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1. Yuan SM, Jiang HQ, Ouyang TX, Xing X: [The distribution and evolution of pericytes in infantile hemangioma]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jul;23(4):322-4
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  • [Title] [The distribution and evolution of pericytes in infantile hemangioma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution, phenotype and development of pericytes in infantile hemangioma.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two infantile hemangioma samples were included in our study. alpha-SMA was used as the marker antigen to observe the distribution of pericytes.
  • RESULTS: In the early and middle proliferating stage, there existed many pericytes in hemangioma; Pericytes together with endothelial cells generated vasculogenesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The pericyte is one of the major constitutive cells of hemangioma.
  • The vasculogenesis, development and disappearance of microvessels undertaken by pericytes and endothelial cells lead to the pathologic evolution of infantile hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Pericytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17926858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zheng xing wai ke za zhi = Zhonghua zhengxing waike zazhi = Chinese journal of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Benoit MM, North PE, McKenna MJ, Mihm MC, Johnson MM, Cunningham MJ: Facial nerve hemangiomas: vascular tumors or malformations? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Jan;142(1):108-14
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  • [Title] Facial nerve hemangiomas: vascular tumors or malformations?
  • OBJECTIVE: To reclassify facial nerve hemangiomas in the context of presently accepted vascular lesion nomenclature by examining histology and immunohistochemical markers.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cohort analysis of patients diagnosed with a facial nerve hemangioma between 1990 and 2008.
  • For six patients, archived pathological tissue was available for immunohistochemical evaluation of markers specific for infantile hemangioma (glucose transporter protein isoform 1 [GLUT1] and Lewis Y antigen) and for lymphatic endothelial cells (podoplanin).
  • Both podoplanin staining for lymphatic endothelial cells and GLUT1 and LewisY antigen staining for infantile hemangioma endothelial cells were negative in lesional vessels in all specimens for which immunohistochemical analysis was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: Lesions of the geniculate ganglion historically referred to as "hemangiomas" do not demonstrate clinical, histopathological, or immunohistochemical features consistent with a benign vascular tumor, but instead are consistent with venous malformation.
  • We propose that these lesions be classified as "venous vascular malformations of the facial nerve."
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Facial Nerve Diseases / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20096233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6817
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Dourmishev LA, Dourmishev AL: Craniofacial cavernous hemangioma: succesful treatment with methylprednisolone. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2005 Jun;14(2):49-52
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  • [Title] Craniofacial cavernous hemangioma: succesful treatment with methylprednisolone.
  • Systemic corticosteroid treatment is reported as effective for problematic cutaneous hemangiomas occuring in infancy, and depend on the dose, the duration of treatment, and the age at which the course of drugs is initiated.
  • A 7-month-old female infant with extended cavernous hemangioma on the left part of forehead, face,and neck which appeared 15 days after birth is presented.
  • The oral corticosteroid treatment is an efficient medical therapy for common extended cavernous infantile hemangiomas with accelerated growth if initiated early in the proliferative phase.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniofacial Abnormalities / drug therapy. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Hemangioma, Cavernous / drug therapy. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use


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4. Ada M, Güvenç MG, Yilmaz S: Infantile supraglottic hemangioma: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J; 2006 Jun;85(6):388-9, 391
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  • [Title] Infantile supraglottic hemangioma: a case report.
  • Hemangiomas of the airway are benign vascular lesions that can involve any site from the nares to the tracheobronchial tree.
  • Supraglottic infantile hemangiomas are very rare.
  • We report a case of supraglottic hemangioma in a 2-month-old boy who had been admitted to our hospital with inspiratory stridor and dyspnea.
  • The hemangioma involved the left arytenoid and aryepiglottic fold.
  • A tracheostomy was performed, and the patient was followed up endoscopically every 6 months thereafter The hemangioma disappeared when the child was 30 months old.
  • The patient remains disease-free during ongoing follow-up.
  • We also discuss the management strategies for infantile laryngeal hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / etiology. Glottis / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16866116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Daenekindt T, Weyns F, Kho KH, Peuskens D, Engelborghs K, Wuyts J: Giant intracranial capillary hemangioma associated with enlarged head circumference in a newborn. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 Jun;1(6):488-92
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  • [Title] Giant intracranial capillary hemangioma associated with enlarged head circumference in a newborn.
  • The authors describe the case of a patient with an intracranial capillary hemangioma, and they review the recent literature on intracranial capillary hemangiomas with special attention to their differential diagnosis and management.
  • The results of biopsy confirmed the diagnosis, and, after endovascular embolization, the entire lesion was resected.
  • The incidence of intracranial capillary hemangioma is very low but may be underestimated.
  • The natural behavior of extracranial capillary hemangiomas, however, suggests that a conservative approach with follow-up and steroid therapy may also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioma, Capillary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18518703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Kang JS, Lillehei KO, Kleinschmidt-Demasters BK: Proximal nerve root capillary hemangioma presenting as a lung mass with bandlike chest pain: case report and review of literature. Surg Neurol; 2006 Jun;65(6):584-9; discussion 589
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  • [Title] Proximal nerve root capillary hemangioma presenting as a lung mass with bandlike chest pain: case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Capillary hemangiomas occasionally occur in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), presenting as mass lesions causing proximal nerve root symptoms, thus prompting neurosurgical intervention.
  • In contrast to cavernous angiomas, which may also occasionally involve the PNS, capillary hemangiomas have little or no tendency for acute or chronic bleeding and, hence, lack the apoplectic symptomatic onset and neuroimaging features of hemosiderin deposition as seen in cavernous angiomas.
  • At operation, the spongy, reddish purple vascular tumor was easily separated from dura but had to be excised en bloc, with the T3 nerve root at the neural foramen.
  • Pathology was consistent with a capillary hemangioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We present the second case in the English language literature of a dumbbell-shaped, epidural capillary hemangioma with intrathoracic extension.
  • We review the literature on proximal nerve capillary hemangiomas and contrast these with cavernous angiomas and capillary hemangioblastomas, both of which occasionally involve proximal nerves.
  • Unlike capillary hemangioblastomas, which may be multiple and associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, capillary hemangiomas are solitary lesions and have not been associated with an inherited disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Chest Pain / etiology. Hemangioma, Capillary / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Nerve Roots / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16720181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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7. Lee BB, Laredo J, Lee SJ, Huh SH, Joe JH, Neville R: Congenital vascular malformations: general diagnostic principles. Phlebology; 2007;22(6):253-7
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  • [Title] Congenital vascular malformations: general diagnostic principles.
  • Venous malformation (VM) is the most common congenital vascular malformation (CVM), which usually presents as a single lesion in the majority of cases.
  • Therefore, the diagnosis of VM should include an appropriate work-up, to not only confirm and characterize the VM as either extratruncular or truncular but also to diagnose or exclude the presence of other CVMs.
  • The diagnosis of VM can be made safely using non-invasive to minimally invasive studies, which can also distinguish VM from infantile haemangioma.
  • Invasive studies, such as venography and arteriography, are generally reserved for therapeutic planning and diagnosis of more virulent CVMs (e.g. AVM).

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  • (PMID = 18274332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3555
  • [Journal-full-title] Phlebology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phlebology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Pavlakovic H, Kietz S, Lauerer P, Zutt M, Lakomek M: Hyperkalemia complicating propranolol treatment of an infantile hemangioma. Pediatrics; 2010 Dec;126(6):e1589-93
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  • [Title] Hyperkalemia complicating propranolol treatment of an infantile hemangioma.
  • Propranolol treatment was recently reported to be successful for the management of severe infantile hemangioma.
  • In this report, we describe the case of a 17-week-old female preterm infant who presented with a large, ulcerated, cutaneous-subcutaneous hemangioma of the right lateral thoracic wall, which we treated successfully with propranolol.
  • A few days into therapy, a potentially life-threatening adverse effect, severe hyperkalemia, was observed and required treatment with loop diuretics, fluids, and nebulized salbutamol to normalize her serum potassium levels.
  • Our case report indicates that, at least during the initial phase of the propranolol treatment of infantile hemangioma, close monitoring of serum electrolytes, besides the monitoring of hemodynamics and blood glucose, is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / drug therapy. Hyperkalemia / chemically induced. Potassium / blood. Propranolol / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALBUTEROL .
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. POTASSIUM, ELEMENTAL .
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  • (PMID = 21115582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists; 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol; QF8SVZ843E / Albuterol; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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9. Svec A, Bury Y: Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist? Pathol Oncol Res; 2010 Sep;16(3):443-6
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  • [Title] Haemangioma of the parathyroid gland. Does it really exist?
  • We are reporting a case of a capillary haemangioma-like proliferation arising within a parathyroid gland adenoma, associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The vessel proliferation bearing a close resemblance to a capillary haemangioma consisted of tightly packed capillaries, endothelial buds and occasional small caliber muscle-containing vessels.
  • The observation expands the spectrum of tumour-associated vascular proliferations by adding an exuberant haemangioma-like pattern to its extreme end.
  • We investigated expression of VEGF, pKDR, FGF2, HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha and only VEGF gave a strong positive reaction in the adenoma cells entrapped in the vascular meshwork.
  • Although this does not constitute a proof that aberrant VEGF production was a causative agent, unexpected supportive evidence for its pathogenic role emerged from a failure to detect chromogranin A.
  • The only two other published cases of haemangioma of the parathyroid gland were reported in patients diagnosed with primary parathyroid hyperplasia with hyperparathyroidism, a pathophysiologic condition similar to our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20063187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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10. Le Bihannic A, Michot C, Heckly A, Loget P, Beucher A, Brassier G, Hamlat A: Capillary haemangioma arising from the anterior choroidal artery. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Apr;21(4):265-71
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  • [Title] Capillary haemangioma arising from the anterior choroidal artery.
  • BACKGROUND: Capillary haemangioma of the central nervous system is extremely rare.
  • FEATURES: This report details a case that developed in the anterior choroidal artery of a newborn infant and manifested as a lethal intra-cerebral haemorrhage.
  • Pathological criteria for the diagnosis of vascular malformations should be carefully investigated and the differential diagnoses of the present case are discussed.
  • PROGNOSIS: Intracranial haemangioma presents a diagnostic challenge and the treatment of deep lesions remains problematic.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carotid Artery, Internal / pathology. Hemangioma, Capillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / diagnostic imaging. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15660256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Grosu AL, Nieder C: Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for recurrent capillary hemangioma of the cavernous sinus. Strahlenther Onkol; 2006 Mar;182(3):179-82
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  • [Title] Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for recurrent capillary hemangioma of the cavernous sinus.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capillary hemangioma of the cavernous sinus is a rare benign skull base tumor that can successfully be treated with radiotherapy.
  • A 62-year-old male patient with a hemangioma of the right cavernous sinus, orbita and suprasellar region who had previously undergone three surgical procedures received postoperative SFRT for the residual tumor (target volume 85 cm3, Figure 1).
  • RESULTS: No acute or late toxicity of SFRT was observed.
  • CONCLUSION: Postoperative SFRT with moderate doses is well tolerated and might induce both symptomatic and radiologic improvement of large capillary hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / radiography. Dose Fractionation. Hemangioma, Capillary / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16520913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Alotaibi HM: An unusual association of recurrent pyogenic granuloma on nevus flammeus in a patient with Von Recklinghausen's disease. Saudi Med J; 2009 Jun;30(6):844-6
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  • [Title] An unusual association of recurrent pyogenic granuloma on nevus flammeus in a patient with Von Recklinghausen's disease.
  • Pyogenic granuloma is a common benign vascular lesion of the skin and mucosa.
  • There are a few reports on the rare association between it and port wine stain, but there is no clear description of an association with neurofibromatosis type 1 in the literature.
  • This report presents a 29-year-old Saudi male with Von Recklinghausen's disease with recurrent pyogenic granuloma on the nevus flammeus over his neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Pyogenic / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Nevus / complications


