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1. Mooney CJ, Nagaiah G, Fu P, Wasman JK, Cooney MM, Savvides PS, Bokar JA, Dowlati A, Wang D, Agarwala SS, Flick SM, Hartman PH, Ortiz JD, Lavertu PN, Remick SC: A phase II trial of fosbretabulin in advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and correlation of baseline serum-soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 with outcome. Thyroid; 2009 Mar;19(3):233-40
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of fosbretabulin in advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and correlation of baseline serum-soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 with outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Fosbretabulin is a novel vascular-disrupting agent that has antitumor activity against anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cell lines, xenografts, and demonstrable efficacy in a phase I trial.
  • This phase II study determined the efficacy and safety of fosbretabulin in patients with advanced ATC and whether fosbretabulin altered the natural history of ATC by virtue of doubling the median survival.
  • Treatment was continued until disease progression.
  • Median duration of stable disease in seven patients was 12.3 months (range, 4.4-37.9 months).
  • This is among the largest prospective trials ever conducted for ATC.
  • Fosbretabulin has an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced ATC, and one-third survived more than 6 months.
  • Further prospective validation of sICAM as a therapeutic biomarker and exploring combination regimens with fosbretabulin are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bibenzyls / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19265494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00060242
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024989; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR-00080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA43703
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Bibenzyls; 0 / NCAM1 protein, human; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Stilbenes; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; I5590ES2QZ / fosbretabulin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913806
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2. Lee JJ, Au AY, Foukakis T, Barbaro M, Kiss N, Clifton-Bligh R, Staaf J, Borg A, Delbridge L, Robinson BG, Wallin G, Höög A, Larsson C: Array-CGH identifies cyclin D1 and UBCH10 amplicons in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Sep;15(3):801-15
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  • [Title] Array-CGH identifies cyclin D1 and UBCH10 amplicons in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare but highly aggressive disease with largely unexplained etiology and molecular pathogenesis.
  • In this study, we analyzed genome-wide copy number changes, BRAF (V-raf sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations, and p16 and cyclin D1 expressions in a panel of ATC primary tumors.
  • The effect of CCND1 on thyroid cell proliferation was assessed in vitro in ATC cells by means of siRNA and in thyroid cells after CCND1 transfection.
  • In summary, the recurrent chromosomal copy number changes and molecular alterations identified in this study may provide an insight into the pathogenesis and development of ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Comparative Genomic Hybridization / methods. Gene Amplification. Genes, bcl-1. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes / genetics


3. Carvalho GA, Graf H: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):719-24
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC), as papillary and follicular carcinoma, usually follows a relatively benign course after total thyroidectomy and thyroid remnant ablation with 131I.
  • In contrast, anaplastic TC or undifferentiated TC, also derived from the thyroid follicular epithelium, refers to one of the more aggressive human malignancies, which have lost most or all characteristics of the tissue from which it originated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16444354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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4. Gol Choe J, Kim YR, Kim KN, Choo HJ, Shin JH, Lee YJ, Chung JK, Kim MK: Altered gene expression profiles by sodium/iodide symporter gene transfection in a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line using a radioactive complementary DNA microarray. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Dec;26(12):1155-62
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  • [Title] Altered gene expression profiles by sodium/iodide symporter gene transfection in a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line using a radioactive complementary DNA microarray.
  • BACKGROUND: The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is a membrane glycoprotein that mediates active 131I uptake during the treatment of cancer of the thyroid gland and extrathyroidal tissues.
  • NIS gene transfection, a gene-therapy modality, has been introduced in many types of cancer, such as prostate cancer and breast cancer, and has demonstrated a high potential for the treatment of non-thyroidal cancers.
  • AIM: To investigate the pattern of NIS gene expression and provide evidence of its beneficial effects in human anaplastic cancer ARO cells by using a radioactive complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray.
  • METHODS: For cDNA microarray data analysis, superimposed images and clustergrams were prepared from basic radioactivity data obtained using a phosphoimager system.
  • Gene expression profiles were constructed using the Z-transformed values of genes related to cancer biology.
  • Moreover, NIS gene transfection into an anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line affected the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family and Ras oncogene family, including Ras, Rac and Rab.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Symporters / biosynthesis. Symporters / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16264365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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5. Noguchi H, Yamashita H, Murakami T, Hirai K, Noguchi Y, Maruta J, Yokoi T, Noguchi S: Successful treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a combination of oral valproic acid, chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):245-9
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a combination of oral valproic acid, chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive of thyroid cancers whose treatment is not yet established and mortality is extremely high.
  • Recent in vitro studies have shown that valproic acid (VA), a newly identified histone deacetilase (HDAC) inhibitor, induces apoptosis, modulates differentiation gene expression of thyroid tumors and enhances the sensitivity of anaplastic cancer cell lines to doxorubicin.
  • We report a case of successful treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a combination of oral valproic acid, chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and doxorubicin, external and intra-operative radiation and surgery.
  • Serial cytology performed via fine needle aspiration (FNA) presented a rapidly changing profile of cell types, starting with anaplastic and proceeding through increasingly well differentiated presentations.
  • Only microscopic remnants of ATC cells were found in the histological examination of the resected thyroid.
  • 22, 2008, the patient is alive and disease free two years after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19088401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Adamidou A, Kotsaftis P, Vlachou M, Haritanti A, Xanthakis I, Zantidis A, Ntaios G: Solitary large hepatic metastasis in an elderly patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2(1):41

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  • [Title] Solitary large hepatic metastasis in an elderly patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: We present the case of a patient who presented with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a solitary large liver metastasis.
  • Hepatic metastases are extremely rare in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • On physical examination, the thyroid was hard and tender on palpation and a liver mass was palpable.
  • Other biochemical tests including tumor markers, thyroid hormones, antithyroid antibodies, hepatitis B and hepatitis C antibodies were negative.
  • Imaging methods revealed enlargement of the left thyroid lobe extending to the anterior mediastinum and compressing the trachea, metastatic bilateral pulmonary lesions and a large, nodular, contrast-enhanced mass-occupying lesion in the right hepatic lobe.
  • The findings of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid were consistent with anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Liver biopsy showed infiltrations by poorly differentiated anaplastic cells, few of which were slightly positive for thyroglobulin.
  • These findings were suggestive of a hepatic metastasis originating from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • During his hospitalization, the patient suffered progressive obstruction of the trachea due to rapid increase of the thyroid gland mass.
  • CONCLUSION: Solitary, large hepatic metastasis may constitute a rare complication in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19138396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2632615
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7. Larsson K, Kåreholt I, Thorslund M: Care utilisation in the last years of life in relation to age and time to death: results from a Swedish urban population of the oldest old. Eur J Ageing; 2008 Dec;5(4):349-357

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The proportion residing in institutional care facilities with around-the-clock care increased steadily with a sharper gradient 6 months before death.

