female. Humans. Mammary Glands, Animal. Mice. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • (PMID = 18378907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1a protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Idb1 protein, mouse; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2291136
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48. Seixas F, Palmeira C, Pires MA, Lopes C: Are complex carcinoma of the feline mammary gland and other invasive mammary carcinoma identical tumours? Comparison of clinicopathologic features, DNA ploidy and follow up. Res Vet Sci; 2008 Jun;84(3):428-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Are complex carcinoma of the feline mammary gland and other invasive mammary carcinoma identical tumours? Comparison of clinicopathologic features, DNA ploidy and follow up.
  • Feline mammary carcinomas are known for their unfavourable prognosis due to a strong tendency to local recurrence and metastasis.
  • We studied 73 spontaneous primary mammary carcinomas and identified eight cases presenting a biphasic nature, with neoplastic epithelial and myoepithelial cells (complex carcinoma).
  • These cases presented histopathologic features associated with a better prognosis; they were also associated with higher overall survival and disease-free survival rates compared to other common invasive mammary carcinomas of non-specified type.
  • Complex carcinoma appears to be a low-grade malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / genetics. Cat Diseases / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / genetics. Ploidies

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  • (PMID = 17663997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-5288
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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49. Rodo A, Malicka E: E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression in mammary gland neoplasms in bitches. Pol J Vet Sci; 2008;11(1):47-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression in mammary gland neoplasms in bitches.
  • Material for the investigation comprised mammary gland tumours, collected from dogs, the patients of veterinary clinics, during surgical procedures and archival samples.
  • All together 21 adenomas, 32 complex carcinomas, 35 simple carcinomas and 13 solid carcinomas were qualified for further investigation.
  • E-cadherin expression was higher in adenomas as compared with carcinomas but lower in solid carcinomas as compared with simple and complex carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / veterinary. Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 18540208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1505-1773
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of veterinary sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Vet Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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50. Manhès C, Kayser C, Bertheau P, Kelder B, Kopchick JJ, Kelly PA, Touraine P, Goffin V: Local over-expression of prolactin in differentiating mouse mammary gland induces functional defects and benign lesions, but no carcinoma. J Endocrinol; 2006 Aug;190(2):271-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Local over-expression of prolactin in differentiating mouse mammary gland induces functional defects and benign lesions, but no carcinoma.
  • Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological data support the growth-promoting role of endocrine prolactin (PRL) in mammary tumors.
  • Recent transgenic (Tg) mouse models have revealed the pro-oncogenic effect of PRL over-expression in virgin mammary glands.
  • To address the question whether PRL tumorigenicity was maintained on differentiated mammary glands, we generated mammary-specific Tg mice expressing human (h)PRL under the control of the milk whey acidic protein promoter, which directs autocrine hPRL over-expression in late gestation throughout lactation.
  • Minimal levels of transgene expression were detected in the mammary glands of virgin animals, which at best induced partial ductal branching and lobulo-alveolar structures in older nulliparous females.
  • As expected, expression of mammary hPRL dramatically increased at the end of first pregnancy, and from this point it never returned to baseline, although it peaked at each gestation/lactation cycle.
  • Over-expression of hPRL that starts when the gland is already well into the differentiation process led to various morphological mammary alterations, including abnormally differentiated epithelium, atropy of the myoepithelial layer, dilated ducts, cysts, and lymphocytic infiltrates.
  • Although some older, multiparous females developed benign tumors (papillomas and metaplasias), none of the animals studied developed mammary carcinomas.
  • In summary, these data show that over-expression of autocrine hPRL in a differentiating mammary gland induces dramatic functional and morphological defects, but not carcinoma.
  • This deserves further investigations on the emerging concept that autocrine PRL may have different effects on pathological development of the mammary gland depending on the differentiation state of the latter.
  • [MeSH-major] Autocrine Communication. Lactation. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Prolactin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16899561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Milk Proteins; 0 / whey acidic proteins; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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51. Wang RA, Zhang H, Balasenthil S, Medina D, Kumar R: PAK1 hyperactivation is sufficient for mammary gland tumor formation. Oncogene; 2006 May 11;25(20):2931-6
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  • [Title] PAK1 hyperactivation is sufficient for mammary gland tumor formation.
  • Emerging data suggest that p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1), a downstream signaling molecule of the small GTPases, growth factors, and lipid signaling, is upregulated or hyperactivated in human breast cancer.
  • Until now, however, no direct causative role had been found for Pak1 in mammary tumor formation.
  • We therefore sought to identify the role that Pak1 plays in mammary gland tumorigenesis.
  • Our results showed that in a transgenic mouse model, overexpression of catalytically active Pak1 leads to the development of malignant mammary tumors and to a variety of other breast lesions, including focal solid nodules, ductal hyperplasia, and mini-intraductal neoplasm and adenoma.
  • We also found that Pak1 hyperactivation increases the stimulation of downstream proliferative signaling effectors MEK1/2 and p38-MAPK in mammary tumor epithelial cells.
  • Finally, we found that consistent with a role in breast tumor progression, Pak1 expression and its nuclear accumulation was increased progressively during the transition from ductal hyperplasia to ductal carcinoma in situ to adenocarcinoma in widely used multistep polyoma-middle T-antigen transgenic mice.
  • Together, these findings provide the first direct evidence that Pak1 deregulation may be sufficient for the formation of mammary gland tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / etiology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Enzyme Activation. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Humans. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / metabolism. MAP Kinase Kinase 2 / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / enzymology. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred DBA. Mice, Transgenic. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Up-Regulation. p21-Activated Kinases. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16331248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 65746; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90970
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Pak1 protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.1.- / Map2k1 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.1.- / Map2k2 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / PAK1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 1; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 2
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52. Goldschmidt B, Marchevsky RS, Andrade MC, Lopes CA, Gonçalves MA, Marinho Ada M, de Oliveira TF: Studies on argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in a spontaneous mammary gland ductal carcinoma of a captive rhesus monkey. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2007 Apr;58(5):361-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Studies on argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) in a spontaneous mammary gland ductal carcinoma of a captive rhesus monkey.
  • A spontaneous mammary gland ductal carcinoma was diagnosed in a 13-year-old female captive rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / ultrastructure. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / ultrastructure. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Nucleolus Organizer Region / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 17267197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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53. Pérez-Martínez C, García-Iglesias MJ, Durán-Navarrete AJ, Espinosa-Alvarez J, García-Fernández RA, Lorenzana-Robles N, Fernández-Pérez S, García-Marín JF: Histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of two canine lipid-rich mammary carcinomas. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med; 2005 Mar;52(2):61-6
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  • [Title] Histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of two canine lipid-rich mammary carcinomas.
  • Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings of two uncommon canine lipid-rich mammary carcinomas are described.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15737173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-184X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Lin T, Meng L, Li Y, Tsai RY: Tumor-initiating function of nucleostemin-enriched mammary tumor cells. Cancer Res; 2010 Nov 15;70(22):9444-52
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  • [Title] Tumor-initiating function of nucleostemin-enriched mammary tumor cells.
  • Nucleostemin (NS) is highly expressed in normal stem cells and tumors and is upregulated by estradiol in MCF7 breast cancer cells.
  • To investigate the role of NS in mammary tumorigenesis, we established first that NS is expressed at higher levels in the basal cell type than in the luminal cell type in mouse mammary tumors and human breast cancer cells.
  • NS expression was also increased during progression of mammary tumors in MMTV-Wnt1 and MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice and by the tumor sphere culture.
  • Notably, NS-enriched mammary tumor cells exhibited stronger in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic activities and expressed higher levels of K5, CD133, Oct4, telomerase reverse transcriptase, and C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 compared with NS-deficient mammary tumor cells.
  • Furthermore, knockdown of NS dramatically reduced the sphere-forming activity of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 human breast cancer cells.
  • Our findings establish the tumor-initiating and molecular features of NS-enriched mammary tumor cells, suggesting that NS may offer a valuable therapeutic target.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 21045149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113750-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113750; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA124820; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113750-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / GNL3 protein, human; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Pou5f1 protein, mouse; 0 / nucleostemin protein, mouse; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS238554; NLM/ PMC2982898
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55. Perumal SS, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P: Energy-modulating vitamins--a new combinatorial therapy prevents cancer cachexia in rat mammary carcinoma. Br J Nutr; 2005 Jun;93(6):901-9
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  • [Title] Energy-modulating vitamins--a new combinatorial therapy prevents cancer cachexia in rat mammary carcinoma.
  • Cancer cells have a deviant energy metabolism, and a high rate of glycolysis is related to a high degree of dedifferentiation and proliferation.
  • The overall net ATP production is diminished with cancer, which ultimately leads to cancer cachexia.
  • The present study was designed to investigate the altered energy metabolism in cancer cells and to enhance ATP production in the normal host cell metabolism by enhancing the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, using energy-modulating vitamins, and thus prevent cancer cachexia.
  • Mammary carcinoma was induced by the oral administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (25 mg/kg body weight), and treatment was started by the oral administration of the energy-modulating vitamins riboflavin (45 mg/kg body weight per d), niacin (100 mg/kg body weight per d) and coenzyme Q10 (40 mg/kg body weight per d) for 28 d.
  • Mitochondria were isolated from the mammary gland and liver of all four groups, and the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation enzymes were assayed.
  • In mammary carcinoma-bearing animals, the activities of the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation enzymes were significantly decreased.
  • From these experimental results, one may hypothesize that the combination therapy of energy-modulating vitamins could be of major therapeutic value in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cachexia / prevention & control. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / complications. Vitamin B Complex / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Administration, Oral. Animals. Antioxidants / administration & dosage. Citric Acid Cycle / physiology. Coenzymes. Drug Therapy, Combination. Energy Metabolism / physiology. Female. Liver / enzymology. Mammary Glands, Animal / enzymology. Mitochondria / enzymology. Niacin / administration & dosage. Oxidative Phosphorylation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Riboflavin / administration & dosage. Ubiquinone / administration & dosage. Ubiquinone / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16022760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1145
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Coenzymes; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; 1339-63-5 / Ubiquinone; 2679MF687A / Niacin; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EJ27X76M46 / coenzyme Q10; TLM2976OFR / Riboflavin
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56. Pan Q, Rosenthal DT, Bao L, Kleer CG, Merajver SD: Antiangiogenic tetrathiomolybdate protects against Her2/neu-induced breast carcinoma by hypoplastic remodeling of the mammary gland. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Dec 1;15(23):7441-6
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  • [Title] Antiangiogenic tetrathiomolybdate protects against Her2/neu-induced breast carcinoma by hypoplastic remodeling of the mammary gland.
  • Mammary gland composition and architecture were also observed following TM treatment of Her2/neu transgenic and normal FVB mice.
  • RESULTS: At the 1-year follow-up, 86.7% of control and 40% of TM-treated Her2/neu mice had palpable mammary tumors with a median time to tumor development of 234 days (95% confidence interval, 202-279 days) for control and >460 days for TM-treated mice (P < 0.0005, n = 15).
  • The mammary glands from TM-treated Her2/neu and FVB mice showed a blunted epithelial ductal branching system due to a significant decrease in the number of secondary branches and total number of differentiated mammary epithelial cells.
  • Microvessel density in Her2/neu and FVB mammary glands was lowered by 65.6 +/- 6.2% and 50.9 +/- 4.5% (P < 0.005), respectively, following TM therapy, consistent with the antiangiogenic effect of TM.
  • Lastly, TM treatment resulted in a 2-fold increase in the absolute number of aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive mammary stem cells in Her2/neu and FVB mammary glands.
  • CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results strongly support that TM is a potent chemopreventative agent as a consequence of hypoplastic remodeling of the mammary gland through modulation of the mammary stem cell compartment.