13. Mutlu M, Yariş N, Aslan Y, Kul S, Imamoğlu M, Ersöz S: Intraosseous noninvoluting congenital hemangioma of the mandible in a neonate. Turk J Pediatr; 2009 Sep-Oct;51(5):507-9
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  • [Title] Intraosseous noninvoluting congenital hemangioma of the mandible in a neonate.
  • Hemangiomas are benign tumors of the capillary endothelium involved in varied clinical and pathologic entities.
  • Congenital hemangioma is quite rare compared to infantile hemangioma.
  • Hemangiomas rarely occur in bone.
  • Intraosseous hemangiomas are most commonly found in the vertebral column and skull.
  • Intraosseous hemangiomas commonly present in the second decade of life.
  • Here, we report a neonate with noninvoluting congenital hemangioma of the mandible.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / congenital. Mandibular Neoplasms / congenital

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  • [CommentIn] Turk J Pediatr. 2010 Sep-Oct;52(5):559 [21434548.001]
  • (PMID = 20112611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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14. Lope LA, Hutcheson KA, Khademian ZP: Magnetic resonance imaging in the analysis of pediatric orbital tumors: utility of diffusion-weighted imaging. J AAPOS; 2010 Jun;14(3):257-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Mass lesions identified in the chart review included rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 4), myofibroma (n = 2), hemangioma (n = 4), lymphangioma (n = 2), neurofibroma (n = 4), Langerhans histiocytosis (n = 2), and one of each of the following: giant cell tumor, meningioma, lymphoid hyperplasia of the lacrimal gland (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis), optic nerve glioma, lipodermoid, and dermoid.
  • Capillary hemangiomas and rhabdomyosarcomas 2 tumors with potentially overlapping appearances with traditional MRI techniques had contrasting appearances with DNI.
  • This technique may thus be considered an additional tool to help, refine the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors in children.

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  • [CommentIn] J AAPOS. 2010 Jun;14(3):203-4 [20603054.001]
  • (PMID = 20603060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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15. Sinno H, Thibaudeau S, Coughlin R, Chitte S, Williams B: Management of infantile parotid gland hemangiomas: a 40-year experience. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Jan;125(1):265-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of infantile parotid gland hemangiomas: a 40-year experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Infantile hemangiomas represent one of the most common childhood tumors.
  • Definitive treatment for infantile parotid gland hemangioma remains controversial.
  • METHODS: In the retrospective study portion of this article, the authors reviewed the last 400 charts of children with hemangiomas managed at the Montreal Children's Hospital over the past 40 years.
  • Twenty patients with parotid hemangiomas were identified.
  • In the literature review portion, the Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed databases were used to retrieve all published original articles on the management of parotid hemangiomas from 1950 to December of 2008.
  • RESULTS: All of the authors' patients underwent successful nonoperative management, with 100 percent resolution of their parotid hemangiomas within 2 years of diagnosis, with an average follow-up time of 8.6 +/- 5.7 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors have shown that nonoperative therapy resulted in regression and involution of infantile parotid hemangiomas with no major complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Interferons / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19910858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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16. Sidoroff A: [Epidemiology of cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir; 2009 Apr;41(2):65-9
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  • [Title] [Epidemiology of cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood].
  • PURPOSE: A representative compilation of data on the incidence and prevalence of benign cutaneous vascular neoplasms and malformations in childhood has been made.
  • RESULTS: For capillary malformations with spontaneous regression (salmon patches), the reported numbers usually vary between 20 and 30% of the newborns, while true, persisting capillary malformations (port-wine stains) can be found in about 1%.
  • Strawberry angiomas are found in about 3% of mature newborns but in up to 12.5% of preterm children.
  • Complex vascular malformations or severe cases of vascular tumours are very rare.
  • CONCLUSION: All in all, vascular lesions are very common findings in childhood, but in most cases harmless and transient in nature.
  • The number of lesions that may require adequate but usually uncomplicated treatment amounts to about one percent of children (strawberry angiomas and port-wine stains).
  • Complex and/or life-threatening severe vascular tumours and malformations that represent a considerable therapeutic challenge are extremely rare events.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / epidemiology. Hemangioma / epidemiology. Skin / blood supply. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Austria. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Health Surveys. Hemangioma, Capillary / epidemiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature, Diseases / epidemiology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Port-Wine Stain / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19180424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3980
  • [Journal-full-title] Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, plastische Chirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Handchirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mikrochirurgie der Peripheren Nerven und Gefässe : Organ der Vereinigung der Deutschen Plastischen Chirurgen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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17. Jung B, Kim CS, Choi B, Kelly KM, Nelson JS: Use of erythema index imaging for systematic analysis of port wine stain skin response to laser therapy. Lasers Surg Med; 2005 Sep;37(3):186-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of erythema index imaging for systematic analysis of port wine stain skin response to laser therapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Quantitative methods to assess port wine stain (PWS) skin response to laser therapy are needed to improve therapeutic outcome.
  • In this study, PWS skin erythema was analyzed using erythema index difference (DeltaEI: erythema index difference between PWS and normal skin) images before and after treatment to investigate systematically subject-dependent response to laser therapy.
  • STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-polarized digital skin color images were acquired from 17 subjects with facial PWS and the associated DeltaEI images were computed.
  • Qualitative and quantitative analyses of PWS skin erythema were performed with DeltaEI images, in which ranges of 40-6 and 5-0 represented PWS and normal skin, respectively.
  • RESULTS: After laser therapy, we qualitatively observed a reduction in the DeltaEI values for all subjects.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The imaging modality and analysis method allowed systematic analysis of PWS skin erythema in response to laser therapy.
  • PWS skin response was dependent on pretreatment DeltaEI values, suggesting that erythema can be utilized as an effective parameter to monitor PWS response to laser therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythema / diagnosis. Port-Wine Stain / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16175634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-8092
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47551; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR48458; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM62177
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Frieden IJ, Rogers M, Garzon MC: Conditions masquerading as infantile haemangioma: Part 1. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 May;50(2):77-97; quiz 98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conditions masquerading as infantile haemangioma: Part 1.
  • Infantile haemangiomas are among the most common growths during infancy.
  • This article focuses on the myriad of diagnostic mimics of haemangiomas, including other vascular anomalies, benign growths, and malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Malformations / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / analysis. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Telangiectasis / congenital. Telangiectasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19397559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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19. Galambos C, Nodit L: Identification of lymphatic endothelium in pediatric vascular tumors and malformations. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Mar-Apr;8(2):181-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of lymphatic endothelium in pediatric vascular tumors and malformations.
  • The distinction between lymphatic and other vascular vessels on microscopic sections is a challenging task.
  • We studied the specificity and sensitivity of D2-40 in pediatric vascular tumors and malformations.
  • Fourteen lymphatic and 11 vascular lesions were randomly selected and stained with D2-40 and CD31 antibodies.
  • The lymphatic lesions included 6 lymphatic malformations, 5 cystic hygromas (macrocystic lymphatic malformation), 2 lymphovenous malformations, and 1 lymphangioma, and the vascular lesions comprised 3 infantile hemangiomas, 3 Kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas, 2 tufted angiomas, 1 pyogenic granuloma, 1 arteriovenous, and 1 venulocapillary malformations.
  • The staining patterns of the vascular channels were compared.
  • In all lesions D2-40 labeled only the endothelium of thin-walled vascular channels morphologically consistent with lymphatic vessels (25 of 25).
  • No staining of the vascular lesions (0 of 11) or of arteries and veins (0 of 25) was observed.
  • There was a tendency of more consistent D2-40 staining of small versus large lymphatic channels.
  • CD31 constantly labeled arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymphatics in all lesions and all endothelial cells in the vascular lesions.
  • Currently, D2-40 appears to be a good marker to identify lymphatic vessels in pediatric vascular tumors and malformations.

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  • (PMID = 15719202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers
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20. Maguiness SM, Hoffman WY, McCalmont TH, Frieden IJ: Early white discoloration of infantile hemangioma: a sign of impending ulceration. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Nov;146(11):1235-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early white discoloration of infantile hemangioma: a sign of impending ulceration.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between early white discoloration of infantile hemangioma (IH) and ulceration.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics and hemangioma size, location, and subtype are documented.
  • When the hemangioma was either white or slightly white, sensitivity for predicting ulceration was 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-1.00), with a specificity of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.51-0.81).
  • CONCLUSION: Early white discoloration of infantile hemangioma is highly suggestive of impending ulceration.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Ulcer / etiology