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  • (PMID = 28798585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1613-9372
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ageing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ageing
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; End-of-life care / Hospitalisation / Institutionalisation / Swedish elder care
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8. Scott AR, Holbrook EH: Radiology quiz case 1. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Apr;134(4):442, 444
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  • [Title] Radiology quiz case 1. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18427014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Kim SJ, Kwak JY, Hong SW, Kim EK, Kim MJ, Park SH, Son EJ, Park CS, Chung WY: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arising from a calcified thyroid mass. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Aug 1;26(22):3800-2
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arising from a calcified thyroid mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18669469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Pignatello R, Paolino D, Pantò V, Pistară V, Calvagno MG, Russo D, Puglisi G, Fresta M: Lipoamino acid prodrugs of paclitaxel: synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation on human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2009 Mar;9(2):202-13
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  • [Title] Lipoamino acid prodrugs of paclitaxel: synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation on human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • The in vitro anticancer activity of the prodrugs was tested on a human thyroid anaplastic cancer cell line (ARO).
  • The enhanced activity of PTX-LAA prodrugs, in terms of potency and onset of the effect, as well as the interesting intracellular accumulation data suggest that these compounds can be further tested as possible alternatives to PTX for the treatment of resistant cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids / chemical synthesis. Amino Acids / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Prodrugs / chemical synthesis. Prodrugs / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19275760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Prodrugs; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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11. Guida T, Salvatore G, Faviana P, Giannini R, Garcia-Rostan G, Provitera L, Basolo F, Fusco A, Carlomagno F, Santoro M: Mitogenic effects of the up-regulation of minichromosome maintenance proteins in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Aug;90(8):4703-9
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  • [Title] Mitogenic effects of the up-regulation of minichromosome maintenance proteins in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC) are among the most aggressive human malignancies and are characterized by high mitotic activity.
  • OBJECTIVE: In an attempt to cast light on the mechanisms governing ATC, we evaluated MCM5 and MCM7 expression in human normal, papillary (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid samples, as well as in primary culture cells and transgenic mouse models.
  • RESULTS: MCM5 and MCM7 expression was high in 65% of ATC and negligible in normal thyroid tissue and papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • In ATC, high MCM5 and MCM7 expression was paralleled by high levels of MCM2 and MCM6.
  • An analysis of human ATC primary cell cultures and of a transgenic mouse model of ATC confirmed these findings.
  • An increased transcription rate accounted for MCM7 up-regulation, because the activity of the MCM7 promoter was more than 10-fold higher in ATC cells compared with normal thyroid cells.
  • Adoptive overexpression of wild-type p53, but not of its inactive (R248W and R273H) mutants, strongly down-regulated transcription from the MCM7 promoter, suggesting that p53 knock-out contributes to MCM7 up-regulation in ATC.
  • Treatment with small inhibitory duplex RNAs, which decrease MCM7 protein levels, reduced the rate of DNA synthesis in ATC cells.
  • CONCLUSION: MCM proteins are overexpressed in ATC and sustain the high proliferative capacity of ATC cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 15899946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MCM5 protein, human; 0 / Mitogens; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM6 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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12. Sevinç AI, Canda AE, Unek T, Canda S, Kocdor MA, Saydam S, Harmancioglu O: Papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking anaplastic thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Thyroid; 2010 Jan;20(1):115-7
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking anaplastic thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are rare and usually identified in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has become an acceptable method for the assessment of thyroid nodules.
  • Very rarely needle track dissemination of tumor cells in the thyroid nodule occurs, but, when this occurs, it is evident many years after the FNAB.
  • SUMMARY: An 85-year-old female presented with a mass on her neck, skin ulceration, and hemorrhage 4 months after FNAB was performed for a thyroid nodule by another physician.
  • A second FNAB with ultrasound guidance yielded cytology diagnostic of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma was confirmed by surgical dissection of the mass, and a linear array of tumor was noted in skin and muscle was performed again, and the cytological diagnosis revealed papillary carcinoma.
  • After surgical resection, the histopathological diagnosis determined the nodules to be papillary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although FNAB is a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, it is important to consider the risk of tumor cell dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20017616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Noh TW, Soung YH, Kim HI, Gil HJ, Kim JM, Lee EJ, Chung J: Effect of {beta}4 integrin knockdown by RNA interference in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Nov;30(11):4485-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of {beta}4 integrin knockdown by RNA interference in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Integrin α6β4 is a known tumor antigen; however, its function in different subtypes of thyroid cancer is not known.
  • This study reports that α6β4 expression is selectively up-regulated in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells, the most malignant subtype of human thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the contribution of α6β4 in ATC progression, cell proliferation, motility and soft agar assay were performed in vitro and a xenograft tumor growth assay was performed in vivo.
  • RESULTS: Knockdown of β4 integrin subunit expression by shRNA in ATC cells reduced the proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of ATC cells in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that integrin α6β4 contributes to the development of aggressive forms of thyroid cancer with poor prognostic potential, such as ATC, and thus may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment for this subtype of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Integrin alpha6beta4 / genetics. RNA Interference. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21115897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alpha6beta4; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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14. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck; 2005 Dec;27(12):1102-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Earache / etiology. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 16134184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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15. Hutchins T, Friedlander P, Palacios E: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Ear Nose Throat J; 2007 May;86(5):266-7
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / radiography. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Dyspnea / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17580801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Soto-Pérez-de-Celis E, González-Pezzat I: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Intern Med J; 2010 May;40(5):383
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20575995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-5994
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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17. Cornett WR, Sharma AK, Day TA, Richardson MS, Hoda RS, van Heerden JA, Fernandes JK: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: an overview. Curr Oncol Rep; 2007 Mar;9(2):152-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: an overview.
  • Thyroid cancer is an uncommon malignancy that accounts for roughly 1% of all new cancers.
  • Although anaplastic lesions constitute fewer than 5% of thyroid cancers, they represent over half of thyroid cancer-related deaths.
  • The relative rarity of anaplastic thyroid cancer, its aggressive nature, and its rapidly fatal course have contributed to the difficulty in developing effective treatment for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17288883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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18. Shi Y, Zou M, Baitei EY, Alzahrani AS, Parhar RS, Al-Makhalafi Z, Al-Mohanna FA: Cannabinoid 2 receptor induction by IL-12 and its potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Gene Ther; 2008 Feb;15(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Cannabinoid 2 receptor induction by IL-12 and its potential as a therapeutic target for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive type of thyroid malignancies.
  • Previously, we demonstrated that tumorigenicity of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line ARO was significantly reduced following interleukin (IL)-12 gene transfer.
  • A considerable regression of thyroid tumors generated by inoculation of ARO/CB2 cells was observed in nude mice following local administration of JWH133.
  • These data suggest that CB2 overexpression may contribute to the regression of human anaplastic thyroid tumor in nude mice following IL-12 gene transfer.
  • Given that cannabinoids have shown antitumor effects in many types of cancer models, CB2 may be a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / therapy. Genetic Therapy. Interleukin-12 / physiology. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2 / biosynthesis. Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18197164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5500
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
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19. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Taccaliti A, Franchin E, Bruglia M, Boscaro M, Palù G: A pilot study of combined suicide/cytokine gene therapy in two patients with end-stage anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):2831-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot study of combined suicide/cytokine gene therapy in two patients with end-stage anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • This study represents the first report of gene therapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, one of the most aggressive solid tumors in humans.
  • Two patients with end-stage anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were treated by direct intratumor injection of retroviral vector producer cells followed by ganciclovir.
  • The retroviral vector carried the human IL-2 gene and the suicide gene thymidine kinase of herpes simplex virus type 1.
  • Transduction of tumor cells and production of T helper type 1 cytokines was demonstrated in tumor biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Cytokines / genetics. Genetic Therapy. Thymidine Kinase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Humans. Pilot Projects. Retroviridae / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15713704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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20. Kim TH, Yoo YH, Kang DY, Suh H, Park MK, Park KJ, Kim SH: Efficacy on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma of valproic acid alone or in combination with doxorubicin, a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative, or lactacystin. Int J Oncol; 2009 May;34(5):1353-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma of valproic acid alone or in combination with doxorubicin, a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative, or lactacystin.
  • The present study investigated the mechanism underlying the antitumor activity of the histone deacetylases inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), alone and in combination with doxorubicin, a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative (HS-1200), or the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin on cultured anaplastic thyroid carcinoma KAT-18 cells.
  • The results suggest VPA combination therapy may represent an alternative therapeutic strategy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcysteine / analogs & derivatives. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Chenodeoxycholic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19360347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0GEI24LG0J / Chenodeoxycholic Acid; 133343-34-7 / lactacystin; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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21. Liu ZM, L i L, Zhu XY, Song FZ: [Molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by PsL5F in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2009 Nov;40(6):1015-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by PsL5F in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the apoptosis induced by Pteris semipnnata L 5F (PsL5F) in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells and its molecular mechanism.
  • METHODS: Human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells were treated with PsL5F, and the growth inhibition rate was evaluated by MTT assay.
  • Under the treatment of 100 mg/L of PsL5F, the percentage of apoptotic cells with phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization was gradually increased in time dependent manner.
  • CONCLUSION: PsL5F can inhibit growth of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells through inducing apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Diterpenes / isolation & purification. Diterpenes / pharmacology. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20067110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
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22. Zhu W, Hu H, Qiu P, Yan G: Triptolide induces apoptosis in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells by a p53-independent but NF-kappaB-related mechanism. Oncol Rep; 2009 Dec;22(6):1397-401
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  • [Title] Triptolide induces apoptosis in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells by a p53-independent but NF-kappaB-related mechanism.
  • This study investigates the pro-apoptotic function and the functional mechanism of triptolide on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells.
  • Experiments presented here demonstrated that triptolide had dose-dependent effects on cell viability of human ATC cell line TA-K cells through inducing cell apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Diterpenes / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Phenanthrenes / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19885592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Epoxy Compounds; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Phenanthrenes; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 19ALD1S53J / triptolide
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23. Barzon L, Gnatta E, Castagliuolo I, Trevisan M, Moretti F, Pontecorvi A, Boscaro M, Palù G: Modulation of retrovirally driven therapeutic genes by mutant TP53 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Gene Ther; 2005 Apr;12(4):381-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modulation of retrovirally driven therapeutic genes by mutant TP53 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • We previously demonstrated that restoration of TP53 activity in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma inhibits cell growth and induces expression of thyroid differentiation markers.
  • Here, we investigated whether TP53 status may condition the expression of therapeutic genes driven by retroviral LTR or tissue-specific enhancer elements.
  • The TP53-defective ARO anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells were transfected with TP53(Val135), which exhibits wild-type activity at 32 degrees C, and transduced with retroviral vectors, in which therapeutic genes were driven either by wild-type LTR or by a reshuffled LTR containing thyroglobulin (TG) enhancer.
  • TP53(Val135) transfer into ARO cells repressed transcription from wild-type LTR but increased expression of TG-driven therapeutic genes.
  • Cytotoxic effects shown after ganciclovir treatment paralleled therapeutic gene expression levels.
  • In conclusion, TP53 status in the tumor cell can influence expression of therapeutic genes.
  • When using retroviral-vector-based gene therapy, wild-type LTR vectors should be employed to target TP53-defective tumors, whereas thyroid-specific promoters should be used for transcriptional targeting of thyroid carcinomas carrying wild-type TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Genes, p53 / genetics. Retroviridae / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Gene Ther. 2005 Aug;12(8):723
  • (PMID = 15650765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-1903
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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24. Sun CZ, Chen FJ, Zeng ZY, Chen YF, Li QL, Guan Z, Tian SZ: [Treatment and prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Nov 1;44(21):1493-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment and prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the treatment model and the factors that influence survival of the patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • METHODS: The clinical data of all patients with ATC in our hospital from May. 1970 to May.
  • The prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was worse; the patients with ATC maybe get a better prognosis by receiving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17349179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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25. Klopper JP, Berenz A, Hays WR, Sharma V, Pugazhenthi U, Janssen J, Singh M, Bissonnette RP, Haugen BR: In vivo and microarray analysis of rexinoid-responsive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jan 15;14(2):589-96
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  • [Title] In vivo and microarray analysis of rexinoid-responsive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare, yet lethal despite aggressive therapy.
  • In this report, we describe the efficacy of LGD1069 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in vitro and assess the in vivo treatment effects on a responsive cancer.
  • Additionally, we explore potential mediators of the rexinoid effect on a responsive anaplastic thyroid cancer using comparative microarray analysis.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines DRO, ARO, and FRO were treated with LGD1069 in vitro.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LGD1069 therapy decreases proliferation in an anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line that expresses retinoid X receptor-gamma, and this effect is confirmed with decreased tumor size in vivo in a nude mouse model.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Retinoid X Receptors / agonists. Tetrahydronaphthalenes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Jan 1;15(1):416
  • (PMID = 18223235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100560
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors; 0 / Tetrahydronaphthalenes; A61RXM4375 / bexarotene
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26. Nappi TC, Salerno P, Zitzelsberger H, Carlomagno F, Salvatore G, Santoro M: Identification of Polo-like kinase 1 as a potential therapeutic target in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Res; 2009 Mar 1;69(5):1916-23
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  • [Title] Identification of Polo-like kinase 1 as a potential therapeutic target in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive and chemoresistant cancers.
  • The serine/threonine kinase Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a key regulator of multiple steps during mitotic progression, is highly expressed in ATC.
  • Here, we used the BI 2536 PLK1 inhibitor on ATC and nontransformed thyroid follicular cell lines.
  • Our data show that ATC cells are addicted to high levels of PLK1 activity for proliferation, survival, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity.
  • On treatment with nanomolar doses of BI 2536, ATC cells progressed normally through S phase but died thereafter, directly from mitotic arrest.
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analysis showed that, on PLK1 blockade, ATC cells arrested in prometaphase with a 4N DNA content.
  • Treated ATC cells accumulated phosphohistone H3 and displayed characteristic mitotic (Polo) spindle aberrations.
  • Nontransformed thyroid cells were 3.2- to 18.4-fold less susceptible to BI 2536-induced cell cycle effects compared with ATC cells.
  • These findings identify PLK1 as a promising target for the molecular therapy of ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Cell Cycle Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Pteridines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19223553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BI 2536; 0 / CCNB1 protein, human; 0 / Ccnb1 protein, mouse; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin B; 0 / Cyclin B1; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Pteridines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / polo-like kinase 1
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27. Zweifel M, Stenner-Liewen F, Weber A, Samaras P, Zaugg K, Knuth A, Soyka JD: Increased bone marrow activity on F-18-FDG PET/CT in granulocyte colony stimulating factor producing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Feb;35(2):103-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased bone marrow activity on F-18-FDG PET/CT in granulocyte colony stimulating factor producing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / metabolism. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20090458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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28. Zhu W, Ou Y, Li Y, Xiao R, Shu M, Zhou Y, Xie J, He S, Qiu P, Yan G: A small-molecule triptolide suppresses angiogenesis and invasion of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells via down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. Mol Pharmacol; 2009 Apr;75(4):812-9
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  • [Title] A small-molecule triptolide suppresses angiogenesis and invasion of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells via down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is among the most aggressive malignancies known and is characterized with rapid growth, early invasion, and complete refractoriness to current therapies.
  • Here we report that triptolide, a small molecule from a Chinese herb, could potently inhibit proliferation in vitro, angiogenesis in vivo, and invasion in a Matrigel model in human ATC cell line TA-K cells at nanomolar concentrations.
  • Expression of the NF-kappaB targeting genes cyclin D1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator is significantly reduced by triptolide in both TA-K and 8505C human ATC cell lines, which are well known to be critical for proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion in solid tumors.
  • Our findings suggest that triptolide may function as a small molecule inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and invasion and may provide novel mechanistic insights into the potential therapy for human ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Carcinoma / pathology. Diterpenes / pharmacology. Down-Regulation / physiology. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Phenanthrenes / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19158360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0111
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Epoxy Compounds; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Phenanthrenes; 19ALD1S53J / triptolide
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29. Tazbir J, Dedecjus M, Kaurzel Z, Lewiński A, Brzeziński J: Selective embolization of thyroid arteries (SETA) as a palliative treatment of inoperable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2005 Aug;26(4):401-6
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  • [Title] Selective embolization of thyroid arteries (SETA) as a palliative treatment of inoperable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • OBJECTIVES: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors in humans.
  • Despite intense application of multimodality of treatment with surgery and/or external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the survival rates remain low--generally the mean survival is about six (6) months after diagnosis.
  • Rapid development--particularly over the last decade--of interventional radiology, provides methodology that allows examining thyroid arterial embolization as an alternative approach to ablating thyroid tissue.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate selective embolization of the thyroid arteries (SETA) as a possible alternative for the palliative treatment of advanced, inoperable ATC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group comprised five (5) patients with advanced stage of inoperable ATC.
  • All the patients underwent SETA of the superior and/or inferior thyroid arteries.
  • After SETA, selective angiography of thyroid arteries was performed to ensure that the targeted arteries were completely occluded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that SETA is minimally invasive and save method of palliative treatment of ATC and, as such, may be recommended in cases of intractable hemorrhage and pain caused by ATC progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Palliative Care. Thyroid Gland / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16136001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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30. Copland JA, Marlow LA, Kurakata S, Fujiwara K, Wong AK, Kreinest PA, Williams SF, Haugen BR, Klopper JP, Smallridge RC: Novel high-affinity PPARgamma agonist alone and in combination with paclitaxel inhibits human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma tumor growth via p21WAF1/CIP1. Oncogene; 2006 Apr 13;25(16):2304-17
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  • [Title] Novel high-affinity PPARgamma agonist alone and in combination with paclitaxel inhibits human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma tumor growth via p21WAF1/CIP1.
  • The PAX8/PPARgamma fusion oncogene, which is common in human follicular thyroid carcinomas appears to act via dominant negative suppression of wild-type PPARgamma, suggesting that it may be a tumor suppressor gene in thyroid cells.
  • In vitro, the IC50 for growth inhibition is approximately 0.8 nM while anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) tumor growth was inhibited three- to fourfold in nude mice. siRNA against PPARgamma and a pharmacological antagonist demonstrated that functional PPARgamma was required for growth inhibitory activity of RS5444.
  • RS5444 plus paclitaxel demonstrated additive antiproliferative activity in cell culture and minimal ATC tumor growth in vivo.
  • Our data indicate that functional PPARgamma is a molecular target for therapy in ATC.
  • We demonstrated that RS5444, a thiazolidinedione (Tzd) derivative, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, may provide therapeutic benefit to patients diagnosed with ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / physiology. PPAR gamma / agonists. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chromans / pharmacology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Mice

