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1. Yu GP, Li JC, Branovan D, McCormick S, Schantz SP: Thyroid cancer incidence and survival in the national cancer institute surveillance, epidemiology, and end results race/ethnicity groups. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):465-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid cancer incidence and survival in the national cancer institute surveillance, epidemiology, and end results race/ethnicity groups.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence has continuously increased for decades and the causes of this increase are still controversial.
  • The objective of this study was to examine if the increased trend is different among the different National Cancer Institute (NCI) Race/Ethnicity Groups (REGs) within the NCI surveillance epidemiology and end results database for the United States.
  • METHODS: Using recent 13-year surveillance epidemiology and end results data, we described the specific incidence trend of thyroid cancer for the REGs by tumor size, tested the statistical significance of the trend of incidence, and estimated the annual percentage change (APC) and 95% confidence interval.
  • RESULTS: Papillary thyroid cancer incidence significantly increased over 13 years from 1992 to 2004 among the five major REGs.
  • The proportion of local staged thyroid cancer increased by 24% in the Blacks group, 14.4% in the Hispanic whites group, 14.3% in the non-Hispanic whites group, and only 4.0% in the Asians group between two periods of 1992-1996 and 2000-2004.
  • Five-year survival rates of patients with papillary tumor were about 95%, but that of anaplastic tumor ranged from 5.6% to 11.4% among REGs.
  • CONCLUSION: The time trend of incidence of thyroid cancer is different among the different NCI REGs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Ethnic Groups. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. African Continental Ancestry Group. Age Factors. Aged. Algorithms. Asian Americans. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Hispanic Americans. Humans. Indians, North American. Male. Middle Aged. National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Population Surveillance. Socioeconomic Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. United States / epidemiology


2. Blix HS, Røed J, Sti MO: Large variation in antibacterial use among Norwegian nursing homes. Scand J Infect Dis; 2007;39(6-7):536-41
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  • Antibacterial data were collected for ATC group J01 antibacterials for systemic use, A07AA09 vancomycin and P01AB01 metronidazole in DDDs/y.
  • On average, 49% of the therapeutic antibacterials were drugs used for UTI, range 12%-88%.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cross Infection / drug therapy. Cross Infection / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial. Drug Therapy / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Methenamine / therapeutic use. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Norway / epidemiology. Nursing Homes / statistics & numerical data. Pharmacoepidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Vancomycin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17577815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5548
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin; J50OIX95QV / Methenamine
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3. Zitzmann S, Krämer S, Mier W, Hebling U, Altmann A, Rother A, Berndorff D, Eisenhut M, Haberkorn U: Identification and evaluation of a new tumor cell-binding peptide, FROP-1. J Nucl Med; 2007 Jun;48(6):965-72
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  • METHODS: A 12-amino-acid peptide phage display system was applied to identify a new peptide binding to follicular thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • It showed binding to follicular thyroid carcinoma as well as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, mammary carcinoma, cervix carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, and cell lines derived from head and neck tumors, and low affinity could be observed to control cells such as human umbilical vein endothelial cells or immortalized keratinocytes.
  • CONCLUSION: The target of FROP-1 is most likely a molecule found generally in tumors, making this peptide highly attractive for diagnostic or therapeutic applications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / radionuclide imaging. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Peptide Library. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17504878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FROP-1 peptide; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Peptide Library; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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4. van Schie HT, de Vos RJ, de Jonge S, Bakker EM, Heijboer MP, Verhaar JA, Tol JL, Weinans H: Ultrasonographic tissue characterisation of human Achilles tendons: quantification of tendon structure through a novel non-invasive approach. Br J Sports Med; 2010 Dec;44(16):1153-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether three-dimensional imaging of the Achilles tendon by ultrasonographic tissue characterisation (UTC) can differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic tendons.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Symptomatic and asymptomatic tendons were scanned using the UTC procedure.
  • UTC categorises four different echotypes that represent (I) highly stable;.
  • Finally, the inter-observer reliability of UTC was determined.
  • CONCLUSION: UTC can quantitatively evaluate tendon structure and thereby discriminate symptomatic and asymptomatic tendons.
  • As such, UTC might be useful to monitor treatment protocols.

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  • (PMID = 19666626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0480
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of sports medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Wawruch M, Bozekova L, Tisonova J, Raganova A, Lassanova M, Hudec R, Vojtko R, Gazova A, Kriska M: The Slovak Drug Information (Druginfo) Centre during the period 1997-2004. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2005;106(3):133-6
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  • According to the ATC classification the questions were most often related to antiinfective drugs, cardiovascular drugs and psychiatric drugs.