21. Korotkikh NG, Ol'shanskiĭ MS, Shcherbinin AS, Stepanov IV, Alekseeva TV, Ovsiannikov IuM: [Endovascular microembolization of the posterior auricular artery in comprehensive surgical management of capillary angioma of the floor of the auricle]. Angiol Sosud Khir; 2007;13(4):74-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Endovascular microembolization of the posterior auricular artery in comprehensive surgical management of capillary angioma of the floor of the auricle].
  • The article deals with the description of a rare clinical case wherein a 44-year-old female patient presenting with bleeding capillary angioma of the left auricle obstructing the auditory passage was fist subjected to endovascular microembolization of the posterior auricular artery by means of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-500), followed by a second stage of virtually bloodlessly surgical removal of the tumour carried out five days thereafter.
  • This case report once again points to feasibility of combined, i. e. endovascular and conventional surgical management of capillary angiomas.
  • Preoperative microembolization of a bleeding haemangioma arrests haemorrhage from the tumour, resulting in the decreased size thereof, as well as leading to circumscribing the tumour from healthy tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Neoplasms / therapy. Ear, External / blood supply. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hemangioma, Capillary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18385652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1027-6661
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiologii︠a︡ i sosudistai︠a︡ khirurgii︠a︡ = Angiology and vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiol Sosud Khir
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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22. Kleinman ME, Blei F, Gurtner GC: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and vascular anomalies. Lymphat Res Biol; 2005;3(4):234-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and vascular anomalies.
  • Recent findings regarding pathways of stem/progenitor cell involvement in adult blood vessel growth (postnatal vasculogenesis) suggest new theories for the pathogenesis of vascular anomalies.
  • The somatic growth of vascular malformations and the mysterious pattern of proliferation and involution in infantile hemangioma can no longer be purely understood through the paradigm of angiogenesis.
  • Molecular signals for postnatal vasculogenesis are being discovered in numerous animal models of cancer and ischemia, yet little research has addressed the importance of vasculogenesis in the growth of vascular anomalies.
  • In this review, we discuss early studies that have investigated stem/progenitor cell involvement in the pathophysiology of infantile hemangioma and other congenital vascular anomalies.
  • [MeSH-major] Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / blood supply. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16379593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-6851
  • [Journal-full-title] Lymphatic research and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lymphat Res Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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23. Chamlin SL, Haggstrom AN, Drolet BA, Baselga E, Frieden IJ, Garzon MC, Horii KA, Lucky AW, Metry DW, Newell B, Nopper AJ, Mancini AJ: Multicenter prospective study of ulcerated hemangiomas. J Pediatr; 2007 Dec;151(6):684-9, 689.e1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicenter prospective study of ulcerated hemangiomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical features of infants with ulcerated infantile hemangiomas.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a prospective cohort study of children with infantile hemangiomas.
  • Hemangioma size, location, subtype, course, complications, and treatments were recorded.
  • Ulceration occurred in 192 (9.8%) of 1960 [corrected] total hemangiomas.
  • Hemangiomas with ulcerations were more likely large, mixed clinical type, segmental morphologic type, and located on the lower lip, neck, or anogenital region.
  • Children with ulcerated hemangiomas were more likely to present to a pediatric dermatologist at a younger age and to require treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ulceration occurs in nearly 16% of patients with infantile hemangiomas, most often by 4 months of age, during the proliferative phase.
  • Location, size, and clinical and morphologic type are associated with an increased risk for development of ulceration.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Ulcer / etiology

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  • [ErratumIn] J Pediatr. 2008 Apr;152(4):597
  • (PMID = 18035154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6833
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Mulliken JB, Marler JJ, Burrows PE, Kozakewich HP: Reticular infantile hemangioma of the limb can be associated with ventral-caudal anomalies, refractory ulceration, and cardiac overload. Pediatr Dermatol; 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):356-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reticular infantile hemangioma of the limb can be associated with ventral-caudal anomalies, refractory ulceration, and cardiac overload.
  • We describe six patients with an uncommon variant of infantile hemangioma that we have termed reticular, occurring in the extremity, which were associated with intractable ulceration, anogenito-urinary-sacral anomalies, and sometimes cardiac overload.
  • He also had hepatic hemangiomas and ambiguous genitalia.
  • The histopathologic features differed from those of typical infantile hemangioma: infiltrative (not lobular) and involving fascia, muscle, and bone.
  • The mid-spectrum is illustrated by five females with reticular infantile hemangioma of the lower limb, buttock, and perineum.
  • Four of these infants had a ventral-caudal anomaly, including omphalocele, recto-vaginal fistula, solitary/duplex kidney, imperforate anus, and tethered cord; one infant also had hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Deep ulcerations healed following corticosteroid therapy; one patient required skin graft for closure of a thigh wound.
  • The reticular variant of infantile hemangioma can be confused with other vascular anomalies in the limb, such as capillary malformation, cutis marmorata telangiectasia congenita, diffuse arteriovenous malformation (Parkes Weber syndrome) and capillary-lymphatico-venous malformation (Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome).
  • The macular network-like appearance of the tumor and coexisting ventral-caudal structural anomalies is analogous to the association of posterior fossa brain malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of the aorta and cardiac defects, and eye abnormalities association in the craniofacial region.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple. Heart Failure / complications. Hemangioma / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Ulcer / complications


25. Gober-Wilcox JK, Gardner DL, Joste NE, Clericuzio CL, Zlotoff B: Limb hyperplasia: case report of an unusual variant of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and review of the literature. Cutis; 2009 May;83(5):255-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare disorder involving a triad of cutaneous capillary malformations (port-wine stain), varicose veins or venous malformations, and bony or soft tissue hyperplasia of an extremity.
  • We review several closely related syndromes and discuss the differential diagnosis of limb hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19537283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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26. Mordon S: [Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy: a new technique for port wine stain treatment]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Mar;134(3 Pt 1):281-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy: a new technique for port wine stain treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] La thérapie photodynamique vasculaire: une nouvelle thérapeutique pour le traitement des angiomes plans.
  • [MeSH-major] Photochemotherapy. Port-Wine Stain / drug therapy. Skin / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 17389860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin
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27. Pérez RS, Mora PC, Rodríguez JD, Sánchez FR, de Torres Jde L: [Treatment of infantile hemangioma with propranolol]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2010 Feb;72(2):152-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of infantile hemangioma with propranolol].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento del hemangioma infantil con propranolol.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Propranolol / therapeutic use


28. Samimi M, Lorette G: [Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome]. Presse Med; 2010 Apr;39(4):487-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay.
  • Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare complex vascular congenital malformation.
  • The characteristic triad is an association of a cutaneous capillary angioma of a limb, venous malformations, and hypertrophy of soft tissue and/or bone.
  • Diagnosis is essentially clinical.
  • The presence of arteriovenous malformations is sought by clinical examination or ultrasound: they rule out a diagnosis of KTS.
  • [MeSH-major] Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemangioma / physiopathology. Humans. Hypertrophy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler. Vascular Malformations / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20189343.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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29. Lo K, Mihm M, Fay A: Current theories on the pathogenesis of infantile hemangioma. Semin Ophthalmol; 2009 May-Jun;24(3):172-7
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  • [Title] Current theories on the pathogenesis of infantile hemangioma.
  • Infantile hemangiomas are the most common tumors of infancy and although the natural history and progression of these lesions are well described, their origin remains unclear.
  • While no current hypothesis explains all the characteristics of infantile hemangiomas, continued research targeting pathophysiology will ultimately lead to new treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19437354.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5205
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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30. Metry DW, Haggstrom AN, Drolet BA, Baselga E, Chamlin S, Garzon M, Horii K, Lucky A, Mancini AJ, Newell B, Nopper A, Heyer G, Frieden IJ: A prospective study of PHACE syndrome in infantile hemangiomas: demographic features, clinical findings, and complications. Am J Med Genet A; 2006 May 1;140(9):975-86
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  • [Title] A prospective study of PHACE syndrome in infantile hemangiomas: demographic features, clinical findings, and complications.
  • PHACE (OMIM no. 606519) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that refers to the association of large, plaque-like, "segmental" hemangiomas of the face, with one or more of the following anomalies: posterior fossa brain malformations, arterial cerebrovascular anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies, eye anomalies, and ventral developmental defects, specifically sternal defects and/or supraumbilical raphe.
  • The purpose of this study was thus to determine (1) the incidence of PHACE and associated anomalies among a large cohort of hemangioma patients, (2) whether certain demographic, prenatal or perinatal risk factors predispose infants to this syndrome, and (3) whether the cutaneous distribution of the hemangioma can be correlated to the types of anomalies present.
  • We undertook a prospective, cohort study of 1,096 children with hemangiomas, 25 of whom met criteria for PHACE.
  • These 25 patients represented 20% of infants with segmental facial hemangiomas.
  • Two developed acute arterial ischemic stroke during infancy, while two with cardiovascular anomalies showed documented evidence of normalization, suggesting that both progressive and regressive vascular phenomena may occur in this syndrome.
  • Correlation to the anatomic location of the hemangioma appears to be helpful in determining which structural abnormalities might be present.
  • A comparison of demographic and perinatal data between our PHACE cases and the hemangioma cohort overall showed no major differences, except a trend for PHACE infants to be of slighter higher gestational age and born to slightly older mothers.
  • Eighty-eight percent were female, a finding which has been noted in multiple other reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Neurocutaneous Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Airway Obstruction / complications. Brain / abnormalities. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Ear Diseases / complications. Eye Diseases / complications. Female. Heart Defects, Congenital / complications. Heart Defects, Congenital / pathology. Humans. Infant. Male. Prospective Studies. Syndrome


31. Xu Q, Chen W, Wang Z, Zheng J, Zhang Z: Mice transgenic with SV40-late-promoter-driven Polyomavirus Middle T oncogene exclusively develop hemangiomas. Transgenic Res; 2009 Jun;18(3):399-406
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  • [Title] Mice transgenic with SV40-late-promoter-driven Polyomavirus Middle T oncogene exclusively develop hemangiomas.
  • In order to develop a model system of infantile hemangioma, transgenic mice were developed carrying the Polyomavirus Middle T (PyMT) gene driven by the SV40 late promoter.
  • Three of these showed the hemangioma phenotype and carried and expressed the PyMT gene; the remaining descendants were normal.
  • The tumors showed abnormal vascular proliferation with cavernous hemangioma-like structures in the skin surface, tongue, ear mucosa and gastric mucosal tissue in the transgenic mice with hemangioma phenotype.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 was negative, showing the tumors were hemangiomas rather than angiosarcomas.
  • Previously reported PyMT transgenic mice under the control of various promoters induce many tumor types including hemangiomas.
  • PyMT driven by the SV40 late promoter is an improved model system because it only induces hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Simian virus 40 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Genotype. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Oncogenes. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 19067215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-9368
  • [Journal-full-title] Transgenic research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transgenic Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
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32. Gönül M, Gul U, Gunduz H, Artantas S, Demiriz M: Disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma: two case reports. J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;32(12):996-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma: two case reports.
  • Lobular capillary hemangioma, also known as pyogenic granuloma, is a common, solitary, benign neoplasm of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Lobular capillary hemangioma can present rarely in a disseminated form, usually associated with other disorders.
  • Two patients, aged 17 and 33, were admitted to the dermatology clinic with disseminated lobular capillary hemangiomas which appeared suddenly.
  • The histopathology of the lesions was consistent with lobular capillary hemangioma.
  • No associated disorders were found in physical and laboratory examinations other than mental retardation in one patient and a small hemangioma in the liver in the other.
  • We report two cases of disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma without an associated disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Pyogenic / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology


33. Comi AM: Update on Sturge-Weber syndrome: diagnosis, treatment, quantitative measures, and controversies. Lymphat Res Biol; 2007;5(4):257-64
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  • [Title] Update on Sturge-Weber syndrome: diagnosis, treatment, quantitative measures, and controversies.
  • Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is defined by the association of a facial capillary malformation (port-wine stain), with a vascular malformation of the eye, and/or vascular malformation of the brain (leptomeningeal angioma).
  • Variants exist where only one of these three structures is involved with the vascular malformation.
  • SWS occurs sporadically and is congenital.
  • Port-wine stains occur in 3 per 1000 live births.
  • Important limitations exist, however, as currently the early diagnosis and exclusion of Sturge-Weber syndrome is impaired by the poor sensitivity of imaging in the newborn period and early infancy.