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  • (PMID = 16331265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA15083
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Chromans; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; I66ZZ0ZN0E / troglitazone; M17ILL71MC / efatutazone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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31. Alfano RW, Leppla SH, Liu S, Bugge TH, Ortiz JM, Lairmore TC, Duesbery NS, Mitchell IC, Nwariaku F, Frankel AE: Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin in an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Jan;9(1):190-201
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  • [Title] Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin in an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) typically succumb to their disease months after diagnosis despite aggressive therapy.
  • ATC invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis are in part dependent on the gelatinase class of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP).
  • The explicit targeting of these two tumor markers may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ATC.
  • Here, we show that the MMP-activated LeTx inhibits orthotopic ATC xenograft progression in both toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant ATC cells via reduced endothelial cell recruitment and subsequent tumor vascularization.
  • Therefore, the MMP-activated LeTx could be used not only in the clinical management of V600E B-Raf ATC but potentially in any solid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Bacterial / therapeutic use. Bacterial Toxins / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / blood supply. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20053778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AI000929-05; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 AI000929-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Bacterial; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / anthrax toxin; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS162016; NLM/ PMC2806504
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32. Nagaiah G, Fu P, Wasman JK, Cooney MM, Mooney C, Afshin D, Lavertu P, Bokar J, Savvides P, Remick SC, CTRU Research Nurses: Phase II trial of sorafenib (bay 43-9006) in patients with advanced anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid (ATC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6058

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib (bay 43-9006) in patients with advanced anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid (ATC).
  • We are conducting an open label, phase II study of sorafenib in patients with biopsy-proven ATC to evaluate if its objective response rate is >20% and to further characterize its safety profile.
  • METHODS: Patients with progressive ATC, after cytotoxic chemotherapy with or without radiation were given sorafenib, on a fixed dosing schedule of 400 mg PO bid on 28-day cycles.
  • Treatment was continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or patient refusal.
  • Two of 15 evaluable patients (13%) have partial response (PR) and 4 patients (27%) have stable disease (SD).
  • One patient died on study with rapidly progressive disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib demonstrates objective tumor response in the first 15 evaluable and pretreated patients with advanced ATC.

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  • (PMID = 27961935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Ishihara T, Tsuda H, Hotta A, Kozaki K, Yoshida A, Noh JY, Ito K, Imoto I, Inazawa J: ITCH is a putative target for a novel 20q11.22 amplification detected in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Cancer Sci; 2008 Oct;99(10):1940-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ITCH is a putative target for a novel 20q11.22 amplification detected in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most virulent of all human malignancies, with a mean survival time among patients of less than 1 year after diagnosis.
  • To date, however, cytogenetic information on this disease has been very limited.
  • During the course of a program to screen a panel of ATC cell lines for genomic copy-number aberrations using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified a high-level amplification of the ITCH gene, which is mapped to 20q11.22 and belongs to the homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxylterminus ubiquitin ligase family.
  • The expression of ITCH was increased in 4 of 14 ATC cell lines (28.6%), including 8305C in which there was a copy-number amplification of this gene, and six of seven primary cases (85.7%).
  • Among the primary thyroid tumors, a considerable number of ITCH high expressers was found in ATC (40/45, 88.9%), papillary thyroid carcinoma (25/25, 100%), and papillary microcarcinoma (25/25, 100%).
  • Furthermore, knockdown of ITCH by specific small interfering RNA significantly inhibited the growth of ITCH-overexpressing cells, whereas ectopic overexpression of ITCH promoted growth of ATC cell lines with relatively weak expression.
  • These observations indicate ITCH to be the most likely target for 20q11.22 amplification and to play a crucial role in the progression of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20. Gene Amplification. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19016753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / ITCH protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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34. Bonofiglio D, Qi H, Gabriele S, Catalano S, Aquila S, Belmonte M, Andò S: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits follicular and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells growth by upregulating p21Cip1/WAF1 gene in a Sp1-dependent manner. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):545-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits follicular and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells growth by upregulating p21Cip1/WAF1 gene in a Sp1-dependent manner.
  • The aim of this study was to delineate the molecular mechanism underlying PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone (BRL) antiproliferative effects in follicular WRO and anaplastic FRO human thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • BRL upregulated the p21Cip1/WAF1 levels in the two thyroid cancer cells, while did not modify the p53 protein content.
  • Our results further candidate BRL as a potential agent able to inhibit tumor progression of follicular and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Sp1 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18509005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Sp1 Transcription Factor; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone
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35. Brignardello E, Gallo M, Baldi I, Palestini N, Piovesan A, Grossi E, Ciccone G, Boccuzzi G: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: clinical outcome of 30 consecutive patients referred to a single institution in the past 5 years. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Apr;156(4):425-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: clinical outcome of 30 consecutive patients referred to a single institution in the past 5 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: Treatment options for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), which is one of the most lethal human malignant tumors, include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy usually combined in a multimodal approach, to improve survival and avoid death from local invasion.
  • However, there is no standard protocol for ATC treatment and the optimal sequence within multimodal therapy is debated.
  • We retrospectively report the clinical outcome of 30 ATC patients referred consecutively to the Oncological Endocrinology Unit of San Giovanni Battista Hospital (Turin, Italy) between 2000 and 2005.
  • Maximal debulking entailed total or near-total thyroidectomy and complete resection of all gross tumor or minimal residual disease adherent to vital structures, independently of the presence or absence of distant metastases.
  • In palliative resections, macroscopic residual disease was left in the neck.
  • RESULTS: Analysis of multivariate hazard ratios showed that maximal debulking followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was the only treatment that modified survival of ATC patients (hazard ratio= 0.23, 95% CI: 0.07-0.79), even if factors determining poor prognosis or increased surgical risk were present.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the overall grim outcome of ATC, these results justify an attempt at maximal debulking surgery, followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, possibly in all ATC patients.

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  • (PMID = 17389456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Reddi HV, Madde P, Reichert-Eberhardt AJ, Galanis EC, Copland JA, McIver B, Grebe SK, Eberhardt NL: ONYX-411, a conditionally replicative oncolytic adenovirus, induces cell death in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines and suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Cancer Gene Ther; 2008 Nov;15(11):750-7
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  • [Title] ONYX-411, a conditionally replicative oncolytic adenovirus, induces cell death in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines and suppresses the growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive thyroid cancer variant, accounting for 1-2% of all cases, but 33% of deaths, and exhibiting an average life expectancy of 5 months.
  • ATC is largely unresponsive to radioactive iodine, chemotherapy, external beam radiation or surgery, underscoring the need for new and effective therapies.
  • We evaluated the therapeutic potential of an oncolytic adenovirus, ONYX-411, that replicates selectively in and kills cells with dysfunction of the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway.
  • In the present study, we report that ONYX-411 is able to induce cell death in eight human anaplastic carcinoma cell lines in vitro.
  • The cytopathic effect of the virus is specific to cells with RB dysfunction, which appears to be frequent in ATC.
  • We confirmed the expression of the coxsackie adenovirus receptor, CAR, in all ATC cell lines, demonstrating the potentially universal application of this oncolytic viral therapy to ATC.
  • These results indicate that ONYX-411 can be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ATC, rendering this class of conditionally replicating adenoviruses an attractive candidate for clinical trials.

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  • (PMID = 18583996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5500
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Gene Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA080117; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80117
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS321376; NLM/ PMC3180921
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37. Voigt W, Kegel T, Weiss M, Mueller T, Simon H, Schmoll HJ: Potential activity of paclitaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep;131(9):585-90
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  • [Title] Potential activity of paclitaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has a rapidly fatal course in the mostly elderly patients with a median survival after diagnosis of 4-12 months.
  • Activity of commonly used chemotherapy (doxorubicin) is low, thus more active compounds need to be introduced into the therapeutic concept of ATC.
  • Recently, based on preclinical data Ain et al. conducted a clinical phase II study with paclitaxel 96 h infusion in ATC achieving a promising response rate of 53%.
  • To further improve therapeutic options in ATC, we evaluated the activity of topotecan, oxaliplatin, vinorelbine, gemcitabine and paclitaxel in comparision to cisplatin and doxorubicin (1 and 96 h drug exposure) alone or in combination in the ATC cell lines SW1736 and 8505C.
  • We found paclitaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine active in ATC with RAA (1 h drug exposure) ranging from 86 to 454, 15 to 17 and 31 to 140, respectively.
  • In conclusion, paclitaxel, gemcitabine and vinorelbine but not topotecan or oxaliplatin appeared to be active in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma based on RAA or growth delay at clinically relevant drug concentrations.
  • Thus, further evaluation of paclitaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine alone or in combination with ATC seems warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16021466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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38. Yau T, Lo CY, Epstein RJ, Lam AK, Wan KY, Lang BH: Treatment outcomes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: survival improvement in young patients with localized disease treated by combination of surgery and radiotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Sep;15(9):2500-5
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  • [Title] Treatment outcomes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: survival improvement in young patients with localized disease treated by combination of surgery and radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a notoriously aggressive malignancy associated with a highly lethal clinical course despite therapeutic intervention.
  • Our present study attempts to identify factors that could potentially improve therapeutic strategies by analyzing the clinicopathological features, treatment and outcome of ATC patients managed over the past four decades at our institution.
  • METHODS: Fifty patients with biopsy-proven ATC during the period 1966 to 2006 were studied.
  • On univariate analysis, patients aged </=65 years (P = .04), absence of metastatic disease at presentation (P < .01), surgical resection (P < .01), and postoperative radiotherapy (P < .01) were associated with longer survival.
  • CONCLUSION: ATC remains a deadly disease despite technical advances in surgical technique and adoption of multidisciplinary treatment strategies over the last four decades.
  • However, younger patients with localized ATC might benefit from an aggressive multidisciplinary approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18581185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Lim KH, Lee KW, Kim JH, Park SY, Choi SH, Lee JS: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma initially presented with abdominal cutaneous mass and hyperthyroidism. Korean J Intern Med; 2010 Dec;25(4):450-3
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma initially presented with abdominal cutaneous mass and hyperthyroidism.
  • Computed tomography revealed huge thyroid and periumbilical masses.
  • The thyroid hormone levels were consistent with a hyperthyroid state.
  • Pathological examination of the thyroid mass was compatible with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and the abdominal cutaneous mass was shown to be metastatic ATC.
  • This case demonstrates that abdominal cutaneous metastasis and hyperthyroidism can occur as initial manifestations of ATC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21179285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997976
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic carcinoma / Cutaneous metastasis / Hyperthyroidism / Thyroid neoplasms
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40. Ito Y, Takano T, Miyauchi A: Apolipoprotein e expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Oncology; 2006;71(5-6):388-93
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  • [Title] Apolipoprotein e expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, recently the relationship between Apo E and carcinoma progression has been investigated.
  • In this study, we investigated Apo E expression in thyroid carcinoma at both the protein and molecular levels.
  • METHODS: We investigated Apo E expression at the protein and molecular level in 124 thyroid neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: In RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, the Apo E mRNA expression level was very low in papillary and follicular carcinomas as well as normal thyroid, but was dramatically elevated in anaplastic carcinoma.
  • In an immunohistochemical study, 32 of 33 anaplastic carcinomas (97.0%) showed high levels of Apo E expression, but this phenomenon was seen only in 1 of 51 papillary carcinomas (2.0%).
  • None of the follicular carcinomas or adenomas showed high levels of Apo E expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that Apo E is one of the typical biological characteristics of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Apolipoproteins E / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17690558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins E; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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41. Lee JJ, Foukakis T, Hashemi J, Grimelius L, Heldin NE, Wallin G, Rudduck C, Lui WO, Höög A, Larsson C: Molecular cytogenetic profiles of novel and established human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma models. Thyroid; 2007 Apr;17(4):289-301
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  • [Title] Molecular cytogenetic profiles of novel and established human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma models.
  • In this study we present two novel anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) lines (HTh 104 and HTh 112) and further characterize six frequently used ATC lines (HTh 7, HTh 74, HTh 83, C 643, KAT-4, and SW 1736).
  • Three of the lines carried a heterozygous BRAF mutation V600E, which is in line with reports of BRAF mutations in primary ATC and papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Several nonrandom breakpoints were identified by spectral karyotyping (SKY) and G-banding in these lines including the novel 1p36 and 17q24-25 as well as 3p21-22 and 15q26 that are also implicated in well-differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • Our results concur with previous studies in both primary tumors and cell lines, indicating that gain of chromosome 20 is important in the pathogenesis of ATC and/or progression of differentiated thyroid cancers to ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations / classification. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