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  • (PMID = 16026149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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6. Peparini N, Di Matteo FM, Maturo A, Marzullo A, Campana FP: Unusual metastasis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor misdiagnosed as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Int J Surg; 2008 Oct;6(5):415-7
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  • [Title] Unusual metastasis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor misdiagnosed as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Gastroscopy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18947815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Ion-Nedelcu N, Radu L, Firulescu S, Truţă E, Sîrbu M, Barbu G, Calistru P: [Use of systemic antibacterial agents at a university emergency clinic in Bucharest, in the year 2008]. Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol; 2009 Jan-Mar;54(1):53-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Observaţii privind utilizarea agenţilor antibacterieni sistemici într-o clinică universitară de urgenţă din municipiul Bucureşti în anul 2008.
  • OBJECTIVE: use of ATC/DDD (Anatomic Therapeutic Classification/Daily Defined Dose) methodology promoted by World Health Organization for calculating and analysis of systemic antimicrobial agents' annual rates of usage among the adult patients hospitalized in Bucharest municipality.
  • Consumption of systemic antimicrobial agents, taken from the clinic pharmacy's records, regarding the 2008 year, has been transformed in defined daily doses and aggregated by ATC subgroups.
  • At the level of entire clinic the consumption rate of all systemic antimicrobial agents was 72.6 defined daily doses per 100 de patient days (DDD/PD); by medical specialties the indicator's values were 61.2 DDD/100 PD in the department of internal medicine specialties, 62.8 DDD/100 PD in the departament of surgical specialties and 126 DDD/100 PD in the medical/surgical intensive care unit, respectively.
  • By ATC subgroups, the top three consumption rates included penicillin plus beta-lactamase inhibitors, 2nd generation cefalosporines and fluorochinolons, respectively.
  • Comparing the own rate with the distributions of NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) system form USA, demonstrated that the usage was into the expected limits for the majority of antimicrobial agents groups considered, excess usage being detected only in the case of 2nd generation cefalosporins (in non-intensive care sector) and in the case of carbapenems in the intensive care units, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Emergency Service, Hospital / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 20524396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Bacteriologia, virusologia, parazitologia, epidemiologia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Carbapenems; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 5E8K9I0O4U / Ciprofloxacin; 74469-00-4 / Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination; 7U75I1278D / Cefoperazone; O1R9FJ93ED / Cefuroxime; S4TF6I2330 / Sulbactam
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8. Hall NC, Kloos RT: PET imaging in differentiated thyroid cancer: where does it fit and how do we use it? Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):793-805
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  • [Title] PET imaging in differentiated thyroid cancer: where does it fit and how do we use it?
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly evolving imaging modality that has gained widespread acceptance in oncology, with several radionuclides applicable to thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer patients have been studied most commonly using 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, with perhaps the greatest utility being the potential localization of tumor in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients who are radioiodine whole body scan (WBS) negative and thyroglobulin (Tg) positive.
  • Also of value is the identification of patients unlikely to benefit from additional 131I therapy and identification of patients at highest risk of disease-specific mortality, which may prompt more aggressive therapy or enrollment in clinical trials.
  • However, studies documenting improvements in survival and tumor recurrence attributable to FDG-PET imaging in thyroid cancer patients are lacking.
  • Specific case examples of thyroid cancer patients who appear to have benefited from FDG-PET imaging do exist, while less data are available in the setting of anaplastic or medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Humans. Incidental Findings. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17891243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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9. Hirokawa M, Haba R, Kushida Y, Bando K, Kuma S, Kihara M, Miyauchi A: Benign nodular goiter with spindle cell component. Pathol Int; 2010 Aug;60(8):586-90
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  • Immunohistochemically, they were positive for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1.
  • We thought that the spindle cells are derived from follicular cell and non-neoplastic, and it is important to recognize this lesion to distinguish from aggressive and lethal components seen in papillary carcinoma or anaplastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20618737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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10. Russo A, Autelitano M, Bisanti L: Metabolic syndrome and cancer risk. Eur J Cancer; 2008 Jan;44(2):293-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metabolic syndrome and cancer risk.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this population-based study is to explore for the first time the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer risk using information from the health information system of the Cancer Registry.
  • METHODS: Referring to all pharmaceutical prescriptions between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2005, coded with the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification, all subjects aged 40 and over resident in Milan, which were simultaneously prescribed with antihypertensive, hypolypemic and hypoglycaemic drugs, were considered affected by metabolic syndrome.
  • New cancer cases among cohort subjects were identified trough the local Cancer Registry and standardised incidence ratios (and corresponding 95% exact confidence intervals) were computed.
  • RESULTS: Overall 16,677 subjects were identified corresponding to 45,828 person-years; among them 823 incidents cancers occurred.
  • Significantly increased risks for pancreatic cancer in males--SIR 178 (114-266)--and colorectal cancer in females--SIR 133 (101-170)--were observed.
  • Non-significantly increased risks were also observed in women for liver, gallbladder and biliary tract, breast and endometrial cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the risk for several cancers increases in subjects affected by metabolic syndrome.
  • The pharmacological control of the syndrome seems to be inadequate for reducing cancer risk, even though both a high competitive mortality effect and short duration of follow up have to be considered.

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  • (PMID = 18055193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Harmer PA: Incidence and characteristics of time-loss injuries in competitive fencing: a prospective, 5-year study of national competitions. Clin J Sport Med; 2008 Mar;18(2):137-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Experienced certified athletic trainers (ATC) evaluated and documented all incidents that resulted in withdrawal from competition.
  • [MeSH-major] Athletic Injuries / classification. Athletic Injuries / epidemiology. Injury Severity Score

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  • (PMID = 18332688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-642X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Sport Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Swartz EE, Nowak J, Shirley C, Decoster LC: A comparison of head movement during back boarding by motorized spine-board and log-roll techniques. J Athl Train; 2005 Jul-Sep;40(3):162-8
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  • PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen certified athletic trainers, emergency first responders, and emergency medical technicians (6 men, 7 women).

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  • (PMID = 16284635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-162X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of athletic training
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Athl Train
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1250254
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13. Zhao L, Zheng ZM, Huang Y, Sun HM: A comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes in Orthoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) and genome descriptions of three grasshopper species. Zoolog Sci; 2010 Aug;27(8):662-72
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  • The putative initiation codon for the cox1 gene is ATC in E. fusigeniculatus, CTG in M. xiangchengensis and CCG in M. xizangensis.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Grasshoppers / classification. Grasshoppers / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20695782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0289-0003
  • [Journal-full-title] Zoological science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zool. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / RNA, Ribosomal; 9014-25-9 / RNA, Transfer
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14. Klagge A, Krause K, Schierle K, Steinert F, Dralle H, Fuhrer D: Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Apr;42(4):237-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.
  • To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined.
  • We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues.
  • Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3.
  • Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC.
  • SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC .
  • Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 20094970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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15. Toler JD, Petschauer MA, Mihalik JP, Oyama S, Halverson SD, Guskiewicz KM: Comparison of 3 airway access techniques during suspected spine injury management in American football. Clin J Sport Med; 2010 Mar;20(2):92-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen certified athletic trainers (ATCs) and 18 noncertified students (NCSs).

