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1. Gleeson FC, de la Mora Levy JG, Zhang L, Levy MJ: The differential broadens. EUS FNA appearance and cytological findings of pancreatic angiomyolipoma. JOP; 2008;9(1):67-70
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  • [Title] The differential broadens. EUS FNA appearance and cytological findings of pancreatic angiomyolipoma.
  • CONTEXT: Angiomyolipoma is a rare tumor characterized histologically by a mixture of spindle cells, adipose tissue, epithelioid cells, and vascular tissue.
  • It usually involves the kidney followed by the liver whereby the majority of affected patients are female, and many cases arise in the setting of tuberous sclerosis.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 33-year-old female with an asymptomatic incidental right renal mass suggestive of an angiomyolipoma in conjunction with numerous pancreatic masses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The utility of EUS in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors is well established.
  • This is the first known reported EUS detection and FNA confirmation of angiomyolipoma metastatic to the pancreas and should now be added to the already broad differential of metastatic pancreatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / ultrasonography. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18182747.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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2. Nakamura N, Kudo A, Ito K, Tanaka S, Arii S: A hepatic lipoma mimicking angiomyolipoma of the liver: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(9):825-8
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  • [Title] A hepatic lipoma mimicking angiomyolipoma of the liver: report of a case.
  • Lipoma of the liver is extremely rare.
  • This report presents a case of lipoma of the liver mimicking angiomyolipoma.
  • Radiological examinations (computed tomography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging) showed a well-defined mass, which was finally diagnosed to be located in the left part of the caudate lobe of the liver, containing two spotty enhanced nodules within the tumor.
  • These were diagnosed to be either lipoma or angiomyolipoma of the liver.
  • The cut surface of the specimen showed an encapsulated, homogeneous, yellowish tumor consisting of mature adipose tissue, which was diagnosed as lipoma of the liver.
  • Therefore, the final diagnosis was lipoma of the liver, which is an extremely rare benign liver tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19779784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Bilbao I, Castro E, Dopazo C, Castro S, Allende E, Genesca J, Tallada N, Quiroga S, Margarit C: [Hepatic angiomyolipoma in two patients infected with hepatitis C virus]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Apr;30(4):222-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hepatic angiomyolipoma in two patients infected with hepatitis C virus].
  • AIM: The aim of this study is to present our experience with two cases of hepatic angiomyolioma in hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive patients, and to up-date the clinical manage, diagnostic and treatment of this entity.
  • Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical findings gave the diagnosis of angiomyolipoma.
  • At time of diagnosis the size of tumours was 4.8 and 8 cm of diameter.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, mimicking other liver tumours.
  • Although no patognomonic features, there are some radiological findings that point out to the diagnosis of angiomy olipoma.
  • Nevertheless, definitive diagnosis is done by his tological and immunohistochemical findings (HMB-45).
  • The hepatic angiomyolipoma consists of varing proportion of three elements, mature fat cells, smooth muscle cells and blood vessels.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / complications. Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipocytes / pathology. Antigens, Neoplasm. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Comorbidity. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17408551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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4. Dumortier J, Guillaud O, Walter T, Ber CE, Partensky C, Boillot O, Scoazec JY: Liver transplantation for multiple angiomyolipomas complicating tuberous sclerosis complex. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2010 Sep;34(8-9):494-8
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for multiple angiomyolipomas complicating tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by widespread hamartomas in several organs, including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, lung, and liver.
  • Hepatic multiple, bilateral angiomyolipomas are a rare and usually asymptomatic complication in patients with tuberous sclerosis.
  • We report here the case of a patient who needed liver transplantation because of debilitating manifestations and mechanical complications of massive liver involvement by multiple angiomyolipomas (severe malnutrition, anorexia and abdominal pain).
  • Seventeen tumors, from 2 to 16 cm in diameter, were identified at examination of the liver explant.
  • In conclusion, this unusual indication of liver transplantation underlines the interest of this therapeutic approach for benign tumors for which the multiplicity of the lesions and their huge volume prevent any attempt at surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications


5. Catalano O, Cusati B, Nunziata A, Siani A: Active abdominal bleeding: contrast-enhanced sonography. Abdom Imaging; 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):9-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Angiomyolipoma / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / radiography. Kidney Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Liver / injuries. Liver / ultrasonography. Male. Phospholipids. Spleen / injuries. Spleen / ultrasonography. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Tomography, Spiral Computed

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  • (PMID = 16317492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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6. Pompili G, Zirpoli S, Sala C, Flor N, Alfano RM, Volpi A, Brancaccio D, Sardanelli F, Cornalba G: Magnetic resonance imaging of renal involvement in genetically studied patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Nov;72(2):335-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tuberous Sclerosis / diagnosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / genetics


7. Yang B, Chen WH, Shi PZ, Xiang JJ, Xu RJ, Liu JH: Coincidence of hepatocelluar carcinoma and hepatic angiomyolipomas in tuberous sclerosis complex: a case report. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Feb 7;14(5):812-4
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  • [Title] Coincidence of hepatocelluar carcinoma and hepatic angiomyolipomas in tuberous sclerosis complex: a case report.
  • Unlike the common development of renal angiomyolipoma, hepatic angiomyolipoma rarely occur in patients with TSC.
  • We report here a patient with hepatic angiomyolipomas and concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in TSC.
  • In this patient, multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas were diagnosed with recognition of their fat components and typical clinical settings.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma in the left liver lobe was definitely diagnosed by US guided biopsy.
  • In such clinical settings, fat containing lesions in liver can be reasonably treated as angiomyolipomas, but non fat containing lesions must be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, imaging guided biopsy can be adopted to confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Tuberous Sclerosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18205279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2684016
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8. Li R, Guo Y, Hua X, He Y, Ding J, Guo A, Luo M: Characterization of focal liver lesions: comparison of pulse-inversion harmonic contrast-enhanced sonography with contrast-enhanced CT. J Clin Ultrasound; 2007 Mar-Apr;35(3):109-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of focal liver lesions: comparison of pulse-inversion harmonic contrast-enhanced sonography with contrast-enhanced CT.
  • PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of contrast-enhanced pulse-inversion harmonic sonography for the characterization of focal liver lesions with that of contrast-enhanced helical CT.
  • METHODS: Real-time contrast-enhanced sonography (CEUS) using Sonovue and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) were performed on 109 patients with focal liver lesions, including 61 hepatocellular carcinomas, 15 liver metastases, 5 cholangiocellular carcinomas, 12 hemangiomas, 5 regenerative nodules, 3 adenomas, 3 focal nodular hyperplasias, 4 focal necroses, and 1 angiomyolipoma prior to surgery or percutaneous needle biopsy.
  • CONCLUSION: Real-time pulse-inversion harmonic CEUS with Sonovue is comparable with CECT in the characterization of focal liver lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Iohexol / analogs & derivatives. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Phospholipids. Prospective Studies. Research Design. Sulfur Hexafluoride