42. Liu J, Brown RE: Immunohistochemical detection of epithelialmesenchymal transition associated with stemness phenotype in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(8):755-62
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of epithelialmesenchymal transition associated with stemness phenotype in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm resistant to radiation and chemotherapy.
  • However, EMT and stem cell properties in ATC have not been fully investigated.
  • In this study, we retrieved 2 thyroidectomy specimens of ATC with coexisting well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) including one papillary carcinoma (PTC) and one follicular carcinoma (FTC).
  • In contrast, the PTC and FTC, and non-neoplastic thyroid tissue in both cases were negative for nestin and positive for E-cadherin.
  • The expressions of CD133 and CD44 were variable in the PTC, FTC, and non-neoplastic thyroid tissue and were at a lower level of expression of these markers in the overall pattern.
  • The results confirmed EMT, demonstrated the stem cell phenotype in ATC, and revealed the difference in expression of these markers between ATC and DTCs/non-neoplastic thyroid tissue.
  • Nestin may be the most specific marker for stemness in ATC by immuno-histochemial staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / physiology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21151388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Peptides
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993225
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma / cancer stem cell / epithelial-mesenchymal transition / follicular thyroid carcinoma / immunohistochemistry / papillary thyroid carcinoma
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43. Marlow LA, D'Innocenzi J, Zhang Y, Rohl SD, Cooper SJ, Sebo T, Grant C, McIver B, Kasperbauer JL, Wadsworth JT, Casler JD, Kennedy PW, Highsmith WE, Clark O, Milosevic D, Netzel B, Cradic K, Arora S, Beaudry C, Grebe SK, Silverberg ML, Azorsa DO, Smallridge RC, Copland JA: Detailed molecular fingerprinting of four new anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines and their use for verification of RhoB as a molecular therapeutic target. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Dec;95(12):5338-47
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  • [Title] Detailed molecular fingerprinting of four new anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines and their use for verification of RhoB as a molecular therapeutic target.
  • CONTEXT: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive carcinoma in need of therapeutic options.
  • Up to 42% of human thyroid cancer cell lines are redundant or not of correct tissue origin, and a comprehensive analysis is currently nonexistent.
  • Mechanistically, RhoB has been identified as a novel molecular target for ATC therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to develop four ATC cell lines detailing genetic, molecular, and phenotypic characteristics and to test five classes of drugs on the cell lines to determine whether they inhibited cell proliferation in a RhoB-dependent fashion.
  • DESIGN: Four cell lines were derived from ATC tumors.
  • Each proved unique regarding expression of thyroid markers, oncogene status, amplified and deleted genes, and proliferative growth rates.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Molecular descriptions of thyroid lines were matched to the originating tumors, setting a new standard for cell line characterization.
  • Furthermore, suppressed RhoB is implicated as a molecular target for therapy against ATC because five classes of drugs up-regulate RhoB and inhibit growth dose-responsively.

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  • (PMID = 20810568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136665; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA136665
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 3.6.5.2 / rhoB GTP-Binding Protein; YOW8V9698H / Dimethyl Sulfoxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999968
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44. Roswall P, Bu S, Rubin K, Landström M, Heldin NE: 2-methoxyestradiol induces apoptosis in cultured human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Thyroid; 2006 Feb;16(2):143-50
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  • [Title] 2-methoxyestradiol induces apoptosis in cultured human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most malignant tumors in humans, and currently there is no effective treatment.
  • In the present study we investigated the effect of an endogenous estrogen metabolite, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), on the growth of human ATC cells.
  • 2-ME treatment had a strong growth inhibitory effect on five human ATC cell lines (HTh7, HTh 74, HTh83, C643, and SW1736), but showed no effect on one cell line (KAT-4).
  • Taken together, our data demonstrate an antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of 2-ME on ATC cells involving activation of MAPKs.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / metabolism. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Caspase 3. Caspase 8. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Fragmentation. Flow Cytometry. G1 Phase. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Models, Statistical. Osmosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Ribonucleases / metabolism. Time Factors. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16676399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 6I2QW73SR5 / 2-methoxyestradiol; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.1.- / Ribonucleases; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP8 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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45. Baroli A, Pedrazzini L, Lomuscio G, Marzoli L: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Practical aspects of multimodal therapy and data emerging from a 40-year experience at a single Italian institution. Minerva Endocrinol; 2010 Mar;35(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Practical aspects of multimodal therapy and data emerging from a 40-year experience at a single Italian institution.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasia with high biological aggressiveness and rapid and lethal clinical course.
  • In our institution, the Department of Nuclear Medicine has a 40-year experience in monitor and treatment of a group of 48 patient with ATC confirmation that clinical presentation could overlap pre-existent nodular goitre or rapid enlarging mass of recent onset.
  • Radioiodine (131 I) therapy is unnecessary due to the loss of NIS expression of the ATC cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Research Design / statistics & numerical data. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20386523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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46. Shi Y, Zou M, Collison K, Baitei EY, Al-Makhalafi Z, Farid NR, Al-Mohanna FA: Ribonucleic acid interference targeting S100A4 (Mts1) suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a mouse model. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2373-9
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  • [Title] Ribonucleic acid interference targeting S100A4 (Mts1) suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a mouse model.
  • Despite advances in the management of thyroid carcinoma and other solid tumors, metastasis continues to be the most significant cause in cancer mortality.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the effects of S100A4 expression knockdown by RNA interference on the growth and metastasis of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (ARO) and the sensibility of ARO to paclitaxel after S100A4 knockdown.
  • Given that S100A4 is overexpressed in many kinds of tumors, the current study provides the proof of concept in its therapeutic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] RNA Interference. S100 Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Paclitaxel / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16551737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100a4 protein, mouse; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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47. Dandekar P, Harmer C, Barbachano Y, Rhys-Evans P, Harrington K, Nutting C, Newbold K: Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (HART) for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: toxicity and survival analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jun 1;74(2):518-21
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  • [Title] Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (HART) for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: toxicity and survival analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive cancers, and the current protocol of hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy was initiated to improve survival while limiting toxicities.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients with ATC from 1991 to 2002 were accrued and received megavoltage radiotherapy from the mastoid processes to the carina up to 60 Gy in twice-daily fractions of 1.8 and 2 Gy, 6 hours apart.
  • Local control data were available for 27 patients: 22% had a complete response, 26% had a partial response, 15% showed progressive disease, and 37% showed static disease.
  • There is a suggestion that younger patients with operable disease have longer survival, but this would require a larger study to confirm it.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19395202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Wang Z, Chakravarty G, Kim S, Yazici YD, Younes MN, Jasser SA, Santillan AA, Bucana CD, El-Naggar AK, Myers JN: Growth-inhibitory effects of human anti-insulin-like growth factor-I receptor antibody (A12) in an orthotopic nude mouse model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;12(15):4755-65
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  • [Title] Growth-inhibitory effects of human anti-insulin-like growth factor-I receptor antibody (A12) in an orthotopic nude mouse model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and its ligands have been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various cancers, including those arising in the thyroid gland.
  • We therefore evaluated whether the IGF-IR could serve as a potential target for therapy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression and activation of the IGF-IR and some of its downstream signaling pathway components were evaluated in both human thyroid cancer specimens and thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • The therapeutic potential of a humanized monoclonal antibody (A12) directed against IGF-IR was assessed in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic model of ATC.
  • RESULTS: IGF-IR was overexpressed in 94% of the thyroid cancers.
  • However, the inhibitory effects of A12 on cell proliferation were cell line dependent, as those ATC cell lines that had detectable levels of pIGF-IR were more sensitive to A12 treatment.
  • Our results also highlighted a previously undefined IGF-IR-mediated antiangiogenic effect on tumor-associated endothelium in thyroid cancers.
  • CONCLUSION: Blocking the IGF-IR with A12 seems to be a potential avenue for treating patients with ATC by its direct antitumor effects and its effects on the tumor vasculature.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / pharmacology. Male. Methylation. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / antagonists & inhibitors. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Signal Transduction / immunology. Structure-Activity Relationship. Transplantation, Heterologous. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 16899627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
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49. Kim S, Park YW, Schiff BA, Doan DD, Yazici Y, Jasser SA, Younes M, Mandal M, Bekele BN, Myers JN: An orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in athymic nude mice. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 1;11(5):1713-21
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  • [Title] An orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in athymic nude mice.
  • PURPOSE: To develop an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) in athymic nude mice.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Various thyroid carcinoma cell lines were injected into the thyroid gland of athymic nude mice to determine whether such injection was technically feasible.
  • ATC cells were then injected into the thyroid gland or the subcutis of nude mice at various concentrations, and the mice were then followed for tumor development.
  • RESULTS: Injection of tumor cells into the thyroid glands of nude mice was technically feasible and resulted in the formation of thyroid tumors.
  • The ATC cell line DRO showed significantly higher tumorigenicity in the thyroid gland than in the subcutis.
  • In contrast, oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line TU167 shows no significantly higher tumorigenicity in the thyroid gland than in the subcutis.
  • ATC tumors established in the thyroid gland also produced symptomatic compression of the esophagus and the trachea.
  • Immunohistochemical staining showed higher microvessel density as well as higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 in the orthotopic thyroid tumors than in ectopic tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: An orthotopic model of ATC in athymic nude mice was developed that closely recapitulates the clinical findings of human ATC.
  • This model should facilitate the understanding of the pathogenesis of ATC and aid in the development of novel therapies against ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Disease Models, Animal. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15755992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA 097997 A
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Lin SF, Yu Z, Riedl C, Woo Y, Zhang Q, Yu YA, Timiryasova T, Chen N, Shah JP, Szalay AA, Fong Y, Wong RJ: Treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in vitro with a mutant vaccinia virus. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):976-83; discussion 976-83
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  • [Title] Treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in vitro with a mutant vaccinia virus.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a fatal disease resistant to all conventional treatments.
  • Infection of 6 ATC cell lines by GLV-1h68 was detected in vitro at 12, 24, and 36 hours.
  • CONCLUSION: A replication-competent vaccinia virus has significant infectious and oncolytic activity against a panel of human ATC.
  • These results encourage future in vivo and clinical studies for this novel agent to treat this fatal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Oncolytic Virotherapy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Vaccinia virus / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18063085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galactosides; 0 / Indoles; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase; V595OG374W / 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-galactoside
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51. Kim S, Schiff BA, Yigitbasi OG, Doan D, Jasser SA, Bekele BN, Mandal M, Myers JN: Targeted molecular therapy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with AEE788. Mol Cancer Ther; 2005 Apr;4(4):632-40
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  • [Title] Targeted molecular therapy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with AEE788.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a mean survival of only 6 months.
  • The poor prognosis of patients with ATC reflects the current lack of curative therapeutic options and the need for development of novel therapeutic strategies.
  • In this study, we report the results of a preclinical study of AEE788, a dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases, against ATC.
  • AEE788 was able to inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of ATC cell lines in vitro.
  • ATC xenografts inhibited the growth of ATC xenografts by 44% and 69%, respectively, compared with the control group.
  • The microvessel density within the ATC xenografts was decreased by >80% in the mice treated with AEE788 alone and in combination with paclitaxel compared with the control group.
  • Considering the fact that curative options seldom exist for patients with ATC, concurrent inhibition of EGFR and VEGFR tyrosine kinases seems to be a valid and promising anticancer strategy for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Purines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15827337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097007A
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AEE 788; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Purines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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52. Kim TY, Kim KW, Jung TS, Kim JM, Kim SW, Chung KW, Kim EY, Gong G, Oh YL, Cho SY, Yi KH, Kim WB, Park DJ, Chung JH, Cho BY, Shong YK: Prognostic factors for Korean patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Head Neck; 2007 Aug;29(8):765-72
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors for Korean patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), although rare, is one of the most aggressive human cancers, and patients with ATC have extremely poor prognoses despite various therapeutic measures.
  • We wished to determine the prognostic factors of survival and effect of treatment on survival rate in patients with ATC.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the 121 patients (41 men and 80 women) diagnosed with ATC from January 1995 to June 2004 at 5 major referral centers in Korea.
  • RESULTS: Mean patient age at diagnosis was 64 +/- 11 years (range, 17-84 years).
  • The disease-specific survival rates were 42% at 6 months, 16% at 12 months, and 9% at 24 months.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that age less than 60 years, tumor size less than 7 cm, and lesser extent of disease were independent predictors of lower disease-specific mortality.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is possible for ATC patients less than 60 years old and with small localized tumors.
  • Although aggressive multimodal therapy, including surgery, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy, was not significantly associated with improved survival, we advocate aggressive multimodal therapy in selected ATC patients with good prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Korea / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17274052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Zito G, Richiusa P, Bommarito A, Carissimi E, Russo L, Coppola A, Zerilli M, Rodolico V, Criscimanna A, Amato M, Pizzolanti G, Galluzzo A, Giordano C: In vitro identification and characterization of CD133(pos) cancer stem-like cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines. PLoS One; 2008;3(10):e3544
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vitro identification and characterization of CD133(pos) cancer stem-like cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent publications suggest that neoplastic initiation and growth are dependent on a small subset of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs).
  • Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is a very aggressive solid tumor with poor prognosis, characterized by high dedifferentiation.
  • The existence of CSCs might account for the heterogeneity of ATC lesions.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ATC cell lines ARO, KAT-4, KAT-18 and FRO were analyzed for CD133 expression.
  • Furthermore, ARO/CD133(pos) showed levels of thyroid transcription factor TTF-1 similar to the fetal thyroid cell line TAD-2, while the expression in ARO/CD133(neg) was negligible.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe CD133(pos) cells in ATC cell lines.
  • The simultaneous positivity for thyroid specific factor TTF-1 and onfFN suggest they might represent putative thyroid cancer stem-like cells.
  • Our in vitro findings might provide new insights for novel therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Peptides / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18958156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / oncofetal fibronectin; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2568821
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54. Bogsrud TV, Karantanis D, Nathan MA, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Kasperbauer JL, Reading CC, Hay ID, Lowe VJ: 18F-FDG PET in the management of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Jul;18(7):713-9
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET in the management of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors in humans.
  • The use of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in ATC has not been studied, and only a few case reports have been published.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of 18F-FDG PET to the clinical management of patients with ATC.
  • METHODS: All patients with ATC studied with 18F-FDG PET from August 2001 through March 2007 were included.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ATC demonstrates intense uptake on 18F-FDG PET images.
  • PET may improve disease detection and have an impact on the management of patients with ATC relative to other imaging modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18630999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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55. Palestini N, Brignardello E, Freddi M, Piovesan A, Pipitone Federico NS, Sisto G, Robecchi A: Surgical treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Our experience. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):282-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Our experience.
  • BACKGROUND: In anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) surgical resection associated to radiotherapy and chemotherapy can ameliorate local disease control with occasional long-term survivals.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Resection of the tumor was accomplished in 20 ATC patients, with no macroscopic (13 cases) or minimal residual neck disease infiltrating vital structures (7 cases).
  • At last follow-up examination 17 patients had died and 3 were alive 1, 6 and 80 months after the operation, the latter being free of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection is an important component of the multimodal treatment of ATC and should be attempted whenever possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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56. Haas V, Čelakovský P, Brtková J, Hornychová H: Unusual Manifestation of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove); 2008;51(4):233-236