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  • (PMID = 20215890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3724
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Sport Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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16. Zou M, Baitei EY, Alzahrani AS, Al-Mohanna F, Farid NR, Meyer B, Shi Y: Oncogenic activation of MAP kinase by BRAF pseudogene in thyroid tumors. Neoplasia; 2009 Jan;11(1):57-65
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  • [Title] Oncogenic activation of MAP kinase by BRAF pseudogene in thyroid tumors.
  • Activating BRAF mutations have been reported in 40% of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs).
  • The involvement of BRAF pseudogene in thyroid tumorigenesis has not previously been studied.
  • We investigated BRAF pseudogene expression in 68 thyroid tumors: 16 multinodular goiters, 43 classic PTCs, 6 follicular variants of PTC, and 3 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • These data suggest that BRAF pseudogene activation may play a role in thyroid tumor development.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
  • SciCrunch. HGNC: Data: Gene Annotation .
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  • (PMID = 19107232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2606119
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17. Hendrickson CD, Hill K, Carpenter JE: Injuries to the head and face in women's collegiate field hockey. Clin J Sport Med; 2008 Sep;18(5):399-402
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  • SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Certified athletic trainers and athletes at 6 Division I institutions.

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  • (PMID = 18806546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3724
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Sport Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kritsotakis EI, Assithianakis P, Kanellos P, Tzagarakis N, Ioannides MC, Gikas A: Surveillance of monthly antimicrobial consumption rates stratified by patient-care area: a tool for triggering and targeting antibiotic policy changes in the hospital. J Chemother; 2006 Aug;18(4):394-401
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  • Aggregate data were analyzed according to the ATC/DDD methodology.
  • Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption using the ATC/DDD system provided a clear picture of its profile.

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  • (PMID = 17024795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-009X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chemother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
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19. Lombardi MA, Hanson DW: The GOES Time Code Service, 1974-2004: A Retrospective. J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol; 2005;110(2):79-96
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  • NIST ended its Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) time code service at 0 hours, 0 minutes Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) on January 1, 2005.

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  • (PMID = 27308105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1044-677X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4847573
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) / broadcasting / orbit prediction / satellites / timekeeping
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20. Di Nocera F, Fabrizi R, Terenzi M, Ferlazzo F: Procedural errors in air traffic control: effects of traffic density, expertise, and automation. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2006 Jun;77(6):639-43
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  • The present study had two goals: first, to verify the occurrence of post-completion errors in air traffic control (ATC) tasks; and second, to assess effects on performance of medium term conflict detection (MTCD) tools.
  • METHODS: There were 18 military controllers who performed a simulated ATC task with and without automation support (MTCD vs. manual) in high and low air traffic density conditions.
  • During the task, which consisted of managing several simulated flights in an enroute ATC scenario, a trace suddenly disappeared "after" the operator took the aircraft in charge, "during" the management of the trace, or "before" the pilot's first contact.
  • DISCUSSION: Procedural errors can happen in ATC, but automation can mitigate this effect.
  • Lack of benefits for the "before" fault type may be due to the fact that operators extend their reliance to a part of the task that is unsupported by the automated system.

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  • (PMID = 16780243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Hamada J, Tamai K, Ono W, Saotome K: Uremic tumoral calcinosis in hemodialysis patients: clinicopathological findings and identification of calcific deposits. J Rheumatol; 2006 Jan;33(1):119-26
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  • Periarticular massive calcifications, referred to as uremic tumoral calcinosis (UTC), represent solitary or multifocal calcium phosphate deposits.
  • Our objectives were to clinically analyze a series of 8 patients with UTC undergoing hemodialysis, and to characterize calcium deposits in UTC.
  • METHODS: The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of 8 consecutive patients (4 men and 4 women, mean age 49 yrs) with UTC were analyzed, and treatment and outcome were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Unifocal UTC was observed in 5 patients, whereas multifocal lesions occurred in 3 patients.
  • The most common sites of UTC were the shoulders, elbows, and hands.
  • Medical intervention to decrease the Ca P product achieved complete remission in 3 of 5 patients with solitary UTC, whereas this treatment was ineffective for multiple UTC.
  • CONCLUSION: The most important pathogenic factors in UTC are an increased Ca P product and hyperphosphoremia, which is not necessarily related to hyperparathyroidism.
  • Medical intervention is effective for solitary UTC, but combined treatment (surgery and medical therapy) is required for multiple UTC.
  • Calcium deposits in UTC are composed of carbonate apatite.

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  • (PMID = 16395759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0315-162X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apatites; 0 / Calcium Phosphates; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 55326-60-8 / carboapatite; 97Z1WI3NDX / calcium phosphate; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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22. Waryasz GR, McDermott AY: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS): a systematic review of anatomy and potential risk factors. Dyn Med; 2008;7:9
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  • Applying preventive medicine strategies, the majority of cases of PFPS may be avoided if a pre-diagnosis can be made by clinician or certified athletic trainer testing the current researched potential risk factors during a Preparticipation Screening Evaluation (PPSE).
  • We provide a detailed and comprehensive review of the soft tissue, arterial system, and innervation to the patellofemoral joint in order to supply the clinician with the knowledge required to assess the anatomy and make recommendations to patients identified as potentially at risk.

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  • (PMID = 18582383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5918
  • [Journal-full-title] Dynamic medicine : DM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dyn Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2443365
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23. Nakashima M, Takamura N, Namba H, Saenko V, Meirmanov S, Matsumoto N, Hayashi T, Maeda S, Sekine I: RET oncogene amplification in thyroid cancer: correlations with radiation-associated and high-grade malignancy. Hum Pathol; 2007 Apr;38(4):621-8
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  • [Title] RET oncogene amplification in thyroid cancer: correlations with radiation-associated and high-grade malignancy.
  • A radiation etiology is well known in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • RET oncogene rearrangement is the most common oncogenic alteration in Chernobyl-related papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • To find the characteristic alteration associated with RET rearrangements in radiation-induced thyroid cancers, we analyzed the RET oncogene by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • Our study demonstrated RET amplification in all 3 cases of radiation-associated thyroid cancers but not in sporadic well-differentiated PTC (n = 11).
  • Furthermore, RET amplification was observed in all 6 cases of sporadic anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATCs).
  • The frequency of RET amplification-positive cells was higher in ATC (7.2%-24.1%) than in PTC (1.5%-2.7%).
  • The highest frequency of RET amplification-positive cells was observed among ATC cases with a strong p53 immunoreactivity.
  • In conclusion, we found RET amplification, which is a rare oncogenic aberration, in thyroid cancer.
  • This report is the first one to suggest the presence of RET amplification in PTC and ATC.
  • RET amplification might be induced by a high level of genomic instability in connection with progression of thyroid carcinogenesis and, subsequently, be associated with radiation-induced and/or high-grade malignant cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Gene Amplification. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