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17295272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0091-2751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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9. Nguyen TT, Gorman B, Shields D, Goodman Z: Malignant hepatic angiomyolipoma: report of a case and review of literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):793-8
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  • [Title] Malignant hepatic angiomyolipoma: report of a case and review of literature.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma, a constituent of the group of tumors showing differentiation resembling perivascular epithelioid cells, is primarily appreciated in its benign form.
  • Here, we present a case of malignant hepatic perivascular epithelioid cells that was initially confined to the liver, treated by resection, and subsequently recurred within and metastasized beyond the liver.
  • We take this opportunity to report the fourth case of malignant hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) and review the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18391749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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10. Luo DL, Liu YH, Zhuang HG, Luo XL: [Tumors showing perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation: a clinicopathologic study of 39 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Nov 6;87(41):2909-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: The clinicopathologic data of 39 cases pf angiomyolipoma (AML), 17 males and 22 females, with the primary focus in the kidney on 30 cases, in the liver in 4 cases, in the lung, uterus and broad ligament, abdominal wall, retroperitoneum, and nasal cavity in 1 case respectively, were analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Desmin / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nose Neoplasms / metabolism. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18261305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Desmin; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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11. Carloni A, Tranchart H, Beauthier V, Mas AE, Dagher I, Dumas De La Roque A, Landau A, Franco D: [Symptomatic hepatic angiomyolipoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 May;31(5):555-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Symptomatic hepatic angiomyolipoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17541350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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12. Akitake R, Kimura H, Sekoguchi S, Nakamura H, Seno H, Chiba T, Fujimoto S: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the liver diagnosed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Intern Med; 2009;48(24):2083-6
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the liver diagnosed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.
  • Perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) is a unique cell which expresses both myogenic and melanocytic markers, and forms PEComa.
  • A 36-year-old woman presented with a 35 mm-diameter liver tumor.
  • Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using the newly developed enhancing reagent, Sonazoid, clearly demonstrated early-phase enhancement of the tumor and rapid drainage of the reagent to veins, suggesting a PEComa.
  • Lateral segmentectomy of the liver was performed.
  • Histologically, epithelioid tumor cells around the vessels were immunostained with both HMB-45 and alpha-smooth muscle actin, confirming the diagnosis of PEComa.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20009396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Ferric Compounds; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Sonazoid; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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13. Li R, Zhang X, Hua X, Cai P, Zhong H, Guo Y, Ding S, Yan X: Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of resected and immunohistochemically proven hepatic angiomyolipomas. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Dec;35(6):676-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of resected and immunohistochemically proven hepatic angiomyolipomas.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in patients with hepatic angiomyolipomas with respect to contrast-enhancing kinetics and enhancement patterns.
  • All the 19 tumors were surgically resected and immunohistochemically proven sporadic hepatic angiomyolipomas.
  • Two lesions (10.5%) were detected inhomogeneously hypoenhancement compared to liver parenchyma during arterial, portal, and late phases, with only punctiform internal enhancement.
  • Early strong enhancement in arterial phase, rapid washout of contrast agent, and appear hypoechoic to surrounding liver tissue during portal or late phase was not at all observed.
  • CONCLUSION: Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can demonstrate typical imaging characteristics of hepatic angiomyolipomas in most cases, that is, inhomogeneous hyperenhancing pattern in arterial phase, prolonged hyperenhancement during portal and late phase with smooth and well-defined margin.
  • This real-time dynamic imaging technique may therefore improve noninvasive characterization and differentiation of this rare, benign, hepatic mesenchymal neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20020286.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol; 712BAC33MZ / iopromide; 84F6U3J2R6 / gadodiamide; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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14. Zheng RQ, Kudo M: Hepatic angiomyolipoma: identification of an efferent vessel to be hepatic vein by contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound. Br J Radiol; 2005 Oct;78(934):956-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma: identification of an efferent vessel to be hepatic vein by contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound.
  • We report two patients with rare hepatic angiomyolipoma and demonstrate the special tumour haemodynamics with contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound.
  • This reliably identified the efferent vessel of the hepatic angiomyolipoma to be the hepatic vein in both cases, which corresponded well with that seen on conventional angiography and CT angiography.
  • This haemodynamic finding may be an important characteristic of hepatic angiomyolipoma, and facilitate the differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant hepatic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / blood supply. Hepatic Veins / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16177023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1285
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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15. Takanami K, Kaneta T, Hitachi S, Yamada T, Ishida K, Rikiyama T, Katayose Y, Unno M, Yamada S, Takahashi S: F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in two patients with hepatic angiomyolipoma with and without intratumoral hemorrhage. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Jan;35(1):18-21
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  • [Title] F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in two patients with hepatic angiomyolipoma with and without intratumoral hemorrhage.
  • Two female patients aged 62 and 74 years underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT for evaluation of a large hepatic tumor.
  • Subsequently, both patients underwent a partial hepatectomy which histopathologically revealed benign hepatic angiomyolipomas (AMLs).
  • This report demonstrates that benign hepatic AMLs may demonstrate increased FDG uptake if there is hemorrhage and a related inflammatory response.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Hemorrhage / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20026966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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16. Paradis V: Benign liver tumors: an update. Clin Liver Dis; 2010 Nov;14(4):719-29
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  • [Title] Benign liver tumors: an update.
  • One of the consequences of extensive use of abdominal imaging, and especially liver ultrasonography, is the detection of asymptomatic liver tumors.
  • In the absence of underlying chronic liver disease, the vast majority of these lesions correspond to benign liver tumors including solid and cystic lesions.
  • This article is dedicated to hepatocellular tumors and also addresses hemangiomas as the most common benign liver tumors, and angiomyolipomas as a rare tumor often misdiagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Liver Cell / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21055692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8224
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in liver disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Lhommel R, Annet L, Bol A, Gigot JF, Sempoux C, Mathieu I, Seret M, Lonneux M: PET scan with 11C-acetate for the imaging of liver masses: report of a false positive case. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2005 May;32(5):629
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  • [Title] PET scan with 11C-acetate for the imaging of liver masses: report of a false positive case.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetates. Angiomyolipoma / diagnostic imaging. Carbon. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnostic imaging. Liver / diagnostic imaging. Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • [Cites] J Nucl Med. 2003 Feb;44(2):213-21 [12571212.001]
  • [Cites] J Nucl Med. 1992 Mar;33(3):333-9 [1311035.001]
  • [Cites] J Nucl Med. 1989 Sep;30(9):1489-99 [2788722.001]
  • (PMID = 15549295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / carbon-11 acetate; 7440-44-0 / Carbon
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18. Tokunaga Y, Sasaki H, Matsueda S, Kawasahi T, Saito T: Clinical role of laparoscopic hepatectomy using vessel sealer and soft coagulation for small hepatic tumors suspected of malignancy. Hepatogastroenterology; 2009 Nov-Dec;56(96):1714-8
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  • [Title] Clinical role of laparoscopic hepatectomy using vessel sealer and soft coagulation for small hepatic tumors suspected of malignancy.
  • To date, however, few reports have been published on a clinical usefulness of laproscopic hepatectomy using vessel sealer (VS) and soft-coagulation system (SC) for small hepatic tumors suspected of malignancy.
  • METHODOLOGY: Case 1; A 58-year-old man presented with a small hepatic tumor, detected during a medical examination.
  • Image sutdies including ultrasonography, magnetic resonance image and angiography suspected it as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), adenoma, angiomyolipoma, or focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH).
  • Histopathological diagnosis was FNH.
  • Case 2; A 57-year-old man presented with a small hepatic tumor, detected during a medical examination.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was HCC.
  • Case 3; A 59-year old man with a history of early colon cancer presented with a small hepatic tumor, detected during a routine check-up.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma.
  • Glisson's trunk and the left hepatic vain were transected with endo-linear staplers.
  • DISCUSSIONS: It has been difficult to obtain a biopsy specimen from small lesions and make a denifite diagnosis even with the specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic hepatectomy using VS and SC may be a less invasive and radical treatment as well as an useful diagnostic modality for small hepatic tumors suspected of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20214223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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19. Zhang X, Yan SX, Xiao WB, Pan Y, Xu SL: [Correlation between pathology and imaging characteristics of hepatic agiomyolipoma]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2007 Jan;36(1):88-92
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  • [Title] [Correlation between pathology and imaging characteristics of hepatic agiomyolipoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss CT and MRI characteristics of hepatic angiomyolipoma based on pathological findings.
  • METHODS: The CT and MRI appearances with related pathohistological subtypes of 11 hepatic angiomyolipomas from 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULT: Ten patients with hepatic angiomyolipomas were subcategorized into lipomatous (3 cases), angiomatous (1 case), myomatous (1 case) and mixed (5 cases) subtypes.
  • CONCLUSION: The discrete CT and MRI appearances of hepatic angiomyolipomas with different pathological subtypes depend on the components of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17290498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-9292
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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20. Shi H, Cao D, Wei L, Sun L, Guo A: Inflammatory angiomyolipomas of the liver: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 5 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Aug;14(4):240-6
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  • [Title] Inflammatory angiomyolipomas of the liver: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 5 cases.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) may demonstrate a marked histologic diversity.
  • We report 5 cases of hepatic AML exhibiting prominent inflammatory cells in the background (inflammatory AML).
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20637427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Fang SH, Zhou LN, Jin M, Hu JB: Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver: a report of two cases and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Nov 7;13(41):5537-9
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  • [Title] Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver: a report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare tumor which arises from mesenchymal tissues.
  • It is predominant in the uterus, but very rare in the liver.
  • To the best of our knowledge, less than 5 cases of PEComa of the liver have been reported.
  • Herein we present two pathologically proven cases of PEComa of the liver, retrospectively analyze their clinical and imaging features, and review the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] World J Gastroenterol. 2008 May 21;14(19):3105 [18494070.001]
  • (PMID = 17907305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4171296
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22. Hornick JL, Fletcher CD: Sclerosing PEComa: clinicopathologic analysis of a distinctive variant with a predilection for the retroperitoneum. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Apr;32(4):493-501
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  • [Title] Sclerosing PEComa: clinicopathologic analysis of a distinctive variant with a predilection for the retroperitoneum.
  • PEComas (tumors showing perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation) are a family of mesenchymal neoplasms that include angiomyolipoma, clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung, lymphangiomyomatosis, and a group of uncommon lesions that arise in soft tissue, visceral organs, and skin.
  • We describe a distinctive variant of PEComa that shows extensive stromal hyalinization, a feature not previously described in these tumors.
  • Thirteen PEComas with extensive stromal hyalinization were identified from a total of 70 cases of PEComa received between 1996 and 2006 (19%).
  • One patient (whose tumor showed transition to high-grade malignant morphology) developed metastases to lung, liver, and abdominal wall.
  • Sclerosing PEComa is a distinctive variant with a predilection for the pararenal retroperitoneum of middle-aged women.