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  • (PMID = 19934283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097248; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612; None / None / / R01 CA077612-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-05A1; None / None / / R01 CA077612-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00042; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA77612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA077122; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA077122-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009676; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32CA09676; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-01A2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000042; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077612-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 81AH48963U / Molybdenum; 91U3TGV99T / tetrathiomolybdate; EC 1.2.1.3 / Aldehyde Dehydrogenase; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS140342; NLM/ PMC3471244
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57. Lukacova S, Khalil AA, Overgaard J, Alsner J, Horsman MR: Relationship between radiobiological hypoxia in a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma and osteopontin levels in mouse serum. Int J Radiat Biol; 2005 Dec;81(12):937-44
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  • [Title] Relationship between radiobiological hypoxia in a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma and osteopontin levels in mouse serum.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the possible relationship between radiobiological hypoxia in a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma and osteopontin (OPN) levels measured in mouse serum.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Cell Hypoxia / radiation effects. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / physiopathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / radiotherapy. Sialoglycoproteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Mice. Necrosis. Osteopontin. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 16524849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0955-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 0 / Spp1 protein, mouse; 106441-73-0 / Osteopontin
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58. Sassi F, Benazzi C, Castellani G, Sarli G: Molecular-based tumour subtypes of canine mammary carcinomas assessed by immunohistochemistry. BMC Vet Res; 2010;6:5
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  • [Title] Molecular-based tumour subtypes of canine mammary carcinomas assessed by immunohistochemistry.
  • BACKGROUND: Human breast cancer is classified by gene expression profile into subtypes consisting of two hormone (oestrogen and/or progesterone) receptor-positive types (luminal-like A and luminal-like B) and three hormone receptor-negative types [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-expressing, basal-like, and unclassified ("normal-like")].
  • The present study aimed to apply an immunohistochemical panel (anti-ER, -PR, -ERB-B2, -CK 5/6 and -CK14) in a series of canine malignant mammary tumours to verify the molecular-based classification, its correlation with invasion and grade, and its use as a prognostic aid in veterinary practice.
  • Most luminal-like A and basal-like tumours were grade 1 carcinomas, while the percentage of luminal B tumours was higher in grades 2 and 3 (Pearson Chi-square P = 0.009).
  • No difference in the percentage of molecular subtypes was found between simple and complex/mixed carcinomas (Pearson Chi-square P = 0.47).
  • Even though canine mammary tumours may be a model of human breast cancer, the existence of the same carcinoma molecular subtypes in women awaits confirmation.
  • Canine mammary carcinomas show high molecular heterogeneity, which would benefit from a classification based on molecular differences.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology

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  • [Cites] Vet Pathol. 2000 May;37(3):239-47 [10810988.001]
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  • (PMID = 20109214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6148
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2837647
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59. Dharmu I, Ramamurty N, Kannan R, Babu M: Cytotoxic effect of achatinin(H) (lectin) from Achatina fulica against a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF7). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim; 2007 Sep-Oct;43(8-9):306-14
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  • [Title] Cytotoxic effect of achatinin(H) (lectin) from Achatina fulica against a human mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF7).
  • The hemolymph-derived achatinin(H) (lectin) from Achatina fulica showed a marked cytotoxic effect on MCF7, a human mammary carcinoma cell line.