24. Lopez JP, Wang-Rodriguez J, Chang CY, Sneh G, Yu MA, Pardo FS, Aguilera J, Ongkeko WM: Gefitinib (Iressa) potentiates the effect of ionizing radiation in thyroid cancer cell lines. Laryngoscope; 2008 Aug;118(8):1372-6
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  • [Title] Gefitinib (Iressa) potentiates the effect of ionizing radiation in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine whether inactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase activity will sensitize thyroid cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation-induced death.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Established human thyroid cancer cells lines were studied.
  • METHODS: Colony formation assay was used to determine the effect of Gefitinib, a small molecule inhibitor of EGFR, on anaplastic (ARO) and follicular (WRO) thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on archived thyroid cancer tissue to demonstrate expression of EGFR.
  • RESULTS: Incubation with Gefitinib caused decreased phosphorylation of EGFR protein in established thyroid cancer cell lines as measured by Western blot.
  • Inhibition of EGFR kinase activity by Gefitinib resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in colony formation in both ARO and WRO thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inactivation of the EGFR kinase by Gefitinib potentiates the ionizing radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Use of this combination treatment of Gefitinib and ionizing radiation may be a promising therapy for anaplastic thyroid and metastatic follicular thyroid cancer and should be extended into animal models.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18475209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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25. Guilmette TJ, Malia LA, McQuiggan MD: Concussion understanding and management among New England high school football coaches. Brain Inj; 2007 Sep;21(10):1039-47
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  • PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To determine high school football coaches' understanding, management and sources of information of concussion at schools without a certified athletic trainer (ATC) or without one at practice.
  • One hundred and nine (43%) surveys were returned, of which 62 respondents indicated there was no ATC either at the school or at practice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Athletic Injuries / diagnosis. Athletic Injuries / psychology. Humans. New England. Schools

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  • (PMID = 17891566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9052
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain injury
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Inj
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Ito Y, Arai K, Nozawa R, Yoshida H, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: S100A10 expression in thyroid neoplasms originating from the follicular epithelium: contribution to the aggressive characteristic of anaplastic carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4C):2679-83
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  • [Title] S100A10 expression in thyroid neoplasms originating from the follicular epithelium: contribution to the aggressive characteristic of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: S100A10, a member of the S100 family, forms a heterotetramer with annexin IIH and promotes carcinoma invasion and metastasis by plasminogen activation.
  • In this study, S100A10 and annexin II expression in thyroid neoplasms were demonstrated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression levels of S100A10 and annexin II in 193 thyroid neoplasms were immunohistochemically investigated.
  • Cells stained positively in 14.6% and 20.8% of follicular carcinomas for S100A10 and annexin II, respectively, but their expression levels were always low.
  • S100A10 and annexin II were expressed in all papillary carcinomas, but 88.2% and 82.8% ofpapillary carcinomas were classified in the low group.
  • S100S10 and annexin II were also expressed in all anaplastic carcinomas, with 83.3% of these lesions were classified in the high group.
  • CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that S100A10 and annexin II contribute to the aggressive characteristics of anaplastic carcinoma, while playing a constitutive role in papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexin A2 / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Epithelium / metabolism. Epithelium / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17695432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A2; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100 calcium binding protein A10
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27. Tang KT, Lee CH: BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: pathogenic role and clinical implications. J Chin Med Assoc; 2010 Mar;73(3):113-28
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  • [Title] BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: pathogenic role and clinical implications.
  • Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, accounting for 85-90% of all thyroid cancers.
  • BRAF(V600E) is present in approximately 50% of PTC and also found in aggressive histologic variants and PTC-derived anaplastic thyroid cancer, but is rare in follicular variants, and not found in follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The tumorigenic role of BRAF(V600E) in the development of PTC was documented in thyroid-targeted BRAF(V600E) transgenic mice, and rat thyroid cells overexpressed with BRAF(V600E) suggested that BRAF(V600E) is an initiator of tumorigenesis and is required for tumor progression in PTC.
  • The association is also observed in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinomas and low-risk PTC.
  • BRAF-targeted therapies have been developed to treat various human cancers including advanced thyroid cancers.
  • Studies of multi-kinase inhibitors and/or combination with other regimens are underway in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancers.
  • In this article, we review the pathogenesis of PTC, and the clinical implications of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the diagnosis, prognosis and potential targeted therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20230995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 156
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28. Mitomo S, Maesawa C, Ogasawara S, Iwaya T, Shibazaki M, Yashima-Abo A, Kotani K, Oikawa H, Sakurai E, Izutsu N, Kato K, Komatsu H, Ikeda K, Wakabayashi G, Masuda T: Downregulation of miR-138 is associated with overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Sci; 2008 Feb;99(2):280-6
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  • [Title] Downregulation of miR-138 is associated with overexpression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Alterations of several microRNA (miRNA) have been linked to cancer development and its biology.
  • To search for unique miRNA that might play a role in the development of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), we examined the expression of multiple miRNA and their functional effects on target genes in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • We quantitatively evaluated the expression of multiple miRNA in 10 ATC and five papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell lines, as well as primary tumors from 11 thyroid carcinoma patients (three ATC and eight PTC), using the stem-loop-mediated reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction method.
  • We also examined the target gene specificity of unique miRNA that showed differences in expression between ATC and PTC cell lines.
  • One miRNA, miR-138, was significantly downregulated in ATC cell lines in comparison with PTC (P < 0.01).
  • Eleven miRNA (including miR-138) potentially targeting the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene were totally downregulated in both ATC and PTC cell lines in comparison with normal thyroid tissues.
  • A tendency for an inverse correlation between miR-138 and hTERT protein expression was observed in the thyroid cancer cell lines, although this failed to reach significance (r = -0.392, P = 0.148).
  • These results suggest that loss of miR-138 expression may partially contribute to the gain of hTERT protein expression in ATC, and that further multiple miRNA targeting hTERT mRNA might be involved in the development of thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / metabolism. Telomerase / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18201269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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29. Fridman MV, Demidchik IuE, Gedrevich ZE: [Synchronous polyneoplasia of the thyroid gland: problems of diagnosis and therapy]. Vopr Onkol; 2006;52(3):309-14
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  • [Title] [Synchronous polyneoplasia of the thyroid gland: problems of diagnosis and therapy].
  • Thyroid carcinoma concurrent with synchronous polyneoplasia is quite rare and not fully understood.
  • There are 15 cases of such carcinoma on the records of the Center (2000-2005) (papillary and medullar - 9, papillary and follicullar -3, papillary and anaplastic - 1, papillary - 1 and unidentified well differentiated carcinoma - 1).
  • Still another patient had a combination of Hodgkin's disease (nodular sclerosis, cellular stage) and papillary microcarcinoma dicceminated to lymph nodes.
  • Problems of diagnosis and therapy are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17191704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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30. Salvatore G, De Falco V, Salerno P, Nappi TC, Pepe S, Troncone G, Carlomagno F, Melillo RM, Wilhelm SM, Santoro M: BRAF is a therapeutic target in aggressive thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;12(5):1623-9
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  • [Title] BRAF is a therapeutic target in aggressive thyroid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Oncogenic conversion of BRAF occurs in approximately 44% of papillary thyroid carcinomas and 24% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • In papillary thyroid carcinomas, this mutation is associated with an unfavorable clinicopathologic outcome.
  • Our aim was to exploit BRAF as a potential therapeutic target for thyroid carcinoma.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used RNA interference to evaluate the effect of BRAF knockdown in the human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines FRO and ARO carrying the BRAF V600E (V600EBRAF) mutation.
  • We also exploited the effect of BAY 43-9006 [N-(3-trifluoromethyl-4-chlorophenyl)-N'-(4-(2-methylcarbamoyl pyridin-4-yl)oxyphenyl)urea], a multikinase inhibitor able to inhibit RAF family kinases in a panel of six (V600E)BRAF-positive thyroid carcinoma cell lines and in nude mice bearing ARO cell xenografts.
  • These effects were mimicked by thyroid carcinoma cell treatment with BAY 43-9006 (IC50 = 0.5-1 micromol/L; P < 0.0001), whereas the compound had negligible effects in normal thyrocytes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF provides signals crucial for proliferation of thyroid carcinoma cells spontaneously harboring the (V600E)BRAF mutation and, therefore, BRAF suppression might have therapeutic potential in (V600E)BRAF-positive thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / therapy. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16533790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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31. Nielsen MW, Gundgaard J, Hansen EH, Rasmussen NK: Use of six main drug therapeutic groups across educational groups: self-reported survey and prescription records. J Clin Pharm Ther; 2005 Jun;30(3):259-69
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  • [Title] Use of six main drug therapeutic groups across educational groups: self-reported survey and prescription records.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the use of six main therapeutic groups was congruent with the occurrence of related diseases across educational groups.
  • The use of six therapeutic main groups (ATC groups A, B, C, M, N and R) and related diseases in educational groups was analysed by indirect standardization.
  • RESULTS: In general, respondents in the two least educated groups used medicines more frequently and a higher proportion of them reported the related disease than could be expected from indirect standardization.
  • CONCLUSION: The results show the uneven distribution of disease in the general population.