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  • (PMID = 18223480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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23. Nakashima A, Murakami Y, Uemura K, Hayashidani Y, Sudo T, Hashimoto Y, Arihiro K, Sueda T: Hepatic angiomyolipoma: a case report. Hiroshima J Med Sci; 2010 Mar;59(1):17-9
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma: a case report.
  • We experienced a rare case of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML).
  • A 66-year old Japanese female presented inhomogeneous echogenic lesion in the lateral segment of the liver on ultrasonography.
  • Selective hepatic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) showed the lesion to be inhomogeneously hypervascular, supplied via branches of the left hepatic artery.
  • Morphological pattern and immunophenotype were consistent with hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20518257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-2052
  • [Journal-full-title] Hiroshima journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hiroshima J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Brodkiewicz A, Marciniak H, Szychot E, Walecka A, Peregud-Pogorzelski J: Angiomyolipomas, renal manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex in 17-year-old boy--a case report. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2008;54(2):160-5
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  • INTRODUCTION: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder characterised by lesions affecting brain, skin, eyes and internal organs--kidneys, heart, liver and lungs.
  • CASE REPORT: A case of 17-year-old boy with delayed diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex with angiomyolipomas and cysts of the kidneys has been described.
  • CONCLUSION: The authors would like to underlina a very rare incidence of tuberous sclerosis complex and associated renal angiomyolipomas in children, the possibility to maintain normal kidney function for prolonged time despite intensified renal pathology, the need for periodic abdominal imaging and significantly delayed diagnosis in the described case.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tuberous Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Polycystic Kidney Diseases / complications. Polycystic Kidney Diseases / diagnosis


25. Jiang TA, Zhao QY, Chen MY, Wang LJ, Ao JY: Diagnostic analysis of hepatic angiomyolipoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2005 Feb;4(1):152-5
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  • [Title] Diagnostic analysis of hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare tumor containing a variable amount of fat, vessels and smooth muscle.
  • RESULTS: A huge heterogeneous hyperecho mass with anecho and hypoecho areas inside was found in the left hepatic lobe on ultrasonography.
  • CT scan showed a huge heterogeneous solid mass in the left lobe of the liver, with a low density and hypervascular area in arterial phase.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnosis of HAML relies on combination of CT, MRI and ultrasonography.
  • Ultrasound-guided biopsy combined with morphological manifestation and specimen examination for HMB-45 may be helpful in the diagnosis of HAML.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15730942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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26. Marsilia GM, Boscaino A, La Mura A, Ceriello A, De Ritis R: Hepatic angiomyolipoma and intramural small intestinal schwannoma: a coincidence or a relationship? Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;18(6):537-9
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma and intramural small intestinal schwannoma: a coincidence or a relationship?
  • We report a case of hepatic angiomyolipoma associated to a small bowel schwannoma in a 40-years old woman.
  • Histologically, hepatic angiomyolipoma showed oncocytic features and scanty adipose tissue, the tumor cells expressed desmin, smooth muscle actin, S-100 protein and HMB45.
  • To the best of our knowledge, no case of hepatic angiomyolipoma has been previously reported in association with intestinal schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19282295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Ramaiah S, Ganesan R, Mangham DC, McNally O, Klys HS, Hirschowitz L: Malignant variant of sclerosing perivascular epithelioid cell tumor arising in the adnexa. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Nov;28(6):589-93
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  • The perivascular epithelioid cell family of tumors (PEComas) includes angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear-cell "sugar" tumor of the lung and a variety of extrapulmonary epithelioid and spindle-cell tumors referred to by various names.
  • However, a distinctive variant of PEComa, designated "sclerosing PEComa," has only recently been described in the literature.
  • All 13 of the cases of sclerosing PEComa reported thus far have been in women (mean age of 49 y), with a predilection for the retroperitoneum.
  • We report the first case of sclerosing PEComa arising in the uterine adnexa, with high-grade malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Cholecystectomy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Parkinson Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 19851212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Fioole B, Kokke M, van Hillegersberg R, Rinkes IH: Adequate symptom relief justifies hepatic resection for benign disease. BMC Surg; 2005;5:7
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  • [Title] Adequate symptom relief justifies hepatic resection for benign disease.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of partial liver resection for benign liver lesions.
  • METHODS: All patients operated on for benign liver lesions from 1991 to 2002 were included.
  • The diagnosis was haemangioma in 8 patients, FNH in 6, HCA in 13 and angiomyolipoma in 1.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term follow up after liver surgery for benign liver lesions shows considerable symptom relief and patient satisfaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / surgery. Hemangioma / surgery. Liver / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 15804352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2482
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1087495
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29. Moench C, Burck I, Bug R, Bak YJ, Richter B, Schroeder R, Klarner A, Strey CW, Vogl T, Bechstein W: [Hepatic angiomyolipoma--a rare liver tumor]. Z Gastroenterol; 2008 Jan;46(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Hepatic angiomyolipoma--a rare liver tumor].
  • A 22-year-old woman was treated for a hepatic lesion with a high suspicion of a liver adenoma at another hospital.
  • A biopsy of the liver lesion revealed hepatic adenoma.
  • On MRI scan, the liver mass measured 10 x 9 x 9 cm in the right liver lobe with contact to the right hilum.
  • Because of the histological signs of adenoma a right hepatic lobectomy was performed.
  • The pathological diagnosis of hepatic angiomyolipoma was obtained.
  • Angiomyolipoma of the liver is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour often mimicking other hepatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma. Liver Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 18188817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Kim KA, Kim KW, Park SH, Jang SJ, Park MS, Kim PN, Lee MG, Ha HK: Unusual mesenchymal liver tumors in adults: radiologic-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Nov;187(5):W481-9
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  • [Title] Unusual mesenchymal liver tumors in adults: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to review a broad spectrum of mesenchymal liver tumors in adults and present their cross-sectional imaging characteristics including radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • CONCLUSION: Cross-sectional imaging findings of mesenchymal liver tumors in adults are varied and some may overlap with others or even with more common malignant epithelial tumors.
  • However, in some cases, their appearances at cross-sectional imaging studies may reflect characteristic abnormalities that suggest a specific diagnosis.
  • Therefore, familiarity with the radiologic findings of mesenchymal liver tumors and understanding their pathological background is important for increasing the accuracy of radiologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Female. Hamartoma / pathology. Hamartoma / radiography. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / pathology. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / radiography. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / radiography. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / radiography. Humans. Liver Diseases / pathology. Liver Diseases / radiography. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiography. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / pathology. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / radiography. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17056878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Nonomura A, Enomoto Y, Takeda M, Tamura T, Kasai T, Yosikawa T, Nakamime H: Invasive growth of hepatic angiomyolipoma; a hitherto unreported ominous histological feature. Histopathology; 2006 Jun;48(7):831-5
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  • [Title] Invasive growth of hepatic angiomyolipoma; a hitherto unreported ominous histological feature.
  • AIMS: Although histological features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) are highly variable, true malignant change is extremely rare.
  • The aim was to review the histological features of invasive growth and clinical outcomes in 39 cases of hepatic AML.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: An invasive growth pattern into surrounding hepatic parenchyma, portal triads and/or around hepatic veins was found in 24 of 39 tumours (62%).
  • One variant showed tumour cells replacing hepatocytes within the liver cell cords.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A previously unrecognized histological feature of an invasive growth pattern, which suggests malignancy and might promote an erroneous diagnosis, was frequently found in hepatic AMLs.
  • However, among about 180 reported hepatic AMLs, including the present cases, only one hepatic AML with distant metastasis has been reported to date and nearly all hepatic AMLs behave in a benign fashion.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16722932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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32. Wajed JR, Taylor-Robinson SD, Jackson JE, Stamp GW: Retroperitoneal haemorrhage in renal angiomyolipoma causing hepatic functional decompensation: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2007;1:82
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal haemorrhage in renal angiomyolipoma causing hepatic functional decompensation: a case report.
  • Prophylactic embolisation may be considered in some cases, depending on lesion size and patient co-morbidities.We present a case of retroperitoneal bleeding from a renal angiomyolipoma in a patient with known cirrhosis of the liver, which caused acute deterioration of liver function and consequent hepatic encephalopathy.
  • Such functional hepatic decompensation has not previously been reported in this context and we suggest the use of prophylactic embolisation for incidental renal angiomyolipomata, regardless of size, in all patients with chronic liver disease to prevent this potentially life-threatening complication.

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  • [Cites] J R Soc Med. 1999 Aug;92(8):414-5 [10656013.001]
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  • (PMID = 17822527.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2014766
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33. Terkivatan T, Hussain SM, De Man RA, Ijzermans JN: Diagnosis and treatment of benign focal liver lesions. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl; 2006;(243):102-15
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of benign focal liver lesions.
  • BACKGROUND: With the routine use of improved imaging modalities, more benign liver lesions are detected nowadays.
  • METHODS: A Medline search of studies relevant to imaging diagnosis and management of the most common, benign, solid and non-solid liver lesions was undertaken.
  • The authors' own experiences with benign liver lesions were also taken into account.
  • The use of tissue-specific contrast media, which has clearly improved the accuracy of highly advanced radiological techniques, may be helpful during differential diagnosis.
  • Once having established an accurate diagnosis, surgery is rarely indicated for a benign liver lesion because of its asymptomatic nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Liver Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma, Liver Cell / therapy. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Echinococcosis, Hepatic / diagnosis. Echinococcosis, Hepatic / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hamartoma / diagnosis. Hamartoma / therapy. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / therapy. Hepatectomy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16782629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-5928
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 144
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34. Gupta C, Malani AK, Gupta V, Singh J, Ammar H: Metastatic retroperitoneal epithelioid angiomyolipoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):428-31
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  • [Title] Metastatic retroperitoneal epithelioid angiomyolipoma.
  • Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare benign neoplasm that usually arises in the kidneys, but may rarely originate in sites such as the retroperitoneum, liver and bone.
  • Histological variants of AML such as epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) are considered to be locally aggressive.
  • A unique case of an EAML of the retroperitoneum that metastasised to the liver and bone in an 80-year-old woman is described.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17405979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001107
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35. Pan CC, Chung MY, Ng KF, Liu CY, Wang JS, Chai CY, Huang SH, Chen PC, Ho DM: Constant allelic alteration on chromosome 16p (TSC2 gene) in perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa): genetic evidence for the relationship of PEComa with angiomyolipoma. J Pathol; 2008 Feb;214(3):387-93
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  • [Title] Constant allelic alteration on chromosome 16p (TSC2 gene) in perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa): genetic evidence for the relationship of PEComa with angiomyolipoma.
  • Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas) are a family of tumours including classic angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and clear epithelioid cell tumours reported under a variety of names such as epithelioid angiomyolipoma, pulmonary and extrapulmonary clear cell sugar tumour, and PEComa.
  • We collected ten sporadic and two tuberous sclerosis complex-associated PEComas, as well as 14 sporadic classic hepatic and renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) as controls.
  • The incidence of genetic aberrations was significantly higher in the PEComa group.
  • Only one PEComa showed LOH at the TSC1 locus.
  • Our observations of frequent deletion of TSC2 and the mTOR signalling pathway provide evidence that the oncogenetic lineage of PEComa, as a distinct TSC2-linked neoplasm, is similar to that of angiomyolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alleles. Case-Control Studies. Child. Chromosome Mapping. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Protein Kinases / genetics. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases