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual Manifestation of Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.
  • The diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid cancer was made after surgery and subsequent histological examination.
  • The histological examination of the lymph nodes identified metastasis of anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of diseases affecting deep neck structures can be very difficult.

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  • (PMID = 28113058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic / Metastasis / Retropharyngeal abscess / Thyroid cancer
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57. Higashiyama T, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Uruno T, Miya A, Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A: Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel administration for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Jan;20(1):7-14
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  • [Title] Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel administration for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has a very dire prognosis and no effective therapeutic strategies have been established for ATC patients, especially those with stage IVB or IVC.
  • Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of weekly paclitaxel administered as induction chemotherapy and to establish novel therapeutic strategies for ATC.
  • METHODS: We performed induction chemotherapy by weekly paclitaxel administration for patients with stage IVB (nine patients) and IVC (four patients) disease.
  • Overall survival was compared with that of ATC patients with stage IVB (n = 50) and IVC (n = 13) treated without paclitaxel.
  • Curative surgery and adjuvant therapy were performed for four patients with stage IVB, and 32 months after treatment, all the four are alive and free of disease.
  • One CR patient and one stable disease patient were assessed as grade IV (complete remission) and grade III (nearly CR) on histological response, respectively.
  • All four patients with stage IVC died of carcinoma within 8 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Induction chemotherapy by weekly paclitaxel is a promising therapeutic strategy for stage IVB ATC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20025538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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58. Swaak-Kragten AT, de Wilt JH, Schmitz PI, Bontenbal M, Levendag PC: Multimodality treatment for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma--treatment outcome in 75 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2009 Jul;92(1):100-4
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  • [Title] Multimodality treatment for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma--treatment outcome in 75 patients.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze the outcome of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) treated in the Erasmus MC.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-five ATC-patients were treated between 1972 and 2003.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the ultimately dismal prognosis of ATC-patients, multimodality treatment significantly improved local control and improved the median survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19328572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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59. Wiseman SM, Griffith OL, Deen S, Rajput A, Masoudi H, Gilks B, Goldstein L, Gown A, Jones SJ: Identification of molecular markers altered during transformation of differentiated into anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Arch Surg; 2007 Aug;142(8):717-27; discussion 727-9
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  • [Title] Identification of molecular markers altered during transformation of differentiated into anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • HYPOTHESIS: A change in tumor expression profile will be observed during the transformation of differentiated into anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS: Sequential archival cases of anaplastic thyroid cancer with an adjacent associated differentiated thyroid cancer focus, and with available paraffin blocks, that had been diagnosed and treated in British Columbia during a 20-year period (12 cases; January 1, 1984, through December 31, 2004) were identified through the provincial tumor registry for tissue microarray construction.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Significant associations between marker staining and tumor pathologic diagnosis (differentiated vs anaplastic) were determined with contingency table and marginal homogeneity tests.
  • RESULTS: Overall, there were 3 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated markers when comparing the anaplastic carcinoma with associated differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • Contingency table statistics identified 5 markers (thyroglobulin, Bcl-2, MIB-1, E-cadherin, and p53) to be significantly differentially expressed by the anaplastic and differentiated tumor foci.
  • Clustering and classification analysis based on these same 8 markers readily separated differentiated and anaplastic thyroid tumors with a high degree of accuracy.
  • CONCLUSION: The markers we observed to change during thyroid tumor progression may not only show promise as molecular diagnostic or prognostic tools but also warrant further study as potential targets for treatment of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cadherins / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / genetics. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17709725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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60. Kebebew E, Greenspan FS, Clark OH, Woeber KA, McMillan A: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment outcome and prognostic factors. Cancer; 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1330-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Treatment outcome and prognostic factors.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare but is one of the most aggressive human malignancies.
  • Several prognostic factors have been observed in patients with ATC, and some experts advocate aggressive multimodal therapy in selected patients.
  • The authors analyzed prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in patients with ATC reported in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data base.
  • METHODS: The cohort consisted of 516 patients with ATC reported to 12 population-based cancer registries between 1973 and 2000.
  • RESULTS: The mean patient age at diagnosis was 71.3 years, and there were 171 men and 345 women.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although most patients with ATC had an extremely poor prognosis, patients < 60 years old with intrathyroidal tumors survived longer.
  • Surgical resection with external beam radiotherapy for ATC was associated with lower cause-specific mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15739211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Szalecki M, Nawrotek J, Lange D, Skotarczyk-Kowalska E, Mogielska B, Piatkowska E, Jałowiec I, Biernacka-Florczak I, Jarzab B, Perek D: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a 14-year-old boy]. Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw; 2005;11(1):43-6
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a 14-year-old boy].
  • [Transliterated title] Rak anaplastyczny tarczycy u 14 letniego chłopca.
  • We report a case of anaplastic cancer of thyroid in 14-year-old male.
  • The diagnosis was supported on: pace of changes, clinical image, disease course, no effect of therapy, histopathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15850538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-625X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia, diabetologia i choroby przemiany materii wieku rozwojowego : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Endokrynologów Dziecięcych
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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62. Rivera M, Sang C, Gerhard R, Ghossein R, Lin O: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: morphologic findings and PAX-8 expression in cytology specimens. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5):668-72
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: morphologic findings and PAX-8 expression in cytology specimens.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the morphologic findings most encountered in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) and evaluate for the expression of PAX-8.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The cytology specimens from 21 cases of ATC were evaluated for the following several cytologic criteria: cell morphology, pleomorphism, presence or absence of multinucleated cells, colloid, neutrophilic infiltrate and well-differentiated component.
  • CONCLUSION: ATC is a tumor with diverse morphologic characteristics, and more than 1 cell morphology is usually present.
  • A neutrophilic infiltrate is a common finding and represents a clue to the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cells / metabolism. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male