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  • (PMID = 15896244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-4727
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Pharm Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Aiello A, Pandini G, Frasca F, Conte E, Murabito A, Sacco A, Genua M, Vigneri R, Belfiore A: Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists induce partial reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Endocrinology; 2006 Sep;147(9):4463-75
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  • [Title] Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists induce partial reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is an extremely aggressive tumor characterized by marked epithelial mesenchymal transition, which leads, almost invariably, to death.
  • To establish whether ATC could be a target of PPAR gamma agonists, we first examined PPAR gamma protein expression in a panel of six ATC cell lines and then studied the biologic effects of two PPAR gamma agonists, ciglitazone and rosiglitazone, that belong to the class of thiazolidonediones.
  • PPAR gamma protein was present and functional in all ATC cell lines.
  • Both ciglitazone and rosiglitazone showed complex biological effects in ATC cells, including inhibition of anchorage-dependent and -independent growth and migration, and increased apoptosis rate.
  • Finally, rosiglitazone increased the expression of thyroid-specific differentiation markers.
  • In conclusions, these data suggest that PPAR gamma agonists induce a partial reversion of the epithelial mesenchymal transition in ATC cells by multiple mechanisms.
  • PPAR gamma agonists may, therefore, have a role in the multimodal therapy currently used to slow down ATC growth and dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