36. Parfitt JR, Bella AJ, Izawa JI, Wehrli BM: Malignant neoplasm of perivascular epithelioid cells of the liver. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Aug;130(8):1219-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant neoplasm of perivascular epithelioid cells of the liver.
  • Although this group includes entities with distinct clinical features, such as angiomyolipoma, clear cell sugar tumor of the lung, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, similar tumors have been documented in an increasing diversity of locations.
  • The term PEComa is now generally used in reference to these lesions that are not angiomyolipomas, clear cell sugar tumors, or lymphangioleiomyomatoses.
  • We present a case of hepatic PEComa with benign histologic features, which nonetheless presented with metastases to multiple sites nearly 9 years later.
  • This case represents the second documented malignant PEComa of the liver, as well as the longest follow-up of a surviving patient with a malignant PEComa, emphasizing both the need for criteria that more accurately predict the behavior of PEComas and the necessity of long-term follow-up of patients with PEComas.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Liver / blood supply. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16879028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Green DE, Woodward PJ: The management of indeterminate incidental findings detected at abdominal CT. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2005 Feb;26(1):2-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Some of these findings can be characterized without additional imaging (including simple renal cyst, angiomyolipoma, hepatic steatosis).
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Abdominal Neoplasms / therapy. Digestive System Diseases / diagnosis. Digestive System Diseases / therapy. Incidental Findings. Radiography, Abdominal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aortic Aneurysm / diagnosis. Aortic Aneurysm / therapy. Cysts / diagnosis. Cysts / therapy. Digestive System / radiography. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15771259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2171
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Ultrasound CT MR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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38. Micozkadioglu H, Koc Z, Ozelsancak R, Yildiz I: Rapamycin therapy for renal, brain, and skin lesions in a tuberous sclerosis patient. Ren Fail; 2010;32(10):1233-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited multisystem disorder; it may involve kidney, brain, skin, lungs, and liver.
  • Imaging results showed reduction in tumor and angiomyolipoma volumes.


39. Lee CH, Kim JH, Yang DH, Hwang Y, Kang MJ, Kim YK, Lee MR: Ileal angiomyolipoma manifested by small intestinal intussusception. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Mar 21;15(11):1398-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ileal angiomyolipoma manifested by small intestinal intussusception.
  • Extra-renal AMLs are very rare and are most commonly found in the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19294773.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2658844
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40. Uneda N, Imamura H, Tada S, Kamikawa K, Kudo K, Chikazawa H, Miyase S, Suko H, Hirota K, Urata J, Mitsuzaki K, Kamio T: [A patient with an angiomyolipoma of the liver in whom the course of enlargement could be confirmed]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Sep;105(9):1375-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A patient with an angiomyolipoma of the liver in whom the course of enlargement could be confirmed].
  • In the liver, a high-echo phyma was detected.
  • However, angiography revealed early outflow to the hepatic vein.
  • Hepatectomy was performed, suggesting angiomyolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18772579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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41. Majid S, White D, Sarkar S: An unusual cause for the incidental finding of multiple liver lesions. Diagnosis: multiple fatty vascular lesions of angiomyolipomas. Gut; 2006 Jul;55(7):983, 1029
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  • [Title] An unusual cause for the incidental finding of multiple liver lesions. Diagnosis: multiple fatty vascular lesions of angiomyolipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Fatty Liver / radiography. Liver / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 16766752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1856355
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42. Zeng JP, Dong JH, Zhang WZ, Wang J, Pang XP: Hepatic angiomyolipoma: a clinical experience in diagnosis and treatment. Dig Dis Sci; 2010 Nov;55(11):3235-40
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma: a clinical experience in diagnosis and treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare mesenchyme-derived neoplasm often misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma, and the treatment for it remains controversial.
  • AIMS: To develop the optimal preoperative diagnoses means and treatment modalities of hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the clinical features, treatment, and prognostic data of 17 hepatic AML patients admitted to Chinese People's Liberation Army Generation Hospital between 1996 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: Most hepatic angiomyolipoma were solitary.
  • All of the 17 patients finally received various liver resection procedures, and postoperative mortality and morbidity was 0 and 12% (2/17).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic angiomyolipoma should be suspected in liver tumor patients with normal α-fetoprotein levels and no concomitant hepatitis.
  • Small hepatic AML proved through pathologic examination (<5 cm) may be managed by observation with close follow-up, but surgery is indicated in patients suffering from large tumors or significantly larger tumors during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20165978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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43. Hashimoto Y, Chayama K: [Angiomyolipoma]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Feb;107(2):285-6, 288
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  • [Title] [Angiomyolipoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20380077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Machado MA, Makdissi FF, Surjan RC, Oliveira AC, Pilla VF, Teixeira AR: Intrahepatic Glissonian approach for laparoscopic right trisectionectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2009 Dec;19(6):777-8; discussion 778-9
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  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19961367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9034
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Bissler JJ, McCormack FX, Young LR, Elwing JM, Chuck G, Leonard JM, Schmithorst VJ, Laor T, Brody AS, Bean J, Salisbury S, Franz DN: Sirolimus for angiomyolipoma in tuberous sclerosis complex or lymphangioleiomyomatosis. N Engl J Med; 2008 Jan 10;358(2):140-51
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  • [Title] Sirolimus for angiomyolipoma in tuberous sclerosis complex or lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • METHODS: We conducted a 24-month, nonrandomized, open-label trial to determine whether sirolimus reduces the angiomyolipoma volume in patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • The mean (+/-SD) angiomyolipoma volume at 12 months was 53.2+/-26.6% of the baseline value (P<0.001) and at 24 months was 85.9+/-28.5% of the baseline value (P=0.005).
  • At 24 months, five patients had a persistent reduction in the angiomyolipoma volume of 30% or more.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / complications. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Female. Humans. Kidney Diseases / pathology. Liver Diseases / pathology. Lung / diagnostic imaging. Lung / physiopathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Radiography. Respiratory Function Tests. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases


46. Erkiliç S, Koçer NE, Mumbuç S, Kanlikama M: Nasal angiomyolipoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2005 Apr;125(4):446-8
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  • [Title] Nasal angiomyolipoma.
  • AML occurs most frequently in the kidneys, with the liver being the second commonest site of involvement.
  • In conclusion, although nasal AML is a rare lesion, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of polypoid nasal masses, especially when the mass occurs unilaterally.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Nasal Polyps / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Nasal Obstruction / diagnosis. Nasal Obstruction / pathology. Nasal Obstruction / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15823821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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47. Zhu MH: [Trends in pathology research of liver tumors]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Nov;36(11):721-2
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  • [Title] [Trends in pathology research of liver tumors].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / virology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / virology. Hepatitis B. Hepatitis C. Humans. Pathology, Clinical / trends

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  • (PMID = 18307872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] China
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48. Lu HC, Chau GY, Su CW: Clinical challenges and images in GI. Diagnosis: Hepatic angiomyolipoma mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology; 2009 Apr;136(4):1169, 1464
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  • [Title] Clinical challenges and images in GI. Diagnosis: Hepatic angiomyolipoma mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiography. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatic Artery / radiography. Humans. Mesenteric Arteries / radiography. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19254682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Carelli S, Lesma E, Paratore S, Grande V, Zadra G, Bosari S, Di Giulio AM, Gorio A: Survivin expression in tuberous sclerosis complex cells. Mol Med; 2007 Mar-Apr;13(3-4):166-77
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  • Angiomyolipomas are abdominal masses made up of muscle vessels and adipose tissues that grow mostly in proximity to kidneys and liver.
  • This study shows that angiomyolipoma-derived human smooth muscle TSC2-/- cells express the apoptosis inhibitor protein survivin when exposed to IGF-1.
  • The autocrine release of IGF-1 may therefore be a powerful mechanism of survival of the tightly packed cells in the thick-walled vessels of TSC angiomyolipoma and in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Gene Expression. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / metabolism. Tuberous Sclerosis / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism


50. Xiao W, Zhou M, Lou H, Wang Z, Zhang M: Hemodynamic characterization of hepatic angiomyolipoma with least amount of fat evaluated by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Apr;35(2):203-7
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  • [Title] Hemodynamic characterization of hepatic angiomyolipoma with least amount of fat evaluated by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography.
  • The purpose of our study was to describe contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) findings of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) with less lipocyte.
  • We reviewed the MRA findings of five resected lesions of hepatic AML with less lipocyte specimens and found that the efferent vessels of hepatic AMLs were the hepatic veins.
  • This hemodynamic finding may be an important characterization of hepatic AML with less lipocyte, and could distinguish AML from other benign and malignant hepatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19319591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0509
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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51. Petrolla AA, Xin W: Hepatic angiomyolipoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Oct;132(10):1679-82
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare, benign, hepatic mesenchymal neoplasm found in both males and females, and most commonly in adult females.
  • Angiomyolipoma occurs most commonly in the kidneys.
  • The liver represents the second most frequent site of involvement.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipomas are composed of varying amounts of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue, and vessels.
  • The smooth muscle cell component is the most specific to the diagnosis.
  • The differential diagnosis includes hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, leiomyoma, hepatoblastoma, melanoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • The immunohistochemical staining pattern differentiates this lesion from other malignant and benign liver lesions.
  • If the diagnosis of hepatic angiomyolipoma has been made, it can be followed conservatively or surgically resected.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for hepatic angiomyolipoma .
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  • (PMID = 18834230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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52. Low SC, Peh WC, Muttarak M, Cheung HS, Ng IO: Imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipomas. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2008 Apr;52(2):118-23
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  • [Title] Imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipomas.
  • We review the imaging appearances of hepatic angiomyolipomas in patients with and without tuberous sclerosis.
  • Sporadic hepatic angiomyolipomas have a varied appearance because of the inconstant proportion of fat, making confident imaging diagnosis difficult and necessitating biopsy in many cases.
  • In patients with tuberous sclerosis, hepatic angiomyolipomas have a more consistent imaging appearance and, together with other features of the syndrome, can be more easily diagnosed.
  • Preoperative diagnosis helps obviate unnecessary surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver / radiography. Male. Middle Aged. Rare Diseases. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 18373801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-9485
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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53. Yang Y, Song Y, Hong BF: [The use of balloon catheter in surgical treatment of renal angiomyolipoma with a caval thrombus: 1 case report and literature review]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jun 15;45(12):836-8
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  • [Title] [The use of balloon catheter in surgical treatment of renal angiomyolipoma with a caval thrombus: 1 case report and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: To present one cases of the use of balloon catheter in surgical treatment of renal angiomyolipoma involving the renal vein and vena cava as a tumor thrombus and review literatures.
  • A balloon catheter was used to block vena cava under the level of liver vena during the operation.
  • RESULTS: The pathological diagnosis was angiomyolipoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Renal angiomyolipoma with a tumor thrombus should be paid more attention.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Balloon Occlusion. Embolectomy / methods. Embolism / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Liver / blood supply. Liver / pathology. Liver / surgery. Nephrectomy. Vena Cava, Inferior

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  • (PMID = 17845787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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54. Khalbuss WE, Fischer G, Bazooband A: Imprint cytology of epithelioid hepatic angiomyolipoma: mimicry of hepatocellular carcinoma. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):670-2
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  • [Title] Imprint cytology of epithelioid hepatic angiomyolipoma: mimicry of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Molecular Mimicry

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  • (PMID = 17718152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Li R, Zhang XH, Hua X: Unusual sonographic appearance of a huge angiomyolipoma of the liver. J Clin Ultrasound; 2010 Jun;38(5):267-70
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  • [Title] Unusual sonographic appearance of a huge angiomyolipoma of the liver.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare, benign, hepatic mesenchymal neoplasm.
  • We report a case of an extremely large hepatic angiomyolipoma in a 58-year-old woman with unusual sonographic features.
  • The tumor was well demarcated from the surrounding liver and showed a heterogeneous cystic appearance with a thick echogenic rim.
  • The diagnosis of hepatic angiomyolipoma was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver / radiography. Liver / surgery. Liver / ultrasonography. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 20232406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical ultrasound : JCU
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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56. Svajdler M, Bohus P, Goc V, Tkácová V: [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the liver: a case report and review of the literature]. Cesk Patol; 2007 Jan;43(1):18-22
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  • [Title] [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the liver: a case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) pecene: popis prípadu a prehl'ad literatúry.
  • Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is rare entity and has been described only recently.
  • By immunohistochemistry and genetics it belongs to the family of tumours which comprises angiomyolipoma, clear cell "sugar" tumor of lung, lymphangioleiomyomatosis and clear cell myomelanotic tumor of ligamentum falciforme/teres hepatis.
  • We describe an unusual case of hepatic PEComa arising in a 55-year-old woman with previous history of glioblastoma.
  • Histologically the tumor grew in expansive way, and was composed of clear and eosinophilic epithelioid cels, without vascular or lipomatous component characteristic of angiomyolipoma.
  • The main differential diagnosis of hepatic PEComa includes clear cell variant of liver cell adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases of various clear cell carcinomas and metastasis of malignant melanoma.
  • In respect of uncertain biologic potential of PEComa, long term follow up is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology


57. Alatassi H, Sahoo S: Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver with striking giant cell component: fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings of a rare neoplasm. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Mar;37(3):192-4
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  • [Title] Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver with striking giant cell component: fine-needle aspiration biopsy findings of a rare neoplasm.
  • Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a uncommon benign neoplasm of the liver with cyto- and histologic features similar to the more commonly encountered renal AML.
  • Because most liver lesions are first evaluated by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), it is important to distinguish this variant of AML from more common hepatic neoplasms such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or metastatic tumors.
  • Rare reports of epithelioid AML of the liver diagnosed by FNAB are in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19156824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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58. Chen P, Yuan T, Liu H: Hepatic angiomyolipoma mimicking hepatic clear cell carcinoma. J Int Med Res; 2009 Jan-Feb;37(1):257-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma mimicking hepatic clear cell carcinoma.
  • Angiomyolipoma usually involves the kidney and rarely affects the liver.
  • This study reports a case of angiomyolipoma of the liver in a 47-year-old Chinese woman.
  • Imaging showed a small mass in the right liver.
  • The hepatic artery and portal vein were free from invasion.
  • Partial hepatectomy was performed after a tentative diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma of the liver by needle biopsy.
  • Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed angiomyolipoma originating in the liver.
  • To our knowledge this is the first documented case of an angiomyolipoma arising in the liver mimicking hepatic clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / classification. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / classification. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Creatine Kinase / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19215699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
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59. Kamimura K, Oosaki A, Sugahara S, Mori S, Moroda T, Satoh O, Morita T, Kimura K, Kamura T, Nomoto M, Aoyagi Y: Malignant potential of hepatic angiomyolipoma: case report and literature review. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2010 Apr;3(2):104-10
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  • [Title] Malignant potential of hepatic angiomyolipoma: case report and literature review.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) is known as a rare benign tumor with invasive growth.
  • Here in this article, we report a case of hepatic AML which showed a size increase of 175% in 1 year, and portal vein thrombosis detected by angiography.
  • During a follow up of 3 years after a curative hepatic lobectomy, no metastasis or recurrence was seen.
  • Therefore, in this paper, we recommend surgical treatment of hepatic AML in which there is a strong suspicion of portal vein thrombosis.

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  • (PMID = 26190004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HMB-45 / Hepatic angiomyolipoma / Malignant / PEComa / Portal vein thrombosis
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60. Martín Carvajal F, Fernández García FJ, Gómez Modet S, Sánchez Viguera T, Gutstein Feldman D: [Angiomyolipoma of the liver. An uncommon benign liver tumor]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2007 Jan;99(1):57-9
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  • [Title] [Angiomyolipoma of the liver. An uncommon benign liver tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17371139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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61. Elsayes KM, Narra VR, Lewis JS Jr, Brown JJ: Magnetic resonance imaging of adrenal angiomyolipoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2005 Jan-Feb;29(1):80-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging of adrenal angiomyolipoma.
  • Angiomyolipoma is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm that typically occurs in the kidney sporadically or in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Extrarenal angiomyolipomas are uncommon, and the liver is the most common extrarenal site.
  • A case of an angiomyolipoma involving the right adrenal gland in a 49-year-old female patient with tuberous sclerosis is reported.
  • Only 2 cases describing adrenal angiomyolipoma were found in the English literature.
  • Neither of these 2 cases was documented in the radiology literature or discussed the MR features of adrenal angiomyolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 15665688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-8715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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62. Yen YH, Wang JH, Lu SN, Changchien CS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in hepatic angiomyolipoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2005 Jun;24(6):855-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Image Enhancement. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15914690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Wang Z, Xu HX, Xie XY, Xie XH, Kuang M, Xu ZF, Liu GJ, Chen LD, Lin MX, Lu MD: Imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipomas on real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Br J Radiol; 2010 May;83(989):411-8
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  • [Title] Imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipomas on real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).
  • The imaging features of 12 pathologically proven hepatic AML lesions in 10 patients who had undergone baseline ultrasound (BUS) and CEUS examinations were evaluated retrospectively.
  • Before pathological examination with BUS, only 3 (25%) lesions were correctly diagnosed as hepatic AML.
  • Conversely, on CEUS, correct diagnoses were made for 66.8% (8/12) of hepatic AMLs.
  • Therefore, arterial hyperenhancement and subsequent sustained enhancement on CEUS were found in the majority of hepatic AMLs.
  • The combination of BUS and CEUS leads to the correct diagnosis in the majority of hepatic AMLs, and is higher than the success rate achieved by BUS alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • [Cites] Ultraschall Med. 2008 Feb;29(1):28-44 [18270887.001]
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  • (PMID = 19723766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3473573
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64. Wen MC, Jan YJ, Li MC, Wang J, Lin A: Monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver with TFE3 expression. Pathology; 2010 Apr;42(3):300-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Monotypic epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver with TFE3 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / metabolism. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20350230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TFE3 protein, human; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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65. El Jack AK, Tomaszewski JE, Haller DG, Siegelman ES: Metastatic PEComa arising from renal angiomyolipoma: MRI findings. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2007 Jul;26(1):159-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic PEComa arising from renal angiomyolipoma: MRI findings.
  • The perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a neoplasm composed primarily of HMB-45-positive epithelioid cells with a perivascular distribution.
  • We report the MRI features of a metastatic PEComa to the liver that originated within a renal angiomyolipoma (AML).
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17659554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-1807
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Li T, Fan J, Qin LX, Zhou J, Sun HC, Wang L, Ye QH, Qiu SJ, Tang ZY: [A clinicopathologic study of hepatic angiomyolipoma]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Oct 15;47(20):1536-9
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  • [Title] [A clinicopathologic study of hepatic angiomyolipoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis and treatment of hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HAML is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the liver.
  • Definitive diagnosis of HAML depends on the pathohistological findings and HMB-45 positive myoid cell is an important diagnostic marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20092740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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67. Galanski M, Jördens S, Weidemann J: [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of benign liver tumors and tumor-like lesions]. Chirurg; 2008 Aug;79(8):707-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of benign liver tumors and tumor-like lesions].
  • Benign liver tumors and tumor-like lesions cover a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses, varying from dysontogenetic cysts to pseudolesions.
  • Other entities such as adenoma in cirrhotic livers, angiomyolipoma, regenerating nodules or Echinococcus alveolaris cannot be safely diagnosed by imaging and require biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Liver / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity


68. Godara R, Vashist MG, Singla SL, Garg P, Sen J, Mathur SK, Gupta A: Adrenal angiomyolipoma: A rare entity. Indian J Urol; 2007 Jul;23(3):319-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenal angiomyolipoma: A rare entity.
  • Angiomyolipoma is apparently a part of a family of neoplasms that derive from perivascular epitheloid cells.
  • Extrarenal angiomyolipoma is uncommon and the most common extrarenal site is the liver.
  • Only two cases of adrenal angiomyolipoma are reported in English literature.