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  • [ErratumIn] In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2007 Nov-Dec;43(10):379-81
  • (PMID = 17876678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-2690
  • [Journal-full-title] In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Lectins; 0 / achatinin(H)
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60. Seixas F, Pires MA, Lopes CA: Complex carcinomas of the mammary gland in cats: pathological and immunohistochemical features. Vet J; 2008 May;176(2):210-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complex carcinomas of the mammary gland in cats: pathological and immunohistochemical features.
  • Biphasic epithelial myoepithelial (complex) carcinomas of the feline mammary gland are rare.
  • This article describes the pathological and immunohistochemical features and clinical outcome of eight cases of feline mammary carcinomas displaying complex morphology.
  • This tumour type is a low grade malignancy that shows histopathological features distinctive from more common feline mammary carcinomas and from complex mammary carcinomas of dogs.
  • It appears to have a better overall survival than other carcinomas of the mammary gland of cats.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17459738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. McNeill CJ, Sorenmo KU, Shofer FS, Gibeon L, Durham AC, Barber LG, Baez JL, Overley B: Evaluation of adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for the treatment of feline mammary carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med; 2009 Jan-Feb;23(1):123-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation of adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for the treatment of feline mammary carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Feline mammary carcinomas (FMC) are locally invasive and highly metastatic tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19175730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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62. de M Souza CH, Toledo-Piza E, Amorin R, Barboza A, Tobias KM: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma in 12 dogs: clinical features, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and response to piroxicam treatment. Can Vet J; 2009 May;50(5):506-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inflammatory mammary carcinoma in 12 dogs: clinical features, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and response to piroxicam treatment.
  • Canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) is a rare, locally aggressive, highly metastatic tumor that is poorly responsive to treatment.
  • In conclusion, piroxicam should be considered as a single agent for the treatment of dogs with inflammatory mammary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / drug therapy. Piroxicam / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19436636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5286
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue vétérinaire canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671873
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63. Bhattacharya TK, Rani S, Maiti SK, Dayal S, Kumar P, Sharma A: Polymorphism of ZuBeCa3 microsatellite and its association with mammary tumor in dogs. Int J Immunogenet; 2007 Jun;34(3):161-5
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  • [Title] Polymorphism of ZuBeCa3 microsatellite and its association with mammary tumor in dogs.
  • A study was conducted to explore the genetic polymorphism at ZuBeCa3 microsatellite and to estimate the association between microsatellite polymorphism and mammary cancer in dogs.
  • Three genotypes namely AA, AB and BB were observed both in dogs affected by mammary cancer and in non-affected dogs.
  • Histopathological observation classified the cancer-affected animals into three groups namely, malignant solid mammary carcinoma, malignant papillary adenocarcinoma and benign papillary adenoma in which the frequency of A allele was relatively more predominant in benign tumor group, which is more than 80%.
  • Statistical tests showed significant differences (P < 0.01) of allelic distribution between tumor-affected and non-affected group, which reveals the effect of polymorphism on occurrences of mammary cancer in dogs.
  • Besides, chi(2) test also reflected the significant effect of genotypes on occurrences of three groups of mammary cancer in dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17504505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-3121
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Immunogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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64. Goss PE, Strasser-Weippl K, Qi S, Hu H: Effects of liarozole fumarate (R85246) in combination with tamoxifen on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinoma and uterus in the rat model. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:26
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  • [Title] Effects of liarozole fumarate (R85246) in combination with tamoxifen on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinoma and uterus in the rat model.
  • Our objective was to determine the effects of liarozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen on the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary carcinoma model, as well as on the uterus in ovariectomized immature rats. METHODS:.
  • RESULTS: The tumor burden experiments in rats bearing estrogen receptor (ER) positive mammary tumours showed that liarozole has a marked anti-tumour effect.
  • CONCLUSION: Liarozole's antitumor effects on ER positive mammary tumors and its protective effect on the uterus merit further studies to confirm its clinical value in combination with tamoxifen in ER positive postmenopausal breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Disease Models, Animal. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Methylnitrosourea / pharmacology. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Uterus / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17266767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Imidazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; K0Q29TGV9Y / liarozole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1796889
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65. Palha De Sousa C, Blum CM, Sgroe EP, Crespo AM, Kurt RA: Murine mammary carcinoma cells and CD11c(+) dendritic cells elicit distinct responses to lipopolysaccharide and exhibit differential expression of genes required for TLR4 signaling. Cell Immunol; 2010;266(1):67-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Murine mammary carcinoma cells and CD11c(+) dendritic cells elicit distinct responses to lipopolysaccharide and exhibit differential expression of genes required for TLR4 signaling.
  • Because the majority of cancers are carcinomas, and thus of epithelial origin, we wanted to know whether a carcinoma and DC responded similarly to a TLR agonist.
  • We found the mammary carcinoma 4T1 and CD11c(+) DC both secreted proinflammatory chemokines in response to the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
  • Despite the low level of TLR signaling proteins, the carcinoma were able to elicit a range of responses contingent upon the source, dose, length, and frequency of TLR agonist treatment.
  • Thus, carcinoma and DC are distinctly responsive to LPS.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20869044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R15 CA137858; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R15 CA137858-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R15CA137858
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD11c; 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / Myd88 protein, mouse; 0 / Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88; 0 / Peptidoglycan; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin; 0 / TIRP protein, mouse; 0 / Tlr2 protein, mouse; 0 / Tlr4 protein, mouse; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 2; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS240517; NLM/ PMC2966517
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66. Eilon T, Barash I: Different gene-expression profiles for the poorly differentiated carcinoma and the highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in mammary glands support distinct metabolic pathways. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:270
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  • [Title] Different gene-expression profiles for the poorly differentiated carcinoma and the highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in mammary glands support distinct metabolic pathways.
  • BACKGROUND: Deregulation of Stat5 in the mammary gland of transgenic mice causes tumorigenesis.
  • Poorly differentiated carcinoma and highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma tumors evolve.
  • METHODS: Mammary tumors were excised from transgenic mice carrying a constitutively active variant of Stat5, or a Stat5 variant lacking s transactivation domain.
  • These tumors displayed either the carcinoma or the papillary adenocarcinoma phenotypes. cRNAs, prepared from each tumor were hybridized to an Affymetrix GeneChip(R) Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array.
  • In the carcinoma, stronger expression of genes coding for specific integrins, cytoskeletal proteins and calcium-binding proteins highlight cell-adhesion and motility features of the tumor cells.
  • Higher expression of genes encoding the degradation complex of the canonical pathway and limited TCF expression in the papillary adenocarcinoma result in membranal accumulation of beta-catenin, in contrast to its nuclear translocation in the carcinoma.
  • Genes involved in cell-cycle arrest at G1 and response to DNA damage were more highly expressed in the papillary adenocarcinomas, as opposed to favored G2/M regulation in the carcinoma tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: At least six metabolic pathways support the morphological and functional differences between carcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas.
  • Differential gene-expression profiles favor cell adhesion, motility and proliferation in the carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / genetics. Metabolic Networks and Pathways / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18811984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2564980
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67. Zou L, Jaramillo M, Whaley D, Wells A, Panchapakesa V, Das T, Roy P: Profilin-1 is a negative regulator of mammary carcinoma aggressiveness. Br J Cancer; 2007 Nov 19;97(10):1361-71
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  • [Title] Profilin-1 is a negative regulator of mammary carcinoma aggressiveness.
  • Expression of profilin-1 (Pfn1) is downregulated in breast cancer cells, the functional significance of which is yet to be understood.
  • To address this question, in this study we evaluated how perturbing Pfn1 affects motility and invasion of breast cancer cells.
  • We show that loss of Pfn1 expression leads to enhanced motility and matrigel invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
  • Interestingly, silencing Pfn1 expression is associated with downregulation of both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions with concomitant increase in motility and dramatic scattering of normal human mammary epithelial cells.
  • Thus, these data for the first time suggest that loss of Pfn1 expression may have significance in breast cancer progression.
  • Finally, animal experiments reveal that overexpression of Pfn1 suppresses orthotopic tumorigenicity and micro-metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice.
  • These data imply that perturbing Pfn1 could be a good molecular strategy to limit the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells.

