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1. Lin CH, Yu JC, Shih ML, Peng YJ, Hsieh CB: Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Formos Med Assoc; 2005 Apr;104(4):282-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primitive vascular tumor of the spleen which is benign and usually associated with visceral malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of LCA is based on histologic and immunohistologic analysis.
  • Dynamic computed tomography studies showed splenomegaly (20 cm in long axis) with a hypodense tumor in the upper pole and a contrast-enhanced hepatic mass in the right lobe of the liver.
  • Histopathology showed a moderately differentiated HCC of the liver and splenic angioma with dilated vascular channels lined by plump endothelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 15909068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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2. Alomari AI: Comments on imaging and management of hepatic hemangiomas. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Jun;39(6):637-8
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  • [Title] Comments on imaging and management of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Radiol. 2009 Mar;39(3):277-81 [19083217.001]
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  • (PMID = 19387632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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3. Turowski C, Feist H, Alzen G, Glüer S, Petersen C: Conversion of a neonatal hepatic hemangioma to focal nodular hyperplasia. Pathol Int; 2009 Apr;59(4):251-4
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  • [Title] Conversion of a neonatal hepatic hemangioma to focal nodular hyperplasia.
  • Hepatic hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia are both frequently observed benign lesions of the liver.
  • Whereas hepatic hemangioma is the most frequent benign liver tumor in children, focal nodular hyperplasia occurs predominantly in adult patients.
  • We report on a 6-month-old child with a continuously shrinking hepatic hemangioma after interventional therapy and a growing hepatic mass 5 years later, which emerged as focal nodular hyperplasia at the site of the former hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19351369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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4. Willenbrock K, Kriener S, Oeschger S, Hansmann ML: Nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver with simultaneous focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma: discrimination from primary hepatic MALT-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Virchows Arch; 2006 Feb;448(2):223-7
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  • [Title] Nodular lymphoid lesion of the liver with simultaneous focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma: discrimination from primary hepatic MALT-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Nodular lymphoid lesion (NLL) of the liver is a rare but unique entity and has also been termed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver.
  • We describe the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biologic findings of a case with NLL and two other tumors of the liver.
  • The nodular lymphoid mass found in the liver was composed of heterogeneous small lymphocytes forming reactive follicles.
  • The lymphoid infiltrate displaced the adjacent hepatic parenchyma.
  • The diagnosis of NLL was made.
  • In addition to NLL, focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma were detected.
  • The discrimination of NLL from primary hepatic malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type may pose diagnostic difficulties and may require the use of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques.
  • The simultaneous occurrence of NLL with focal nodular hyperplasia and hemangioma in the liver has not been described before.
  • [MeSH-major] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD20 / analysis. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. B-Lymphocytes / chemistry. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Clone Cells / chemistry. Clone Cells / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphocytes / chemistry. Lymphocytes / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / metabolism. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. T-Lymphocytes / chemistry. T-Lymphocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16331470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, CD3
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5. Tian QH, Yun JP, Miao J, Chen G, Fu J, Zhang CQ, Su SG, Zhang MF, Wu QL: [High expression of nucleophosmin/B23 in hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;35(7):407-11
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  • Immunohistochemical study for B23 was performed on 103 cases of HCC, 12 cases of focal nodular hyperplasia and 17 cases of native liver tissue adjacent to hepatic hemangioma.
  • Fresh specimens from 10 cases of HCC and the adjacent liver tissue were also collected for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis.
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that B23 expression in HCC was higher than that in adjacent liver tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: B23 expression in HCC was significantly higher than that in liver tissues with non-malignant diseases.
  • B23 may be used as a marker for neoplastic changes in liver cells and thus has potential clinicopathologic application.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / genetics. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / metabolism. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17069676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin
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6. van Gorcum M, van Buuren HR, Hussain SM, Zondervan PE, IJzermans JN, de Man RA: [Fever as a sign of inflammatory syndrome in a female patient with hepatic haemangioma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 May 28;149(22):1227-30
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  • [Title] [Fever as a sign of inflammatory syndrome in a female patient with hepatic haemangioma].
  • [Transliterated title] Koorts als uiting van inflammatoir syndroom bij een patiënte met een leverhemangioom.
  • Diagnostic imaging revealed a hepatic haemangioma with a diameter of 20 cm.
  • Because such giant haemangiomas of the liver can lead to inflammatory syndrome, the tumour was surgically removed.
  • Pathological analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and evidence of extensive thrombosis and other vascular defects was found.
  • In patients with a giant haemangioma in the liver who present with an inflammatory syndrome, the haemangioma should be considered as the causal factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fever / etiology. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Weight Loss

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  • (PMID = 15952499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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7. Gönül M, Gul U, Gunduz H, Artantas S, Demiriz M: Disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma: two case reports. J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;32(12):996-9
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  • [Title] Disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma: two case reports.
  • Lobular capillary hemangioma, also known as pyogenic granuloma, is a common, solitary, benign neoplasm of the skin and mucous membranes.
  • Lobular capillary hemangioma can present rarely in a disseminated form, usually associated with other disorders.
  • Two patients, aged 17 and 33, were admitted to the dermatology clinic with disseminated lobular capillary hemangiomas which appeared suddenly.
  • The histopathology of the lesions was consistent with lobular capillary hemangioma.
  • No associated disorders were found in physical and laboratory examinations other than mental retardation in one patient and a small hemangioma in the liver in the other.
  • We report two cases of disseminated lobular capillary hemangioma without an associated disorder.


8. Mzali R, Affess N, Gharbi A, Boujelbene S, Beyrouti MI: [Enucleation of an hepatic hemangioma: case report]. Tunis Med; 2008 Jan;86(1):89-91
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  • [Title] [Enucleation of an hepatic hemangioma: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Enucléation d'un angiome du foie: a propos d'un cas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19472713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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9. Assy N, Nasser G, Djibre A, Beniashvili Z, Elias S, Zidan J: Characteristics of common solid liver lesions and recommendations for diagnostic workup. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 14;15(26):3217-27
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  • [Title] Characteristics of common solid liver lesions and recommendations for diagnostic workup.
  • Due to the widespread clinical use of imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), previously unsuspected liver masses are increasingly being found in asymptomatic patients.
  • This review discusses the various characteristics of the most common solid liver lesions and recommends a practical approach for diagnostic workup.
  • Likely diagnoses include hepatocellular carcinoma (the most likely; a solid liver lesion in a cirrhotic liver) and hemangioma (generally presenting as a mass in a non-cirrhotic liver).
  • Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatic adenoma should be ruled out in young women.
  • If the patient is known to have a primary malignancy and the lesion was found at tumor staging or follow up, histology is required only when the nature of the liver lesion is doubtful.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Liver Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Incidental Findings. Liver Cirrhosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19598296.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 131
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2710776
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10. Au WY, Liu CL: Growth of giant hepatic hemangioma after triplet pregnancy. J Hepatol; 2005 May;42(5):781
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  • [Title] Growth of giant hepatic hemangioma after triplet pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / etiology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver / blood supply. Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular / pathology. Triplets

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  • (PMID = 15826730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Aksenov IV, Fedorchenko AN: [Hepatic hemangioma: the choice of treatment]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2010;(6):40-2
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  • [Title] [Hepatic hemangioma: the choice of treatment].
  • 117 patients with hepatic hemangioma were treated.
  • The possibility and technical features of liver resections by hepatic hemangiomas are discussed.
  • Authors state the necessity of reduction of surgical treatment of hepatic hemangiomas and substantiate the need of dynamic observation of such lesions of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20559223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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12. Artiko MV, Sobić-Saranović PD, Perisić-Savić SM, Stojković VM, Radoman BI, Knezević SJ, Petrović SN, Obradović BV, Milović V: 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2008;55(4):23-6
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  • [Title] 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.
  • The aim of the study is the assessment of the value of SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in the detection of liver hemangioma, in comparison to planar imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Erythrocytes. Female. Humans. Liver / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19245136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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13. Akamatsu N, Sugawara Y, Komagome M, Ishida T, Shin N, Cho N, Ozawa F, Hashimoto D: Giant liver hemangioma resected by trisectorectomy after efficient volume reduction by transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:283
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  • [Title] Giant liver hemangioma resected by trisectorectomy after efficient volume reduction by transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Liver hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors, usually small in size and requiring no treatment.
  • Giant hemangiomas complicated with consumptive coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome) or causing severe incapacitating symptoms, however, are generally considered an absolute indication for surgical resection.
  • Here, we present the case of a giant hemangioma, which was, to the best of our knowledge, one of the largest ever reported.
  • Examinations at the first visit revealed a right liver hemangioma occupying the abdominal cavity, protruding into the right diaphragm up to the right thoracic cavity and extending down to the pelvic cavity, with a maximum diameter of 43 cm, complicated with "asymptomatic" Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • Based on the tumor size and the anatomic relationship between the tumor and hepatic vena cava, primary resection seemed difficult and dangerous, leading us to first perform transcatheter arterial embolization to reduce the tumor volume and to ensure the safety of future resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To date, there have been several reports of aggressive surgical treatments, including extra-corporeal hepatic resection and liver transplantation, for huge hemangiomas like the present case, but because of its benign nature, every effort should be made to avoid life-threatening surgical stress for patients.
  • Our experience demonstrates that a pre-operative arterial embolization may effectively enable the resection of large hemangiomas.

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  • (PMID = 20731839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2936318
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14. Berloco P, Bruzzone P, Mennini G, Della Pietra F, Iappelli M, Novelli G, Rossi M: Giant hemangiomas of the liver: surgical strategies and technical aspects. HPB (Oxford); 2006;8(3):200-1
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  • [Title] Giant hemangiomas of the liver: surgical strategies and technical aspects.
  • The incidence of hemangiomas is 2-7% in the general population.
  • We evaluated more than 300 patients with hepatic hemangiomas.
  • Surgical removal of hepatic hemangiomas was performed in 48 cases due to uncertain diagnosis (2 cases), intractable symptoms (26 cases), size increase (18 cases), and liver failure in 2 cases that were treated by hepatic transplantation.
  • In all, 26 patients underwent enucleation of hemangiomas or segmentectomies, while the remaining 20 patients underwent right lobectomies or left lateral segmentectomies.
  • Blood transfusions were required in four cases (including two liver transplants); mean post-resection hospital stay was 6.3 days.
  • Our experience confirms that, after adequate patient selection, surgical treatment of hepatic hemangiomas is a very effective therapeutic choice with no mortality and low morbidity.