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  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Jan;54(1):167-71 [16384779.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Pathol. 2005 Oct;58(10):1107-9 [16189161.001]
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  • (PMID = 19718340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-1591
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721616
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adrenal / angiomyolipoma / extrarenal
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69. Hornick JL, Fletcher CD: PEComa: what do we know so far? Histopathology; 2006 Jan;48(1):75-82
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  • [Title] PEComa: what do we know so far?
  • PEComas (tumours showing perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation) are a family of related mesenchymal neoplasms that include angiomyolipoma, lymphangiomyomatosis, clear cell "sugar" tumour of the lung, and a group of rare, morphologically and immunophenotypically similar lesions arising at a variety of visceral and soft tissue sites.
  • This review examines the members of the PEComa family, with an emphasis on lesions arising outside of the kidney, lung and liver, and discusses preliminary evidence for pathological features that might predict malignant behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16359539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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70. Fujii T, Zen Y, Sato Y, Sasaki M, Enomae M, Minato H, Masuda S, Uehara T, Katsuyama T, Nakanuma Y: Podoplanin is a useful diagnostic marker for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):125-30
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  • [Title] Podoplanin is a useful diagnostic marker for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver.
  • However, its expression in non-neoplastic and neoplastic liver tissues has not been well documented.
  • In this study, we examined podoplanin expression in specimens from 10 normal livers and 73 cases of liver tumors: hemangioma (16 cases), epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (9 cases), angiosarcoma (4 cases), angiomyolipoma (7 cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (11 cases), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (11 cases), and metastatic liver cancer (15 cases).
  • We compared levels of podoplanin and other endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, and factor VIII) in liver tumors.
  • In the normal liver, podoplanin was expressed in lymphatic endothelium, nerve fibers, and mesothelium in the hepatic capsule, but not observed in any cells within hepatic lobules.
  • Among liver tumors, podoplanin was specifically expressed in seven of nine cases (78%) of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma but not in other hepatic tumors.
  • The expression of CD31, CD34, and factor VIII was observed in endothelial cells in all cases of hemangioma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, angiosarcoma, and angiomyolipoma with one exception, a case of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma which was without CD31 expression.
  • In conclusion, podoplanin would be useful as a diagnostic marker for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma in liver tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiomyolipoma / metabolism. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / metabolism. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Endothelium, Lymphatic / metabolism. Endothelium, Lymphatic / pathology. Female. Hemangioma / metabolism. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / metabolism. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18084256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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71. El-Hashemite N, Walker V, Kwiatkowski DJ: Estrogen enhances whereas tamoxifen retards development of Tsc mouse liver hemangioma: a tumor related to renal angiomyolipoma and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 15;65(6):2474-81
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  • [Title] Estrogen enhances whereas tamoxifen retards development of Tsc mouse liver hemangioma: a tumor related to renal angiomyolipoma and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and abdominal angiomyolipoma are related lesions for which there is no authentic animal model.
  • Tsc1+/- and Tsc2+/- mice frequently develop liver hemangioma.
  • We found that the Tsc mouse liver hemangioma are composed predominantly of endothelial cells but with a smooth muscle component, and express HMB45 antigen, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor, similar to lymphangioleiomyomatosis and angiomyolipoma.
  • Estrogen treatment significantly accelerated the development of liver hemangioma in Tsc1+/- female mice, with 91% having liver hemangioma and 55% having severe lesions by 7 months of age.
  • Similarly, an increased frequency and severity of liver hemangiomas was seen in Tsc1+/- males treated with estrogen.
  • These mouse model observations indicate the importance of estrogen signaling in vivo for the growth of tuberous sclerosis lesions, suggesting the possible benefits of tamoxifen therapy for the treatment of angiomyolipoma and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Estradiol / pharmacology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Tamoxifen / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiomyolipoma / genetics. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Animals. Cystadenoma / genetics. Cystadenoma / pathology. Female. Kidney Neoplasms. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / genetics. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / pathology. Mice. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15781664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS24279; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS31535
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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72. Rouquie D, Eggenspieler P, Algayres JP, Béchade D, Camparo P, Baranger B: [Malignant-like angiomyolipoma of the liver: report of one case and review of the literature]. Ann Chir; 2006 May;131(5):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant-like angiomyolipoma of the liver: report of one case and review of the literature].
  • Frequently found in kidney, angiomyolipoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor when diagnosed in the liver and usually benign composed of proliferative blood vessels, fatty tissue and smooth muscle.
  • Final anatomopathologic examination revealed an epithelioïd hepatic angiomyolipoma with signs of malignant behaviour as vascular and lymphatics embolus and invaded left portal vein thrombosis.
  • A review of the literature found only two cases of malignant hepatic angiomyolipoma with fatal issue, however, their incidence must be underrated because of their scarcity and the difficulty of their diagnosis, which needs immunohistochemical confirmation with HMB 45 in particularly.
  • Advances in imaging and anatomopathology in particular with the concept of PEComa (Perivascular-Epithelioïd Cell) as the unifying feature should lead to the recognition of the various variant patterns and cell types.
  • The latter which are important for a correct diagnosis, in order to obtain reliable data about frequency, possible malignant behaviour and therefore consensus management for hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16386232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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73. Strzelczyk JM, Durczynski A, Szymanski D, Jablkowski M, Dworniak D, Sporny S: Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the liver: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(10):916-21
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  • [Title] Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the liver: report of a case.
  • PEComa is very rare mesenchymal neoplasm which is formed by perivascular epithelioid cells and is characterized by dual melanocytic and myoid differentiation.
  • Up to now only a very few cases of PEComa of the liver have been described worldwide.
  • Based on the above findings, a diagnosis of a primary clear cell "sugar" tumor was established.
  • A long-term periodic follow-up is reasonable in all cases presenting with PEComa.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19784736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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74. Lee WJ: [Angiomyolipoma]. Korean J Hepatol; 2008 Mar;14(1):113-5
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  • [Title] [Angiomyolipoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18367865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1738-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Hepatol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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75. Flor N, Sardanelli F, Serantoni S, Brovelli F, Cornalba GP: Low-fat angiomyolipoma of the liver studied with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography. Acta Radiol; 2006 Jul;47(6):543-6
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  • [Title] Low-fat angiomyolipoma of the liver studied with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and multidetector computed tomography.
  • Histopathology demonstrated a hepithelioid angiomyolipoma with a poor fatty component.
  • This diagnosis should always be considered in the presence of a very rapid wash-out after intravenous contrast injection.
  • However, a hepatocellular carcinoma cannot be excluded and the final diagnosis of low-fat angiomyolipoma must be pathologically proved based on immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Phospholipids. Sulfur Hexafluoride. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16875328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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76. Basaran C, Karcaaltincaba M, Akata D, Karabulut N, Akinci D, Ozmen M, Akhan O: Fat-containing lesions of the liver: cross-sectional imaging findings with emphasis on MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Apr;184(4):1103-10
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  • [Title] Fat-containing lesions of the liver: cross-sectional imaging findings with emphasis on MRI.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pictorial essay is to identify different types of liver lesions that contain fat.
  • Cross-sectional imaging findings of fat- or lipid-containing lesions can help in characterizing focal liver lesions.
  • We searched our archive retrospectively and reviewed the literature for fat-containing liver lesions and identified 16 different types.
  • CONCLUSION: These lesions can contain macroscopic fat (i.e., angiomyolipoma, lipoma, liposarcoma, hydatid cyst, lipopeliosis, adrenal rest tumor, pseudolipoma, hepatic teratoma, pericaval fat, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and metastases) or intracellular lipid (i.e., focal steatosis, adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerative nodules, and hepatocellular carcinoma).
  • CT, MRI, and sonographic findings of these lesions can help in characterization by allowing specific diagnosis or narrowing the differential diagnosis of liver lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15788580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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77. Deng YF, Lin Q, Zhang SH, Ling YM, He JK, Chen XF: Malignant angiomyolipoma in the liver: a case report with pathological and molecular analysis. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(12):911-8
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  • [Title] Malignant angiomyolipoma in the liver: a case report with pathological and molecular analysis.
  • Malignant angiomyolipoma (AML) of the liver is rare.
  • A 30-year-old man had developed giant hepatic masses.
  • Microscopically, the periphery of the tumor showed components of classic hepatic AML, but the central region contained atypical epithelioid components with extremely pleomorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei with frequent mitotic figures.
  • Markedly atypical epithelioid cells with vascular invasion, distant metastasis, and fatal outcome were interpreted as malignant characteristics of hepatic AML.
  • It is suggested that large tumor size, pleomorphic nuclei with high proliferation activity, and P53 immunoreactivity may predict the existence of malignant transformation of hepatic AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / genetics. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18723294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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78. Adachi Y, Horie Y, Kitamura Y, Nakamura H, Taniguchi Y, Miwa K, Fujioka S, Nishimura M, Hayashi K: CD1a expression in PEComas. Pathol Int; 2008 Mar;58(3):169-73
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  • Nineteen PEComas were obtained, which included angiomyolipoma of the kidney or liver, lymphangiomyomatosis of the uterus or lung and clear cell sugar tumor of the lung.
  • The present study confirms CD1a expression in many cases of PEComa.