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  • (PMID = 17940506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108607; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108607
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Profilins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360229
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68. Kmieciak M, Knutson KL, Dumur CI, Manjili MH: HER-2/neu antigen loss and relapse of mammary carcinoma are actively induced by T cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses. Eur J Immunol; 2007 Mar;37(3):675-85
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu antigen loss and relapse of mammary carcinoma are actively induced by T cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses.
  • To address this question, we used rat neu-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC) and its relapsed neu antigen-negative variant (ANV).

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  • (PMID = 17304628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016059; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104757; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS498531; NLM/ PMC3732067
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69. Bussard KM, Boulanger CA, Booth BW, Bruno RD, Smith GH: Reprogramming human cancer cells in the mouse mammary gland. Cancer Res; 2010 Aug 1;70(15):6336-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reprogramming human cancer cells in the mouse mammary gland.
  • Cancer cells are also influenced by the microenvironment.
  • It has been shown that, when placed into blastocysts, cancer cells respond to embryonic cues and differentiate according to the tissue type encountered during ontological development.
  • Previously, we showed that the mouse mammary gland was capable of redirecting adult mouse testicular and neural stem/progenitor cells toward a mammary epithelial cell fate during gland regeneration.
  • Here, we report that human embryonal carcinoma cells proliferate and produce differentiated mammary epithelial cell progeny when mixed with mouse mammary epithelial cells and inoculated into the epithelium-free mammary fat pads of athymic nude mice.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of human cell progeny in the mammary outgrowths for human centromeric DNA, as well as immunochemistry for human-specific breast epithelial cytokeratins and human-specific milk proteins in impregnated transplant hosts.
  • It was found that the number of human cells increased by 66- to 660-fold during mammary epithelial growth and expansion as determined by human cytokeratin expression.
  • These results show that human embryonal carcinoma-derived progeny interact with mouse mammary cells during mammary gland regeneration and are directed to differentiate into cells that exhibit diverse mammary epithelial cell phenotypes.
  • This is the first demonstration that human cells are capable of recognizing the signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment present during gland regeneration in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20647316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS416732; NLM/ PMC3494489
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70. Garamvölgyi R, Petrási Z, Hevesi A, Jakab C, Vajda Z, Bogner P, Repa I: Magnetic resonance imaging technique for the examination of canine mammary tumours. Acta Vet Hung; 2006 Jun;54(2):143-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging technique for the examination of canine mammary tumours.
  • The aim of this study was to adapt the human magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences for use in the routine examination of canine mammary glands.
  • It was found that T1- and T2-weighted spin echo, short T1 inversion recovery sequences and a gradient echo (GE) dynamic T1-weighted measurement made in the coronal and transversal planes were the most informative MR diagnostic methods for imaging canine mammary tumours.
  • The static MR technique is the most detailed imaging modality for differentiating the tissue types in the substance of the mammary gland.
  • The MRI findings were in close relationship with the histological result (five malignant mixed tumours and five cases of invasive ductal carcinoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / veterinary. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16841753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0236-6290
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta veterinaria Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Vet. Hung.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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71. Murray TJ, Maffini MV, Ucci AA, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM: Induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ following fetal bisphenol A exposure. Reprod Toxicol; 2007 Apr-May;23(3):383-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Induction of mammary gland ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ following fetal bisphenol A exposure.
  • Exposure of the fetus to excess estrogen is believed to increase the risk of developing breast cancer during adult life.
  • Fetal exposure to low doses of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A resulted in long-lasting effects in the mouse mammary gland that were manifested during adult life.
  • We now report that fetal exposure to 2.5, 25, 250 and 1000 microg bisphenol A/kg body weight/day induces the development of ductal hyperplasias and carcinoma in situ at postnatal day 50 and 95 in rats.
  • Thus, fetal bisphenol A exposure is sufficient to induce the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the mammary gland in the absence of any additional treatment aimed at increasing tumor development.

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  • (PMID = 17123778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-6238
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Toxicol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012301; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012301-01A2; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES008314-09; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R21 ES012301; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES012301-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES08314; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R21 ES012301-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES008314-10A2; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES008314-10A2; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES008314-09; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R21 ES012301-01A2; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES008314
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Phenols; MLT3645I99 / bisphenol A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS23012; NLM/ PMC1987322
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72. Lavalle GE, Bertagnolli AC, Tavares WL, Cassali GD: Cox-2 expression in canine mammary carcinomas: correlation with angiogenesis and overall survival. Vet Pathol; 2009 Nov;46(6):1275-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cox-2 expression in canine mammary carcinomas: correlation with angiogenesis and overall survival.
  • Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplastic processes in female dogs.
  • Angiogenesis is essential for the growth and metastasis of major solid tumors and has been correlated with prognosis in human and canine breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate Cox-2 expression and microvessel density in canine mammary carcinomas and to correlate them with overall survival of the animal.
  • Cox-2 and angiogenesis were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 46 mammary carcinomas (19 ductal and 27 metaplastic) and in healthy mammary glands.
  • Longer overall survival was observed in metaplastic carcinomas (P = .028), in tumors with low microvessel density (P = .0002) and with low Cox-2 score (P = .01).
  • Our results demonstrate that increased microvessel density and increased Cox-2 expression were linearly related in the canine mammary tumors studied and were also related to worse prognosis and shorter overall survival.
  • This suggests that Cox-2 inhibitors could be an alternative for the treatment and control of advanced neoplastic mammary disease in female dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Dog Diseases / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19605908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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73. Kolanjiappan K, Manoharan S: Diurnal rhythmicity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and antioxidants in experimental mammary carcinogenesis. Exp Oncol; 2005 Dec;27(4):298-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diurnal rhythmicity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and antioxidants in experimental mammary carcinogenesis.
  • Our aim was to analyze the circadian pattern of lipid peroxidation by-products (TBARS) and antioxidants status in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.
  • METHODS: Mammary tumors were developed in Wistar rats, blood samples were collected at a regular interval of 4 h throughout the 24 h period and TBARS content and antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) were estimated by colorimetric methods.
  • RESULTS: In mammary carcinogenesis, the acrophase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx) in blood were found to be delayed, whilst mesor values for TBARS level - increased, and values for SOD, CAT, GPx activities - decreased.
  • Significant r-values indicate the disruption of lipid peroxidation-antioxidants rhythms in mammary carcinogenesis.
  • CONCLUSION: The present investigation suggests that the circadian pattern of blood lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in rats with mammary carcinoma are markedly desynchronized as compared to normal rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / analysis. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / blood. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16404350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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74. Pereira PD, Lopes CC, Matos AJ, Cortez PP, Gärtner F, Medeiros R, Lopes C: Caveolin-1 in diagnosis and prognosis of canine mammary tumours: comparison of evaluation systems. J Comp Pathol; 2010 Aug-Oct;143(2-3):87-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Caveolin-1 in diagnosis and prognosis of canine mammary tumours: comparison of evaluation systems.
  • In recent years there has been some controversy regarding the distribution of Cav-1 in normal and neoplastic mammary cell types, which may be attributed to different scoring systems adopted in different studies.
  • The present study compares Cav-1 immunoexpression in normal (n=17) and neoplastic (n=79) canine mammary tissues assessed by two different scoring methods (previously reported by others with conflicting results) and associates Cav-1 expression with metastasis and overall survival (OS).
  • The data suggest that Cav-1 expression is associated with highly malignant subtypes of mammary tumours (i.e. basal-like carcinoma), invasion and metastasis, thus supporting the hypothesis that it may play a major role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.
  • Furthermore, one of the scoring systems employed associated Cav-1 expression with unfavourable prognosis in canine mammary carcinomas, showing a strong correlation between Cav-1-positive carcinomas and shorter OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / veterinary. Caveolin 1 / metabolism. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20153868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3129
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of comparative pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Comp. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Caveolin 1
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75. Jacobs TM, Hoppe BR, Poehlmann CE, Ferracone JD, Sorenmo KU: Mammary adenocarcinomas in three male cats exposed to medroxyprogesterone acetate (1990-2006). J Feline Med Surg; 2010 Feb;12(2):169-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary adenocarcinomas in three male cats exposed to medroxyprogesterone acetate (1990-2006).
  • All three cats subsequently developed multiple recurrent mammary adenocarcinomas and underwent numerous surgical resections.
  • This report describes the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in these three cats and highlights the potential for mammary carcinomas to develop in male cats years after receiving MPA injections.
  • Extended survival times and a long delay between the administration of the progestin injections and the onset of mammary neoplasia are noted.
  • Estrogen and progesterone receptor staining was performed on some of the tumors and the complex role of hormones in the pathogenesis and the prognosis of feline mammary carcinoma is discussed.
  • Clinicians using MPA should institute life-long surveillance of their feline patients for mammary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / chemically induced. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / chemically induced. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19818661.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2750
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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76. Toniti W, Buranasinsup S, Kongcharoen A, Charoonrut P, Puchadapirom P, Kasorndorkbua C: Immunohistochemical determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in canine mammary tumors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2009;10(5):907-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in canine mammary tumors.
  • Mammary gland tumors are by far the most commonly found tumors in domestic dogs.
  • In the present study, we combined histopathology with immunohistochemical staining of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in canine mammary gland tumors.
  • Fifty dogs with primary mammary tumors underwent surgery at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Mahidol University during 2005 to 2007.
  • Twenty-one were diagnosed with benign tumors classified as adenomas and benign mixed mammary gland tumors.
  • Of the malignant tumors, eighty-six percent were adenocarcinomas and 14% were malignant mixed mammary gland tumors.
  • In summary, more than half of of our benign and malignant canine mammary tumors were negatively stained for ER and PR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20104988.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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77. Klopfleisch R, Schütze M, Gruber AD: RAD51 protein expression is increased in canine mammary carcinomas. Vet Pathol; 2010 Jan;47(1):98-101