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  • (PMID = 18370916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-6851
  • [Journal-full-title] Lymphatic research and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lymphat Res Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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34. Krol A, MacArthur CJ: Congenital hemangiomas: rapidly involuting and noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas. Arch Facial Plast Surg; 2005 Sep-Oct;7(5):307-11
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  • [Title] Congenital hemangiomas: rapidly involuting and noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas.
  • While infantile hemangiomas are a very common lesion seen in infants and young children, congenital hemangiomas are much more rare and have been only recently described.
  • Two types of congenital hemangiomas exist: rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas and noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas.
  • The goal of this article is to describe rapidly involuting and noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas as they differ from infantile hemangiomas in their presentation, natural history, histopathologic features, and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / congenital. Hemangioma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16172338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of facial plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Facial Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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35. Rosbe KW, Suh KY, Meyer AK, Maguiness SM, Frieden IJ: Propranolol in the management of airway infantile hemangiomas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Jul;136(7):658-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Propranolol in the management of airway infantile hemangiomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience with propranolol in managing airway infantile hemangiomas.
  • DESIGN: Case series of 3 consecutive patients who had extensive, symptomatic airway infantile hemangiomas treated with propranolol.
  • PATIENTS: Three infants with facial cutaneous hemangiomas who developed stridor that progressed to respiratory distress, which according to laryngoscopic examination results was confirmed to be caused by extensive subglottic hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: Patient 1 failed to respond to systemic corticosteroids, laser ablation, and intravenous vincristine for her airway hemangioma and had to undergo tracheotomy.
  • Patient 2 developed progressive stridor secondary to airway hemangioma at age 6 1/2 months following tapering of systemic corticosteroids prescribed for her periorbital hemangioma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our 3 patients had severe respiratory symptoms related to their airway infantile hemangiomas.
  • In the second and third patients, propranolol was part of a dual regimen that resulted in rapid resolution of airway symptoms and allowed for quicker weaning of corticosteroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Glottis / pathology. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Propranolol / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Airway Obstruction / congenital. Airway Obstruction / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Laryngoscopy. Male. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Tracheostomy / methods. Treatment Outcome


36. Jung B, Choi B, Shin Y, Durkin AJ, Nelson JS: Determination of optimal view angles for quantitative facial image analysis. J Biomed Opt; 2005 Mar-Apr;10(2):024002
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  • In quantitative evaluation of facial skin chromophore content using color imaging, several factors such as view angle and facial curvature affect the accuracy of measured values.
  • To determine the influence of view angle and facial curvature on the accuracy of quantitative image analysis, we acquire cross-polarized diffuse reflectance color images of a white-patched mannequin head model and human subjects while varying the angular position of the head with respect to the image acquisition system.
  • Our results indicate that view angle and facial curvature influence the accuracy of the recorded color information and quantitative image analysis.
  • Moreover, there exists an optimal view angle that minimizes the artifacts in color determination resulting from facial curvature.
  • In clinical application, our results suggest that view angle affects the quantitative assessment of port wine stain (PWS) skin erythema, emphasizing the importance of using the optimal view angle to minimize artifacts caused by nonuniform light distribution on the ROI.
  • [MeSH-minor] Computer Simulation. Erythema / pathology. Humans. Light. Manikins. Models, Theoretical. Port-Wine Stain / pathology. Posture. Scattering, Radiation. Skin / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
  • (PMID = 15910076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-3668
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47551; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR48458; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM62177; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR01192
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Takeuchi S, Nakano H, Daiki R, Akasaka E, Nishizawa A, Matsuzaki Y, Sawamura D: Disseminated lupus vulgaris diagnosed more than 63 years after onset due to early misdiagnosis as a port-wine stain. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2010 Apr;35(3):e28-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Disseminated lupus vulgaris diagnosed more than 63 years after onset due to early misdiagnosis as a port-wine stain.
  • [MeSH-major] Lupus Vulgaris / diagnosis. Port-Wine Stain / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Delayed Diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20500166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Drolet BA, Swanson EA, Frieden IJ, Hemangioma Investigator Group: Infantile hemangiomas: an emerging health issue linked to an increased rate of low birth weight infants. J Pediatr; 2008 Nov;153(5):712-5, 715.e1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile hemangiomas: an emerging health issue linked to an increased rate of low birth weight infants.
  • A total of 420 children with infantile hemangioma (IH) were compared with 353 age-matched controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / epidemiology. Infant, Low Birth Weight

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  • (PMID = 18940356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6833
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Baselga E; Chamlin S; Garzon MC; Haggstrom A; Horii K; Lucky A; Mancinci AJ; Metry D; Newell B; Nopper AJ
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39. McCuaig CC, Dubois J, Powell J, Belleville C, David M, Rousseau E, Gendron R, Jafarian F, Auger I: A phase II, open-label study of the efficacy and safety of imiquimod in the treatment of superficial and mixed infantile hemangioma. Pediatr Dermatol; 2009 Mar-Apr;26(2):203-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II, open-label study of the efficacy and safety of imiquimod in the treatment of superficial and mixed infantile hemangioma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To explore the efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream as a treatment for infantile hemangioma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Healthy infants up to 8.8 months of age with previously untreated, nonulcerated, proliferative superficial or mixed infantile hemangioma, excluding periorbital, or perineal localization, > or =100 cm2 in size.
  • INTERVENTION: Topical imiquimod applied three to seven times per week for 16 weeks to infantile hemangioma.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lesion area, volume, depth (Doppler ultrasound), and color (erythema), serum drug, and interferon-alpha levels.
  • Local skin reactions were consistent with those reported in adults.
  • Two cases had a decrease and three had an increase in lesion parameters; otherwise no meaningful changes in lesion area, volume, or depth were observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of infants with infantile hemangioma with imiquimod up to seven times per week for 16 weeks was generally well tolerated with low systemic exposure.
  • Improvement was observed in hemangioma coloration, but not lesion size, suggesting effects were limited to the superficial component.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / blood. Humans. Infant. Interferon-alpha / blood. Male. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / urine

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  • (PMID = 19419474.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00601016
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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40. Brodie C, Provenzano E: Vascular proliferations of the breast. Histopathology; 2008 Jan;52(1):30-44
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  • [Title] Vascular proliferations of the breast.
  • Vascular proliferations of the breast are uncommon but potentially diagnostically challenging lesions.
  • This review discusses first, breast lesions of apparent vascular origin, then benign and histologically bland perilobular, cavernous and capillary haemangiomas.
  • Subsequently, more diagnostically challenging, atypical haemangiomas, papillary endothelial hyperplasia, angiomatosis and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (epithelioid haemangioma) are considered.
  • However, primary angiosarcomas and radiation-associated vascular lesions are reviewed in depth, as these entities are of greatest clinical and pathological significance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / diagnosis. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / pathology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiopericytoma / diagnosis. Hemangiopericytoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18171415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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41. Li G, Zhou Z, Gold MH: Eczematous dermatitis after vascular laser therapy: a report of two cases. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2010 Apr;12(2):112-5
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  • [Title] Eczematous dermatitis after vascular laser therapy: a report of two cases.
  • Eczematous dermatitis was found in two port wine stain (PWS) lesions in two different individuals following variable pulsed 532-nm laser therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Ointments. Port-Wine Stain / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome. X-Ray Therapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20146560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Ointments
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42. Debi B, Nayak S, Da RP, Acharjya B: Proteus syndrome. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2005 Sep-Oct;71(5):357-9
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  • Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body.
  • We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Proteus Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Port-Wine Stain / complications. Spina Bifida Occulta / complications

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  • (PMID = 16394465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-6323
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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43. Perkins JA, Chen EY, Hoffer FA, Manning SC: Proposal for staging airway hemangiomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Oct;141(4):516-521
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proposal for staging airway hemangiomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a method of airway infantile hemangioma staging using standardized assessment of airway narrowing, and hemangioma location and volume, as determined with endoscopy and CT angiography.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects included airway hemangioma patients evaluated at a tertiary pediatric hospital.
  • Data collected were age at first symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, percent airway compromise, and estimated hemangioma volume.
  • Total hemangioma volume was less in patients with isolated (focal) endolaryngeal hemangiomas compared with airway hemangiomas associated with extralaryngeal (segmental) hemangiomas.
  • Airway hemangioma stages were stage one (5 of 12; 41.6%), stage two (6 of 12; 50.0%), and stage three (1 of 12; 8.3%).
  • CONCLUSION: This method of airway hemangioma staging may be applicable to treatment planning and used to measure treatment outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19786222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6817
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Passman C, Urban D, Klemm K, Lockhart M, Kenney P, Kolettis P: Testicular lesions other than germ cell tumours: feasibility of testis-sparing surgery. BJU Int; 2009 Feb;103(4):488-91
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  • The lesions could be categorized as inflammatory (three hyalinized fibrosis, two sarcoidosis, one chronic inflammation), cystic (one epidermoid cyst, one unilocular cyst), benign neoplasms (two adenomatoid tumours, one Leydig cell tumour, one capillary haemangioma) or malignant neoplasms (one lymphoma).
  • In the other five, testis-sparing surgery was not attempted because the preoperative impression was that of a germ cell tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: Testis-sparing surgery might be possible if there is significant suspicion of a benign lesion.

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  • (PMID = 18793303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Ritter MR, Reinisch J, Friedlander SF, Friedlander M: Myeloid cells in infantile hemangioma. Am J Pathol; 2006 Feb;168(2):621-8
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  • [Title] Myeloid cells in infantile hemangioma.
  • Little is known about the pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas despite the fact that they are relatively common tumors.
  • These benign neoplasms occur in as many as 1 in 10 births, and although rarely life threatening, hemangiomas can pose serious concerns to the cosmetic and psychosocial development of the afflicted child.
  • The precise mechanisms controlling the rapid growth observed in the first months of life and the spontaneous involution that follows throughout the course of years remain unknown.
  • In this report we demonstrate the presence of large numbers of hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage in proliferating hemangiomas and propose a mechanism for the observed evolution of these lesions that is triggered by hypoxia and involves the participation of myeloid cells.
  • We report the results of experiments using myeloid markers (CD83, CD32, CD14, CD15) that unexpectedly co-labeled hemangioma endothelial cells, providing new evidence that these cells are distinct from normal endothelium.