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  • (PMID = 18333276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2131674
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15. Rademaker J, Kim YJ, Leibecke T, Raman SS, Voit C: Cowden disease: CT findings in three patients. Abdom Imaging; 2005 Mar-Apr;30(2):204-7
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  • Cowden disease, also known as multiple hamartoma syndromes, is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous benign mucocutaneous tumors, hamartomas of multiple organs, and malignancies of the breast and thyroid.
  • In addition to the classic findings, the patients were diagnosed with spinal neurinoma (n=1), meningioma (n=1), and hepatic hemangioma (n=3).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Duodenum / radiography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver / radiography. Lung / radiography. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15812679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-8925
  • [Journal-full-title] Abdominal imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Abdom Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Song ZQ, Zhou LY: [A clinical analysis of six cases of portal hypertension secondary to primary myelofibrosis and review of literatures]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Oct;49(10):845-7
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  • The median duration from illness onset to definite diagnosis was 24 months.
  • Only a small portion of patients had jaundice, liver palms and spider angioma.
  • The indexes related to liver functions were normal or only mild abnormal in most cases.
  • Liver biopsy revealed extramedullary hemopoiesis in one patient.
  • The main keys to differentiate PH-PMF from cirrhosis included marked splenomegaly, mild or moderate hepatomegaly, good liver functions, lack of liver palms or spider angioma and extramedullary hemopoiesis showed in liver biopsy samples.

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  • (PMID = 21162885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1426
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Kim KW, Kim AY, Kim TK, Kim SY, Kim MJ, Park MS, Park SH, Lee KH, Kim JK, Kim PN, Ha HK, Lee MG: Hepatic hemangiomas with arterioportal shunt: sonographic appearances with CT and MRI correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2006 Oct;187(4):W406-14
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  • [Title] Hepatic hemangiomas with arterioportal shunt: sonographic appearances with CT and MRI correlation.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize and illustrate the sonographic appearance of hepatic hemangiomas with arterioportal shunt and to correlate them with CT and MRI findings.
  • CONCLUSION: High-flow hepatic hemangiomas tend to be seen as hypoechoic lesions at sonography.
  • In the presence of fatty infiltration in the liver, they may accompany peritumoral low-echoic areas presumably caused by peritumoral sparing of fatty infiltration similar to a hyperattenuating or hyperintense peritumoral rim on unenhanced CT or MR chemical shift imaging.
  • Knowledge of such sonographic findings may ensure an accurate sonographic diagnosis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatty Liver / complications. Fatty Liver / radiography. Fatty Liver / ultrasonography. Female. Hepatic Artery / radiography. Hepatic Artery / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Portal Vein / radiography. Portal Vein / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16985113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Bernini GP, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, Taurino C, Salvetti A: Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1032-7
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  • [Title] Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene.
  • In addition, CT and MR revealed a vertebral and two hepatic hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Ganglioneuroma / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Spinal Neoplasms / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16483185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.3.2.27 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein; EC 6.3.2.- / VHL protein, human
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19. Aseni P, Lauterio A, Slim AO, Giacomoni A, Lamperti L, De Carlis L: Life-saving super-urgent liver transplantation with replacement of retrohepatic vena cava by dacron graft. HPB Surg; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Life-saving super-urgent liver transplantation with replacement of retrohepatic vena cava by dacron graft.
  • We describe a modified technique of side-to-side cavo-cavostomy by Dacron interposition prosthesis during a super urgent liver transplantation.
  • A liver graft from a deceased donor was immediately requested on a top priority basis as a consequence of massive bleeding during extended left hepatectomy for a huge hepatic haemangioma arising from the caudate lobe.
  • A liver graft from a deceased donor was available 16 hours later.
  • Due to the shortness of the vena cava of the donor liver graft, the removal of the Dacron graft was impossible and a modified side-to-side cavo-cavostomy between the Dacron interposition graft and the vena cava of the donor liver was than performed.
  • Liver transplantation was uneventful and the patient is doing well 25 months after the surgical procedure.
  • Although the use of synthetic vascular prosthesis should usually be discouraged during organ transplantation, its exceptional use during liver transplantation is possible with long-term good results.

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  • (PMID = 20811479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8462
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB surgery : a world journal of hepatic, pancreatic and biliary surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2926580
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20. Ng WW, Cheung YS, Lee KF, Wong J, Yu SC, Lee PS, Lai PB: Is regular follow-up scan for giant liver haemangioma necessary? Hong Kong Med J; 2007 Oct;13(5):353-8
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  • [Title] Is regular follow-up scan for giant liver haemangioma necessary?
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the reliability of radiological diagnosis and need of regular scans for giant liver haemangioma, in terms of long-term outcome and management options.
  • PATIENTS: Patients with giant liver haemangioma noted on initial imaging from February 1996 to July 2006.
  • RESULTS: There were 42 female and 22 male patients with a median age of 49 (range, 27-84) years with a suspected haemangioma.
  • Besides regular follow-up scans, 22 patients were investigated further to confirm the diagnosis/exclude malignancy.
  • Finally, 63 patients had a haemangioma and one had a hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Most (54%) of the patients were asymptomatic, but in 17% the haemangioma enlarged to exceed its original size by more than 20%.
  • There were no haemangioma-associated complications.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Majority of patients having giant liver haemangioma are asymptomatic and do not suffer complications.
  • If the diagnosis is uncertain, selective further investigations may be necessary.
  • Lesions with a confirmed diagnosis tend to remain static in size; performing regular scans for asymptomatic giant liver haemangiomas may not be necessary.

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  • (PMID = 17914140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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21. Haass NK, Wladykowski E, Kief S, Moll I, Brandner JM: Differential induction of connexins 26 and 30 in skin tumors and their adjacent epidermis. J Histochem Cytochem; 2006 Feb;54(2):171-82
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  • Further, Cx26 and Cx30 are induced in the epidermis adjacent to malignant melanoma but absent in the epidermis adjacent to benign non-epithelial skin lesions (melanocytic nevi and angioma).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Hemangioma / metabolism. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Keratosis / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Nevus, Pigmented / metabolism. Warts / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16046668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / GJB6 protein, human; 127120-53-0 / connexin 26; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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22. Malagari K, Alexopoulou E, Dourakis S, Kelekis A, Hatzimichail K, Sissopoulos A, Delis S, Letsou D, Kelekis D: Transarterial embolization of giant liver hemangiomas associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: a case report. Acta Radiol; 2007 Jul;48(6):608-12
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  • [Title] Transarterial embolization of giant liver hemangiomas associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: a case report.
  • Of 22 patients with symptomatic giant liver hemangiomas referred for embolization, two females (52 and 74 years) had Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS).
  • Hepatic angiography revealed excessive vascular lakes typical of cavernous hemangiomas.
  • Coil packing of the feeding hepatic artery was additionally used in one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Coagulation Disorders / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hemangioma / complications. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Fibrinogen. Follow-Up Studies. Hematocrit / methods. Hepatic Artery / radiography. Humans. Microspheres. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Rare Diseases. Syndrome. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17611866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-1851
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen
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23. Chung EM, Cube R, Lewis RB, Conran RM: From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation part 1. Benign tumors. Radiographics; 2010 May;30(3):801-26
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  • [Title] From the archives of the AFIP: Pediatric liver masses: radiologic-pathologic correlation part 1. Benign tumors.
  • Benign hepatic tumors in children include lesions that are unique to the pediatric age group and others that are more common in adults.
  • Infantile hemangioendothelioma, or infantile hepatic hemangioma, is a benign vascular tumor that may cause serious clinical complications.
  • Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver occurs in young children and is characterized pathologically by mesenchymal proliferation with fluid-containing cysts of varying size and number.
  • Benign epithelial tumors that are common in adults may infrequently occur in childhood.
  • All are composed of hyperplastic hepatocytes similar to surrounding liver parenchyma and may be difficult to discern at imaging.
  • Preferential hepatic arterial phase enhancement helps distinguish FNH and hepatic adenoma from uninvolved liver.
  • Hepatic adenoma often has intracellular fat and a propensity for intratumoral hemorrhage, neither of which are seen in FNH.
  • Knowledge of how the pathologic features of these tumors affect their imaging appearances helps radiologists offer an appropriate differential diagnosis and management plan.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20462995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Fernández-Pineda I, Bernabeu-Wittel J: [Hepatic hemangiomas]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jun-Jul;33(6):473-4; author reply 474-5
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  • [Title] [Hepatic hemangiomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Hemangiomas hepáticos.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / classification. Hepatic Veins / abnormalities. Liver Neoplasms / classification. Terminology as Topic. Vascular Malformations / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Child. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Hemangioma, Capillary / classification. Hemangioma, Capillary / therapy. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Portacaval Shunt, Surgical. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Vasoconstrictor Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentOn] Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 May;33(5):391-7 [20096966.001]
  • (PMID = 20537429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasoconstrictor Agents
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25. Miliaras D, Conroy J, Pervana S, Meditskou S, McQuaid D, Nowak N: Karyotypic changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization in a stillborn infant with chorioangioma and liver hemangioma. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol; 2007 Mar;79(3):236-41
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  • [Title] Karyotypic changes detected by comparative genomic hybridization in a stillborn infant with chorioangioma and liver hemangioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Placental hemangioma (chorioangioma) and congenital hemangioma are relatively common tumors, which on rare occasions may occur together.
  • CASE: Herein we describe a rare case of a stillborn infant with chorioangioma, placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and liver cavernous hemangioma.
  • The chromosomal abnormalities that we found were deletions at 2q13 and 7p21.1 and were common to both placental and liver lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: None of the identified chromosomal aberrations have been previously associated with chorioangiomas or hemangiomas.
  • Important genes that lie in these DNA regions may be implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital hemangiomas and mesenchymal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Hemangioma / genetics. Hemangioma, Cavernous / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Placenta Diseases / genetics. Stillbirth / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17203486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-0752
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016056-30
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Zakavi R: How should we image liver hemangioma? Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 Sep-Dec;9(3):187
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How should we image liver hemangioma?
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocytes / radionuclide imaging. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • [CommentOn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2006 May-Aug;9(2):109-10 [16894416.001]
  • (PMID = 17160164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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27. Wang CN, He XL, Zhang HB, Ding HX: [Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Dec;36(12):858-9
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  • [Title] [Littoral cell angioma of the spleen in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications. Hemangioma / complications. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hepatitis B, Chronic / complications. Spleen / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD31 / immunology. Hepatocytes / cytology. Hepatocytes / pathology. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18346365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31
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28. Yamamoto K, Shiraki K, Nakanishi S, Fuke H, Hashimoto A, Shimizu A, Nakano T: The usefulness of 1.5 harmonic imaging ultrasonography with Levovist in the diagnosis of focal hepatic tumors. Int J Oncol; 2005 Oct;27(4):989-95
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  • [Title] The usefulness of 1.5 harmonic imaging ultrasonography with Levovist in the diagnosis of focal hepatic tumors.
  • In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography with the use of the contrast agent Levovist for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastatic hepatic tumor, and hepatic hemangioma.
  • The subjects in this study were 64 patients with 70 nodules of hepatic tumors (42 nodules in 36 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 20 nodules in 20 cases of metastatic hepatic tumor, and 8 nodules in 8 cases of hepatic hemangioma).
  • 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography of metastatic hepatic tumor showed hypervascular enhancement of the margin of 20 nodules (100%) in the early and portal phases, which changed to images with no contrast enhancement in the late phase.
  • 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography of hepatic hemangiomas maintained hypervascular enhancement on the tumor margin of 5 nodules (62.5%) in the early and portal phases.
  • 1.5 harmonic imaging sonography of hepatic tumors (hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic hepatic tumor and hepatic hemangioma) provided characteristic findings of contrast enhancement in the early, portal, and late phases, and will contribute to differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Contrast Media / pharmacology. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polysaccharides. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiography. Carbon Dioxide / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16142315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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29. Meguro M, Soejima Y, Taketomi A, Ikegami T, Yamashita Y, Harada N, Itoh S, Hirata K, Maehara Y: Living donor liver transplantation in a patient with giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(5):463-8
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  • [Title] Living donor liver transplantation in a patient with giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: report of a case.
  • We herein present a case of unresectable giant hepatic hemangiomas with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome which was successfully treated by living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft.
  • The hepatic tumors were thus judged untreatable and the only option for a cure was to offer living donor liver transplantation, because of the tumor size, its location, and the association with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • A left lobe graft with the middle hepatic vein donated by her 47-year-old brother was transplanted under venovenous bypass.
  • In conclusion, living donor liver transplantation was found to be an effective option for the treatment of a patient with unresectable giant hepatic hemangiomas complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Living Donors