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  • (PMID = 20968153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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63. Liu ZM, Chen GG, Shum CK, Vlantis AC, Cherian MG, Koropatnick J, van Hasselt CA: Induction of functional MT1 and MT2 isoforms by calcium in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. FEBS Lett; 2007 May 29;581(13):2465-72
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  • [Title] Induction of functional MT1 and MT2 isoforms by calcium in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • We demonstrated that cadmium induced transcription of all functional MT-1 and MT-2 isoforms and promoted the cell cycle from the G1 to the S phase in thyroid cancer cells, which can be suppressed by the ERK inhibitor.
  • Therefore, a common pathway initiated by a rapid rise in calcium and followed by calcium-mediated activation of ERK is involved in the transcriptional induction of functional MT1 and MT2 isoforms and in the progression of the cell cycle in thyroid cancer cells exposed to cadmium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17485079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-5793
  • [Journal-full-title] FEBS letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FEBS Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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64. Nucera C, Eeckhoute J, Finn S, Carroll JS, Ligon AH, Priolo C, Fadda G, Toner M, Sheils O, Attard M, Pontecorvi A, Nose V, Loda M, Brown M: FOXA1 is a potential oncogene in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Jun 1;15(11):3680-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] FOXA1 is a potential oncogene in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Here, we investigated the potential role of FOXA1 in human thyroid carcinomas.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the level of FOXA1 expression and gene copy number by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, respectively, in a cohort of benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • In addition, we examined the role of FOXA1 in the proliferation of an undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line by short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing.
  • RESULTS: We show that FOXA1 is overexpressed in human anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC).
  • In addition, we identify FOXA1 DNA copy number gain within the 14q21.1 locus in both an ATC cell line and human ATC cases.
  • Silencing of FOXA1 in an ATC cell line causes G(1) growth arrest and reduction of cell proliferation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FOXA1 is overexpressed in aggressive thyroid cancers and involved in cell cycle progression in an ATC cell line.
  • Therefore, FOXA1 may be an important oncogene in thyroid tumorigenesis and a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19470727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / FOXA1 protein, human; 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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65. Libertini S, Iacuzzo I, Perruolo G, Scala S, Ieranò C, Franco R, Hallden G, Portella G: Bevacizumab increases viral distribution in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenografts and enhances the effects of E1A-defective adenovirus dl922-947. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Oct 15;14(20):6505-14
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  • [Title] Bevacizumab increases viral distribution in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenografts and enhances the effects of E1A-defective adenovirus dl922-947.
  • PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a prime target for innovative therapy because it represents one of the most lethal human neoplasms and is refractory to conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • We have evaluated a novel therapeutic approach based on the oncolytic replication-selective adenovirus dl922-947.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The antitumor efficacies of the E1ADeltaCR2 (dl922-947) and DeltaE1B55K (dl1520) mutants were compared in human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells in culture and in xenografts in vivo.
  • To enhance the effects of dl922-947, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma tumor xenografts were treated with dl922-947 in combination with bevacizumab.
  • RESULTS: We showed that the efficacy of dl922-947 exceeded that of dl1520 in all tested anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that dl922-947 had a higher oncolytic activity compared with dl1520 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines and might represent a better option for virotherapy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / drug effects. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / therapy. Oncolytic Virotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18927290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenovirus E1A Proteins; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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66. Cakir B, Topaloglu O, Gul K, Agac T, Aydin C, Dirikoc A, Ersoy RU, Gumus M, Yazicioglu K, Yalcin B, Demirkazik A, Icli F, Ceyhan K: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation treatment in inoperable aggressive course anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: the introduction of a novel alternative palliative therapy--second experience in the literature. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):624-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation treatment in inoperable aggressive course anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: the introduction of a novel alternative palliative therapy--second experience in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Catheter Ablation / methods. Laser Coagulation / methods. Palliative Care / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods

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  • (PMID = 17848848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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67. Untch BR, Olson JA Jr: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and metastasis to thyroid. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):661-79, x
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and metastasis to thyroid.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, thyroid lymphoma, and secondary metastasis to the thyroid gland are uncommon thyroid malignancies.
  • They represent significant challenges for the surgeon owing to difficulties in diagnosis, aggressive biology, and the infrequency of their presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Lymphoma. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16882503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 40871-47-4 / 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate; 56-73-5 / Glucose-6-Phosphate
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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68. Smyth PP: Iodine and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Jun;20(6):581-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Iodine and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / prevention & control. Iodine / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • [CommentOn] Thyroid. 2010 Jun;20(6):623-6 [20470204.001]
  • (PMID = 20553193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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69. Nguyen BD, Ram PC: PET/CT staging and posttherapeutic monitoring of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Feb;32(2):145-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PET/CT staging and posttherapeutic monitoring of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17242574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Heymann RS, Brent GA, Hershman JM: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with thyrotoxicosis and hypoparathyroidism. Endocr Pract; 2005 Jul-Aug;11(4):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with thyrotoxicosis and hypoparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who presented with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and thyrotoxicosis in whom hypoparathyroidism developed.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical and laboratory findings in a patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and thyrotoxicosis.
  • We also review the literature for previous cases of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with thyrotoxicosis.
  • Initial thyroid function tests revealed the following: thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) 0.03 microIU/mL, free thyroxine 1.28 ng/dL, and total triiodothyronine 119 ng/dL.
  • A thyroid radioiodine uptake scan was 2.2% at 25 hours.
  • Pathology examination of the neck mass disclosed anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • The thyroid carcinoma was treated palliatively with external beam irradiation.
  • At week 15, he died of complications attributable to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Thyrotoxicosis due to thyroiditis is a rare initial manifestation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hypoparathyroidism due to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has not been reported previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hypoparathyroidism / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyrotoxicosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Aged. Calcium Gluconate / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16006301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; SQE6VB453K / Calcium Gluconate
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71. Sherman EJ, Fury MG, Tuttle RM, Ghossein R, Stambuk H, Baum M, Lisa D, Su YB, Shaha A, Pfister DG: Phase II study of depsipeptide (DEP) in radioiodine (RAI)-refractory metastatic nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6059

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II study of depsipeptide (DEP) in radioiodine (RAI)-refractory metastatic nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • : 6059 Background: Historically, systemic therapy for radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory thyroid cancer has been understudied.
  • In thyroid cancer cell lines, DEP increases expression of both thyroglobulin and the sodium/iodine symporter messenger RNAs, offering the possibility of improved iodine concentrating ability of radioactive iodine (RAI)-resistant tumors.
  • METHODS: Eligible patients (pts) must have progressive, RAI-refractory, recurrent/metastatic, non-medullary, non-anaplastic thyroid cancer; RECIST measurable disease; and adequate organ/marrow function.
  • Exclusionary criteria include prior chemotherapy in the recurrent/metastatic setting; cardiac disease or dysfunction; QTc prolongation or co-administration of drugs that prolong the QTc.
  • Evaluation of response: stable disease (10); progression (3); early death (1); unknown/inevaluable (6: 5 - temporary protocol suspension; 1 - withdrew consent).

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  • (PMID = 27961936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Demidchik IuE, Fridman MV, Pisarenko AM: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: diagnosis, treatment and prognosis]. Vopr Onkol; 2007;53(1):37-45
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: diagnosis, treatment and prognosis].
  • A multivariate study was carried out of prognostic factors for 32 in-patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (1995-2005).
  • Out of 20 features of prognostic importance, only three proved to affect survival: incomplete removal of tumor, pockets of differentiated cells and pseudo-histiocytic type of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17649732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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73. Ha HT, Lee JS, Urba S, Koenig RJ, Sisson J, Giordano T, Worden FP: Phase II trial evaluating imatinib (I) in patients (pts) with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6057

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial evaluating imatinib (I) in patients (pts) with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • : 6057 Background: There is no standard treatment for ATC.
  • Affymetrix gene chip showed PDGFR overexpression in ATC.
  • In p53 mutated/deficient ATC cell lines, c-Abl is overexpressed, and selective inhibition of c-Abl resulted in cytostatic effect. (I) inhibits tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl and PDGF.
  • We hypothesize that ATC that overexpress PDGFR or Abl will respond to (I).
  • METHODS: Pts ≥ 18 years old with histologically confirmed ATC, overexpressing PDGFR or c-Abl by immunohistochemistry who had measurable disease were eligible.
  • Pts with complete response (CR)/partial responses (PR)/stable disease (SD) were treated until disease progression.
  • At baseline, 4/11 pts (36%) had locoregional disease, 5/11 pts (45%) had distant metastases, and 2/11 pts (18%) had both.
  • CONCLUSIONS: (I) appears to have activity in advanced ATC and is well tolerated.
  • Due to difficulty of accruing pts with a rare malignancy at a single institution, investigation of (I) in ATC may be warranted in a multi-institution setting.

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  • (PMID = 27961934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Mizutani K, Onda M, Asaka S, Akaishi J, Miyamoto S, Yoshida A, Nagahama M, Ito K, Emi M: Overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma-1 (OEATC-1) as a novel gene responsible for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 May 1;103(9):1785-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma-1 (OEATC-1) as a novel gene responsible for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most fulminant human malignancies.
  • However, the molecular carcinogenic mechanisms of ATC are understood poorly.
  • Recently, the authors performed a cyclic DNA (cDNA) microarray analysis with 11 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines (ACLs) and discovered several novel responsible genes for ACLs and ATC.
  • From the extended list, they focused on hypothetical and anonymous genes and investigated a novel gene, named the overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma-1 (OEATC-1) gene.
  • METHODS: To investigate the role of the OEATC-1 gene in ATC carcinogenesis, first, the expression levels of OEATC-1 in ACLs, in various types of carcinoma cell lines, and in normal human tissues were examined with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis.
  • To explore the effect of OEATC-1 in ATC development, a cell-growth assay was performed with KTA2 cells under OEATC-1 gene silencing using small-interfering RNA (siRNA).
  • RESULTS: OEATC-1 was overexpressed significantly in ACLs and in other types of carcinoma cell lines with various expression levels.
  • Conversely, in normal human tissues, OEATC-1 was expressed weakly in placenta, kidney, spleen, thymus, small intestine, and thyroid gland.
  • OEATC-1 is considered a novel responsible gene in ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Silencing. Humans. Microarray Analysis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15789362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / KIAA0101 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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75. Falco CE, Grande AM, Nicolardi S, Viganò M, Benazzo M: Management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma spread over the trachea with mediastinal extension. G Chir; 2010 Aug-Sep;31(8-9):390-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma spread over the trachea with mediastinal extension.
  • INTRODUCTION: We report a case of treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma spread over the trachea with mediastinal extension.
  • METHODS: Case report and review of the world literature concerning the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma are presented.
  • DISCUSSION: The role of surgery in treatment of anaplastic carcinoma remains controversial.
  • Our case we underlined two questions: the appropriateness of the surgery options with extra-thyroid spread and the better surgery approach to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma interesting the mediastinum controlling the great vessels of the neck.
  • Even if complete resection cannot be achieved, surgical resection can immediately reduce the tumour bulk and achieve good local control of the disease to avoid the palliative tracheotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Sternotomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Tracheal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20843444.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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76. Wang Y, Tsang R, Asa S, Dickson B, Arenovich T, Brierley J: Clinical outcome of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treated with radiotherapy of once- and twice-daily fractionation regimens. Cancer; 2006 Oct 15;107(8):1786-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical outcome of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treated with radiotherapy of once- and twice-daily fractionation regimens.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose was to assess local control, survival, and toxicity after radiotherapy in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and to compare clinical outcomes between once-daily and twice-daily fractionation regimens.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (n = 47) who underwent external beam radiotherapy from 1983 to 2004 was conducted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy can result in local control of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] 2006 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16967442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Suzuki S: [Differential diagnosis and strategy for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2079-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis and strategy for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is most aggressive and poor prognosis among solid neoplasmas.
  • Unfortunately, effective treatment for ATC is not established until now.
  • We recommend new strategy for the treatment of ATC based on new UICC staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy / methods. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18018574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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78. Kohli PS, Soni NK: Nasal tip metastasis: an unusual site and mode of spread in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Sep;60(3):269-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nasal tip metastasis: an unusual site and mode of spread in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive and lethal form of thyroid malignancy which is difficult to treat.
  • At the time of diagnosis, majority of patients have distant metastases most commonly in lung, bone, and liver.
  • We hereby report an interesting and unusual mechanism for nasal tip metastasis in a patient with ATC.

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  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Jan;22(1):19-26 [2298962.001]
  • [Cites] Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1971 Oct;133(4):673-7 [4938079.001]
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  • (PMID = 23120560.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450640
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Implantation metastasis / Nasal metastasis / Thyroid carcinoma
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79. Elliott DD, Sherman SI, Busaidy NL, Williams MD, Santarpia L, Clayman GL, El-Naggar AK: Growth factor receptors expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: potential markers for therapeutic stratification. Hum Pathol; 2008 Jan;39(1):15-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth factor receptors expression in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: potential markers for therapeutic stratification.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a rare and universally fatal disease.
  • To determine the role of growth factor receptors in the biologic stratification of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, we studied the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, and HER-2 receptor in a large cohort of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas by immunohistochemical techniques.
  • The percentage of positive cells, staining intensity and localization of staining in the anaplastic component, and coexisting well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma and adjacent nonneoplastic thyroid were evaluated for these markers.
  • EGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, and HER-2 were overexpressed in 58%, 16%, and 16% of anaplastic carcinomas, respectively.
  • In tumors with adjacent normal thyroid parenchyma and/or differentiated carcinoma components, overexpression of all 3 markers was noted exclusively in the anaplastic component.
  • Mutational analysis of exons 18, 19, and 21 of the EGFR gene showed no mutations in all anaplastic carcinomas.
  • We conclude that the expression of these markers (1) may play a role in a subset of thyroid tumorigenesis and anaplastic transformation and (2) can be validated for potential use in the stratification of patients for targeted therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Receptors, Growth Factor / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17949783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
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80. Shahi N, Abdelhamid MF, Jindall M, Awad RW: Riedel's thyroiditis masquerading as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:15

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Riedel's thyroiditis masquerading as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare thyroid disease characterized by dense fibrous tissues that replace the thyroid gland and invade the adjacent structures that can mimic thyroid malignancy.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 59-year-old African-Caribbean man who presented with a rapidly growing hard neck mass, a hoarse voice, dysphagia and breathing difficulty that clinically suggested thyroid malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: It is important for clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis when managing patients with thyroid disease, because Riedel's thyroiditis can mimic malignancy.