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  • (PMID = 18251780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD1a antigen
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79. Lesma E, Grande V, Ancona S, Carelli S, Di Giulio AM, Gorio A: Anti-EGFR antibody efficiently and specifically inhibits human TSC2-/- smooth muscle cell proliferation. Possible treatment options for TSC and LAM. PLoS One; 2008;3(10):e3558
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  • We previously isolated, from an angiomyolipoma of a TSC2 patient, a homogenous population of smooth muscle-like cells (TSC2(-/-) ASM cells) that have a mutation in the TSC2 gene as well as TSC2 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and consequently, do not produce the TSC2 gene product, tuberin.


80. Curvo-Semedo L, Brito JB, Seco MF, Costa JF, Marques CB, Caseiro-Alves F: The hypointense liver lesion on T2-weighted MR images and what it means. Radiographics; 2010 Jan;30(1):e38
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  • [Title] The hypointense liver lesion on T2-weighted MR images and what it means.
  • The vast majority of focal liver lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images.
  • Rarely, however, hepatic nodules may appear totally or partially hypointense on those images.
  • Although rare, low signal intensity relative to surrounding liver on T2-weighted images may be seen in a wide spectrum of lesions.
  • On fat-suppressed T2-weighted images, nodules with a lipomatous component, such as lipoma, angiomyolipoma, hepatocellular adenoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma may also appear partially or totally hypointense.
  • The conjunction of other MR imaging findings and their integration in the clinical setting may allow a correct diagnosis in a considerable proportion of cases.
  • The aims of this work are to discuss the causes and mechanisms of hypointensity of liver lesions on T2-weighted images and proposing an algorithm for classification that may be useful as a quick reminder for the interested reader.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver / pathology. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19901085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Cindolo L, Berardinelli F, Gidaro S, Schips L: Laparoendoscopic single-site partial nephrectomy without ischemia. J Endourol; 2010 Dec;24(12):1997-2002
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  • Pathologic examination revealed two clear-cell carcinoma, three benign cysts, and one angiomyolipoma (surgical margin positive).
  • Additional trocars should be considered for the hemostatic stitches and for liver retraction.

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  • (PMID = 20964485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Takamura K, Miyake H, Fujii M, Nishi M, Tashiro S, Shimada M: Multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas with a solitary omental angiomyolipoma. J Med Invest; 2005 Aug;52(3-4):218-22
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  • [Title] Multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas with a solitary omental angiomyolipoma.
  • Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare benign tumor that occurs most commonly in the kidney.
  • Lesions in the liver are usually solitary and multiple AMLs of the liver are extremelyrare.
  • Furthermore, extra renal or hepatic AML are rarely found.
  • We report an unusual case of a 34-year-old man with a solitary omental AML and multiple hepatic AMLs.
  • At the age of 34, more than 6 lesions in the liver and an enlarged solitary omental AML were discovered.
  • We describe the first case of a solitary omental AML, which had metastasized, and with more than 6 hepatic AMLs.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Omentum. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16167542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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83. Prasad SR, Wang H, Rosas H, Menias CO, Narra VR, Middleton WD, Heiken JP: Fat-containing lesions of the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2005 Mar-Apr;25(2):321-31
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  • [Title] Fat-containing lesions of the liver: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • Fat-containing tumors of the liver are a heterogeneous group of tumors with characteristic histologic features, variable biologic profiles, and variable imaging findings.
  • Benign liver lesions that contain fat include focal or geographic fatty change (steatosis), pseudolesions due to postoperative packing material (omentum), adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, lipoma, angiomyolipoma, cystic teratoma, hepatic adrenal rest tumor, pseudolipoma of the Glisson capsule, and xanthomatous lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • Malignant liver lesions that can contain fat include hepatocellular carcinoma, primary and metastatic liposarcoma, and hepatic metastases.
  • Identification of fat within a liver lesion can be critical in characterization of the lesion.
  • The imaging characteristics of a lesion coupled with the pattern of intratumoral fatty change are helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatty Liver / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15798052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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84. Song W, Xu Y, Jin ZY, Wang Y: [CT findings of thorax and abdominopelvic with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2008 Apr;30(2):161-4
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  • Nine patients had abnormal abdominopelvic findings: renal and hepatic angiomyolipoma in 1 case, retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma in 6 cases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy in 1 case, and uterine leiomyoma in 1 case.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / diagnosis. Thorax / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18505117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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85. Zheng RQ, Kudo M, Ishikawa E, Chung H, Minami Y, Ogawa C, Sakaguchi Y, Kitano M, Kawasaki T, Maekawa K: Hepatic angiomyolipoma: identification of an efferent vessel as a hepatic vein by contrast-enhanced harmonic sonography. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2005 Dec;32(4):191-6
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma: identification of an efferent vessel as a hepatic vein by contrast-enhanced harmonic sonography.
  • Two cases of hepatic angiomyolipoma were studied by contrast-enhanced harmonic sonography.
  • The special tumor hemodynamics, namely the efferent blood flow of the hepatic angiomyolipoma draining into the hepatic vein, were clearly shown on harmonic imaging, and they corresponded well with those seen on angiography and computed tomography during angiography.
  • Benign hepatic tumors were diagnosed preoperatively in both cases according to the hemodynamic findings.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma was finally identified histologically.
  • The special tumor hemodynamics might be one of the important characteristics of hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • Contrast-enhanced harmonic sonography is useful for the detection of special tumor hemodynamics and may facilitate the differential diagnosis from other hepatic tumors, especially malignant liver tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27277488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; contrast-enhanced sonography / hepatic angiomyolipoma / ultrasound
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86. Yang B, Chen WH, Li QY, Xiang JJ, Xu RJ: Hepatic angiomyolipoma: dynamic computed tomography features and clinical correlation. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 21;15(27):3417-20
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma: dynamic computed tomography features and clinical correlation.
  • AIM: To study the dynamic computed tomography (CT) features of hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients with or without tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).
  • METHODS: The clinical information, CT findings and histopathological results of hepatic AML were analyzed retrospectively in 10 patients.
  • RESULTS: Hepatic AML was prone to occur in female patients (7/10), and most of the patients (8/10) had no specific symptoms.
  • All tumors presented as well-defined, unenveloped nodules in the liver.
  • Six patients with sporadic hepatic AML had a solitary hepatic nodule with a definite fat component.
  • Non-fat components of the hepatic lesions were enhanced earlier and persistently.
  • In four patients with hepatic AML and TSC, most of the nodules were within the peripheral liver.
  • CONCLUSION: Imaging features of hepatic AML are characteristic.
  • Correct diagnosis preoperatively can be made in combination with clinical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma. Liver Neoplasms. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Tuberous Sclerosis