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] RAD51 protein expression is increased in canine mammary carcinomas.
  • RAD51 mRNA expression levels are significantly increased in laser-microdissected mammary simple carcinomas and their lymph node metastases when compared to adenomas or nonneoplastic mammary gland of the same dog.
  • Here, RAD51 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded mammary carcinomas and their lymph node metastases of 40 dogs, adenomas of 48 dogs, and nonneoplastic mammary gland of 88 dogs.
  • Number of cells with nuclear RAD51 expression was significantly (P < or = .05) increased in carcinomas when compared to adenomas and metastases.
  • RAD51 expression in carcinomas was correlated with expression in metastases but not with histologic grade.
  • In conclusion, the increased number of RAD51-expressing cells in carcinomas might indicate genomic instability in these cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / physiopathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / physiopathology. Rad51 Recombinase / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Animals. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Dogs. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mammary Glands, Animal / enzymology. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Mammary Glands, Animal / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20080488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.- / Rad51 Recombinase
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78. Uehara N, Unami A, Kiyozuka Y, Shikata N, Oishi Y, Tsubura A: Parous mammary glands exhibit distinct alterations in gene expression and proliferation responsiveness to carcinogenic stimuli in Lewis rats. Oncol Rep; 2006 Apr;15(4):903-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parous mammary glands exhibit distinct alterations in gene expression and proliferation responsiveness to carcinogenic stimuli in Lewis rats.
  • Early full-term pregnancy affords lifetime protection against the development of breast cancer.
  • Parity-induced protection can be reproduced in a carcinogen-induced rat mammary carcinoma model, but the molecular mechanisms of this protection against carcinogenic stimuli in rat mammary glands have not been fully characterized.
  • To gain a better understanding of these molecular mechanisms, we used an oligonucleotide microarray to examine gene expression in parous and age-matched virgin (AMV) mammary glands of Lewis rats before and after carcinogen (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea;.
  • Parous mammary glands before MNU treatment showed up-regulation of multiple differentiation-related genes, such as whey acidic protein (Wap), casein beta (Csn2), casein gamma (Csng), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (Lbp), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) and glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (Glycam1).
  • Also, parous mammary glands before MNU treatment exhibited down-regulation of growth-related genes such as regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (Reg3a), mesothelin (Msln), insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (Igfbp4).
  • After MNU treatment, AMV mammary glands exhibited up-regulation of growth-related genes, such as Msln, cell division cycle 2 homolog A (Cdc2a), Igf2, Igfbp4, stathmin 1 (Stmn1) and homeobox, msh-like 1 (Msx1), whereas expression of these genes remained low in parous mammary glands.
  • AMV mammary glands also exhibited marked up-regulation of Cdc2a and Stmn1 in response to MNU.
  • After MNU treatment, the PCNA labeling index increased significantly in AMV mammary epithelial cells (13.7+/-1.1%), but remained low in parous mammary glands (3.6+/-0.4%).
  • The response of AMV mammary glands to carcinogenic stimuli includes up-regulation of growth-related genes and increased cell proliferation.
  • The lack of a similar response in parous mammary glands may explain parity-induced protection against mammary tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Gene Expression / drug effects. Mammary Glands, Animal / drug effects. Methylnitrosourea / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 16525678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea
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79. De Maria R, Olivero M, Iussich S, Nakaichi M, Murata T, Biolatti B, Di Renzo MF: Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma is a model of HER2 overexpressing poor prognosis human breast cancer. Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;65(3):907-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma is a model of HER2 overexpressing poor prognosis human breast cancer.
  • Companion animal spontaneous tumors are suitable models for human cancer, primarily because both animal population and the tumors are genetically heterogeneous.
  • Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is a highly aggressive, mainly hormone receptor-negative cancer, which has been proposed as a model for poor prognosis human breast cancer.
  • We have identified and studied the feline orthologue of the HER2 gene, which is both an important prognostic marker and therapeutic target in human cancer.
  • F-HER2-specific mRNA was found 3- to 18-fold increased in 3 of 3 FMC cell lines, in 1 of 4 mammary adenomas and 6 of 11 FMC samples using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR.
  • These data show that feline HER2 overexpression qualifies FMC as homologous to the subset of HER2 overexpressing, poor prognosis human breast carcinomas and as a suitable model to test innovative approaches to therapy of aggressive tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammary Glands, Animal / metabolism. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