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  • [Cites] Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1991 Feb;117(2):214-7 [1991068.001]
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  • [Cites] Br J Surg. 1976 Dec;63(12):929-31 [1009341.001]
  • (PMID = 20157436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2821392
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81. Jeong H, Kim YR, Kim KN, Choe JG, Chung JK, Kim MK: Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on sodium/iodide symporter expression, radioiodine uptake and gene expression profiles in a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line. Nucl Med Biol; 2006 Oct;33(7):875-82
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  • [Title] Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on sodium/iodide symporter expression, radioiodine uptake and gene expression profiles in a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line.
  • The plasma membrane glycoprotein sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is crucial for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and mediates the iodide uptake of thyrocytes.
  • It has been shown that retinoic acid (RA) alters NIS gene expression in thyroid carcinoma lines and stimulates their iodide uptake.
  • Here, we generated an ARO human thyroidal cancer cell line that expresses the NIS gene (ARO-NIS) and found that its baseline 125I uptake was threefold higher than that of its parental ARO cells.
  • Thus, tRA treatment of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells stably expressing the NIS gene significantly elevates their NIS-mediated radioiodine uptake and alters the expression of many genes involved in cell growth and cellular differentiation.
  • Therefore, tRA treatment and NIS gene transfection are potential tools for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17045167.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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82. Collin AC, Chekaroua K, Delaporte T, Droz JP, Peix JL, Delay E: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: aggressive radical resection and cervical reconstruction. A case report]. Ann Chir; 2006 Dec;131(10):631-5
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: aggressive radical resection and cervical reconstruction. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Chirurgie d'exérèse élargie et reconstruction cervicale pour cancer anaplasique de la thyroïde. A propos d'un cas.
  • STUDY AIM: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare but highly malignant tumor.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: We present the case of a patient treated in 1996 for an anaplasic thyroid carcinoma with cervical cutaneous invasion.
  • CONCLUSION: Anaplastic carcinoma is one of more aggressive neoplasm affecting humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Neck Dissection / methods. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Muscle, Skeletal / transplantation. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 16824476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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83. Wiseman SM, Masoudi H, Niblock P, Turbin D, Rajput A, Hay J, Bugis S, Filipenko D, Huntsman D, Gilks B: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: expression profile of targets for therapy offers new insights for disease treatment. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb;14(2):719-29
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: expression profile of targets for therapy offers new insights for disease treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an endocrine malignancy.
  • Its rare and rapidly lethal disease course has made it challenging to study.
  • Little is known regarding the expression by anaplastic tumors of molecular targets for new human anticancer agents that have been studied in the preclinical or clinical setting.
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the expression profile of anaplastic thyroid tumors for molecular targets for treatment.
  • METHODS: Of the 94 cases of anaplastic thyroid cancers diagnosed and treated in British Columbia, Canada over a 20-year period (1984-2004), 32 cases (34%) had adequate archival tissue available for evaluation.
  • A tissue microarray was constructed from these anaplastic thyroid tumors and immunohistochemistry was utilized to evaluate expression of 31 molecular markers.
  • RESULTS: A single tumor with strong calcitonin expression was identified as a poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma and excluded from the study cohort.
  • The mean age of the anaplastic cohort was 66 years; 16 patients (51%) were females, and the median patient survival was 23 weeks.
  • A wide range in molecular marker expression was observed by the anaplastic thyroid cancer tumors (0-100%).
  • The therapeutic targets most frequently and most strongly overexpressed by the anaplastic tumors were: beta-catenin (41%), aurora A (41%), cyclin E (67%), cyclin D1 (77%), and EGFR (84%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anaplastic thyroid tumors exhibit considerable derangement of their cell cycle and multiple signal transduction pathways that leads to uncontrolled cellular proliferation and the development of genomic instability.
  • This report is the first to comprehensively evaluate a panel of molecular targets for therapy of anaplastic thyroid cancer and supports the development of clinical trials with agents such as cetuximab, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and aurora kinase inhibitors, which may offer new hope for individuals diagnosed with this fatal thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism


84. Mitsiades CS, McMillin D, Kotoula V, Poulaki V, McMullan C, Negri J, Fanourakis G, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Ain KB, Mitsiades N: Antitumor effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Oct;91(10):4013-21
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  • [Title] Antitumor effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro.
  • NF-kappaB has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the most aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma, i.e. medullary and anaplastic.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We evaluated the effect of bortezomib on a panel of thyroid carcinoma cell lines, originating from papillary, follicular, anaplastic, and medullary carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Bortezomib induced apoptosis in medullary and anaplastic cell lines with IC(50) values well within the range of clinically achievable concentrations and much lower than respective IC(50) values for other solid malignancies.
  • Sensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cells to bortezomib was partially decreased by overexpression of Bcl-2 or treatment with IGF-I, whereas the combination of bortezomib with chemotherapy (doxorubicin) was synergistic.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data provide both insights into the molecular mechanisms of antitumor activity of proteasome inhibitors and the rationale for future clinical trials of bortezomib, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, to improve patient outcome in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Boronic Acids / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proteasome Inhibitors. Pyrazines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16849420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein; 0 / BID protein, human; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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85. Fujita T, Ogasawara Y, Naito M, Doihara H, Shimizu N: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: report of a case.
  • She had undergone a resection of thyroid carcinoma 13 years earlier, followed by two subsequent operations for recurrent thyroid disease.
  • Surgery was thus performed to control persistent bleeding from the axillary ulcer, and a histopathological examination resulted in a diagnosis of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor. Leukocytosis / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Cites] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2000 May;38(5):391-7 [10921287.001]
  • [Cites] Intern Med. 1995 Jun;34(6):584-8 [7549149.001]
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  • (PMID = 16378196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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86. Festa M, Petrella A, Alfano S, Parente L: R-roscovitine sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via regulation of IKK/NF-kappaB pathway. Int J Cancer; 2009 Jun 1;124(11):2728-36
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  • [Title] R-roscovitine sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via regulation of IKK/NF-kappaB pathway.
  • Among thyroid carcinomas, highly aggressive undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinomas still await effective therapeutic strategies.
  • R-roscovitine is a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in clinical trials as anti-cancer agent.
  • We have investigated the effects of R-roscovitine on proliferation and apoptosis of 4 thyroid cancer cell lines with different degrees of malignancy.
  • R-roscovitine has been shown to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
  • We report that R-roscovitine sensitized thyroid cell lines to TRAIL-induced apoptosis with the highest degree of synergism observed in the most undifferentiated cancer cells.
  • In thyroid cancers, NF-kappaB is constitutively activated contributing to the proliferation of malignant cells.
  • These results demonstrate that undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells can be effectively killed by a combination treatment of subtoxic doses of R-roscovitine and TRAIL.
  • The combination of R-roscovitine and TRAIL may represent a novel approach to the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas resistant to conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. I-kappa B Kinase / physiology. NF-kappa B / physiology. Purines / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Carcinoma. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. G2 Phase / drug effects. Humans. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / analysis. bcl-X Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19230027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Purines; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 0 / roscovitine; EC 2.7.11.10 / I-kappa B Kinase; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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87. Nucera C, Nehs MA, Mekel M, Zhang X, Hodin R, Lawler J, Nose V, Parangi S: A novel orthotopic mouse model of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Oct;19(10):1077-84
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  • [Title] A novel orthotopic mouse model of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Orthotopic mouse models of human cancer represent an important in vivo tool for drug testing and validation.
  • Most of the human thyroid carcinoma cell lines used in orthotopic or subcutaneous models are likely of melanoma and colon cancer.
  • Here, we report and characterize a novel orthotopic model of human thyroid carcinoma using a unique thyroid cancer cell line.
  • METHODS: We used the cell line 8505c, originated from a thyroid tumor histologically characterized by anaplastic carcinoma cell features.
  • We injected 8505c cells engineered using a green fluorescent protein-positive lentiviral vector orthotopically into the thyroid of severe combined immunodeficient mice.
  • RESULTS: Orthotopic implantation with the 8505c cells produced thyroid tumors after 5 weeks, showing large neck masses, with histopathologic features of a high-grade neoplasm (anaplasia, necrosis, high mitotic and proliferative indexes, p53 positivity, extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node and distant metastases) and immunoprofile of follicular thyroid cell origin with positivity for thyroid transcription factor-1 and PAX8, and for cytokeratins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe a novel orthotopic thyroid carcinoma model using 8505c cells.
  • This model can prove to be a reliable and useful tool to investigate in vivo biological mechanisms determining thyroid cancer aggressiveness, and to test novel therapeutics for the treatment of refractory or advanced thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Disease Models, Animal. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Transfection