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  • (PMID = 16436675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / F32 EY013916; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011254; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / F32 EY13916; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY11254
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / CD83 antigen; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, IgG
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1606494
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46. Castori M, Rinaldi R, Angelo C, Zambruno G, Grammatico P, Happle R: Phacomatosis cesioflammea with unilateral lipohypoplasia. Am J Med Genet A; 2008 Feb 15;146A(4):492-5
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  • Phacomatosis cesioflammea is characterized by the co-existence of a large nevus cesius (i.e., aberrant Mongolian spot, or nevus fuscocoeruleus) and an extensive nevus flammeus (i.e., port-wine stain).
  • This sporadic genetic skin disorder represents a particular type of phacomatosis pigmentovascularis, a group of disorders that may reflect twin spotting.
  • We report on a 28-year-old woman with aberrant Mongolian spots, bilateral melanosis bulbi, and systematized nevus flammeus partly intermingled with nevus anemicus.
  • This anomaly of fatty tissue has not previously been reported in phacomatosis cesioflammea and further expands the clinical spectrum of this mosaic disorder.
  • The patchy distribution of lipohypoplasia and its spatial relationship with vascular lesions strongly support the hypothesis of a postzygotic recombination event.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / abnormalities. Mongolian Spot / complications. Neurocutaneous Syndromes / complications. Port-Wine Stain / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18203153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Boscolo E, Bischoff J: Vasculogenesis in infantile hemangioma. Angiogenesis; 2009;12(2):197-207
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  • [Title] Vasculogenesis in infantile hemangioma.
  • Infantile hemangioma is a vascular tumor that occurs in 5-10% of infants of European descent.
  • A defining feature of infantile hemangioma is the dramatic growth and development into a disorganized mass of blood vessels.
  • The growth and involution of infantile hemangioma is very different from other vascular tumors and vascular malformations, which do not regress and can occur at any time during childhood or adult life.
  • Much has been learned from careful study of the tissue morphology and gene expression patterns during the life-cycle of hemangioma.
  • Tissue explants and tumor-derived cell populations have provided further insight to unravel the cellular and molecular basis of infantile hemangioma.
  • A multipotent progenitor cell capable of de novo blood vessel formation has been isolated from infantile hemangioma, which suggests that this common tumor of infancy, long considered to be a model for pathologic angiogenesis, may also represent pathologic vasculogenesis.
  • Whether viewed as angiogenesis or vasculogenesis, infantile hemangioma represents a vascular perturbation during a critical period of post-natal growth, and as such provides a unique opportunity to decipher mechanisms of human vascular development.

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  • (PMID = 19430954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7209
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01 AR048564-050005; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR048564-050005; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01 AR048564; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL096384; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01 AR48564
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 82
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS169127; NLM/ PMC2810616
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48. Friedlander SF, Ritter MR, Friedlander M: Recent progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas. Lymphat Res Biol; 2005;3(4):219-25
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  • [Title] Recent progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / classification. Hemangioma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16379591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-6851
  • [Journal-full-title] Lymphatic research and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lymphat Res Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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49. Al Dhaybi R, Powell J, McCuaig C, Kokta V: Differentiation of vascular tumors from vascular malformations by expression of Wilms tumor 1 gene: evaluation of 126 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Dec;63(6):1052-7
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  • [Title] Differentiation of vascular tumors from vascular malformations by expression of Wilms tumor 1 gene: evaluation of 126 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Vascular tumors and malformations can be challenging to diagnose.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the expression of WT1 in 126 vascular lesions (64 vascular tumors, one Masson tumor, and 61 vascular malformations).
  • METHODS: Based on the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies classification of vascular anomalies, we studied the expression of WT1 in vascular tumors composed of infantile hemangioma, congenital hemangiomas (non-involuting, rapidly involuting, and not otherwise specified), pyogenic granuloma, tufted angioma, cherry angioma, Kaposi sarcoma, and angiosarcoma.
  • We also studied WT1 expression in vascular malformations composed of angiokeratoma/verrucous hemangioma, combined vascular malformations, venous malformations, glomuvenous malformations, lymphatic malformations/lymphangioma, telangiectasia, and targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma.
  • RESULTS: All vascular tumors and proliferations had positive WT1 cytoplasmic endothelial immunostaining whereas only 3 vascular malformations were WT1 positive.
  • Moreover the positivity of WT1 in these vascular malformations was focal and involved only re-endothelialized neovessels within thrombi.
  • LIMITATIONS: The low number of malignant vascular tumors is a limitation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical detection of WT1 could be a useful tool to routine evaluation of vascular anomalies allowing the distinction of vascular tumors and proliferations from vascular malformations.
  • Staining for WT1 may guide the clinician in difficult cases, as positive results would suggest a proliferative vascular lesion whereas negative results might point to a vascular malformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Hemangioma / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cell Division / physiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. Young Adult


50. Greenberger S, Adini I, Boscolo E, Mulliken JB, Bischoff J: Targeting NF-κB in infantile hemangioma-derived stem cells reduces VEGF-A expression. Angiogenesis; 2010 Dec;13(4):327-35
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  • [Title] Targeting NF-κB in infantile hemangioma-derived stem cells reduces VEGF-A expression.
  • BACKGROUND: infantile hemangioma (IH) is a most common tumor of infancy.
  • Using infantile hemangioma-derived stem cells (HemSCs), we recently demonstrated that corticosteroids suppress the expression of VEGF-A, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), and interleukin-6 (IL-6); each of these are known targets of the transcription factor nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA extracted from IH tissue and hemangioma-derived stem cells (HemSCs) was used to analyze NF-κB target gene expression by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).

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  • (PMID = 20872175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7209
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL096384-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL096384; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL096384-03
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS268304; NLM/ PMC3034388
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51. Kammoun H, Jallouli M, Gouiaa N, Boudauara TS, Mhiri R: Unusual location of a capillary hemangioma: inguinal location. Aesthetic Plast Surg; 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):593-5
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  • [Title] Unusual location of a capillary hemangioma: inguinal location.
  • A 3-month-old girl presented to the Department of Pediatric Surgery because of a strangled inguinal hernia.
  • Pathologic examination of the resected tissue confirmed the diagnosis of capillary hemangioma.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a capillary hemangioma occurring in this location.
  • They provide a review of the current literature on capillary hemangiomas, concluding that despite the rarity of these lesions, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the inguinal location.
  • [MeSH-major] Arm. Groin. Hemangioma, Capillary / pathology. Hemangioma, Capillary / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hernia, Inguinal / pathology. Hernia, Inguinal / surgery. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17576501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-216X
  • [Journal-full-title] Aesthetic plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aesthetic Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Minzer-Conzetti K, Garzon MC, Haggstrom AN, Horii KA, Mancini AJ, Morel KD, Newell B, Nopper AJ, Frieden IJ: Information about infantile hemangiomas on the Internet: how accurate is it? J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Dec;57(6):998-1004
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  • [Title] Information about infantile hemangiomas on the Internet: how accurate is it?
  • OBJECTIVES: We sought to measure the type, content, and quality of World Wide Web sites retrieved when conducting an Internet search for infantile hemangiomas.
  • METHODS: Fifty World Wide Web sites from a Google search for "hemangioma" were examined.
  • RESULTS: The most accurate subjects were the description of risk factors and natural history, whereas the least accurate areas were photographic representation of the disease and presentation of treatment options.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An Internet search for information about infantile hemangiomas yields few sites that accurately depict the full disease spectrum from innocuous to severe.
  • Online educational resources containing a broader overview of the real disease spectrum of infantile hemangiomas are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma. Information Services / standards. Internet

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  • (PMID = 17689833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Puttgen KB, Pearl M, Tekes A, Mitchell SE: Update on pediatric extracranial vascular anomalies of the head and neck. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Oct;26(10):1417-33
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  • [Title] Update on pediatric extracranial vascular anomalies of the head and neck.
  • PURPOSE: Vascular anomalies most frequently present at birth or in early childhood, and the craniofacial region is the most common site of involvement.
  • A long history of misleading nomenclature born of confusion about the presentation and natural history of various vascular anomalies has made appropriate diagnosis difficult.
  • The present article emphasizes the importance of clarity of nomenclature for proper diagnosis, both clinically and radiographically, to guide appropriate therapy.
  • Pediatric vascular anomalies can be divided into two broad categories: vascular tumors and vascular malformations.
  • This biologic classification is based on differences in natural history, cellular turnover, and histology.
  • An updated classification was introduced in 1996 by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) to include infantile hemangioma variants, other benign vascular tumors, and combined lesions.
  • Widespread confusion propagated throughout the literature and in clinical practice stems from the continued improper use of many of the terms used to describe vascular tumors and malformations ignoring their pathophysiology.
  • This leads to errors in diagnosis and the dissemination of misinformation to patients and clinicians.
  • The clinical presentation usually identifies what general type of vascular anomaly is present, either vascular tumor or vascular malformation.
  • Imaging provides crucial information about the initial diagnosis and aids in follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adoption and use of uniform nomenclature in the ISSVA classification system is the first vital step in correct diagnosis and treatment of often complicated vascular tumors and vascular malformations.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging. Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology. Head / blood supply. Neck / blood supply. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Radiography. Vascular Malformations / diagnostic imaging. Vascular Malformations / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20697721.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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54. Leon Cdo A, Braun Filho LR, Ferrari MD, Guidolin BL, Maffessoni BJ: [Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: case report]. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Jan-Feb;85(1):93-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay: relato de caso.
  • Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is characterized by a triad of port-wine stain, varicose veins with or without venous malformations, and bony and soft tissue hypertrophy.