80. Kleinberg DL, Wood TL, Furth PA, Lee AV: Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the transition from normal mammary development to preneoplastic mammary lesions. Endocr Rev; 2009 Feb;30(1):51-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the transition from normal mammary development to preneoplastic mammary lesions.
  • Adult female mammary development starts at puberty and is controlled by tightly regulated cross-talk between a group of hormones and growth factors.
  • Although estrogen is the initial driving force and is joined by luteal phase progesterone, both of these hormones require GH-induced IGF-I in the mammary gland in order to act.
  • The same group of hormones, when experimentally perturbed, can lead to development of hyperplastic lesions and increase the chances, or be precursors, of mammary carcinoma.
  • For example, systemic administration of GH or IGF-I causes mammary hyperplasia, and overproduction of IGF-I in transgenic animals can cause the development of usual or atypical hyperplasias and sometimes carcinoma.
  • Although studies have clearly demonstrated the transforming potential of both GH and IGF-I receptor in cell culture and in animals, debate remains as to whether their main role is actually instructive or permissive in progression to cancer in vivo.
  • Thus, the concept of progression from normal development to cancer through precursor lesions sensitive to hormones and growth factors discussed above is gaining support in humans as well as in animal models.
  • New agents targeting the GH/IGF-I axis may provide a novel means to block formation and progression of precursor lesions to overt carcinoma.
  • A novel somatostatin analog has recently been shown to prevent mammary development in rats via targeted IGF-I action inhibition at the mammary gland.
  • Similarly, pegvisomant, a GH antagonist, and other IGF-I antagonists such as IGF binding proteins 1 and 5 also block mammary gland development.
  • It is, therefore, possible that inhibition of IGF-I action, or perhaps GH, in the mammary gland may eventually play a role in breast cancer chemoprevention by preventing actions of both estrogen and progesterone, especially in women at extremely high risk for developing breast cancer such as BRCA gene 1 or 2 mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology. Growth Hormone / physiology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / physiology. Mammary Glands, Animal / growth & development. Mammary Glands, Human / growth & development. Precancerous Conditions / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19075184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7189
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA051008; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA051008; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112176-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA89041; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112176; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA112176
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 267
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81. Klopfleisch R, Schütze M, Gruber AD: Loss of p27 expression in canine mammary tumors and their metastases. Res Vet Sci; 2010 Apr;88(2):300-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of p27 expression in canine mammary tumors and their metastases.
  • We have previously shown a significant reduction of p27 mRNA expression level in laser-microdissected mammary carcinomas and their lymph node metastases when compared to non-neoplastic mammary gland of the same dog.
  • Here, p27 expression was analyzed on the protein level in non-neoplastic mammary gland, primary mammary carcinomas, their lymph node metastases and intravascular tumor cells of 49 dogs, adenomas of 49 dogs and non-neoplastic mammary gland of 98 dogs by immunohistochemistry.
  • A significantly (p0.05) decreased percentage of p27 positive tissue samples was found when normal gland was compared with adenomas, carcinomas and lymph node metastases.
  • In contrast, only 22% of the adenomas, 20% of carcinomas, 12% of lymph node metastases and 32% of intravascular tumor cells had p27 reactivity.
  • Cell cycle control by p27 is therefore lost in the majority of canine mammary tumors.
  • The lack of significant differences between benign and malignant mammary tumors indicates that decreased p27 expression is an early step in carcinogenesis of canine mammary tumors and hinders the use of p27 as a marker of malignancy for this tumor type.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / veterinary. Animals. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / veterinary. Dogs. Female. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19748645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / p27 antigen
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82. Tsubura A, Yoshizawa K, Uehara N, Yuri T, Matsuoka Y: Multistep mouse mammary tumorigenesis through pre-neoplasia to neoplasia and acquisition of metastatic potential. Med Mol Morphol; 2007 Mar;40(1):9-17
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  • [Title] Multistep mouse mammary tumorigenesis through pre-neoplasia to neoplasia and acquisition of metastatic potential.
  • Human breast tissue can give rise to hyperplasias, atypical hyperplasias, and in situ carcinomas originating in a terminal duct-lobular unit (TDLU).
  • These entities are associated with increased risk of subsequent development of invasive carcinoma.
  • Human breast carcinomas arise via intermediate steps known as precursor or premalignant lesions.
  • However, it is difficult to perform stepwise observation of the progression of human breast cancer.
  • Mouse mammary tissue can give rise to several characteristic types of premalignant hyperplasia and tumor, originating in a duct or acinus, that progress to carcinoma.
  • Three specific types of mouse mammary lesion with premalignant potential have been identified: hyperplastic alveolar nodule (HAN), plaque (PLQ), and ductal hyperplasia (DH).
  • Some invasive breast carcinomas acquire metastatic potential and may cause the death of the patient.
  • Mouse mammary carcinomas rarely metastasize, but there exist mouse models of metastasis of mammary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / etiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Mice

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  • (PMID = 17384984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1860-1480
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical molecular morphology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Mol Morphol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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83. Gear RB, Yan M, Schneider J, Succop P, Heffelfinger SC, Clegg DJ: Charles River Sprague Dawley rats lack early age-dependent susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Int J Biol Sci; 2007 Oct 04;3(7):408-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Charles River Sprague Dawley rats lack early age-dependent susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.
  • Developmental stages of mammary glands influence their susceptibility to initiating events related to carcinogenesis.
  • The "window of susceptibility" to mammary carcinogenesis is classically defined as the time in early puberty when the mammary gland morphology is most sensitive to initiation events.
  • Administration of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in a single oral dose yields maximal mammary tumor formation when administered in this "window".
  • We examined the DMBA treated mammary glands, precursor lesions, and morphology of the uninvolved mammary epithelium for the first 100 days of life for Charles River Sprague Dawley CD(R) IGS.
  • Our goal was to determine the DMBA dose at which 50% of the rats (IC50) developed carcinoma in situ (CIS) within three months of dosing.
  • Additionally, we report that vehicle-treated animals developed mammary CIS without any known initiator, and 100 day virgin animals demonstrated lactational changes, independent of DMBA exposure or dose.
  • Lastly, we demonstrate this strain of virgin female rats has elevated pituitary prolactin immunoreactivity independent of the level of mammary differentiation.
  • We conclude this strain of Charles River Sprague Dawley rats has prolactin-induced pituitary stimulation, and therefore, the window of susceptibility for mammary tumorigenesis is absent.

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  • (PMID = 17940635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1449-2288
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / U01 ES012770; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 ES/CA 012770-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2017109
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Charles River Sprague Dawley rats / DMBA / mammary carcinogenesis
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84. Vinothini G, Balachandran C, Nagini S: Evaluation of molecular markers in canine mammary tumors: correlation with histological grading. Oncol Res; 2009;18(5-6):193-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of molecular markers in canine mammary tumors: correlation with histological grading.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate molecular markers involved in mammary tumorigenesis in a canine model that mimics many essential elements of human breast cancer.
  • Thirty mammary gland tumors and control tissues obtained from female dogs were included in the study.
  • The present study provides evidence that increased expression of ER, HER-2/neu, estradiol, and its metabolizing enzymes, as well as proteins involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, invasion, and angiogenesis may confer a selective growth advantage to canine mammary tumors.
  • To our knowledge this is the first report on the hallmark capabilities of canine mammary tumors, which lends credence to the view that the dog is a valuable model for human breast cancer studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Dogs. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis


85. Suárez-Bonnet A, Martín de Las Mulas J, Millán MY, Herráez P, Rodríguez F, Espinosa de los Monteros A: Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Vet Pathol; 2010 Mar;47(2):298-305