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  • (PMID = 19610144.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712904
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87. Lenci I, Angelico M, Tisone G, Orlacchio A, Palmieri G, Pinci M, Bombardieri R, Curatolo P: Massive hepatic angiomyolipoma in a young woman with tuberous sclerosis complex: significant clinical improvement during tamoxifen treatment. J Hepatol; 2008 Jun;48(6):1026-9
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  • [Title] Massive hepatic angiomyolipoma in a young woman with tuberous sclerosis complex: significant clinical improvement during tamoxifen treatment.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Isolated liver angiomyolipomas (AMLs) occur in about 40% of TSC patients.
  • Since AMLs express estrogen and progesteron receptors we suggest the possible benefits of tamoxifen for the treatment of liver AMLs.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 26-year-old female affected by tuberous sclerosis (TSC2) with cerebral, renal and hepatic involvement admitted to the Liver Unit for severe malnutrition, anorexia and abdominal pain.
  • MRI showed a grossly enlarged liver, causing severe gastric compression.
  • The liver was entirely filled with multiple nodular lesions of different sizes.
  • Liver biopsy showed tumoral tissue with microscopic and ultrastructural features of angiomyolipoma.
  • All liver function tests were repeatedly normal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is to our knowledge the first report in which tamoxifen has been successfully used in a TSC patient with multiple liver angiomyolipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 18436329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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88. Umeoka S, Koyama T, Miki Y, Akai M, Tsutsui K, Togashi K: Pictorial review of tuberous sclerosis in various organs. Radiographics; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(7):e32
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  • The diagnosis is usually established on the basis of diagnostic criteria applied to physical or radiologic findings.
  • Because the classical triad of epilepsy, mental retardation, and adenoma sebaceum is uncommonly seen at clinical examination, radiologic examinations can play an important role in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and in treatment.
  • Cardiac rhabdomyoma, renal angiomyolipoma, and neurologic involvement encompassing cortical or subependymal tubers and white matter abnormalities are the common radiologic findings.
  • Moreover, tuberous sclerosis can involve bone, liver, and the alimentary tract.
  • Familiarity with the clinical and radiologic findings in various organs is crucial in diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Organ Failure / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Tuberous Sclerosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18772274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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89. Rouleau V, Chiche L, Bouvard N, Rousselot P: [An unusual tumor of the liver]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Feb;25(1):71-2
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  • [Title] [An unusual tumor of the liver].
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15981939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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90. Sánchez Pérez B, Suárez Muñoz MA, Aranda Narváez JM, Fernández Aguilar JL, Santoyo Santoyo J: [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver]. Cir Esp; 2009 Mar;85(3):184-6
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  • [Title] [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de celulas epitelioides perivasculares (PEComa) hepático.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19264299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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91. Huang Z, He S, Xiao Z, Wu C, Li C, Chen X: Hepatic angiomyolipoma demonstrating similar imaging characteristics as hepatocellular carcinoma: one case report. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2005;25(5):615-6, 618
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma demonstrating similar imaging characteristics as hepatocellular carcinoma: one case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [Cites] Abdom Imaging. 2002 Mar-Apr;27(2):180-3 [11847577.001]
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  • (PMID = 16463691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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92. Priola AM, Priola SM, Cataldi A, Marci V, Fava C: Acute abdomen as an unusual presentation of hepatic PEComa. A case report. Tumori; 2009 Jan-Feb;95(1):123-8
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  • [Title] Acute abdomen as an unusual presentation of hepatic PEComa. A case report.
  • They are rare mesenchymal tumors and include subtypes with distinct clinical features: angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and clear cell "sugar" tumors of the lung, pancreas and uterus.
  • These hepatic PEComas, different from angiomyolipoma of the liver, pose a clinical, radiological and morphological diagnostic challenge.
  • Liver laboratory tests showed slight elevation of AST, ALT and gamma-GT.
  • The radiological images showed a hemorrhagic mass with some bizarre features in left hepatic lobe, immediately adjacent to the ligamentum teres and falciform ligament.
  • The patient underwent a left hepatic lobectomy.
  • The diagnosis of CCMT was based on histological and immunohistochemical staining.
  • We recommend that all unusual carcinomas and mesenchymal tumors of the liver should be tested for HMB-45: when positive, there is a high likelihood of PEComa.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / complications. Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19366072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Zhou YM, Li B, Xu F, Wang B, Li DQ, Zhang XF, Liu P, Yang JM: Clinical features of hepatic angiomyolipoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2008 Jun;7(3):284-7
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  • [Title] Clinical features of hepatic angiomyolipoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) is a rare hepatic mesenchymal tumor.
  • Pre-operative diagnosis was made in only 3 patients.
  • One patient showed hepatic vessel invasion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pre-operative diagnosis of HAML is difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18522883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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94. Yoshikawa T, Kawamitsu H, Mitchell DG, Ohno Y, Ku Y, Seo Y, Fujii M, Sugimura K: ADC measurement of abdominal organs and lesions using parallel imaging technique. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Dec;187(6):1521-30
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  • In 200 consecutive clinical patients (122 men and 78 women: mean age, 61.9 years), ADCs were calculated for liver (four segments), spleen, pancreas (head, body, tail), gallbladder, renal parenchyma, and back muscle, and then compared to evaluate the reliability of clinical ADC measurements with parallel imaging.
  • Degraded image quality prevented ADC measurement of the left hepatic lobe and pancreas in 7-18 patients.
  • There was no significant difference among ADCs of four liver segments (1.50 +/- 0.24 [SD] x 10(-3) mm2/s - 1.56 +/- 0.31 x 10(-3) mm2/s) and between ADCs of the right and left kidneys (2.65 +/- 0.30 x 10(-3) mm2/s, 2.59 +/- 0.33 x 10(-3) mm2/s).
  • ADC of renal angiomyolipoma was significantly lower than those of renal cell carcinoma and healthy renal parenchyma (p < 0.0005).
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Digestive System / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17114546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Xu HX, Xie XY, Lu MD, Liu GJ, Xu ZF, Liang JY, Chen LD: Unusual benign focal liver lesions: findings on real-time contrast-enhanced sonography. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Feb;27(2):243-54
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  • [Title] Unusual benign focal liver lesions: findings on real-time contrast-enhanced sonography.
  • OBJECTIVE: This presentation aims to provide an overview of the manifestations of some unusual benign focal liver lesions (FLLs) on low-acoustic power contrast-enhanced sonography (CES) with a sulfur hexafluoride contrast agent.
  • The pathologic examinations proved that they were intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma (n = 1), angiomyolipoma (AML; n = 4), lipoma (n = 1), biliary epithelial dysplasia (n = 1), a fungal inflammatory mass (n = 1), tuberculoma (n = 2), an inflammatory pseudotumor (n = 7), sarcoidosis (n = 1), solitary necrotic nodules (n = 2), peliosis hepatis (n = 2), and focal fibrosis after surgery (n = 4).
  • RESULTS: Contrast-enhanced sonography was beneficial in leading to a diagnosis of benignity for some lesions showing hyperenhancement during the arterial phase and sustained enhancement during the portal or late phase, such as liver AML and lipoma.
  • On the other hand, for those lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, or hypoenhancement during the arterial phase and hypoenhancement during the late phase, including intrahepatic biliary cystadenoma, biliary epithelial dysplasia, infected liver diseases, the inflammatory pseudotumor, sarcoidosis, and peliosis hepatis, the differential diagnosis between benignity and malignancy was difficult, and pathologic tests were mandatory.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The CES features of unusual benign FLLs may enrich knowledge when performing CES examinations for characterization and may provide clues for a specific diagnosis of an individual lesion such as liver AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Diseases / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18204015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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96. Jiang X, Kenerson H, Aicher L, Miyaoka R, Eary J, Bissler J, Yeung RS: The tuberous sclerosis complex regulates trafficking of glucose transporters and glucose uptake. Am J Pathol; 2008 Jun;172(6):1748-56
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  • The effect of mTORC1 on glucose uptake was confirmed using a liver-specific Tsc1- deletion mouse model in which FDG uptake was reduced in the livers of mutant mice compared with wild-type controls.

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  • (PMID = 18511518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077882; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102662; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA077882; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102662
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Crtc1 protein, rat; 0 / Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 2; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 4; 0 / Multiprotein Complexes; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 4JG2LF96VF / tuberous sclerosis complex 2 protein; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408433
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97. Guevara N, Lassalle S, Castillo L, Butori C, Santini J: [Angiomyolipoma of the parotid gland]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2008 Apr;125(2):90-3
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  • [Title] [Angiomyolipoma of the parotid gland].
  • INTRODUCTION: Angiomyolipoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor.
  • Extrarenal locations have been described, especially in the liver.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a case of angiomyolipoma located in the parotid gland.
  • Partial parotidectomy was performed and the tumor showed the characteristic appearance of angiomyolipoma, with an admixture of fat smooth cells and tortuous thick-walled blood vessels.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyolipoma / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18280455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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98. Wang SN, Tsai KB, Lee KT: Hepatic angiomyolipoma with trace amounts of fat: a case report and literature review. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Nov;59(11):1196-9
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  • [Title] Hepatic angiomyolipoma with trace amounts of fat: a case report and literature review.
  • Hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML), a rare benign mesenchymal tumour, is characterised by the presence of mature adipose tissue, smooth-muscle cells and thick-walled blood vessels.
  • Increasing attention to hepatic AMLs has led to the discovery that sufficient proportions of fat often allow for definite diagnoses preoperatively.
  • One case of hepatic AML is reported, where the amount of fat was <1%.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass measuring 5 cm in diameter and without an obvious capsule in the left lobe of the liver.
  • A dynamic computed tomography scan showed a well-defined and slightly enhanced mass in the medial segment of the left lobe of the liver.
  • Microscopically, the amount of fat was too low to establish a diagnosis of hepatic AML.
  • However, positive homatropine methylbromide 45 immunoreactivity of the smooth-muscle cells seemed to assist in arriving at the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17071805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tropanes; 68JRS2HC1C / homatropine methylbromide
  • [Number-of-references] 17
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860516
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99. Chaplin A, Conrad DM, Tatlidil C, Jollimore J, Walsh N, Covert A, Pasternak S: Primary cutaneous PEComa. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 May;32(3):310-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary cutaneous PEComa.
  • The case is one of a primary cutaneous pecoma.
  • They constitute a spectrum of lesions in different organs including angiomyolipoma of the kidney and liver, sugar tumor of the lung, lymphangiomatosis, and lymphangiomyoma.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 20139753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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100. Lu SH, Hou YY, Tan YS, Xu JF, Zeng HY, Sujie AK, Wang XD, Bai CX: Clinical and histopathological alterations of lymphangioleiomyomatosis in 14 Chinese patients. Chin Med J (Engl); 2009 Aug 20;122(16):1895-900
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Extrapulmonary findings such as renal angiomyolipoma (AML), enlarged abdominal lymph nodes, liver AML and retroperitoneal lymphangioleiomyoma were seen in 21.4%, 14.3%, 7.14% and 7.14% in 14 cases respectively, which is remarkably lower than in the previously reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with unexplained recurrent pneumothorax, tuberous sclerosis, or a diagnosis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax or emphysema in the setting of limited or absent tobacco use should undergo high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan screening for LAM.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / diagnosis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / pathology

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MEDROXYPROGESTERONE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROGESTERONE .
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  • (PMID = 19781367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic; 0 / Progestins; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; HSU1C9YRES / Medroxyprogesterone
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