30. Al-Kaabi A, Yanofsky R, Bunge M, Hyman J, Rafay MF: Diffuse hemangiomatosis with predominant central nervous system involvement. Pediatr Neurol; 2009 Jan;40(1):54-7
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  • Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis presents with multiple, progressive, rapidly growing cutaneous hemangiomas associated with widespread visceral hemangiomas in the liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, brain, and meninges.
  • The early appearance of central nervous system lesions on imaging can overlap with that of cavernous malformations, confounding diagnosis; however, rapid growth, response to steroids, cystic appearance with sedimentation levels of the mature lesions, and involvement of other visceral organs can help confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Venous Angioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19068256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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31. Limawararut V, Davis G, Crompton J, Leibovitch I, Selva D: Recurrent multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in association with systemic tumors. Am J Ophthalmol; 2006 May;141(5):943-5
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  • [Title] Recurrent multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in association with systemic tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To report the clinical findings and management of multiple, recurrent cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit in a patient with concurrent liver involvement.
  • RESULTS: A 35-year-old woman with blurry vision and proptosis was found to have multiple cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit.
  • Fifteen years later, the patient had recurrent, multiple cavernous hemangiomas in the same orbit.
  • Further investigations for vague back pain revealed a presumed cavernous hemangioma in the liver and a presumed schwannoma arising from the neural foramen of the spine at the level of T2 through T4.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple cavernous hemangiomas may recur after complete excision and may exist with concurrent systemic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16678512.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Vasconcelos L, Silva S, Garcia A, Medeiros D, Albuquerque E Castro J, Capitão LM: [Visceral artery aneurysms: alternative therapeutic approach]. Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc; 2006 Jul-Sep;13(3):155-8
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  • Case number 2 was a 72 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for hepatic angioma and hypothyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 17057828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-7215
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-torácica e vascular : órgão oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Torácica e Vascular
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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33. Muthamilselvan S, Vinoth PN, Vilvanathan V, Ninan B, Amboiram P, Sai V, Anand V, Scott JX: Hepatic haemangioma of infancy: role of propranolol. Ann Trop Paediatr; 2010;30(4):335-8
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  • [Title] Hepatic haemangioma of infancy: role of propranolol.
  • A newborn girl with a haemangioma of the liver failed to respond to cortico-steroid therapy.
  • Ultrasonic evidence of the haemangioma disappeared after 2 months of treatment with propranolol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Infant, Premature, Diseases / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Propranolol / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21118629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3281
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of tropical paediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Trop Paediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol
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34. Han SL, Wu XL, Jia ZR, Wang PF: Adult hepatic cavernous haemangioma with highly elevated alpha-fetoprotein. Hong Kong Med J; 2010 Oct;16(5):400-2
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  • [Title] Adult hepatic cavernous haemangioma with highly elevated alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Laboratory examination revealed that his serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 1890 microg/L (reference range, 0-20 microg/L), and computed tomographic scan showed a hypodense lesion in the left liver lobe.
  • At laparotomy, a dark reddish soft tumour (3.0 x 3.5 cm in diameter) was found in the medial segment of the liver (segment III).
  • Intra-operative pathology and postoperative histopathology examinations revealed that the tumour was a cavernous haemangioma of the liver.
  • Clinicians should be aware that some rare tumours besides hepatocellular carcinoma and endodermal sinus tumours (yolk sac tumour), for example, hepatic haemangioma, can produce alpha-fetoprotein.

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  • (PMID = 20890007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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35. Zenzen W, Perez-Atayde AR, Elisofon SA, Kim HB, Alomari AI: Hepatic failure in a rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver: failure of embolotherapy. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Oct;39(10):1118-23
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  • [Title] Hepatic failure in a rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver: failure of embolotherapy.
  • We report the clinical course, imaging findings, and management of a rare case of rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma of the liver in a newborn girl.
  • The baby presented with severe progressive hepatic dysfunction and cardiomegaly.
  • Multimodality imaging demonstrated a large hypervascular solitary hepatic mass with marked transhepatic shunting, consistent with rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma.
  • Because medical therapy failed, transarterial and transvenous embolization was performed with the main intention to improve the hepatic perfusion and function.
  • Unfortunately, despite improvement in the cardiac overload, liver function continued to deteriorate.
  • The baby eventually underwent successful liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Liver Failure / diagnosis. Liver Failure / etiology. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19588131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Lal H, Neyaz Z, Singh RK, Mohindra S: Vascular malformation of the jejunum presenting as obscure gastrointestinal haemorrhage: detection with multidetector CT angiography. Singapore Med J; 2010 Jun;51(6):e103-6
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  • Phlebectasia or venous ectasia is a rare benign vascular anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • We report a 39-year-old Egyptian man presenting with multiple jejunal phlebectasia, liver haemangioma and port-wine naevus.
  • This report emphasises the potential of MDCT angiography in the diagnosis of small intestine lesions presenting as obscure bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Jejunum / physiopathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Vascular Malformations / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Double-Balloon Enteroscopy / methods. Endoscopy / methods. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Port-Wine Stain. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20658097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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37. Scialpi M, Piscioli I, Brunese L, Lupattelli L: Cavernous malformation or cavernous hemangioma: an appropriate term to define liver hemangioma. Eur Radiol; 2008 Dec;18(12):2854; author reply 2854
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cavernous malformation or cavernous hemangioma: an appropriate term to define liver hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver / abnormalities. Liver / diagnostic imaging. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Radiography

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  • [CommentOn] Eur Radiol. 2007 Jun;17(6):1544-54 [17260159.001]
  • [Cites] Surg Today. 2005;35(9):796-9 [16133680.001]
  • [Cites] Eur Radiol. 2007 Jun;17(6):1544-54 [17260159.001]
  • [Cites] Semin Diagn Pathol. 2008 Feb;25(1):1-16 [18350917.001]
  • [Cites] Radiology. 1997 Apr;203(1):121-5 [9122378.001]
  • (PMID = 18618123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Comment
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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38. Ertan G, Tekes A, Mitchell S, Keefer J, Huisman TA: Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Oct;39(10):1105-9
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  • [Title] Pediatric littoral cell angioma of the spleen: multimodality imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging.
  • Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare primary splenic vascular tumor originating from littoral cells lining the splenic red pulp sinuses.
  • Previous studies on liver lesions have shown that DWI allows differentiation of vascular tumors from primary neoplasms and metastatic disease.
  • The current case indicates that increased ADC values within the splenic lesions suggest a vascular etiology, which might help narrow the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods


39. Abaalkhail F, Castonguay M, Driman DK, Parfitt J, Marotta P: Lobular capillary hemangioma of the liver. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Jun;8(3):323-5
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  • [Title] Lobular capillary hemangioma of the liver.
  • BACKGROUND: Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) is a benign vascular tumor that is rare in adults and has never been reported in the liver.
  • METHODS: LCH as a large asymptomatic hepatic mass was seen in a 35-year-old female.
  • RESULTS: A large vascular hepatic lesion was observed in an asymptomatic 35-year-old female.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first case of lobular capillary hemangioma seen as a liver lesion in an adult.
  • Large vascular hepatic lesions pose significant difficulties in discerning benign from potentially malignant conditions.
  • In this report we describe the pitfalls and radiological uncertainties with interpreting vascular lesions of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Pyogenic / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 19502177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 6
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41. Blondet A, Ridereau-Zins C, Michalak S, Pessaux P, Aubertin A, Aubé C: [Multiple pedunculated liver hemangiomas presenting with volvulus]. J Radiol; 2007 Jun;88(6):891-4
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  • [Title] [Multiple pedunculated liver hemangiomas presenting with volvulus].
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Intestinal Volvulus / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17652983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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42. Kajihara Y, Ikawa F, Ohbayashi N, Imada Y, Hidaka T, Matsushige T, Mitsuhara T, Inagawa T, Ohama E: [Hemangioendothelioma of the brain presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage: a case report]. No To Shinkei; 2005 Aug;57(8):690-4
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  • Hemangioendothelioma (HE) is an uncommon vascular tumor that is intermediate in histological appearance between a hemangioma and an angiosarcoma.
  • It has been reported in the liver, lung, heart, mediastinum, lymph nodes, extremity, and bone.
  • Intratumoral hemorrhage was indicated and preoperative diagnosis was cavernous angioma.