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  • (PMID = 20464095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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55. Mutalik SS, Bathi RJ, Naikmasur VG: Sturge-Weber syndrome: physician's dream; surgeon's enigma. N Y State Dent J; 2009 Apr;75(3):44-5
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  • Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous syndrome consisting of port wine stain (facial nevus flammeus), congenital glaucoma and underlying anomalous leptomeningeal venous plexus with lack of normal cortical venous drainage.
  • The syndrome presents with various oral findings and the diagnosis of these cases is based primarily on clinical findings.
  • Here we report a case of SWS with facial angiomas, seizures and intracranial calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Face. Sturge-Weber Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gingival Diseases / diagnosis. Humans. Mouth Diseases / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19548494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-7571
  • [Journal-full-title] The New York state dental journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N Y State Dent J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Holmes LB: Chorionic villus sampling and hemangiomas. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Mar;20 Suppl 1:675-7
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  • [Title] Chorionic villus sampling and hemangiomas.
  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a widely used and safe method of prenatal diagnosis.
  • In the 1990s, concerns were raised at several medical centers that there was an increased risk to the exposed fetus for the occurrence of limb deficiencies, hemangiomas, and other vascular disruption defects.
  • The associated hemangiomas were infantile hemangiomas.
  • They were more common on the head, neck, and thorax and more often multiple in infants exposed to Cvs. One postulated mechanism for the occurrence of these hemangiomas is embolization of angioblasts or endothelial cells from the placenta to the fetal skin.
  • A question to be answered is whether the infantile hemangiomas in children exposed to CVS differ in immunohistologic characteristics from similar hemangiomas in children not exposed to CVS during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Villi Sampling / adverse effects. Fetus / blood supply. Head and Neck Neoplasms / etiology. Hemangioma / etiology. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Amniotic Band Syndrome / etiology. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Limb Deformities, Congenital / etiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First

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  • [ErratumIn] J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Sep;20(5):1629-30
  • (PMID = 19218861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD33222
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Simon SL, Moonis G, Judkins AR, Scobie J, Burnett MG, Riina HA, Judy KD: Intracranial capillary hemangioma: case report and review of the literature. Surg Neurol; 2005 Aug;64(2):154-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial capillary hemangioma: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Capillary hemangiomas are benign vascular lesions that commonly present at birth or in early infancy on the face, scalp, back, or chest.
  • The authors present an exceedingly rare case of an intracranial capillary hemangioma arising in an adult.
  • The patient underwent a resection of her tumor, which was diagnosed as a capillary hemangioma by histopathologic examination.
  • The patient has remained free of disease 41 months out from her third surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial capillary hemangiomas are exceedingly rare entities, with a capability for rapid growth.
  • When gross total resection cannot be achieved, these patients should be observed closely, and the use of adjuvant radiotherapy should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hemangioma, Capillary / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


58. Tsukimori K, Hojo S, Kawarabayashi Y, Nakanami N, Masumoto K, Kohashi K, Tsuneyoshi M, Taguchi T, Wake N: Fetal neck capillary hemangioma associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Mar;26(3):397-401
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fetal neck capillary hemangioma associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Neck / blood supply. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 17324993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Brandling-Bennett HA, Metry DW, Baselga E, Lucky AW, Adams DM, Cordisco MR, Frieden IJ: Infantile hemangiomas with unusually prolonged growth phase: a case series. Arch Dermatol; 2008 Dec;144(12):1632-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile hemangiomas with unusually prolonged growth phase: a case series.
  • BACKGROUND: Most infantile hemangiomas (IHs) complete their proliferative growth phase before 9 months of age, but those with unusually prolonged growth create unique clinical challenges.
  • All of the IHs had a deep dermal to subcutaneous component, all had either segmental or indeterminate morphologic characteristics, and 39% involved the parotid gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged growth was observed primarily in IHs with a deep component and segmental morphologic characteristics.
  • Recognition of this subset of hemangiomas is important for clinicians, and further study of IHs may provide clues to their pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / drug therapy. Hemangioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Age Factors. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Humans. Infant. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Interferons / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins. Retrospective Studies. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2008 Dec;144(12):1650 [19075153.001]
  • (PMID = 19075148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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60. North PE, Waner M, Buckmiller L, James CA, Mihm MC Jr: Vascular tumors of infancy and childhood: beyond capillary hemangioma. Cardiovasc Pathol; 2006 Nov-Dec;15(6):303-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vascular tumors of infancy and childhood: beyond capillary hemangioma.
  • Vascular tumors of infancy and childhood represent a number of clinicopathologically distinct entities for which precise histopathological diagnosis is often essential in determining effective therapeutic approach.
  • Unfortunately, pathologists and clinicians alike have traditionally tended to lump these tumors, in addition to small vessel vascular malformations, under overly generic terms like capillary hemangioma that do little, if anything, to guide proper clinical management.
  • This article provides a brief historical perspective on this progress, and then focuses on the current clinical, histological, and immunophenotypical features that distinguish the major types of vascular tumors of infancy and childhood, also reviewing new evidence regarding their mechanisms of pathogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Vessels / abnormalities. Child. Child, Preschool. Hemangioendothelioma / etiology. Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17113009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1054-8807
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular pathology : the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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61. Meyers RL: Tumors of the liver in children. Surg Oncol; 2007 Nov;16(3):195-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this review we examine the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric liver tumors- both malignant and benign.
  • The commonly seen benign liver tumors in children are infantile hemangioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, and focal nodular hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 17714939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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62. Kulac M, Karaca S, Acar M, Albayrak R, Songur A: Acquired port-wine stain related to acoustic neuroma. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2006 Jan;31(1):30-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquired port-wine stain related to acoustic neuroma.
  • Port-wine stains are frequently seen congenital vascular malformations consisting of ectatic dermal capillaries.
  • Acquired port-wine stain that develops later in life is an uncommon vascular lesion that is morphologically identical to a congenital port-wine stain.
  • In the majority of acquired port-wine stains, the aetiology is unknown, but trauma is an important causative factor.
  • Here we report the first case of a patient who had an acquired port-wine stain related to a solid brain tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroma, Acoustic / complications. Port-Wine Stain / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Erythema / etiology. Erythema / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Skin / pathology. Telangiectasis / etiology. Telangiectasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16309474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Holland KE, Drolet BA: Infantile hemangioma. Pediatr Clin North Am; 2010 Oct;57(5):1069-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile hemangioma.
  • Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common soft tissue tumors of childhood.
  • The wide spectrum of disease has made it difficult to predict need for treatment and has made it challenging to establish a standardized approach to management.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Decision Making. Disease Progression. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Infant. Infant Welfare / statistics & numerical data. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Newborn, Diseases / diagnosis. Infant, Newborn, Diseases / therapy. Risk Assessment. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20888458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8240
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Shah NB, White VA, Heran M, Haw C, Rootman J: Simultaneous intraosseous and intradural capillary haemangioma of orbit. Br J Ophthalmol; 2005 Nov;89(11):1534-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous intraosseous and intradural capillary haemangioma of orbit.
  • [MeSH-major] Dura Mater / pathology. Hemangioma, Capillary / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1981;99(1):23-8 [7316697.001]
  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 1981 Dec;88(12):1351-5 [7322487.001]
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  • (PMID = 16234472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1772938
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65. McLaughlin MR, O'Connor NR, Ham P: Newborn skin: Part II. Birthmarks. Am Fam Physician; 2008 Jan 1;77(1):56-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Newborn skin: Part II. Birthmarks.
  • Birthmarks in newborns are common sources of parental concern.
  • Large congenital melanocytic nevi require evaluation for removal, whereas smaller nevi may be observed for malignant changes.
  • With few exceptions, benign birthmarks (e.g., dermal melanosis, hemangioma of infancy, port-wine stain, nevus simplex) do not require treatment; however, effective cosmetic laser treatments exist.
  • Supernumerary nipples are common and benign; they are occasionally mistaken for congenital melanocytic nevi.
  • High- and intermediate-risk skin markers of spinal dysraphism (e.g., dermal sinuses, tails, atypical dimples, multiple lesions of any type) require evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography.
  • Family physicians should be familiar with various birthmarks and comfortable discussing disease prevention and cosmetic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / congenital. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Nevus / congenital. Nevus / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2009 Sep 15;80(6):554; author reply 554 [19817320.001]
  • (PMID = 18236823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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66. Demirci H, Shields CL, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Giant cell angiofibroma, a variant of solitary fibrous tumor, of the orbit in a 16-year-old girl. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2009 Sep-Oct;25(5):402-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histopathology was interpreted as capillary hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diplopia / diagnosis. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 19966660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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67. Schild C, Kayser G, Aschendorff A, Boedeker CC: Pedunculated capillary hemangioma of the external ear. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 May;140(5):764-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pedunculated capillary hemangioma of the external ear.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear, External. Hemangioma, Capillary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19393427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Minard-Colin V, Orbach D, Martelli H, Bodemer C, Oberlin O: [Soft tissue tumors in neonates]. Arch Pediatr; 2009 Jul;16(7):1039-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Vascular tumors are the most frequent benign tumors and infantile hemangioma accounts for 32% of these tumors, affecting 1 out of 200 children at birth.
  • Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KH) is a rare vascular tumor with locally aggressive behavior.
  • Infantile fibrosarcoma (IF) is a rare tumor that most often affects the extremities of children aged 4 years or younger.
  • [MeSH-major] Soft Tissue Neoplasms / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Fibrosarcoma / congenital. Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Fibrosarcoma / genetics. Fibrosarcoma / therapy. Gene Fusion / genetics. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Hemangioendothelioma / congenital. Hemangioendothelioma / diagnosis. Hemangioendothelioma / therapy. Hemangioma / congenital. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / therapy. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets / genetics. Receptor, trkC / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / congenital. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19398311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-664X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ETS translocation variant 6 protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkC
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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69. Fay A, Nguyen J, Waner M: Conceptual approach to the management of infantile hemangiomas. J Pediatr; 2010 Dec;157(6):881-8.e1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conceptual approach to the management of infantile hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20884010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6833
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Kelly K: Current Treatment Options for Port Wine Stain Birthmarks. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2007 Sep;4(3):147-148
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current Treatment Options for Port Wine Stain Birthmarks.