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).
  • Ten spontaneous mammary gland tumors affecting guinea pigs (GP) were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically.
  • Histologically, 3 were benign (2 simple adenomas and 1 benign mixed tumor) and 7 were malignant (1 simple solid carcinoma and 6 simple tubulopapillary carcinomas).
  • This article describes the morphological and immunohistochemical features of the normal mammary gland and spontaneous mammary gland tumors in GP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Guinea Pigs. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Rodent Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20106793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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86. Smorlesi A, Papalini F, Amici A, Orlando F, Pierpaoli S, Mancini C, Provinciali M: Evaluation of different plasmid DNA delivery systems for immunization against HER2/neu in a transgenic murine model of mammary carcinoma. Vaccine; 2006 Mar 10;24(11):1766-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of different plasmid DNA delivery systems for immunization against HER2/neu in a transgenic murine model of mammary carcinoma.
  • We compared the effectiveness of different procedures of DNA vaccine delivery (intradermic injection (ID), gene gun (GG) delivery and intramuscular injection (IM) alone or with electroporation) in a murine transgenic model of mammary carcinoma overexpressing HER2/neu.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / administration & dosage. Genes, erbB-2. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / prevention & control. Plasmids. Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage. Vaccines, DNA / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Neoplasm / blood. Biolistics. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cytokines / analysis. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. Disease Models, Animal. Electroporation. Female. Immunization, Passive. Injections, Intradermal. Injections, Intramuscular. Mice. Mice, Transgenic

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  • (PMID = 16288939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Vaccines, DNA
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87. Rossi G, Errico G, Perez P, Rossi G, Paltrinieri S: Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia in a diabetic dog with an insulin growth factor-2-producing mammary carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol; 2010 Dec;39(4):480-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia in a diabetic dog with an insulin growth factor-2-producing mammary carcinoma.
  • The dog also had a solid ductal mammary carcinoma with very rapid growth, which was temporally related to onset of hypoglycemia.
  • During subsequent months, serum glucose concentrations remained at life-threatening levels (1.64-2.12 mmol/L, reference interval 4.44-6.66 mmol/L) simultaneously with an increase in the size of the mammary tumor, which reached a diameter of about 16 cm.
  • The glucose concentration continued to rise and reached 9.99 mmol/L 12 hours after the removal of the mammary tumor.

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
  • (PMID = 21039714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-165X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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88. Madrazo J, García-Fernández RA, García-Iglesias MJ, Durán AJ, Espinosa J, Pérez-Martínez C: The role of CD44 adhesion factor in canine mammary carcinomas. Vet J; 2009 Jun;180(3):371-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of CD44 adhesion factor in canine mammary carcinomas.
  • CD44 is an adhesion molecule implicated in the progression of human breast cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe CD44 antigen expression in canine mammary carcinomas and to evaluate its prognostic significance in relation to other clinico-pathological variables.
  • Complex (grade I) and anaplastic (grade III) carcinomas exhibited more intense expression of this antigen than did some tubulopapillary and most solid carcinomas (grade II).
  • Although reduced CD44 expression was associated with infiltrative growth and vascular invasion in solid carcinomas, intense expression was also observed in anaplastic tumours.
  • Although overall these findings suggest a role for this adhesion factor in canine mammary tumour development and progression, the complexity and apparently paradoxical nature of some of the findings currently limit the use of this immunohistochemical marker as a prognostic indicator.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18299241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44
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89. Petterino C, Podestà G, Ratto A, Drigo M, Pellegrino C: Immunohistochemical study of phospho-Stat3-ser727 expression in feline mammary gland tumours. Vet Res Commun; 2007 Feb;31(2):173-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of phospho-Stat3-ser727 expression in feline mammary gland tumours.
  • We describe the expression of pStat3-ser727 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylated on serine 727) in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic feline mammary gland tissue assessed by immunohistochemistry in 56 cats.
  • The samples included 4 normal mammary non-lactating tissues, 13 hyperplastic lesions (9 lobular and 4 fibroepithelial) and 39 tumours (6 benign and 33 carcinomas).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. STAT3 Transcription Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17186410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-7380
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 452VLY9402 / Serine
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90. Badowska-Kozakiewicz AM, Malicka E: Evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of P-glycoprotein in neoplasms of the mammary gland in bitches. Pol J Vet Sci; 2010;13(2):343-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of immunohistochemical expression of P-glycoprotein in neoplasms of the mammary gland in bitches.
  • Material for the investigation comprised 50 tumours of the mammary gland collected from bitches during surgical procedures performed in Warsaw Veterinary Clinics and Small Animal Clinic of the Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW.
  • All together 8 adenomas, 22 complex carcinomas, 15 simple carcinomas and 5 solid carcinomas.
  • Complex carcinomas were the biggest group among the cancer types which demonstrated positive reaction of P-gp.
  • In bitches aged 9 through 12 years, the cancers featuring a positive reaction of P-gp constituted the most numerous group (63.2%); on the other hand, this cancer type barely appeared in the oldest bitches (10.5%).
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Animals. Carcinoma / enzymology. Dogs. Female

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  • (PMID = 20731191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1505-1773
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of veterinary sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Vet Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / P-Glycoprotein
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91. Mao-Ying QL, Zhao J, Dong ZQ, Wang J, Yu J, Yan MF, Zhang YQ, Wu GC, Wang YQ: A rat model of bone cancer pain induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Jul 14;345(4):1292-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rat model of bone cancer pain induced by intra-tibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells.
  • This study described a modified rat model of bone cancer pain.
  • Syngeneic Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells were injected into the tibia medullary cavity via intercondylar eminence.
  • The rats inoculated with carcinoma cells showed significant ambulatory pain, mechanical allodynia, and reduction in weight bearing, as well as increased incidence of spontaneous activity in Abeta fibers in affected limb, whereas PBS (vehicle) or heat-killed cells (sham) injected rats showed no significant difference in comparison to normal rats.
  • Interestingly, mechanical allodynia was also observed in the contralateral limb, indicating the involvement of 'mirror image' pain in bone cancer pain.
  • In summary, the present study provided a useful and easily established rat model of bone cancer pain which will contribute to further study of the mechanisms underlying cancer pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Disease Models, Animal. Pain / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / physiology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Electric Stimulation. Female. Hindlimb / physiopathology. Hyperalgesia / etiology. Hyperalgesia / physiopathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / pathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Nerve Fibers / physiology. Neuralgia / etiology. Neuralgia / physiopathology. Pain Measurement / methods. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Tibia / pathology. Tibia / radiography. Tibial Nerve / physiopathology. Time Factors. Weight-Bearing / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16725112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Le HK, Graham L, Cha E, Morales JK, Manjili MH, Bear HD: Gemcitabine directly inhibits myeloid derived suppressor cells in BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 mammary carcinoma and augments expansion of T cells from tumor-bearing mice. Int Immunopharmacol; 2009 Jul;9(7-8):900-9
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine directly inhibits myeloid derived suppressor cells in BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 mammary carcinoma and augments expansion of T cells from tumor-bearing mice.
  • Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in 4T1 mammary carcinoma bearing mice and present a barrier to the success of adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) by suppressing T cell immunity.
  • BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells and treated with GEM either once a week starting 5 days after tumor inoculation (EARLY GEM) or as a single dose at days 20-25 (LATE GEM).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Therapy. Immunotherapy, Adoptive. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / therapy. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19336265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1705
  • [Journal-full-title] International immunopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Immunopharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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93. Smorlesi A, Papalini F, Orlando F, Donnini A, Re F, Provinciali M: Imiquimod and S-27609 as adjuvants of DNA vaccination in a transgenic murine model of HER2/neu-positive mammary carcinoma. Gene Ther; 2005 Sep;12(17):1324-32
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  • [Title] Imiquimod and S-27609 as adjuvants of DNA vaccination in a transgenic murine model of HER2/neu-positive mammary carcinoma.
  • DNA vaccination against HER-2/neu is an effective way to induce an immune response able to oppose the spontaneous development of mammary tumours occurring in HER-2/neu transgenic mice.
  • The association of a DNA vaccine encoding a portion of rat HER2/neu with either Imiquimod or S-27609 was found to delay the development of spontaneous mammary tumours and to reduce their incidence, in comparison with DNA vaccination alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Cancer Vaccines / administration & dosage. Genetic Therapy / methods. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / therapy. Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adoptive Transfer. Animals. Female. Genes, erbB-2. Interferon-gamma / immunology. Interleukin-10 / immunology. Interleukin-2 / immunology. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Models, Animal