33. Catalano MG, Fortunati N, Pugliese M, Poli R, Bosco O, Mastrocola R, Aragno M, Boccuzzi G: Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. J Endocrinol; 2006 Nov;191(2):465-72
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  • [Title] Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.
  • Multimodality treatments (i.e. surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) are recommended for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), an extremely lethal human cancer, but to date there is little evidence that such approaches improve survival rates.
  • It is thus necessary to seek new therapeutic tools.
  • Using two ATC cell lines (CAL-62 and ARO), we show here that valproic acid (VPA), a clinically available HDAC inhibitor, enhances the activity of doxorubicin, whose anti-tumor properties involve binding to DNA and inhibiting topoisomerase II.
  • These results might offer a rationale for clinical studies of a new combined therapy in an effort to improve the outcome of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17088416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Histones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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34. Lu CL, Wang YC, Chen JY, Lai IC, Liou YJ: Support for the involvement of the ERBB4 gene in schizophrenia: a genetic association analysis. Neurosci Lett; 2010 Sep 6;481(2):120-5
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  • Furthermore, the frequency of haplotype ATC of rs3791709-rs2289086-rs3748962 was found to be significantly higher in the patients with schizophrenia than in the controls (case vs. control=36.0% vs. 24.4%, permutation p-value=0.0002).
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Schizophrenia / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20600594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7972
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB4 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-4
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35. Kurukahvecioglu O, Ege B, Poyraz A, Tezel E, Taneri F: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with long term survival after combined treatment: case report. Endocr Regul; 2007 Mar;41(1):41-4
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with long term survival after combined treatment: case report.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is associated with an almost uniformly rapid and lethal clinical course.
  • ATC grows rapidly and invades surrounding tissues at an early stage.
  • Despite surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, few patients with ATC live more than 1 year follow-up diagnosis.
  • Treatment of ATC is still controversial because of its rarity and advanced stage at the time of diagnosis.
  • We report herein an unusual case of ATC, 35 year old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17437344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-0668
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine regulations
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Regul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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36. Papewalis C, Wuttke M, Schinner S, Willenberg HS, Baran AM, Scherbaum WA, Schott M: Role of the novel mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Horm Metab Res; 2009 Oct;41(10):752-6
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  • [Title] Role of the novel mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) in anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • Activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade is increasingly recognized as a common feature of thyroid follicular neoplasms.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine whether RAD001 (everolimus) can selectively suppress the proliferation of different anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cells.
  • Five different human ATC cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of RAD001.
  • Importantly, we found a dose-dependent growth inhibition in two ATC cell lines at concentrations of 43.5 and 94.5 nM although not as intensive as within the RAD001 responding K562cell line.
  • In summary, we found a good responding effect in a part of ATC cell lines, which may have a clinical impact.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism


37. Namba H, Yamashita S: [Gene abnormalities in thyroid cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1967-72
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  • [Title] [Gene abnormalities in thyroid cancer].
  • A number of genetic abnormalities in oncogenes or anti-oncogenes have been identified in association with thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Especially, oncogenes such as ras mutation, ret/PTC and Braf mutation that constitutively activate MAP kinase pathway a refrequently found in papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The p53 mutation aggravates differentiated thyroid cancers to anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • These gene alterations are studied not only to understand basically the mechanisms of oncogenesis but also to develop clinically genetic diagnosis or molecular target therapy.
  • In this article, we review the genetic diagnostic methods and phenotype-genotype relationship of human thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18018556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / TRIM27 protein, human; 0 / taste receptors, type 2; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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38. Liu ZM, L i L, Zhu XY, Song FZ: [Molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by PsL5F in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2009 Nov;40(6):1015-20
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  • [Title] [Molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by PsL5F in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the apoptosis induced by Pteris semipnnata L 5F (PsL5F) in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells and its molecular mechanism.
  • METHODS: Human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells were treated with PsL5F, and the growth inhibition rate was evaluated by MTT assay.
  • Under the treatment of 100 mg/L of PsL5F, the percentage of apoptotic cells with phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization was gradually increased in time dependent manner.
  • CONCLUSION: PsL5F can inhibit growth of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma FRO cells through inducing apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Diterpenes / isolation & purification. Diterpenes / pharmacology. Humans. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20067110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
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39. Carter JR, Fraser TS, Fraser MJ Jr: Examining the relative activity of several dicistrovirus intergenic internal ribosome entry site elements in uninfected insect and mammalian cell lines. J Gen Virol; 2008 Dec;89(Pt 12):3150-5
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  • Dual luciferase assays were performed to determine the most effective dicistrovirus IGR IRES in the lepidopteran cell lines Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) and BmN (Bombyx mori), and the dipteran cell lines S2 (Drosophila melanogaster) and ATC-10 (Aedes aegypti).

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  • (PMID = 19008405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1317
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of general virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gen. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Intergenic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Viral; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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40. Saltman B, Singh B, Hedvat CV, Wreesmann VB, Ghossein R: Patterns of expression of cell cycle/apoptosis genes along the spectrum of thyroid carcinoma progression. Surgery; 2006 Dec;140(6):899-905; discussion 905-6
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  • [Title] Patterns of expression of cell cycle/apoptosis genes along the spectrum of thyroid carcinoma progression.
  • BACKGROUND: Genetic screening studies suggest that genetic changes underlie progression from well differentiated to anaplastic thyroid cancers.
  • The aim of this study is to determine to what extent cell cycle/apoptosis regulators contribute to cancer progression.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrarys (TMAs) were constructed from well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (WDPTC; n = 41), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC; n = 43), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC; n = 22).
  • RESULTS: p53 (0%, 12%, 32%) and Ki-67 (5%, 49%, 82%) were expressed with increasing frequency, and bcl-2 (68%, 42%, 0%) and p21 (40%, 7%, 0%) with decreasing frequency in WDPTC to PDTC and ATC, respectively (P < .001).
  • p27 and cyclin D1 were expressed in <15% of cases, with a trend toward decreasing expression from WDPTC to PDTC to ATC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm the presence of increasing genetic complexity with progressive dedifferentiation in thyroid cancer, with aberrant tumor suppressor activity and increased proliferative activity being most prevalent in ATC.
  • The data also confirm the intermediate position of PDTC in the classification scheme of thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cell Cycle / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / genetics. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Microarray Analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / genetics. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17188136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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41. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • It is highly expressed in carcinomas of the pancreas, stomach, colon, rectum, kidneys, uterine cervix, lung, and ovary.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate IMP3 expression in thyroid follicular lesions, to determine whether it has a role in differentiating among these lesions, and to understand their biological relationships.
  • We immunostained 219 thyroid lesions selected from our surgical pathology archives including 14 hyperplastic colloid nodules (CN), 19 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), two Graves disease (GD), ten Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA), 20 follicular adenoma (FA), 37 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 60 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 32 follicular carcinoma (FC), and six poorly differentiated/anaplastic carcinoma.
  • In all cases, residual thyroid tissue, CN, HT, GD, HCA, and FA were completely negative for IMP3 staining.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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42. Usher C, Teeling M, Bennett K, Feely J: Effect of clinical trial publicity on HRT prescribing in Ireland. Eur J Clin Pharmacol; 2006 Apr;62(4):307-10
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  • Prescriptions were identified for HRT and bisphosphonate preparations [using WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification codes] in female patients aged 45-69 years in Ireland during a 4-year study period (January 2001-December 2004).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Ireland. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16432715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-6970
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Cabello B, Mancebo J: [Result of extubation after spontaneous breathing test with automatic tube compensation versus continuous positive airway pressure]. Med Intensiva; 2007 Oct;31(7):399-401
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  • [Title] [Result of extubation after spontaneous breathing test with automatic tube compensation versus continuous positive airway pressure].
  • [Transliterated title] Resultado de la extubación tras una prueba de respiración espontánea con compensación automática del tubo frente a presión positiva continua de la vía aérea.
  • This trial is performed either using the T-piece disconnected from the ventilator, either using a low level of pressure support, with or without positive end-expiratory pressure.
  • A higher rate of failure occurs during the T-piece than during the pressure support trial, but once the patient success once of these trials the rate of reintubation is similar.