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  • (PMID = 16146213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Nō to shinkei = Brain and nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Shinkei
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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43. Wan P, Susman J, Kandel J, Jan D, Jerome EH, Parravicini E: Neonatal hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma causing cardiac failure and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Am J Perinatol; 2009 Sep;26(8):601-4
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  • [Title] Neonatal hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma causing cardiac failure and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
  • Even with advance prenatal diagnostic tools, differentiating among specific types of hepatic masses continues to challenge many physicians.
  • Here, we report a neonate with life-threatening hepatic mass, cardiac failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, which clinically resembled hepatic hemangioma.
  • A hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma was detected by postmortem pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Hamartoma / complications. Hamartoma / congenital. Heart Failure / etiology. Liver Diseases / complications. Liver Diseases / congenital

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  • [Copyright] Thieme Medical Publishers.
  • (PMID = 19370509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-8785
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of perinatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Perinatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Maizlin ZV, Vos PM, Cooperberg PL: Is it a fibroid? Are you sure? Sonography with MRI assistance. Ultrasound Q; 2007 Mar;23(1):55-62
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  • Uterine fibroids are common benign lesions.
  • Other common benign masses include renal cysts, renal angiomyolipomas, hepatic cysts, hepatic hemangiomas, thyroid cysts, adrenal incidentalomas, pulmonary granulomas and hamartomas, ovarian cysts, and dermoids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17558230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-8771
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound quarterly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Q
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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45. Noda T, Sasaki Y, Yamada T, Eguchi H, Takachi K, Noura S, Miyashiro I, Murata K, Doki Y, Ohigashi H, Ishikawa O, Imaoka S, Mitani H, Ishiguro S: Adult capillary hemangioma of the liver: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(9):796-9
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  • [Title] Adult capillary hemangioma of the liver: report of a case.
  • We report a rare case of capillary hemangioma of the liver in an adult.
  • The patient was a 55-year-old man, admitted for investigation of a hepatic tumor.
  • Computed tomography (CT) showed an enhancement pattern different from that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cavernous hemangioma.
  • We could not establish whether the tumor was HCC or cavernous hemangioma by the imaging findings, so we performed a hepatic resection.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of capillary hemangioma.
  • Ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging showed an intermediate pattern between cavernous hemangioma and HCC.
  • Thus, we must be aware of the possibility of capillary hemangioma when finding an atypical liver tumor inconsistent with HCC or cavernous hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Capillary / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Capillary / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Cites] Radiology. 1980 Oct;137(1 Pt 1):149-55 [7422836.001]
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  • (PMID = 16133680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Kadri Aribas B, Dingil G, Ungul U, Sahin G, Nil Unlu D, Dogan K, Simsek Z, Kaya G, Yilmaz K, Yucel E, Demir P: Accuracy and safety of percutaneous US-guided needle biopsies in liver metastasis and hemangiomas. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol; 2010 Dec;56(4):377-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Accuracy and safety of percutaneous US-guided needle biopsies in liver metastasis and hemangiomas.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to compare small size aspiration and large size cutting needles on the diagnostic yield in the biopsies of liver and especially to investigate the reliability on percutaneous biopsy of liver hemangiomas.
  • METHODS: Nine hundred fifty patients with percutaneous ultrasonography-guided liver biopsies were evaluated retrospectively.
  • Further evaluation was performed in 312 patients with metastasis and 48 patients with hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: Diagnostic yield was higher in the large size cutting needle group (96.8%, 150/155) than in the small size aspiration needle group (84.1%, 132/157) in liver metastasis (P<0.001).
  • Accuracy rate was 77.9% (208/267) in benign and 89.5% (514/574) in malignant diseases.
  • CONCLUSION: The authors suggest the use of large size cutting needles, because they provide more accurate diagnosis, and should be used in liver metastasis instead of small aspiration needles, if there is no on-site pathologist at aspiration biopsies or a more specific diagnosis is required.
  • All the needles, including the large cutting type, were found safe in the biopsies of liver hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21139536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-421X
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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47. Yeh WC, Yang PM, Huang GT, Sheu JC, Chen DS: Long-term follow-up of hepatic hemangiomas by ultrasonography: with emphasis on the growth rate of the tumor. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Mar;54(74):475-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of hepatic hemangiomas by ultrasonography: with emphasis on the growth rate of the tumor.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is not rare to find hepatic hemangiomas in people in Taiwan where hepatitis B is endemic during ultrasonographic examinations for the screening of hepatocellular carcinoma, and we can therefore monitor these hemangiomas longitudinally since detected.
  • METHODOLOGY: Totally 180 hepatic hemangiomas in 130 adult patients were followed up for more than 5 years with at least twice ultrasound examinations in our hospital.
  • The diagnosis of hemangiomas was made by typical ultrasonographic findings as well as compatible findings in other imaging modalities.
  • The doubling time of tumor volume was calculated for the enlarging hepatic hemangiomas.
  • RESULTS: The diameters of the 180 hemangiomas ranged from <8 cm - >4 cm in 11 (6.1%), < or =4 cm - >2 cm in 55 (30.6%), and < or =2 cm in 114 (63.3%).
  • Among them, the diameter of 14 (7.7%) hemangiomas in 13 patients increased.
  • The tumor volume doubling time of these hemangiomas ranged from 17.3 to 178.1 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although hepatic hemangiomas are benign, some of them indeed grow slowly.
  • The growth rates of these hemangiomas varied and were definitely slower as compared with those of malignant hepatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17523302.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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48. Lanthaler M, Freund M, Nehoda H: Laparoscopic resection of a giant liver hemangioma. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2005 Dec;15(6):624-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic resection of a giant liver hemangioma.
  • We present a case report of hepatic resection performed laparoscopically for a giant symptomatic hemangioma.
  • The patient was a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a giant hemangioma 20 cm in diameter.
  • As in the case of our patient, laparoscopic resection of hepatic hemangiomas can be performed successfully, even when dealing with giant hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16366871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Dong KR, Zheng S, Xiao X: Conservative management of neonatal hepatic hemangioma: a report from one institute. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Jun;25(6):493-8
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  • [Title] Conservative management of neonatal hepatic hemangioma: a report from one institute.
  • PURPOSE: To summarize the conservative treatment of neonatal hepatic hemangioma at one institute.
  • PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen cases of neonatal hepatic hemangioma were managed in our hospital during the previous 5 years.
  • Initial symptoms, combination symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment were analyzed.
  • Combination symptoms were multiple skin hemangiomas, pneumonia, and cardiac insufficiency.
  • Ultrasound and CT showed the typical characteristics of the liver hemangioma.
  • There were three types of hepatic hemangioma: nine cases had a single focus, four cases were multiple foci, and two had diffuse changes in the liver.
  • One patient having multi-focus in the liver gave up the treatment after biopsy.
  • In those who received conservative therapy, all hemangiomas disappeared within 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma can be made from symptomology, ultrasound, and CT; pathologic samples are not necessary.
  • Proactive therapy for congestive heart failure is helpful for those endangering liver hemangioma.
  • Surgery can increase the risk of complications and is not advised for treatment of neonatal hepatic hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19415303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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50. Losanoff JE, Millis JM: Liver hemangioma complicated by obstructive jaundice. Am J Surg; 2008 Sep;196(3):e3-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver hemangioma complicated by obstructive jaundice.
  • This report describes a liver hemangioma causing obstructive jaundice, an extremely rare condition that has been reported on 3 previous occasions.
  • A hemangioma can compress the major bile ducts and require partial hepatectomy for a successful outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / complications. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18519125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Mohan V, Jones RC, Drake AJ 3rd, Daly PL, Shakir KM: Littoral cell angioma presenting as metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the spleen. Thyroid; 2005 Feb;15(2):170-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Littoral cell angioma presenting as metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the spleen.
  • Contrast CT of the abdomen showed multiple low-attenuated heterogeneously enhancing splenic masses, normal liver and no intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy.
  • Despite the serum thyroglobulin of only 9.4 ng/mL, the finding of I(131) accumulation within solid splenic masses led to a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma metastases.
  • To establish the diagnosis and to remove the risk for splenic rupture, a laparoscopic splenectomy was performed.
  • Histopathologic analysis showed large littoral cell angiomas (LCA).
  • False-positive radioiodine scintigraphy in the setting of PTC involving a vertebral hemangioma has been reported.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case that describes multiple angiomas mimicking metastatic thyroid carcinoma to the spleen.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Hemangioma / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • (PMID = 15753678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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52. Cho SH, Lee JY, Han JK, Choi BI: Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for the evaluation of focal solid hepatic lesions: preliminary findings. Ultrasound Med Biol; 2010 Feb;36(2):202-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for the evaluation of focal solid hepatic lesions: preliminary findings.
  • This study was designed to investigate the potential usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography to evaluate focal solid hepatic lesions.
  • In total, 51 patients with 60 focal hepatic lesions, which included 17 hemangiomas, 25 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 15 metastases and three cholangiocarcinomas, underwent ARFI elastography.
  • The lesions were classified into three groups: Group I consisted of metastatic liver tumors and cholangiocarcinomas, group II consisted of HCCs and group III consisted of hemangiomas.
  • Shear wave velocity was obtained to quantify stiffness for 36 focal hepatic lesions: 11 hemangiomas, 17 HCCs and eight other malignant lesions.
  • On ARFI elastography images, group I tumors (n=18) appeared stiffer than the background liver for 13 lesions (72%), softer for two lesions and had identical stiffness in three lesions compared with the background liver.
  • For group II tumors (n=25), 13 lesions (52%) appeared stiffer than the liver, six lesions appeared softer than the liver and the remaining six lesions showed the same stiffness as the liver.
  • For group III tumors (n=17), six lesions (35%) appeared stiffer than the liver, seven lesions appeared softer and the remaining four lesions showed the same stiffness as the liver.
  • Images obtained with ARFI elastography provided additional qualitative information regarding the stiffness and tumor margin of liver tumors.
  • By measuring shear wave velocity, quantification of stiffness was made possible and showed the potential to differentiate malignant hepatic tumors from hepatic hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20018432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in medicine & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Med Biol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Colakoğlu O, Taşkiran B, Yazici N, Buyraç Z, Unsal B: Safety of biopsy in liver hemangiomas. Turk J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec;16(4):220-3
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  • [Title] Safety of biopsy in liver hemangiomas.
  • Hemangiomas are the most common tumors of the liver.
  • In case of inconclusive radiologic features and a history of malignancy or underlying liver disease, liver biopsy is indicated.
  • Bleeding is the most feared complication of biopsy of hemangiomas due to its highly vascular structure.
  • In our clinic, we biopsied seven patients with suspected masses and they were diagnosed histopathologically afterwards as having hemangiomas.
  • Although the case number is too small to reach a definite conclusion, we think that our report deserves attention in showing that concerns about bleeding during biopsy of hemangiomas may be overstated.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16547852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-4948
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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54. Zincirkeser S, Celen ZY, Yilmaz M, Topalhan F, Sahin E: A false negative by planar scintigraphy liver hemangioma, diagnosed by technetium-99m-red blood cells and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid single photon emission tomography scan. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 May-Aug;9(2):109-10
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  • [Title] A false negative by planar scintigraphy liver hemangioma, diagnosed by technetium-99m-red blood cells and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid single photon emission tomography scan.
  • Ultrasonography showed a 4.7 cm solid hepatic mass on the right lateral side of the right lobe of the liver.
  • The patient was then sent to the Nuclear Medicine Department of Gaziantep University for liver scan.
  • After injecting autologous red blood cells labeled with 740 MBq of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-RBC), early and delayed anterior planar images of the liver showed no significant findings because of the right kidney shine through the liver.
  • Two days later, after injecting again 740 MBq of (99m)Tc-RBC, we performed a single photon emission tomography (SPET) scan but still this scan was nondiagnostic even in the delayed images of the liver.
  • Three days later, after the iv injection of 185 MBq of technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ((99m)Tc-SC), we observed in the delayed SPET images of the liver, a mismatch defect with decreased focal uptake of (99m)Tc-SC at 60 min while the uptake of (99m)Tc-RBC at the same area was normal or slightly increased.
  • A cavernous hemangioma was found, confirmed by histology.
  • In conclusion, the mismatch of the SPET delayed images between the (99m)Tc-RBC and the (99m)Tc-SC scans indicated that this procedure was effective for the diagnosis of liver cavernous hemangioma located in this unusual position.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocytes / radionuclide imaging. Hemangioma / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium. Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2009 May-Aug;12(2):177-8 [19675879.001]
  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2006 Sep-Dec;9(3):187 [17160164.001]
  • (PMID = 16894416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 556Q0P6PB1 / Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid; 7440-26-8 / Technetium
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55. Bozgeyik Z, Kocakoc E, Gul Y, Dagli AF: Evaluation of liver hemangiomas using three different b values on diffusion MR. Eur J Radiol; 2010 Sep;75(3):360-3
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  • [Title] Evaluation of liver hemangiomas using three different b values on diffusion MR.
  • PURPOSE: To determine which diffusion-weighted MR technique (i.e., b-100, b-600, b-1000 s/mm(2)) is most useful in depicting liver hemangiomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-weighed MR (DWMR) was performed for 61 hemangiomas in 32 patients.
  • ADCs were measured for each lesions and compared with normal liver parenchymal ADCs on different b values.
  • Hemangiomas were subdivided according to lesion size (less than 3 cm and 3 cm or greater).
  • Lower ADC values were obtained for higher b values in normal liver tissue and hemangiomas.
  • Although there is significant difference between normal liver tissue and hemangiomas; this is more apparent on b-1000 images (p=0.022 on b-100, p=0.003 on b-600, and p=0.000 on b-1000 images).
  • Variance analysis revealed hemangiomas had higher ADC values than normal liver tissue on b-1000 images.
  • CONCLUSION: Mean values for ADCs of hemangiomas were lower than ADCs of the normal liver except for b-1000 value.
  • Higher b values are useful for the differentiation between normal liver tissue and hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Image Enhancement / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19481893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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56. Gourgiotis S, Moustafellos P, Zavos A, Dimopoulos N, Vericouki C, Hadjiyannakis EI: Surgical treatment of hepatic haemangiomas: a 15-year experience. ANZ J Surg; 2006 Sep;76(9):792-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of hepatic haemangiomas: a 15-year experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatic haemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations.
  • They are the most common benign tumours of the liver and are often asymptomatic.
  • We present our experience over the last 15 years with the surgical management of 15 liver haemangiomas to clarify the safety and effectiveness of this treatment.
  • METHODS: There were 15 patients with hepatic haemangiomas who were surgically treated from 1990 to 2004.
  • Indications for the operation were spontaneous or traumatic rupture, consumption coagulopathy, rapid growth, abdominal pain and uncertain diagnosis.
  • Methods for diagnosis included ultrasonography, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging and selective hepatic arteriography or combinations of more than one technique.
  • CONCLUSION: The resection of the hepatic haemangioma is safe.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16922900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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57. Kim HG, Park IS, Lee JI, Jeong S, Lee JW, Kwon KS, Lee DH, Kim PS, Kim HG, Shin YW, Kim YS, Ahn IS, Lee KY: Littoral cell angioma (LCA) associated with liver cirrhosis. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Feb 28;46(1):184-8
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  • [Title] Littoral cell angioma (LCA) associated with liver cirrhosis.
  • A littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare benign vascular tumor of the spleen.
  • A 60-year-old man, with multiple nodules in imaging study and liver cirrhosis graded as Child-Pugh classification class A, was transferred for splenomegaly.
  • Because there was no evidence of hematological and visceral malignancy, a splenectomy was performed for a definitive diagnosis.
  • There has been no previous report of a LCA combined with liver cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Splenic Neoplasms / complications