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  • [Cites] Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2005 Sep-Oct;7(5):287-94 [16172335.001]
  • [Cites] Lasers Surg Med. 2008 Nov;40(9):644-50 [18951421.001]
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  • (PMID = 18769507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R03 AR051443; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R03 AR051443-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Bernier-Rodriguez JA, Closmann JJ: Clinical case report: capillary hemangioma. Gen Dent; 2005 Mar-Apr;53(2):120-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical case report: capillary hemangioma.
  • This article reviews a case involving a patient with multiple hopeless dentition, massive gingival hyperplasia, and a vascular lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / diagnosis. Maxillary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cheek / pathology. Denture, Partial, Immediate. Diagnosis, Differential. Gingival Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Granuloma, Pyogenic / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Mouth Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15833013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Izci Y, Gurkanlar D, Gönül E: An unusual type of split cord malformation. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Apr;14(4):383-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • She presented with a capillary hemangioma in the lumbosacral region.
  • There was a Type II SCM at the L1 level and a dorsal bony septum at the S2 level.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / etiology. Spinal Cord / abnormalities. Spinal Cord Diseases / complications. Spinal Cord Diseases / congenital

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  • (PMID = 17267224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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73. Heger M, Beek JF, Moldovan NI, van der Horst CM, van Gemert MJ: Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study. Thromb Haemost; 2005 Feb;93(2):242-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Towards optimization of selective photothermolysis: prothrombotic pharmaceutical agents as potential adjuvants in laser treatment of port wine stains. A theoretical study.
  • For the past two decades much research on selective photothermolysis of port wine stain vasculature has been devoted to optimizing laser parameters.
  • A hypercoagulable state of blood will instill laser-induced occlusive thrombosis in a wider array of vessel diameters at greater dermal depths, whereby larger vascular segments will ultimately undergo the chronic inflammatory processes that result in blood volume reduction, and thus lesional blanching.
  • Lastly, in an effort to optimally balance selective photothermolysis with pharmacokinetics and clinical safety, the use of a gold nanoshell drug delivery system, in which the procoagulant drugs are encapsulated by a wavelength-modulated, gold-coated polymer matrix, is proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Coagulants / therapeutic use. Laser Therapy. Photolysis. Port-Wine Stain / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15711739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6245
  • [Journal-full-title] Thrombosis and haemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thromb. Haemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL65983
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Coagulants
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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74. Gorincour G, Kokta V, Rypens F, Garel L, Powell J, Dubois J: Imaging characteristics of two subtypes of congenital hemangiomas: rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas and non-involuting congenital hemangiomas. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Dec;35(12):1178-85
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  • [Title] Imaging characteristics of two subtypes of congenital hemangiomas: rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas and non-involuting congenital hemangiomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Common infantile hemangiomas (COMMON) occur in approximately 10% of infants by the age of 1 year, with a female predominance.
  • Some hemangiomas can be fully developed at birth and are thus called congenital hemangiomas (CH).
  • CONCLUSION: Distinctive imaging characteristics are observed in cases of CH with US findings of visible vessels and calcifications statistically significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / congenital. Hemangioma / pathology

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 2001 May;137(5):559-70 [11346333.001]
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  • (PMID = 16078073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Baxi S: Capillary haemangioma of the cervix--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Jul;48(3):373-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Capillary haemangioma of the cervix--a case report.
  • A rare lesion, haemangioma of the cervix was found in a sixty-year-old female patient with prolapse of uterus.
  • The patient had no complaints regarding the lesion and the haemangioma was detected incidentally during routine histopathological examination of the organ removed by surgery.
  • Few cases of cervical hemangioma have been reported so far.
  • Most of these are of the cavernous type morphologically, whereas the case reported here is a capillary hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


76. Guo S, Hunt MG, Superstein R: Treatment of infantile hemangiomas. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2010 Jul-Aug;47(4):198-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of infantile hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20635807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Interview
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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77. Pandey A, Gangopadhyay AN, Upadhyay VD: Evaluation and management of infantile hemangioma: an overview. Ostomy Wound Manage; 2008 May;54(5):16-8, 20, 22-6, 28-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation and management of infantile hemangioma: an overview.
  • Infantile hemangiomas are the most common tumors of infancy and commonly last 7 to 9 years.
  • Although their pathophysiology is not completely understood, recent studies have provided useful information regarding differential diagnosis, assessment approaches, and management options.
  • To enhance understanding of infantile hemangiomas and highlight recent advances in knowledge of pathophysiology and newer diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, a literature search of pertinent articles published between 1985 and 2006 in PubMed was conducted using the term hemangioma with the words types, pathophysiology, treatment, and complications.
  • Despite the generally benign nature of the condition, treatment is required for cosmetic and psychological reasons and requires differential diagnosis, particularly with regard to congenital hemangiomas and vascular and non-vascular tumors, to determine cause and address potential complications such as ulceration.
  • Various emerging treatment modalities are available (interferon, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, imiquimod, becaplermin, and laser therapy) but steroids remain the treatment of choice in cases when hemangiomas require intervention.
  • Overall prognosis in terms of healing hemangiomas using conservative measures is good.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18493091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-5899
  • [Journal-full-title] Ostomy/wound management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ostomy Wound Manage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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78. de Mesquita CJ: About strawberry, crab claws, and the Sir James Black's invention. Hypothesis: can we battle keloids with propranolol? Med Hypotheses; 2010 Feb;74(2):353-9
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  • [Title] About strawberry, crab claws, and the Sir James Black's invention. Hypothesis: can we battle keloids with propranolol?
  • The cutaneous hemangiomas of infancy or infantile hemangiomas are the most common benign tumor of childhood.
  • They were formerly known as strawberry hemangiomas in reason of its typical appearance although uncommon morphologic variations can be found.
  • Usually hemangiomas are harmless growths that are the result of proliferation of endothelial cells during early childhood.
  • Occasionally, infantile hemangiomas suffer dramatic overgrowth causing esthetical damages, as well compromises to vital structures that requires prompt intervention.
  • Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist that was invented by Sir James Black in 1960s, appears to be an effective treatment for infantile hemangiomas and should now be used as a first-line treatment in hemangiomas when intervention is required.

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  • (PMID = 19758768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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79. Bruckner AL, Frieden IJ: Infantile hemangiomas. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Oct;55(4):671-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17010748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Bibliography
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Xu GQ, Lü RR, Huo R, Guo X: [The expression of CEACAM-1 and CXCL-14 in infantile hemangioma]. Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 May;26(3):195-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The expression of CEACAM-1 and CXCL-14 in infantile hemangioma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression of CEACAM-land CXCL-14 in the different stages of infantile hemangioma and to explore the role of CEACAM-1 and CXCL-14 in the occurrence and development of infantile hemangioma.
  • METHODS: The expression of CEACAM-1 and CXCL-14 was detected by immunohistochemical technique and Western Blot in cases of proliferating hemangiomas, involuting hemangiomas, involuted hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: The expression of CEACAM-1 in early stage of proliferating hemangiomas was weak or negative, while it was strong in involuting hemangiomas and positive in the involuted stage.
  • The expression of CXCL-14 was weak or negative in stage of proliferating hemangiomas, positive in involuting hemangiomas and strong in the involuted stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CEACAM-1 and CXCL-14 are involved in the occurrence and development of infantile hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Chemokines, CXC / metabolism. Hemangioma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20737948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zheng xing wai ke za zhi = Zhonghua zhengxing waike zazhi = Chinese journal of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / CXCL14 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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81. Sharan S, Swamy B, Taranath DA, Jamieson R, Yu T, Wargon O, Grigg JR: Port-wine vascular malformations and glaucoma risk in Sturge-Weber syndrome. J AAPOS; 2009 Aug;13(4):374-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Port-wine vascular malformations and glaucoma risk in Sturge-Weber syndrome.
  • PURPOSE: Treatment of the capillary vascular malformation (port-wine stain) in Sturge-Weber syndrome with the use of a laser is helpful cosmetically.
  • However, concerns have been raised that laser obliteration of port-wine stains may result in ocular hypertension.
  • Patients who underwent skin laser to the port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed further.
  • Ocular involvement, glaucoma, and skin laser treatment and the relationship to ocular hypertension/glaucoma were observed.
  • RESULTS: Forty-one Sturge-Weber syndrome patients with port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed.
  • Glaucoma was observed in 24 patients (58.5%) at mean age of 2.9 years (range, 0.0-16.5).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective review did not find evidence to suggest that laser treatment of port-wine vascular malformations causes glaucoma or that it can worsen a preexisting ocular hypertension or glaucoma.


82. Greene AK: Corticosteroid treatment for problematic infantile hemangioma: evidence does not support an increased risk for cerebral palsy. Pediatrics; 2008 Jun;121(6):1251-2
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  • [Title] Corticosteroid treatment for problematic infantile hemangioma: evidence does not support an increased risk for cerebral palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Palsy / chemically induced. Cerebral Palsy / epidemiology. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Hemangioma / drug therapy


83. Greene AK, Kim S, Rogers GF, Fishman SJ, Olsen BR, Mulliken JB: Risk of vascular anomalies with Down syndrome. Pediatrics; 2008 Jan;121(1):e135-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of vascular anomalies with Down syndrome.
  • We hypothesized that vascular anomalies, including infantile hemangioma, an angiogenesis-dependent vascular tumor, and vascular malformations might be similarly inhibited in patients with Down syndrome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Children's Hospital Boston Vascular Anomalies Center database was searched for patients with Down syndrome between 1999 and 2007.
  • In addition, the records of patients with Down syndrome treated at Children's Hospital Boston and the National Birth Defects Center between 1985 and 2007 were reviewed to find concurrent vascular anomalies.
  • Two-sided exact binomial tests were used to evaluate whether patients with vascular anomalies are at reduced risk for Down syndrome or if patients with Down syndrome are at less risk for vascular anomalies compared with the general population.
  • Ninety-five-percent confidence intervals were calculated on the basis of the risk of Down syndrome (1 in 800) and vascular anomalies (1 in 22) in the general population.
  • RESULTS: Two of the 7354 patients evaluated in our vascular anomalies unit had Down syndrome.
  • Six of the 633 patients with Down syndrome had a vascular anomaly (infantile hemangioma [n = 4] or lymphatic malformation [n = 2]).
  • The risk of concurrent Down syndrome and vascular anomalies was different from the corresponding risk in the general population.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Down syndrome have a reduced risk of vascular anomalies compared with the general population.
  • Elevated expression of antiangiogenic proteins may protect these patients from developing vascular anomalies, as well as solid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Down Syndrome / diagnosis. Down Syndrome / epidemiology. Vascular Malformations / diagnosis. Vascular Malformations / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis. Abnormalities, Multiple / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Comorbidity. Confidence Intervals. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neonatal Screening. Probability. Registries. Severity of Illness Index. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 18166531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Reggiani Bonetti L, Boselli F, Lupi M, Bettelli S, Schirosi L, Bigiani N, Sartori G, Rivasi F: Expression of estrogen receptor in hemangioma of the uterine cervix: reports of three cases and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Sep;280(3):469-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of estrogen receptor in hemangioma of the uterine cervix: reports of three cases and review of the literature.
  • The occurrence of hemangioma in the female genital tract, particularly in uterine cervix, is rare.
  • We present three cases of hemangiomas of the cervix in asymptomatic women, diagnosed as cavernous hemangioma in two cases and capillary hemangioma in one.
  • The presence of estrogen receptor in the endothelial cells of the hemangioma of the cervix suggests a direct role of this hormone in the hemangioma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism


85. Levi M, Schwartz S, Blei F, Ceisler E, Steele M, Furlan L, Millman A, Kodsi SR: Surgical treatment of capillary hemangiomas causing amblyopia. J AAPOS; 2007 Jun;11(3):230-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of capillary hemangiomas causing amblyopia.
  • BACKGROUND: Capillary hemangiomas of the eyelids and orbit can cause refractive and occlusive amblyopia.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 10 patients in two pediatric ophthalmology practices who underwent surgical excision of a capillary hemangioma that was causing amblyopia and that had failed to regress with other treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical excision of capillary hemangiomas that were resistant to other modes of treatment was useful in relieving pupillary occlusion and in decreasing the amount of astigmatism if performed before the age of 21 months in our series of patients.