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  • (PMID = 15944732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-7128
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-amino-alpha,alpha,2-trimethyl-1H-imidazo(4,5-c)quinoline-1-ethanol; 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Vaccines, DNA; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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94. Wensman H, Göransson H, Leuchowius KJ, Strömberg S, Pontén F, Isaksson A, Rutteman GR, Heldin NE, Pejler G, Hellmén E: Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Nov;118(2):333-43
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  • [Title] Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas.
  • The global gene expression in three types of canine mammary tumors: carcinoma, fibrosarcoma and osteosarcoma were investigated by Affymetrix gene array technology.
  • Unsupervised clustering analysis revealed a close clustering of the respective tumor types, with fibrosarcomas clustering close to the osteosarcomas and the carcinomas clustering closer to non-malignant mammary tissues (NMTs).
  • A number of epithelial markers were expressed in both carcinomas and NMTs, whereas the sarcomas expressed genes related to mesenchymal differentiation.
  • A comparison of the gene expression profile of the sarcomas versus carcinoma/NMTs revealed that the sarcomas, in particular the osteosarcomas, showed a striking upregulation of a panel of homeobox genes previously linked to craniofacial bone formation.
  • These findings suggest that the development of mammary sarcomas specifically involves triggering of a set of homeobox genes related to neural crest and craniofacial bone development.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, Homeobox / genetics. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / genetics. Sarcoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19048371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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95. Queiroga FL, Pires I, Lobo L, Lopes CS: The role of Cox-2 expression in the prognosis of dogs with malignant mammary tumours. Res Vet Sci; 2010 Jun;88(3):441-5

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  • [Title] The role of Cox-2 expression in the prognosis of dogs with malignant mammary tumours.
  • Immunohistochemical detection of Cyclooxygenase (Cox)-1 and -2 enzymes in canine mammary tumours (CMT) has recently been described.
  • Present study suggests the usefulness of testing Cox-2 specific inhibitors as part of an adjuvant therapy in female dogs with malignant mammary neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Dog Diseases / genetics. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / veterinary. Carcinosarcoma / enzymology. Carcinosarcoma / genetics. Carcinosarcoma / mortality. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / veterinary. Cyclooxygenase 1 / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 1 / metabolism. Dogs. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19939424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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96. Badowska-Kozakiewicz AM, Malicka E: Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in neoplasms of the mammary gland in bitches. Pol J Vet Sci; 2010;13(2):337-42
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  • [Title] Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in neoplasms of the mammary gland in bitches.
  • Material for the investigation comprised mammary gland tumours, collected from dogs, the patients of veterinary clinics, during surgical procedures.
  • All together 14 adenomas, 66 complex carcinomas, 47 simple carcinomas and 6 solid carcinomas were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Animals. Carcinoma / enzymology. Dogs. Female

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  • (PMID = 20731190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1505-1773
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of veterinary sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Vet Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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97. Goepfert TM, Moreno-Smith M, Edwards DG, Pathak S, Medina D, Brinkley WR: Loss of chromosomal integrity drives rat mammary tumorigenesis. Int J Cancer; 2007 Mar 1;120(5):985-94
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  • [Title] Loss of chromosomal integrity drives rat mammary tumorigenesis.
  • Breast cancer incidence varies with diet and other environmental influences, including carcinogen exposure.
  • Here, we have examined processes that are activated in the mammary glands of rats treated with 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU).
  • This synthetic carcinogen was used to study events occurring during mammary tumor initiation and development.
  • In mammary tumors, elevated numbers of centrosomes coincided with genomic instability.
  • Collectively, these data suggest that the carcinogen MNU induces changes resulting in genetic instability detectable before hyperplasia and tumors develop in the rat mammary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chromosomal Instability. Mammary Glands, Animal / pathology. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17131329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 41424; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 64255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurka protein, rat; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase A; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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98. Cheng N, Bhowmick NA, Chytil A, Gorksa AE, Brown KA, Muraoka R, Arteaga CL, Neilson EG, Hayward SW, Moses HL: Loss of TGF-beta type II receptor in fibroblasts promotes mammary carcinoma growth and invasion through upregulation of TGF-alpha-, MSP- and HGF-mediated signaling networks. Oncogene; 2005 Jul 28;24(32):5053-68
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  • [Title] Loss of TGF-beta type II receptor in fibroblasts promotes mammary carcinoma growth and invasion through upregulation of TGF-alpha-, MSP- and HGF-mediated signaling networks.
  • To clarify the role of TGF-beta signaling in stromal fibroblasts during mammary development and tumorigenesis, we conditionally knocked out the TGF-beta type II receptor gene in mouse mammary fibroblasts (Tgfbr2(fspKO)).
  • Tgfbr2(fspKO) mice exhibit defective mammary ductal development, characterized in part by increased ductal epithelial cell turnover associated with an increase in stromal fibroblast abundance.
  • Tgfbr2(fspKO) mammary fibroblasts transplanted with mammary carcinoma cells promote growth and invasion, which is associated with increased activating phosphorylation of the receptors: erbB1, erbB2, RON, and c-Met.
  • These studies characterize a significant role for stromal TGF-beta signaling in mammary tissue homeostasis and mammary tumor progression via regulation of TGF-alpha, MSP, and HGF signaling pathways.

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  • (PMID = 15856015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA68485; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108646-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102162; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR41943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85492; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108646; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085492; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108646-01; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR041943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102162
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / TFF2 protein, mouse; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 67256-21-7 / Hepatocyte Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS142410; NLM/ PMC3074577
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99. Rodo A, Malicka E: Immunohistochemical expression of protein p53 in neoplasms of the mammary gland in bitches. Pol J Vet Sci; 2008;11(2):89-95
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of protein p53 in neoplasms of the mammary gland in bitches.
  • Material for the investigation comprised mammary gland tumours collected from dogs, the patients of veterinary clinics, during surgical procedures, and archival samples.
  • Alltogether 21 adenomas, 31 complex carcinomas, 35 simple carcinomas and 12 solid carcinomas were qualified for further investigation.
  • The highest percent of p53 positive neoplasms was observed in solid carcinomas and neoplasms with the highest degree of histological malignancy.
  • The smallest number showing this expression was observed in adenomas and the highest was characteristic for solid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / veterinary. Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Division. Dogs. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mammary Glands, Animal. Neoplasm Staging / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18683536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1505-1773
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of veterinary sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Vet Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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100. de Oliveira JT, Pinho SS, de Matos AJ, Hespanhol V, Reis CA, Gärtner F: MUC1 expression in canine malignant mammary tumours and relationship to clinicopathological features. Vet J; 2009 Dec;182(3):491-3
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  • [Title] MUC1 expression in canine malignant mammary tumours and relationship to clinicopathological features.
  • Mucin-1 (MUC1) is over-expressed in human breast carcinomas and is linked to a poorer prognosis.
  • In this study, MUC1 expression in 32 spontaneous canine malignant mammary tumours was characterised in relation to histological type, mode of growth, grade, lymph node metastases and distant metastases.
  • In the normal canine mammary gland, MUC1 was expressed mainly in the apical cellular membrane, while in carcinomas MUC1 was detected in the cytoplasm only (56.3%) or in the cytoplasm with membrane accentuation (43.7%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18948041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2971
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucin-1
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