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  • (PMID = 17942063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5691
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina intensiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Intensiva
  • [Language] SPA
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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44. Tsopelas C, Cooper R: Radiolabelling and biodistribution of 111In-antimony trisulphide colloid. Hell J Nucl Med; 2005 May-Aug;8(2):109-12
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  • The aim of this study was to prepare 111In-antimony trisulphide colloid (111In-ATC) and evaluate its chemical properties in comparison with 99mTc-ATC.
  • After reconstitution of an antimony trisulphide cold Kit with 111In-chloride, 111In-ATC was formed with >95% radiochemical purity in the presence of neutralising phosphate buffer.
  • The product was found to be stable for 4.7 days when stored at room temperature, 80% of radioactive particles were < 20 nm in diameter and the mouse biodistribution assay was identical to that of 99mTc-ATC.
  • In conclusion, pharmaceutical-grade 111In-ATC was successfully prepared and assessed to have properties that are suitable for dual-isotope lymphoscintigraphy studies at the clinical level.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Stability. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Mice. Organ Specificity. Particle Size. Radiopharmaceuticals / chemical synthesis. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Technetium Compounds / pharmacokinetics. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 16142252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colloids; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m antimony sulfide; 9IT35J3UV3 / Antimony
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45. Scott AR, Holbrook EH: Radiology quiz case 1. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Apr;134(4):442, 444
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  • [Title] Radiology quiz case 1. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18427014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Klotzsche M, Ehrt S, Schnappinger D: Improved tetracycline repressors for gene silencing in mycobacteria. Nucleic Acids Res; 2009 Apr;37(6):1778-88
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  • In addition to these repressors, for which anhydrotetracycline (atc) functions as an inducer of gene expression, we used codon-usage adaption and structure-based design to develop improved reverse TetRs, for which atc functions as a corepressor.

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  • (PMID = 19174563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4962
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleic acids research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleic Acids Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI063446; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / tetracycline resistance-encoding transposon repressor protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2665214
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47. Banito A, Pinto AE, Espadinha C, Marques AR, Leite V: Aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Nov;67(5):706-11
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  • [Title] Aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: Follicular thyroid tumours present several genetic alterations such as aneuploidy, RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARgammarearrangements.
  • The molecular basis of aneuploidy remains undefined in the majority of human cancers.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between aneuploidy, RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARgamma gene rearrangement in thyroid follicular tumours.
  • DESIGN: Ploidy status was determined by flow cytometry in 111 thyroid lesions (42 follicular thyroid adenomas, 27 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 19 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 20 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 3 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas).
  • The aneuploid tumours harbouring RAS mutations were two poorly differentiated carcinomas and one follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with poorly differentiated areas.
  • Three of five (60%) follicular thyroid adenomas and 1 of 7 (14%) follicular thyroid carcinomas, with the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion gene, were aneuploid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Aneuploidy. Genes, ras. Point Mutation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17651453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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48. Stucchi CM, Vaccaro V, Magherini A, Di Gregorio C, Greco G, Livolsi VA, Papi G: Hurthle cell follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland presenting with diffuse meningeal carcinomatosis and evolving to anaplastic carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jul;60(7):831-2
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  • [Title] Hurthle cell follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland presenting with diffuse meningeal carcinomatosis and evolving to anaplastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / pathology. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17596549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1995787
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49. Fukushima T, Takenoshita S: Roles of RAS and BRAF mutations in thyroid carcinogenesis. Fukushima J Med Sci; 2005 Dec;51(2):67-75
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  • [Title] Roles of RAS and BRAF mutations in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are types of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, develop from the same thyroid follicular epithelial cells and show distinct biological behavior.
  • Although several studies have demonstrated differences in the biological characteristics of these carcinomas, little is known about the genetic backgrounds that underlie these differences.
  • The clarification of the genetic background can lead to the understanding of thyroid carcinogenesis, proper therapeutic strategies, and development of the molecular targeting drugs.
  • Recently, aberrant activation of RAS-RAF-MEK-MAP kinase signaling pathway is frequently found in thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our series, BRAF mutation was detected exclusively in papillary carcinoma (54%), and was exclusively V599E (a single nucleotide change of A-T at nucleotide 1796).
  • NRAS mutation was observed in follicular carcinoma (50%) and in anaplastic carcinoma (28%), and was exclusively Q61R (a single nucleotide change of A-G at nucleotide 182).
  • In this chapter, we explain the role of RAS-RAF-MEK-MAP kinase pathway in carcinogenesis of the thyroid and its clinical implication based on our study.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 16555627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-2590
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukushima journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukushima J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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50. Wang TS, Ocal IT, Oxley K, Sosa JA: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):425-8
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  • [Title] Primary leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Primary leiomyosarcomas of the thyroid gland are rare.
  • The preoperative differential diagnosis included medullary thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer, and primary versus metastatic sarcoma.
  • We review the literature on leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid, including the differential diagnoses, pathology, and alternative treatment strategies, including surgery and adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Necrosis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18346004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Smidt D, Torpet LA, Nauntofte B, Heegaard KM, Pedersen AM: Associations between labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol; 2010 Oct;38(5):422-35
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  • Systemic diseases, medications (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered.
  • New insights into medications and their association with salivary gland function were achieved using the ATC classification system.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Cross-Sectional Studies. Disease. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Humans. Linear Models. Lip / physiology. Male. Mastication / physiology. Salivary Glands / drug effects. Salivary Glands / physiology. Sex Factors