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58. R Aglyamov S, R Skovoroda A, Xie H, Kim K, M Rubin J, O'Donnell M, W Wakefield T, Myers D, Y Emelianov S: Model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging using ultrasound. Int J Biomed Imaging; 2007;2007:35830
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  • The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis.

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  • (PMID = 18256732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-4188
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL068658
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1986825
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59. Yun JP, Miao J, Chen GG, Tian QH, Zhang CQ, Xiang J, Fu J, Lai PB: Increased expression of nucleophosmin/B23 in hepatocellular carcinoma and correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Br J Cancer; 2007 Feb 12;96(3):477-84
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  • In this study, we examined NPM expression in 103 paired cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 12 cases of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia, 17 cases of liver tissue adjacent to a hepatic haemangioma, and series of array tissues from normal human organs and malignancies using a monoclonal antibody against NPM and reverse transcription-PCR techniques, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and immunocytofluorescence.
  • Moreover, enhanced expression of NPM in HCC correlated with the level of PCNA (R(2)=0.5639) and with the clinical prognostic parameters such as serum alpha fetal protein level, tumour pathological grading, and liver cirrhosis (P<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemistry. Liver Neoplasms / chemistry. Nuclear Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17245342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360035
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60. Inoue A, Okura Y, Kawashita I, Ito K, Matsunaga N, Sanada T, Akiyama M, Ishida T: [Development of comprehensive image processing technique for differential diagnosis of liver disease by using multi-modality images-pixel-based cross-correlation method using a profile-]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Apr 20;65(4):438-50
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  • [Title] [Development of comprehensive image processing technique for differential diagnosis of liver disease by using multi-modality images-pixel-based cross-correlation method using a profile-].
  • In this scheme, the criteria of an attending radiologist for the differential diagnosis of liver cyst, hemangioma of liver, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic liver cancer on magnetic resonance images with various sequences and CT images with and without contrast enhancement employ a cross-correlation coefficient.
  • This comprehensive image-processing technique could assist radiologists in the differential diagnosis of liver diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19420828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0369-4305
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hōshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Marinis A, Kairi E, Theodosopoulos T, Kondi-Pafiti A, Smyrniotis V: Right colon and liver hemangiomatosis: a case report and a review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Oct 21;12(39):6405-7
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  • [Title] Right colon and liver hemangiomatosis: a case report and a review of the literature.
  • Cavernous hemangiomatosis of the colon and liver in a 38-year-old woman presenting with a history of cramp like abdominal pain and a mass in the right iliac fossa are presented.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated multiple liver hemangiomas as well as a noncystic lesion in the right iliac fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17072971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 16
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4088156
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62. Fan RF, Chai FL, He GX, Wan WX, Bai MD, Cao ML, Li HM, Yan SZ: [Radiofrequency ablation therapy combined with suture and ligation surgery for patients with giant cavernous hemangiomas of the liver]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Aug 15;86(30):2134-7
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  • [Title] [Radiofrequency ablation therapy combined with suture and ligation surgery for patients with giant cavernous hemangiomas of the liver].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy combined with suture and ligation surgery for patients with giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH).
  • METHODS: Between June 2004 and June 2005, a total of 30 patients were treated by RFA therapy after suture and ligation surgery (SL group, n = 15, with 18 liver lesions) or RFA therapy without suture and ligation surgery (non-SL group, n = 15, with 17 liver lesions) under general anesthesia.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of HCH was established by means of ultrasonography, helical computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • All of the 35 lesions were located on the liver surface, in the caudate lobe of the liver, or adjacent to the gallbladder.
  • Cholecystectomy was performed simultaneously for gallstones in 7 patients and for abutting of gallbladder from hemangioma in 2 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation. Hemangioma, Cavernous / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17064621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
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63. Feuerlein S, Pauls S, Juchems MS, Stuber T, Hoffmann MH, Brambs HJ, Ernst AS: Pitfalls in abdominal diffusion-weighted imaging: how predictive is restricted water diffusion for malignancy. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2009 Oct;193(4):1070-6
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  • The aim of our retrospective study was to investigate the specificity of restricted diffusion in differentiation of benign from malignant abdominal disease.
  • The 12 benign lesions were liver hemangioma, liver adenoma, autoimmune pancreatitis, pancreatic teratoma, two abscesses, three cases of inflammatory bowel wall thickening due to Crohn's disease, Bartholin cyst, hemorrhagic ovarian cyst, and renal Rosai-Dorfman disease.
  • However, in interpretation of diffusion-weighted images, it should be kept in mind that a number of benign lesions, as many as 22% in our cohort, can exhibit restricted diffusion on images with high b values, thus mimicking malignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Artifacts. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 19770331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Cao J, Luo S, Liang L, Lai J, Chen S: Effects of parenteral nutrition with and without GH on the GH/IGF-1 axis after hepatectomy in hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis. Front Med China; 2007 Jul;1(3):287-93
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  • [Title] Effects of parenteral nutrition with and without GH on the GH/IGF-1 axis after hepatectomy in hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis.
  • Postoperative hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production may be severely disturbed in patients with liver cirrhosis.
  • Liver function, serum GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were measured before the operation and at post-operative days (POD) 1 and 6.
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA in the liver tissue was detected by RT-PCR.
  • The liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied.
  • At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver hemangioma who underwent operation served as normal control group.
  • On POD 6, serum prealbumin, GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, IGFBP-3 mRNA and liver Ki67 LI were higher in the rhGH + PN group than in the PN group.

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  • (PMID = 24573868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-7342
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of medicine in China
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Med China
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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65. Raynaud JJ, Béchade D, Desrame J, Algayres JP: [Corticotherapy and giant hemangioma of the liver. Return to the normal values of cytokines]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2006 Jun-Jul;30(6-7):907-9
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  • [Title] [Corticotherapy and giant hemangioma of the liver. Return to the normal values of cytokines].
  • [Transliterated title] Corticothérapie et hémangiome géant du foie. Effets bénéfiques sur les symptômes et normalisation des cytokines.
  • We report the case of a 36 year-old woman presenting with a giant liver hemangioma revealed by febrile hepatomegaly and weight loss.
  • Clinical and radiological follow-up, for respectively 36 and 24 months, did not show any relapse of symptoms or evolution of the hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Cytokines / blood. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Hemangioma / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Interleukin-1 / blood. Interleukin-6 / blood. Liver / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16885878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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66. Isaacs H Jr: Fetal hydrops associated with tumors. Am J Perinatol; 2008 Jan;25(1):43-68
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  • Leukemia and extracardiac teratomas were next in frequency followed by hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma, placental, soft tissue, and renal tumors.
  • No fetus with the diagnosis of cardiac rhabdomyoma, neuroblastoma, brain tumor, rhabdoid tumor, or histiocytosis associated with hydrops survived.
  • Those patients with placental chorangioma, pericardial teratoma, and hepatic hemangioma had the best outcome.