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  • (PMID = 17344079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-8531
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Yuan KH, Li Q, Yu WL, Huang Z: Successful combination therapy for severe infantile hemangiomas: case report and literature search. Photomed Laser Surg; 2009 Dec;27(6):973-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful combination therapy for severe infantile hemangiomas: case report and literature search.
  • Infantile hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors of infancy.
  • Although the majority of uncomplicated hemangiomas involute spontaneously, rapid-growth lesions with complications need early active intervention.
  • Recently, we successfully treated two cases of giant severe infantile facial hemangiomas using local application of bleomycin and pulsed dye laser along with systemic application of dexamethasone.
  • Our results suggest that the multiple modalities of bleomycin, laser, and corticosteroid are a safe and effective approach for early therapeutic intervention of severe facial hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / congenital. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangioma / congenital. Hemangioma / therapy. Laser Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20035606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8550
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1ZK20VI6TY / Triamcinolone; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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87. Boye E, Jinnin M, Olsen BR: Infantile hemangioma: challenges, new insights, and therapeutic promise. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Mar;20 Suppl 1:678-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infantile hemangioma: challenges, new insights, and therapeutic promise.
  • Infantile hemangiomas are the most common tumors of infancy.
  • About 20% of hemangiomas are extremely disfiguring and destructive to normal tissue and may even be life threatening.
  • In the last several years, much has been learned about molecular features of hemangioma and hemangioma-derived endothelial cells cultured in vitro, but the specific etiology remains unclear.
  • This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about hemangioma, highlighting the proposed mechanisms that are best supported by the available data and the implications for therapeutic advances.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms. Hemangioma
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Cell Lineage. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / physiology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology

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  • [ErratumIn] J Craniofac Surg. 2009 Sep;20(5):1629-30
  • (PMID = 19190505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P01 AR048564
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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88. Gawrych E, Walecka A, Rajewska J, Juszkiewicz P: [Intralesional corticosteroid therapy in infantile hemangiomas]. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2009;55(1):15-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intralesional corticosteroid therapy in infantile hemangiomas].
  • INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of intralesional corticosteroid therapy in infantile hemangiomas.
  • Physical investigation was carried out before and after treatment.
  • RESULTS: Hemangioma was disclosed immediately after birth in 30 patients (78%).
  • The tumor had an intense cherry color and demonstrated increased pressure and fast enlargement during the first weeks of life.
  • The location of hemangioma was on the head and neck in 22 children (58%) and on the chest, extremities, abdomen, or lower back (lumbar region) in the remaining children.
  • Doppler ultrasound revealed increased vascular flow in the tumor of all patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intralesional corticosteroid therapy is an effective and safe modality particularly suitable for the management of extensive hemangiomas of the head and neck when surgical options are limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20349587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1427-440X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Acad Med Stetin
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 1ZK20VI6TY / Triamcinolone; A73MM2Q32P / triamcinolone diacetate; R60L0SM5BC / Midazolam
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89. Nicolae C, Olsen BR: Unexpected matrix diseases and novel therapeutic strategies. Cell Tissue Res; 2010 Jan;339(1):155-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Within the framework of a broad definition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), this review discusses three genetic disorders in which major pathogenetic features have been traced back to alterations in the levels/activities of matrix components.
  • In each case, disease-associated alterations are found both intra- and extracellularly.
  • The first of these disorders, cherubism, is a case of inflammatory bone loss in the jaws of children for reasons that are surprisingly systemic in nature, considering the local nature of the disease.
  • The primary defect involves an intracellular signaling molecule, but a major pathogenetic component and therapeutic target of the disease is the extracellular cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha.
  • The second disorder, Knobloch syndrome, is caused by recessive mutations in collagen XVIII.
  • Although this protein has been classified as belonging to a group of structural macromolecules, the consequence of the mutations is impairment of cellular metabolism.
  • The third disorder, infantile hemangioma, is a common tumor of capillary endothelial cells in infancy.
  • The proliferative phase is the result of constitutively high levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)-dependent signaling through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), but recent studies have led to the surprising conclusion that abnormalities in a cell-surface receptor complex controlling expression of the VEGF decoy receptor VEGFR1 is the underlying cause.
  • [MeSH-major] Cherubism. Extracellular Matrix. Hemangioma. Metabolism, Inborn Errors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Child. Child, Preschool. Collagen / genetics. Collagen / metabolism. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Inflammation / genetics. Inflammation / metabolism. Inflammation / pathology. Inflammation / therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19813027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0878
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / COL28A1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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90. Kurimoto M, Noguchi K, Nagai S, Asahi T, Kuwayama N, Hayashi N, Endo S: Thoracic vertebral cavernous hemangioma in a schizophrenic patient--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(6):485-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracic vertebral cavernous hemangioma in a schizophrenic patient--case report.
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging suggested thoracic vertebral hemangioma.
  • Dynamic CT incidentally detected a hepatic hemangioma.
  • Laminectomy of T3 and T4, resection of the epidural hemangioma, and rigid instrumentation between T1 and T6 using rod and hook systems were performed.
  • Postoperatively, his symptoms completely disappeared and the histological diagnosis was capillary hemangioma.
  • The patient had a rare association of vertebral hemangioma and hepatic hemangioma, which may be a chance occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / complications. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / pathology. Schizophrenia / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20587975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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91. Lanigan SW: Improving the treatment of port wine stain birthmarks. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2007 Sep;4(3):143-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Improving the treatment of port wine stain birthmarks.

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  • (PMID = 25047429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-1000
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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92. Ho KM: Research in infantile haemangioma: local perspectives. Hong Kong Med J; 2010 Oct;16(5):332-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Research in infantile haemangioma: local perspectives.

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  • (PMID = 20889995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Introductory Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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93. Rivera LK, Nelson BL: Juvenile hemangioma of the parotid gland. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Jun;2(2):81-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Juvenile hemangioma of the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2001 Oct;125(10):1340-3 [11570911.001]
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  • (PMID = 20614327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807547
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94. Stockman A, Boralevi F, Taïeb A, Léauté-Labrèze C: SACRAL syndrome: spinal dysraphism, anogenital, cutaneous, renal and urologic anomalies, associated with an angioma of lumbosacral localization. Dermatology; 2007;214(1):40-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] SACRAL syndrome: spinal dysraphism, anogenital, cutaneous, renal and urologic anomalies, associated with an angioma of lumbosacral localization.
  • BACKGROUND: Publications concerning perineal infantile hemangiomas are scarce, and comprise no large series.
  • OBJECTIVE: Studying clinical features of hemangiomas of the perineal area, complications and associated malformations.
  • METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all hemangiomas localized in the perineal area, encountered at the Children's Hospital in Bordeaux from 1994.
  • RESULTS: Of 49 perineal hemangiomas (34 girls, 15 boys), 5 patients had accompanying malformation, mainly lipomyelomeningocele with tethered cord.
  • The superficial hemangiomas were more represented in males and presented sooner than the nodular counterpart.
  • CONCLUSION: Superficial perineal hemangiomas are more often complicated by ulceration, and are associated with developmental anomalies.
  • As a counterpart for the PHACE syndrome in facial hemangioma, we propose the acronym SACRAL for perineal hemangiomas: Spinal dysraphism, Anogenital anomalies, Cutaneous anomalies, Renal and urologic anomalies, associated with Angioma of Lumbosacral localization.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / abnormalities. Hemangioma / complications. Skin Abnormalities / complications. Spinal Dysraphism / complications. Urogenital Abnormalities / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lumbosacral Plexus. Male. Perineum. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Syndrome

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatology. 2007;215(4):360; author reply 360-1 [17911998.001]
  • (PMID = 17191046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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95. Gold R, O'Keefe M, Langer P: Management of capillary hemangiomas. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2006 Nov-Dec;43(6):326-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of capillary hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangioma, Capillary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17162966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Mehriar M, Attarzadeh A, Naseri M, Owji N, Siyoofi S, Mosallaei M: A potential therapeutic strategy for capillary hemangioma with new anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. Med Hypotheses; 2007;69(4):951
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A potential therapeutic strategy for capillary hemangioma with new anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / drug therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17408872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-9877
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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97. Brix M, Soupre V, Enjolras O, Vazquez MP: [Antenatal diagnosis of rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas (RICH)]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2007 Apr;108(2):109-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Antenatal diagnosis of rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas (RICH)].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic anténatal des RICH (rapidlyinvoluting congenital hemangiomas).
  • INTRODUCTION: Since 1996, vascular anomalies are classified either as tumors or malformations.
  • Infantile hemangioma is the most common vascular tumor.
  • It is an endothelial cellular proliferation, stimulated after birth (10th day) which then slow involves.
  • Congenital hemangioma is a different kind of hemangioma develops prenatally appearing fully grown at birth.
  • Rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH) generally involutes spontaneously while non involuting congenital hemangioma (NICH) usually requires a surgical procedure.
  • Most congenital hemangiomas detected at antenatal ultrasonography, due to their cephalic localization and their size (up to 10 cm) are RICH.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report on five vascular tumors detected in utero during the second and third trimesters, and after birth.
  • DISCUSSION: The diagnosis of RICH can be suspected on the antenatal ultrasonography.
  • Fast-flow on the doppler examination confirms the diagnosis.
  • In the event of a prenatal vascular tumor the differential diagnosis also includes other congenital tumors.
  • Regular follow-up is necessary during the first months to confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / congenital. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / congenital. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Male. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Pregnancy. Ultrasonography, Doppler. Ultrasonography, Prenatal / methods

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  • (PMID = 17350057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1768
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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98. Park SH, Shin SY: What's your diagnosis? Deep seated periorbital capillary hemangioma. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2009 Jan-Feb;46(1):10, 18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What's your diagnosis? Deep seated periorbital capillary hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19213269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Stewart VR, Sriprasad S, Pomplun S, Walsh K, Sidhu PS: Sonographic features of a spermatic cord capillary hemangioma. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Jan;26(1):139-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonographic features of a spermatic cord capillary hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / ultrasonography. Hemangioma, Capillary / ultrasonography. Spermatic Cord / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 17182721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Pandya R, Tummala V: Giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma. Pediatr Radiol; 2010 Dec;40 Suppl 1:S63-7
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  • [Title] Giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma.
  • We present a very unusual case of giant infantile pulmonary hemangioma presenting as a large solitary pulmonary mass.
  • Histological examination revealed that the mass was positive for GLUT-1 receptor, a marker for infantile hemangioma.
  • To our knowledge only a few cases of pulmonary hemangioma have been described previously in the literature.
  • Pulmonary hemangiomas are very rare lesions, most of them presenting as a pulmonary mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiography. Hemangioma / diagnostic imaging. Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging

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  • (PMID = 20461368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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