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  • [Cites] Anticancer Res. 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2A):1035-42 [11396137.001]
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  • (PMID = 19772429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA149738
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2833178
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88. Libertini S, Iacuzzo I, Ferraro A, Vitale M, Bifulco M, Fusco A, Portella G: Lovastatin enhances the replication of the oncolytic adenovirus dl1520 and its antineoplastic activity against anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Endocrinology; 2007 Nov;148(11):5186-94
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  • [Title] Lovastatin enhances the replication of the oncolytic adenovirus dl1520 and its antineoplastic activity against anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors and shows morphological features of a highly malignant, undifferentiated neoplasm.
  • Patients with ATC have a poor prognosis with a mean survival time of 2-6 months; surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy do not improve survival.
  • Gene therapy approaches and oncolytic viruses have been tested for the treatment of ATC.
  • To enhance the antineoplastic effects of the oncolytic adenovirus dl1520 (Onyx-015), we treated ATC cells with lovastatin (3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor), a drug used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, which has previously been reported to exert growth-inhibitory and apoptotic activity on ATC cells.
  • Lovastatin treatment significantly increased the effects of dl1520 against ATC cells.
  • The replication of dl1520 in ATC cells was enhanced by lovastatin treatment, and a significant increase of the expression of the early gene E1A 13 S and the late gene Penton was observed in lovastatin-treated cells.
  • Furthermore, lovastatin treatment significantly enhanced the effects of dl1520 against ATC tumor xenografts.
  • Lovastatin treatment could be exploited to increase the efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses, and further studies are warranted to confirm the feasibility of the approach in ATC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / therapy. Lovastatin / pharmacology. Lovastatin / therapeutic use. Oncolytic Virotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17690162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / ONYX015; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 9LHU78OQFD / Lovastatin
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89. Shinohara S, Kikuchi M, Naito Y, Fujiwara K, Hori S, Tona Y, Yamazaki H, Kobayashi H, Ishihara T: Successful treatment of locally advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma by chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2009 Dec;36(6):729-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of locally advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma by chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy.
  • The authors report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma which was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and proved to achieve pathological CR (complete response) after a radical operation.
  • A 53-year-old female presented with a mass of about 4 cm in diameter arising from the left lobe of her thyroid and surrounding her cervical esophagus.
  • Pre-operative aspiration cytology and open biopsy revealed the tumor was a giant cell anaplastic carcinoma.
  • A radical operation, including a resection of the larynx, cervical trachea and esophagus, was successfully performed and no living cancer cells, only granulation and necrosis, were observed in the operation specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Giant Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / radiotherapy. Dose Fractionation. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Necrosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19269756.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1476
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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90. Pinto AE, Silva G, Banito A, Leite V, Soares J: Aneuploidy and high S-phase as biomarkers of poor clinical outcome in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2008 Oct;20(4):913-9
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  • [Title] Aneuploidy and high S-phase as biomarkers of poor clinical outcome in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • This study aimed to investigate the prognostic influence of DNA flow cytometry and RAS gene mutations in patients with poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • The series consisted of 26 patients with PDTC and ATC, and a median follow-up of 10 months (range 1-138).
  • Disease staging and tumour angioinvasion were included as prognostic parameters for survival analysis.
  • Nineteen patients (73.1%) succumbed to the disease (median time 5 months; range 1-45).
  • The results indicate that aneuploidy and high SPF are biomarkers of poor clinical outcome in PDTC and ATC, which may provide useful prognostic information with a potentially therapeutic impact in patient management.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Carcinoma / mortality. S Phase. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18813835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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91. Lee JW, Yoon DY, Choi CS, Chang SK, Yun EJ, Seo YL, Rho YS, Cho SJ, Kim KH: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: computed tomographic differentiation from other thyroid masses. Acta Radiol; 2008 Apr;49(3):321-7
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: computed tomographic differentiation from other thyroid masses.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare but is one of the most aggressive malignancies.
  • Therefore, accurate diagnosis is important in order to provide appropriate therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To establish useful computed tomographic (CT) criteria for differentiating anaplastic carcinoma from other thyroid masses.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The CT scans of nine patients with anaplastic carcinomas were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 32 patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 12) or benign lesions (n = 20) exceeding a maximum diameter of 2.0 cm.
  • Image analysis was performed according to the following CT parameters: size, margin (well defined or ill defined), composition (cystic, mixed, or solid), mean attenuation value, ratio of attenuation of the mass to that of the adjacent muscle (M/m attenuation ratio), necrosis (present or absent), and calcification (stippled, nodular, or absent) of the thyroid mass; and tumor-spreading patterns including the presence of surrounding normal thyroid tissue in the involved lobe, involvement of the contralateral thyroid lobe, extension into the adjacent structures, and cervical lymphadenopathy.
  • RESULTS: Anaplastic carcinomas appeared as large (average 4.6 cm), solid (100%), and ill-defined (88.9%) masses accompanied by necrosis (100%), nodular calcification (44.4%), direct invasion into the adjacent organs (55.6%), and cervical lymph node involvement (77.8%).
  • Tumor necrosis was the most valuable parameter in differentiating anaplastic carcinomas from other thyroid masses.
  • Patient age (>70 years) and low attenuation value on postcontrast scan (attenuation value <100 HU, or M/m attenuation ratio <1.3) are also helpful predictors for anaplastic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: If a patient is older than 70 years of age and has a large necrotic thyroid mass of low attenuation, anaplastic carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anaplasia / pathology. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Iohexol. Male. Middle Aged. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Rare Diseases. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18365821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0455
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 4419T9MX03 / Iohexol
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92. Shaha AR: Airway management in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope; 2008 Jul;118(7):1195-8
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  • [Title] Airway management in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: In patients who present with advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer, airway management is difficult because of bilateral vocal cord paralysis or tracheal invasion by the tumor.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This is the author's 25 year experience with 30 patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and acute airway problems.
  • Airway management for these patients depended on the extent of distant disease and the family's understanding of the advanced nature of the disease and the palliative efforts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Airway management was the most critical issue in patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and initial airway distress.
  • It is important to distinguish between poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer and lymphoma for appropriate airway management.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Palliative Care. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cricoid Cartilage / surgery. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trachea / pathology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / etiology. Vocal Cord Paralysis / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18438260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Kim S, Yazici YD, Calzada G, Wang ZY, Younes MN, Jasser SA, El-Naggar AK, Myers JN: Sorafenib inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of orthotopic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Mol Cancer Ther; 2007 Jun;6(6):1785-92
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  • [Title] Sorafenib inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of orthotopic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenografts in nude mice.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) remains one of the most lethal human cancers.
  • We hypothesized that sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of the BRaf, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta kinase, would decrease tumor growth and angiogenesis in an orthotopic model of ATC.
  • The in vitro antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of sorafenib on ATC cell lines were examined.
  • To study the in vivo effects of sorafenib on orthotopic ATC tumors in nude mice, sorafenib was given p.o. at 40 or 80 mg/kg daily.
  • Sorafenib inhibited the in vitro proliferation of ATC cell lines.
  • Sorafenib also significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis via the induction of endothelial apoptosis in an orthotopic model of thyroid cancer.
  • As result, the growth of orthotopic ATC xenografts was reduced and the survival of the test animals was improved.
  • Sorafenib exerts significant antitumor activity in an orthotopic xenograft model of ATC via a potent antiangiogenic effect.
  • The antiangiogenic effects of sorafenib suggest that its use in clinical setting may not depend on the BRAF mutational status of thyroid tumors.
  • Given the lack of curative options for patients with ATC, sorafenib warrants further study as a therapeutic agent against ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Benzenesulfonates / pharmacology. Cell Division / drug effects. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 17575107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 46523; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016672; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES07784; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097007A; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105345
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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94. Bravo SB, García-Rendueles ME, Seoane R, Dosil V, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, López-Lázaro L, Zalvide J, Barreiro F, Pombo CM, Alvarez CV: Plitidepsin has a cytostatic effect in human undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Nov 1;11(21):7664-73
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  • [Title] Plitidepsin has a cytostatic effect in human undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma.
  • Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive human cancer with very poor prognosis.
  • A strong association has been observed between undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma and TP53 mutations in numerous molecular genetic and expression studies.
  • We investigated the actions of plitidepsin in human thyroid cancer cells.
  • In initial experiments using primary cultured cells from a differentiated (papillary) carcinoma, we found that 100 nmol/L plitidepsin induced apoptosis, whereas lower doses were cytostatic.
  • This plitidepsin dosage regimen blocked the proliferation of a primary undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma culture obtained in our laboratory and of a commercial cell line (8305C) obtained from an undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma; however, it did not induce apoptosis.
  • Cells from undifferentiated tumors needed more than 3 days to recover logarithmic growth, and after 7 days, cell number was still significantly lower than in control cultures.
  • Whether plitidepsin will prove to be clinically useful in the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancers remains to be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Depsipeptides / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Agar / chemistry. Aged. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Flow Cytometry. Genes, p53. HeLa Cells. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Immunoblotting. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16278386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Depsipeptides; 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9002-18-0 / Agar; Y76ID234HW / aplidine
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95. Maatouk J, Barklow TA, Zakaria W, Al-Abbadi MA: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arising in long-standing multinodular goiter following radioactive iodine therapy: report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration. Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):581-3
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arising in long-standing multinodular goiter following radioactive iodine therapy: report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive, undifferentiated carcinoma that may arise on top of normal or abnormal thyroid.
  • Making the diagnosis by fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid with a long-standing history of multinodular goiter (MNG) is not uncommon.
  • We report a case discussing the cytopathologic findings and the relationship with long-standing goiter and thyroid exposure to radioactive iodine treatment.
  • FNA was performed revealing highly anaplastic cells with a colloid background and presence of neutrophils.
  • The diagnosis of ATC was made.
  • CONCLUSION: ATC is an aggressive, undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma that can be diagnosed by FNA and save the patient a surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotoxicosis / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19798888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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96. Smallridge RC, Copland JA: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: pathogenesis and emerging therapies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2010 Aug;22(6):486-97
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: pathogenesis and emerging therapies.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ranges from 1.3 to 9.8% of all thyroid cancers globally.
  • The variables associated with survival in some series included age, tumour size, extent of surgery, higher dose radiotherapy, absence of distant metastases at presentation, co-existence of differentiated thyroid cancer and multimodality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20418080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136665
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS461011; NLM/ PMC3905320
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97. Are C, Shaha AR: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: biology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment approaches. Ann Surg Oncol; 2006 Apr;13(4):453-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: biology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment approaches.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors known to affect humans and carries a dismal prognosis.
  • We also reviewed the individual and combined roles of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and newer therapeutic options in the management of ATC.
  • METHODS: An extensive literature review was conducted to include all published reports on ATC.
  • The changing trends in the management of anaplastic thyroid cancer were analyzed to summarize the current practice of management of ATC.
  • RESULTS: Although ATC is rare, there has been a decline in its incidence worldwide.
  • ATC accounts for more than half of the 1200 deaths per year attributed to thyroid cancer.
  • Long-term survivors are rare, with >75% and 50% of patients harboring cervical nodal disease and metastatic disease, respectively, at presentation.
  • ATC can arise de novo or from preexisting well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite multimodality approaches, ATC still carries a dismal prognosis.
  • This should provoke innovative strategies beyond conventional methods to tackle this uniformly lethal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16474910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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98. Chang HS, Nam KH, Chung WY, Park CS: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a therapeutic dilemma. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Dec 31;46(6):759-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a therapeutic dilemma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most malignant human neoplasms and has a grave prognosis.
  • This number represents 1.5% among a total of 3,088 thyroid cancers treated between 1977 and 2002.
  • Survival was calculated from the time of diagnosis, and comparisons of survival were done by log-rank analysis.
  • Even though a small improvement in survival was observed with complete excision and aggressive multimodality therapy, nearly all ATCs remain unresponsive to ongoing treatment modalities and as such, present a therapeutic dilemma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16385650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2810588
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99. Lee DH, Lee GK, Kong SY, Kook MC, Yang SK, Park SY, Park SH, Keam B, Park DJ, Cho BY, Kim SW, Chung KW, Lee ES, Kim SW: Epidermal growth factor receptor status in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Aug;60(8):881-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor status in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • In vitro studies have shown that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) greatly inhibit cellular growth and induced apoptosis in the ATC cell lines, while somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain or an increased gene copy number are associated with increased sensitivity to TKIs in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • AIM: To investigate the prevalence of EGFR overexpression, gene amplification and activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain in patients with ATC.
  • METHODS: The EGFR gene status and protein expression were investigated by direct DNA sequencing of the hot-spot regions in exons 18, 19 and 21, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and immunohistochemistry in tumour tissues from 23 patients with ATC.
  • However, high polysomy was identified in 14/23 (60.9%) patients with ATC.
  • High polysomy was observed in all 10 cases with giant cell subtype, but in only 4/11 (36.3%) with squamoid and 0/2 with spindle cell sarcomatoid subtype.
  • There was no statistically significant correlation between FISH positivity of ATC tumour and presence of well-differentiated component.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the low incidence of somatic EGFR gene mutation and amplification in the study samples, in view of the fact that high polysomy was often identified by FISH, as well as the current lack of therapeutic options, EGFR TKIs are worth investigating for treating the patients with ATC who have at least giant cell subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Pathol. 2007 Oct;60(10):1184
  • (PMID = 17079354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1994497
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100. Majima T, Komatsu Y, Doi K, Shigemoto M, Takagi C, Fukao A, Kojima M, Tamaki H, Ito J, Nakao K: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with Graves' disease. Endocr J; 2005 Oct;52(5):551-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma associated with Graves' disease.
  • This report concerns a 79-year-old woman with coexisting anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and Graves' disease (GD).
  • Thyroid function tests showed hyperthyroidism with elevated thyroid-stimulating antibodies.
  • Ultrasonography of the thyroid demonstrated an adenomatous nodule-like marcated nodule (27.6 x 26.5 x 36.4 mm) with cystic degeneration inside the left lobe. (123)I thyroid scintigraphic imaging showed a cold area corresponding to the nodule with continuous uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue despite suppressed TSH levels.
  • These findings led to a diagnosis of GD.
  • On the other hand, the thyroid nodule could not be definitely diagnosed even after fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) which produced findings suggestive of both papillary thyroid carcinoma and ATC.
  • Open biopsy of the nodule showed an ATC.
  • Our case is pathophysiologically interesting because it suggests that GD or thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) may stimulate malignant transformation of differentiated carcinoma.
  • It is also clinically important because it indicates that all thyroid nodules, particularly palpable cold nodules, associated with GD require careful management to detect malignancy because they are at higher risk of harboring malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Graves Disease / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16284432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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