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  • (PMID = 18075961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-1631
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of perinatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Perinatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 144
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67. Hida T, Nishie A, Tajima T, Taketomi A, Aishima S, Honda H: Sclerosed hemangioma of the liver: possible diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Jpn J Radiol; 2010 Apr;28(3):235-8
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  • [Title] Sclerosed hemangioma of the liver: possible diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.
  • We present a case of a sclerosed hemangioma (SH) of the liver that showed a high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value.
  • The patient was undergoing preoperative evaluation for a metastatic breast cancer lesion when a liver mass with a diameter of 3 cm was found.
  • Liver metastasis and cholangiocellular carcinoma could not be excluded based on the imaging findings.
  • After surgery, a definite diagnosis of SH was obtained.
  • We discuss the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging for SH of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20437137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1867-108X
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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68. Zhou HB, Xu QR, Wang H, Zhou DX, Wang H, Wang Q, Zhou SS, Tu QQ, Sun ZQ, Ai L, Wu MC, Hu HP: [Risk factors of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a case-control study]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;17(12):935-9
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  • RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed significant difference in HBsAg seropositivity, liver cirrhosis, hepatolithiasis, choledocholithiasis and schistosomiasis between ICC patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05).
  • Multivariate analysis confirmed that HBsAg seropositivity, liver cirrhosis, hepatolithiasis and hepatic schistosomiasis were associated with ICC, and their adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) were 10.265 (6.676-15.783), 13.101 (5.265-32.604), 18.242 (3.580-92.958), 18.435 (1.930-176.082), 15.102 (4.607-49.499) and 11.820 (3.522-39.668), respectively.
  • The incidence of hepatic cyst, cholecystolithiasis, hepatic hemangioma, fatty liver, diabetes mellitus, smoking and drinking were not significantly different between ICC patients and controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The HBV infection, liver cirrhosis, hepatolithiasis and hepatic schistosomiasis may be the risk factors for ICC in China.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / blood. Hepatitis B e Antigens / blood. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology. Liver Diseases / complications. Liver Diseases / epidemiology. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20038337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-3418
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens
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69. Markiewicz-Kijewska M, Kasprzyk W, Broniszczak D, Bacewicz L, Ostoja-Chyzynska A, Ismail H, Kosciesza A, Dembowska-Baginska B, Teisseyre J, Kluge P, Brzezinska-Rajszys G, Jankowska I, Kalicinski P: Hemodynamic failure as an indication to urgent liver transplantation in infants with giant hepatic hemangiomas or vascular malformations--report of four cases. Pediatr Transplant; 2009 Nov;13(7):906-12
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  • [Title] Hemodynamic failure as an indication to urgent liver transplantation in infants with giant hepatic hemangiomas or vascular malformations--report of four cases.
  • The aim of this study was to present acute hemodynamic failure as a rare indication for liver transplantation in neonates and infants with liver hemangiomatosis.
  • We report four patients aged one to six months with giant liver hemangiomas, with huge arterio-venous shunting within these malformations.
  • In three, many skin hemangiomas were found.
  • Two children underwent rescue hepatic artery surgical ligation, which did not prevent heart and then multiorgan failure including liver failure.
  • After unsuccessful conventional therapy, all infants were considered for urgent liver transplantation; in three cases, it was performed with a living-related donor, and in one case with a deceased donor.
  • Liver transplantation should be considered as a rescue treatment in children with hepatic vascular malformations leading to hemodynamic insufficiency when conventional therapy is unsuccessful and multiorgan failure develops.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Vascular Malformations / surgery


70. Hyun W, Gamo M, Hirose Y: [Anesthetic management of a patient with Osler-Weber-Rendu disease undergoing mitral valvuloplasty]. Masui; 2008 Feb;57(2):223-5
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  • The patient was a 79-year-old woman admitted to our hospital with diagnosis of heart failure, mitral regurgitation, and chronic atrial fibrillation.
  • Preoperaitve examination revealed moderate mitral regurgitation with prolapsed anterior leaflet, pulmonary hypertension, high cardiac output (6.85 l min(-1)), and multiple hepatic angiomas.

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  • (PMID = 18277578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-4892
  • [Journal-full-title] Masui. The Japanese journal of anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Masui
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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71. Vossen JA, Buijs M, Liapi E, Eng J, Bluemke DA, Kamel IR: Receiver operating characteristic analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating hepatic hemangioma from other hypervascular liver lesions. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2008 Sep-Oct;32(5):750-6
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  • [Title] Receiver operating characteristic analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating hepatic hemangioma from other hypervascular liver lesions.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating between hepatic hemangiomas, both typical and atypical, and other hypervascular liver lesions.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of 182 hypervascular liver lesions in 117 patients was performed.
  • Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating hemangiomas from other hypervascular liver lesions.
  • RESULTS: Lesions included typical and atypical hemangioma (n = 38), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n = 58), focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH; n = 22), and neuroendocrine tumor metastasis (NET; n = 64) with a mean tumor size of 5.3 cm.
  • Mean ADC value for hemangioma, HCC, FNH, and NET was 2.29 x 10(-3), 1.55 x 10(-3), 1.65 x 10(-3), and 1.43 x 10(-3) mm2/s, respectively.
  • There was a statistically significant difference in the ADC value of hemangioma compared with that of FNH (P < 0.001), HCC (P < 0.001), and NET (P < 0.001), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and ADC maps can provide rapid quantifiable information to differentiate typical and atypical hemangiomas from other hypervascular liver lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18830105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB006351-03; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB006351; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / T32 EB006351-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS139195; NLM/ PMC2760589
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72. Horii KA, Drolet BA, Baselga E, Frieden IJ, Metry DW, Morel KD, Newell BD, Nopper AJ, Garzon MC, Hemangioma Investigator Group: Risk of hepatic hemangiomas in infants with large hemangiomas. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Feb;146(2):201-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of hepatic hemangiomas in infants with large hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / epidemiology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20157038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00374335
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Horii KA; Drolet BA; Baselga E; Frieden IJ; Metry DW; Morel KD; Newell BD; Nopper AJ; Garzon MC; Chamlin SL; Haggstrom AN; Lucky AW; Mancini AJ; Siegel D; Holland K; Powell J; McCuaig CM; Adams D
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73. Takahashi K, Iida K, Okimura Y, Takahashi Y, Naito J, Nishikawa S, Kadowaki S, Iguchi G, Kaji H, Chihara K: A novel mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene identified in a Japanese family with pheochromocytoma and hepatic hemangioma. Intern Med; 2006;45(5):265-9
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  • [Title] A novel mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene identified in a Japanese family with pheochromocytoma and hepatic hemangioma.
  • A heterozygous VHL gene-disrupted model (vhl +/-) developed hepatic vascular lesions; in contrast, hepatic hemangioma is a rare manifestation of human VHL syndrome.
  • One of the members demonstrated hepatic hemangiomas, suggesting that there may be a relationship between the mutation of the VHL gene and hepatic vascular lesions, even in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Pheochromocytoma / genetics. Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein / genetics


74. Sasaki K, Ito K, Koike S, Fujita T, Okazaki H, Matsunaga N: Differentiation between hepatic cyst and hemangioma: additive value of breath-hold, multisection fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence. J Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jan;21(1):29-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiation between hepatic cyst and hemangioma: additive value of breath-hold, multisection fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequence.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the additive value of breath-hold, multisection fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo (HASTE) sequence as supplements to moderately and heavily T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE) sequences in differentiating hepatic cyst from hemangioma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 183 lesions (127 hepatic cysts, 56 hepatic hemangiomas) in 117 patients were evaluated in this study.
  • Each radiologist used a five-point scale to rate his confidence in determination of hepatic cyst and hemangioma.
  • RESULTS: All three reviewers were significantly better able to differentiate hepatic cyst from hepatic hemangioma with the combination of FLAIR imaging using HASTE and moderately and heavily T2-weighted FSE images (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, 0.99 for each reader) than with moderately and heavily T2-weighted FSE images alone (0.82-0.93; P < 0.05).
  • FLAIR-HASTE imaging in addition to T2-weighted FSE sequences improved the diagnostic performance, including the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and confident diagnosis in the differentiation between hepatic hemangiomas and cysts.
  • CONCLUSION: FLAIR-HASTE imaging is useful for distinguishing hepatic hemangioma from hepatic cyst without the use of contrast-enhanced MR images.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


75. Cabrita SV, Gonçalves S, Rodrigues H, Guerra N, Moura P: Antenatal diagnosis of congenital hepatic hemangioma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:6829
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  • [Title] Antenatal diagnosis of congenital hepatic hemangioma: a case report.
  • Hepatic tumors in children account for only 1 to 5% of all pediatric tumors.
  • Hepatic hemangioma is, however, the third most common tumor of the liver in childhood.
  • We report a case of an antenatal diagnosis of a hepatic tumor detected on a first obstetric ultrasound, at 26(th) week of gestation.
  • It revealed a complex, predominantly solid hepatic lesion with 3 x 3 cm and a marked, essentially peripheral, Doppler blood flow.
  • Fetal echocardiography showed a normal heart besides a vena cava displacement by the hepatic mass.
  • Fetal Hepatic hemangioma was suspected.
  • At 36 weeks of gestation was spontaneously delivered a 3300 g boy whose examination revealed a visible thoracoabdominal circulation and a palpable liver.
  • No skin lesions, namely hemangiomas or petechiae were identified.
  • Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of Hepatic hemangioma.

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  • (PMID = 19918548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769318
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76. Isaacs H Jr: Fetal and neonatal hepatic tumors. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Nov;42(11):1797-803
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fetal and neonatal hepatic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Although hepatic tumors are uncommon in the perinatal period they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in affected patients.
  • The purpose of this review is to focus on the fetus and neonate in an attempt to determine the various ways liver tumors differ clinically and pathologically from those found in the older child and adult and to show that certain types of tumors have a better prognosis than others.
  • METHODS: The author conducted a retrospective review of perinatal hepatic tumors reported in the literature and of patients treated and followed up at Children's Hospital San Diego and Children's Hospital Los Angeles.
  • Discussion of the differential diagnosis and pathologic findings of hepatic tumors in the fetus and neonate are described elsewhere and will not be discussed here in detail (Perspect Pediatr Pathol 1978;4:217; Weinberg AG, Finegold MJ.
  • Primary hepatic tumors in childhood.
  • Liver tumors. In: Isaacs H Jr, editor.
  • Liver tumors. In: Isaacs H Jr, editor.
  • RESULTS: One hundred ninety-four fetuses and neonates presented with hepatic tumors diagnosed prenatally (n = 56) and in the neonatal period (n = 138).
  • The study consisted of 3 main tumors: hemangioma (117 cases, 60.3%), mesenchymal hamartoma (45 cases, 23.2%), and hepatoblastoma (32 cases, 16.5%).
  • Half of the fetuses and neonates with hepatoblastoma had abnormally elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels compared with 16 (14%) of 117 of those with hemangioma and 1 neonate with mesenchymal hamartoma.
  • There were 76 (65%) examples of solitary (unifocal) hemangiomas and 41 (35%) of multifocal (which included the entity diffuse hemangiomatosis) with 86% and 71% survival rates, respectively.
  • The 56 fetuses and 138 neonates with hepatic tumors (hemangioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, and hepatoblastoma) had survival rates of 75%, 64%, and 25%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that clinical findings in fetuses and neonates with hepatic tumors are less well defined than in older children.
  • Some hepatic tumors have a better prognosis than others.
  • Neonates with focal (solitary) hepatic hemangiomas have the best outcome and fetuses with hepatoblastoma the worst.
  • Although infantile hemangioma undergoes spontaneous regression, it may be life threatening when congestive heart failure and/or consumptive coagulopathy occur.
  • Mesenchymal hamartoma is a benign lesion best treated by surgical resection, which usually results in cure.
  • Because of the danger of labor-induced rupture of the tumor and potentially fatal intraabdominal hemorrhage, cesarean delivery is recommended when a hepatic tumor is found on prenatal ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-major] Hamartoma / congenital. Hemangioma / congenital. Hepatoblastoma / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / congenital. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18022426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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77. Xu LN, Huang ZQ: Resection of hepatic caudate lobe hemangioma: experience with 11 patients. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2010 Oct;9(5):487-91
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  • [Title] Resection of hepatic caudate lobe hemangioma: experience with 11 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Caudate lobectomy is now considered to be the most appropriate surgical treatment for benign tumors in the caudate lobe.
  • But how to resect the caudate lobe safely is a major challenge to current liver surgery and requires further study.
  • This research aimed to analyze the perioperative factors and explore the surgical technique associated with liver resection in hepatic caudate lobe hemangioma.
  • METHODS: Eleven consecutive patients with symptomatic hepatic hemangiomas undergoing caudate lobectomy from November 1990 to August 2009 at our hospital were investigated retrospectively.
  • Ascites occurred in l patient, pleural effusion in the perioperative period in 1, and multiple organ failure in l on the 6th day after operation as a result of massive intraoperative blood loss, who had received multiple transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization preoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For large hemangioma of the caudate lobe, surgery is only recommended for symptomatic cases.
  • Caudate lobectomy of hepatic hemangioma can be performed safely, provided it is carried out with optimized perioperative management and innovative surgical technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20943457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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78. Farruggia P, Alaggio R, Cardella F, Tropia S, Trizzino A, Ferrara F, D'Angelo P: Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an unusual association with diabetes mellitus in a child and review of literature. Ital J Pediatr; 2010;36:41
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  • [Title] Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an unusual association with diabetes mellitus in a child and review of literature.
  • Hepatic hemangioma, adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia are the most frequent benign lesions of the liver, but they are all infrequent among pediatric population.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatectomy / methods. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20504362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1824-7288
  • [Journal-full-title] Italian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ital J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883986
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79. Kitajima S, Liu E, Morimoto M, Koike T, Yu Y, Watanabe T, Imagawa S, Fan J: Transgenic rabbits with increased VEGF expression develop hemangiomas in the liver: a new model for Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Lab Invest; 2005 Dec;85(12):1517-27
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  • [Title] Transgenic rabbits with increased VEGF expression develop hemangiomas in the liver: a new model for Kasabach-Merritt syndrome.
  • Clinical studies have provided ample evidence that high (either systemic or local) levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are associated with several pathophysiological disorders, including hemangiomas.
  • To investigate whether elevated VEGF expression could directly affect these disorders, we created a transgenic (Tg) rabbit model with increased hepatic expression of the human VEGF(165) transgene under the control of the human alpha-antitrypsin promoter.
  • Histological analysis revealed that the livers of Tg rabbits showed prominent dilation of the sinusoids and formed various-sized blood vessel networks, a feature of diffuse hemangiomas.
  • The manifestations of Tg rabbits mimic many of the features of hemangiomatous disorders in humans such as the Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, and therefore this model may be potentially useful for the study of the pathogenesis and complications of hemangiomas as well as the investigation of angiogenesis inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Animals, Genetically Modified. Gene Expression. Hemangioma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16200077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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80. Ozaki M, Ozaki K, Watanabe T, Uwagawa S, Okuno Y, Shirai T: Susceptibilities of p53 knockout and rasH2 transgenic mice to urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis are inherited from their original strains. Toxicol Pathol; 2005;33(2):267-71
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  • Peliosis hepatis and hepatic hemangiomas were observed in 27% and 67% of p53 (+/-) mice, but only in 6.7% and 6.7% of the rasH2 animals, respectively.
  • Peliosis hepatis was observed in 40% of the C57BL/6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice; hepatic and splenic hemangiomas were not observed in these animals.

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  • (PMID = 15902970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3IN71E75Z5 / Urethane
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81. Hansen T, Habekost M, Flieger D, Kirkpatrick CJ: [Littoral cell angioma of the spleen. Association with colon and hepatocellular carcinoma]. Pathologe; 2010 Jul;31(4):290-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Littoral cell angioma of the spleen. Association with colon and hepatocellular carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Littoralzellangiom der Milz. Assoziation mit Kolon- und hepatozellulärem Karzinom.
  • Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen.
  • Due to the relationship with malignant tumors littoral cell angioma should be considered in every case of a splenic tumoral space-occupying mass, particularly in carcinoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Colectomy. Colon / pathology. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Spleen / pathology. Splenectomy

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  • (PMID = 20349061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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82. Lai HJ, Yu JC, Liu YC, Shih ML, Hsieh CB: Anterior approach for a symptomatic giant hepatic haemangioma (&gt;30 centimetre). ANZ J Surg; 2006 Sep;76(9):863-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anterior approach for a symptomatic giant hepatic haemangioma (>30 centimetre).
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16922914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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83. Caseiro-Alves F, Brito J, Araujo AE, Belo-Soares P, Rodrigues H, Cipriano A, Sousa D, Mathieu D: Liver haemangioma: common and uncommon findings and how to improve the differential diagnosis. Eur Radiol; 2007 Jun;17(6):1544-54
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  • [Title] Liver haemangioma: common and uncommon findings and how to improve the differential diagnosis.
  • Haemangiomas are common focal liver lesions, generally detected in the work-up of asymptomatic patients.
  • From the pathological point of view, they can be classified as small (capillary) or large, with cavernous vascular spaces that may show thrombosis, calcifications and hyalinisation.
  • The widespread use of cross-sectional imaging has allowed an increased detection rate and a better characterisation of this benign tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Radiol. 2008 Dec;18(12):2854; author reply 2854 [18618123.001]
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  • (PMID = 17260159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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84. Akahoshi T, Higashi H, Tsuruta S, Tahara K, Matsumoto T, Takeuchi H, Era S, Fujita F, Muto Y: Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma coexisting with hemangioma in the liver: report of a case. Surg Today; 2010;40(2):185-9
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  • [Title] Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma coexisting with hemangioma in the liver: report of a case.
  • Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma is an extremely rare liver tumor.
  • We herein report a case of primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma coexisting with a hemangioma in a 66-year-old man.
  • Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor (1.5 cm in diameter) coexisting with a hemangioma in the lateral segment of the liver.
  • Liver biopsy showed malignant cells, and several examinations revealed no alternative primary source.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiography. Treatment Outcome


85. Madhusudhan KS, Srivastava DN, Gamanagatti S: Giant hemangioma of liver presenting as deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs. J Postgrad Med; 2009 Oct-Dec;55(4):290-1
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  • [Title] Giant hemangioma of liver presenting as deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Venous Thrombosis / etiology


86. Blachar A, Federle MP, Sosna J: Liver lesions with hepatic capsular retraction. Semin Ultrasound CT MR; 2009 Oct;30(5):426-35
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  • [Title] Liver lesions with hepatic capsular retraction.
  • Retraction of the liver capsule may be associated with a diverse spectrum of benign and malignant etiologies.
  • The more common causes include focal confluent fibrosis in cirrhotic livers, cholangiocarcinoma, and treated liver tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, and lymphoma.
  • Less common etiologies include primary sclerosing cholangitis, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, hepatic hemangioma, solitary fibrous tumor of the liver, and hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor.
  • Hepatic capsular retraction may also result from iatrogenic and noniatrogenic trauma.
  • It is also important to know that, contrary to some reports, hepatic capsular retraction is not a sign of malignant disease.
  • The purpose of this article is to familiarize readers with the spectrum of benign and malignant etiologies of this sign and to point out additional computed tomographic findings that may allow confident diagnosis of the specific hepatic lesion responsible for the capsular retraction.
  • The hepatic capsular and subcapsular regions may be affected by focal or diffuse pathologies affecting the liver.
  • This hepatic area is more prone to be involved in various malignant and benign diseases due to several factors: the negative subdiaphragmatic pressure that may draw infected material and malignant cells toward the diaphragm, the perihepatic ligaments connecting the liver capsule with adjacent viscera, forming a direct root of dissemination, and the systemic blood inflow that supplies this region in addition to the portal and hepatic arterial blood flow.
  • This is the reason for the multiple pathologic conditions and pseudolesions that occur at the hepatic capsular and subcapsular regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / radiography. Liver Diseases / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19842567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-2171
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Ultrasound CT MR
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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87. Pudil J, Martínek J, Belsan T, Ryska M: [Atypically localised hepatic haemangioma as a cause of dyspeptic syndrome]. Rozhl Chir; 2006 Jul;85(7):354-6
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  • [Title] [Atypically localised hepatic haemangioma as a cause of dyspeptic syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Atypicky lokalizovaný hemangiom jater jako prícina dyspeptického syndromu.
  • INTRODUCTION: Haemangioma is a benign mesenchymal tumor growing from the endothehum of blood vessels.
  • Most hepatic haemangiomas are asymptomatic while symptomatic haemangioma are usually manifested by non-specific pain dyspeptic syndrome, quite rarely also by hemorrhage, or icterus Symptomatic haemangiomas or large haemangiomas with fast growth, are indicated for surgical treatment.
  • USG, CT, MR, CT angiography and EUS have all shown two lesiones (haemangioma of the left hepatic lobe, a tumor in the left subphrenic area of uncertain origin).
  • We proposed an operational solution, and, surprisingly, the finding was a single haemangioma (2 parts-- intra- and extraparenchymatous--connected by a vascular bridge).
  • DISCUSSION: In the diagnosis of haemangioma, MR is a method of choice with high specificity and sensitivity.
  • Why did not it yield the correct diagnosis?
  • The structure, the signal and the type of postcontrast enhancement of the second lesion corresponded to a haemangioma, but the extraparenchymatous location and also the considerable remoteness from the liver invalidated this possibility before operation.
  • Regarding to the differential diagnostics of the lesiones in the subphrenic area, which according to the imaging techniques are not related to the hepatic parenchyma, it is advisable to consider the possibility of the incidence of pedunculated hepatic haemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dyspepsia / etiology. Hemangioma, Cavernous / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17044281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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88. Yamamoto K, Nakanishi S, Fuke H, Hashimoto A, Shimizu A, Hamataki T, Shiraki K: Corona enhancement in ultrasonographical post-vascular phase images with microbubble contrast agent: a novel specific sign for hepatocellular carcinomas. Oncol Rep; 2006 Apr;15(4):785-90
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  • Forty-two HCC nodules, metastatic liver tumors and hepatic hemangiomas were studied.
  • The time point of 5 min later was specified as the post-vascular phase, and images were obtained by single manual transmission for comparison of contrast enhancement with surrounding hepatic parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / ultrasonography. Liver / blood supply. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / analysis. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Female. Hemangioma / ultrasonography. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Microbubbles. Middle Aged. Polysaccharides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16525659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Polysaccharides; 127279-08-7 / SHU 508
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89. Yilmaz-Cankaya B, Kantarci M, Durur-Karakaya A, Yalcin A: Giant hepatic hemangioma. Eurasian J Med; 2009 Apr;41(1):74
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  • [Title] Giant hepatic hemangioma.

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  • (PMID = 25610071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1308-8734
  • [Journal-full-title] The Eurasian journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eurasian J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4261654
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant / MDCT Imaging / hepatic hemangioma
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90. Kogure K: Trial of a quantitative method for evaluating hemangioma of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma using a radio-frequency signal. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2005 Dec;32(4):159-66
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  • [Title] Trial of a quantitative method for evaluating hemangioma of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma using a radio-frequency signal.
  • A quantitative ultrasonographic procedure for making the diagnosis would therefore be desirable.
  • It is recognized that radio-frequency (RF) signals from hepatic tumors conform to the K distribution.
  • In this study, RF signals were acquired from hemangioma of the liver (hemangioma) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and parameters of the K distribution, i.e., φ (the mean square of the amplitude of RF signals) and α (the number of effective scatterers), were calculated for the quantitative ultrasonographic evaluation of hepatic tumors.
  • METHODS: This study included 10 nodules of 10 patients with hemangioma and 27 nodules of 24 patients with HCC.
  • The A-mode RF signals passing through the hepatic tumors were acquired with an Aloka SSD-1000 ultrasound system, and measurement units comprising 279 points were set on the RF signals corresponding to the tumor lesion.
  • RESULTS: With regard to φ, the values were high in hemangioma, and there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference in the φ value between hemangioma and HCC.
  • On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the α value between hemangioma and HCC.
  • CONCLUSION: The α values of hemangioma were equivalent to those of HCC, while the φ values for hemangioma were higher than those for HCC.
  • The use of these parameters is expected to allow quantitative ultrasonographic evaluation of hepatic tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27277483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; K distribution / hemangioma of the liver / hepatocellular carcinoma / radio-frequency signal / ultrasonography
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91. Rankin EB, Higgins DF, Walisser JA, Johnson RS, Bradfield CA, Haase VH: Inactivation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) suppresses von Hippel-Lindau disease-associated vascular tumors in mice. Mol Cell Biol; 2005 Apr;25(8):3163-72
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  • In order to examine the role of HIF in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-associated vascular tumorigenesis, we utilized Cre-loxP-mediated recombination to inactivate hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (Hif-1alpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) genes in a VHL mouse model of cavernous liver hemangiomas and polycythemia.
  • Inactivation of Arnt completely suppressed the development of hemangiomas, polycythemia, and Hif-induced gene expression.
  • Here, we demonstrate genetically that the development of VHL-associated vascular tumors in the liver depends on functional ARNT.


92. Lee J, Lim HK, Jeon YH: Multiple hepatic hemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels. Australas Radiol; 2007 Dec;51 Suppl:B310-2
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  • [Title] Multiple hepatic hemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels.
  • Hepatic haemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels are known to be rare with only five cases reported in the English literature.
  • According to the previous reports, the presence of fluid-fluid level could attribute to the separation of blood cells and serous fluid because of the extremely slow flow in cavernous haemangioma of the liver.
  • We describe the imaging features of multiple hepatic haemangiomas with fluid-fluid levels, which was pathologically proven with ultrasonography guided biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography


93. Jangjoo A, Mehrabi Bahar M, Aliakbarian M: Ruptured giant hepatic hemangioma: report of a case. Acta Med Iran; 2010 Nov-Dec;48(6):419-22
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  • [Title] Ruptured giant hepatic hemangioma: report of a case.
  • Hemangiomas are the most common benign liver masses with a frequency of 0.4-7.3% at autopsy.
  • Spontaneous or traumatic ruptures are among indications of surgery for hemangiomas.
  • We report a case of giant hepatic hemangioma presenting as hemoperitoneum following use of the slimming belt that underwent an emergent laparotomy.
  • Abdominal exploration revealed that both right and left lobes of the liver were involved with giant hemangiomas.
  • The liver was compressed by tightly packing laparotomy pads.
  • One month later, to shrink the tumor, percutaneous transarterial embolization of the hepatic artery was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21287486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-9694
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Iranica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Iran
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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94. Lee VT, Magnaye M, Tan HW, Thng CH, Ooi LL: Sclerosing haemangioma mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. Singapore Med J; 2005 Mar;46(3):140-3
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  • [Title] Sclerosing haemangioma mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Sclerosing haemangioma is a rare variant of hepatic haemangioma.
  • The radiological features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may not be typical for haemangioma and can be confused with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We report sclerosing haemangioma occurring in a 65-year-old woman where the radiological features raise the possibility of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sclerosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15735880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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95. Cohen MM Jr: Hemangiomas: their uses and abuses. Am J Med Genet A; 2007 Feb 1;143A(3):235-40
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  • [Title] Hemangiomas: their uses and abuses.
  • Hemangiomas are vascular tumors, and are distinct from vascular malformations.
  • The term "hemangioma" is frequently misapplied by various medical specialists.
  • This article briefly summarizes the main types of hemangiomas: infantile, rapidly involuting, and noninvoluting types.
  • More complex conditions are also reviewed, such as hemangiomas of the liver and PHACES.
  • The discussion then focuses on common vascular misnomers and proper descriptive terminology for hemangiomas: solitary (small, large, or diffuse) and multifocal.
  • It is concluded that the term "segmental hemangioma" is imprecise, ill-advised, misguided, and should be abandoned.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / classification. Terminology as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Enchondromatosis / diagnosis. Humans. Infant. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Models, Biological. Syndrome. Vascular Diseases / congenital

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Mar 1;146A(5):672-3 [18247427.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Mar 1;146A(5):670-1 [18241074.001]
  • (PMID = 17163502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4825
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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96. Kato R, Ishida H, Yagisawa H, Ishii T, Komatsuda T, Miyauchi T, Sato T, Saito K: Painful hepatic hemangioma: report of a case with an emphasis on sonographic findings. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2010 Jan;37(1):21-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Painful hepatic hemangioma: report of a case with an emphasis on sonographic findings.
  • Hepatic hemangiomas are usually asymptomatic and very rarely produce abdominal symptoms.
  • We report a painful 10 × 9 cm hemangioma situated at the hepatic surface of segment 6.
  • Contrast-enhanced US showed the so-called fill-in pattern, leading to the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma.
  • The patient's abdomen showed no other abnormal findings, which stressed the relationship between the hemangioma and the patient's symptoms.
  • When the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma is conclusive, surgical therapy is indicated only in patients with severe symptoms.
  • Histopathologically, the lesion included no areas of hemorrhage or necrosis, and the patient's abdominal pain was likely due to distension of the liver capsule.

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  • (PMID = 27277606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abdominal pain / Contrast-enhanced sonography / Hepatic hemangioma / Liver tumor / Ultrasound
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97. Xuan SY, Li N, Qiang X, Zhou RR, Shi YX, Jiang WJ: Helicobacter infection in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr 21;12(15):2335-40
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  • METHODS: Liver samples from 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed by histopathology were studied.
  • Twenty-two patients with other liver diseases (5 with liver trauma, 7 with cavernous liver hemangioma, 6 with liver cyst and 4 with hepatolithiasis), 25 patients with gastric cancer, 15 with colonic cancer and 15 with myoma of uterus served as controls.
  • CONCLUSION: Helicobacter infection exists in liver tissues of HCC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Liver Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16688821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / RNA, Bacterial; 0 / RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4088066
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98. Giannitrapani L, Soresi M, La Spada E, Cervello M, D'Alessandro N, Montalto G: Sex hormones and risk of liver tumor. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2006 Nov;1089:228-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sex hormones and risk of liver tumor.
  • The liver is morphologically and functionally modulated by sex hormones.
  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) can induce both benign (hemangioma, adenoma, and focal nodular hyperplasia [FNH]) and malignant (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) hepatocellular tumors.
  • Hepatic adenomas (HAs) are rare, benign neoplasms usually occurring in young women, the development and the complications of which have been related to the strength of OCs and the duration of their use.
  • FNH is a benign lesion, most commonly seen in young women, which is thought to represent a local hyperplastic response of hepatocytes to a vascular abnormality.
  • Liver hemangiomas (LHs) are the most common benign liver tumors and are seen more commonly in young adult females.
  • Apart from liver cirrhosis, numerous other factors responsible for its onset have been proposed: hepatitis infections from virus B (HBV) and C (HCV), alcohol, smoking, and aflatoxin.
  • However, regardless of etiology, chronic liver diseases progress at unequal rates in the two sexes, with the major sequelae, such as cirrhosis and HCC, being more frequent in men than in women.
  • These epidemiological data have prompted researchers to investigate the relationship between sex hormones and liver tumors.
  • The human liver expresses estrogen and androgen receptors and experimentally both androgens and estrogens have been implicated in stimulating hepatocyte proliferation and may act as liver tumor inducers or promoters.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadal Steroid Hormones / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Sex Ratio
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Liver / metabolism. Male. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Risk

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  • (PMID = 17261770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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99. Sarialioglu F, Erbay A, Demir S: Response of infantile hepatic hemangioma to propranolol resistant to high-dose methylprednisolone and interferon-α therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 15;55(7):1433-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response of infantile hepatic hemangioma to propranolol resistant to high-dose methylprednisolone and interferon-α therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Hemangioendothelioma / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Propranolol / therapeutic use

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE .
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  • (PMID = 20981697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 9Y8NXQ24VQ / Propranolol; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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100. Douri T: Multiple cutaneous hemangiomas accompanied by hepatic hemangiomas. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(1):21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple cutaneous hemangiomas accompanied by hepatic hemangiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15748562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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