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 20545715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0528
  • [Journal-full-title] Community dentistry and oral epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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52. DeLellis RA: Pathology and genetics of thyroid carcinoma. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):662-9
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  • [Title] Pathology and genetics of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Carcinomas of the thyroid comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinctive clinical and pathological characteristics.
  • Over the past 15 years, the application of molecular technologies to the study of these neoplasms has elucidated critical genetic pathways associated with the development of specific thyroid tumor types.
  • In papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), genetic events involve RET and TRK (rearrangements) and BRAF and RAS (mutations), although RAS mutations are uncommon except in the follicular variant of PTC.
  • In contrast, genetic alterations in follicular carcinomas include PAX8-PPARgamma translocations and RAS mutations while mutations of CTNNB1 and p53 have been implicated in the development and progression of poorly differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinomas.
  • Germline mutations of RET are responsible for the development of heritable forms of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) while somatic mutations of this oncogene are found in a significant proportion of sporadic MTCs.
  • The results of these studies not only have provided additional approaches to thyroid tumor classification, but also have stimulated the development of novel approaches to tumor diagnosis and additional parameters for prognostic assessment and potential biologic therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Genes, ras. Humans. Molecular Biology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Mutation. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Receptor, trkA / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17131411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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53. Palestini N, Brignardello E, Freddi M, Piovesan A, Pipitone Federico NS, Sisto G, Robecchi A: Surgical treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Our experience. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):282-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Our experience.
  • BACKGROUND: In anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) surgical resection associated to radiotherapy and chemotherapy can ameliorate local disease control with occasional long-term survivals.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Resection of the tumor was accomplished in 20 ATC patients, with no macroscopic (13 cases) or minimal residual neck disease infiltrating vital structures (7 cases).
  • At last follow-up examination 17 patients had died and 3 were alive 1, 6 and 80 months after the operation, the latter being free of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection is an important component of the multimodal treatment of ATC and should be attempted whenever possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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54. Pinchot SN, Sippel RS, Chen H: Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Oct;4(5):935-47
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  • [Title] Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • While accounting for only 1% of solid organ malignancies (9% in women), thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • Although most patients have a favorable prognosis, over 1,500 people will die from thyroid carcinoma each year.
  • The spectrum of disease types range from papillary thyroid cancer, which is a well-differentiated indolent tumor, to anaplastic carcinoma, a poorly differentiated fulminant cancer.
  • With advances in diagnostic methods, surgical techniques, and clinical care of patients with thyroid carcinoma, the current management of thyroid cancer demands a multidisciplinary approach.
  • The majority of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular cell origin are cured with adequate surgical management; however, some thyroid malignancies such as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas frequently metastasize, precluding patients from a curative resection.
  • As such, novel palliative and therapeutic strategies are needed for this patient population.
  • Here, we explore the current management of thyroid carcinoma, including surgical management of the primary tumor, lymph node disease, and locoregional recurrence.
  • Likewise, we explore the application of current molecular techniques, reviewing nearly two decades of data that have begun to elucidate critical genetic pathways and therapeutic drug targets which may be important in specific thyroid tumor types.

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  • (PMID = 19209276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2621417
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; RET tyrosine kinase (RTK) / epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) / glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) / thyroid carcinoma / vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)
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55. Aguilar G, Jover JL, Soro M, Belda FJ, García-Raimundo M, Maruenda A: Additional work of breathing and breathing patterns in spontaneously breathing patients during pressure support ventilation, automatic tube compensation and amplified spontaneous pattern breathing. Eur J Anaesthesiol; 2005 Apr;22(4):312-4
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  • [Title] Additional work of breathing and breathing patterns in spontaneously breathing patients during pressure support ventilation, automatic tube compensation and amplified spontaneous pattern breathing.

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  • (PMID = 15892412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of anaesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Anaesthesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Shi RR, Du CM: [Analysis of ethambutol drug-resistance gene mutation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by specific endonuclease]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;29(10):702-4
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  • All the 45 EMB-resistant isolates were revealed to harbor embB gene hotspot codon 306 mutation, among which 33 with ATG-->GTG, 3 with ATG-->ATT, 5 with ATG-->ATA, 2 with ATG-->ATC, 2 with ATG-->CTG.

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  • (PMID = 17129501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 8G167061QZ / Ethambutol
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57. Braun J, Hoang-Vu C, Dralle H, Hüttelmaier S: Downregulation of microRNAs directs the EMT and invasive potential of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Oncogene; 2010 Jul 22;29(29):4237-44
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  • [Title] Downregulation of microRNAs directs the EMT and invasive potential of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) arise from epithelial thyroid cells by mesenchymal de-/transdifferentiation and rapidly invade the adjacent tissue.
  • Specific microRNA signatures were suggested to distinguish ATCs from normal thyroid tissue and other thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin.
  • Whether distinct microRNA patterns correlate with de-/transdifferentiation and invasion of ATCs remained elusive.
  • We identified two significantly decreased microRNA families that unambiguously distinguish ATCs from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas: miR-200 and miR-30.
  • Expression of these microRNAs in mesenchymal ATC-derived cells reduced their invasive potential and induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) by regulating the expression of MET marker proteins.
  • Supporting the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)beta signaling in modulating MET/epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), expression of SMAD2 and TGFBR1, upregulated in most primary ATCs, was controlled by members of the miR-30 and/or miR-200 families in ATC-derived cells.
  • These findings identify altered microRNA signatures as potent markers for ATCs that promote de-/transdifferentiation (EMT) and invasion of these neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mesoderm / pathology. MicroRNAs / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


58. Markovic-Pekovic V, Stoisavljevic-Satara S, Skrbic R: Utilisation of cardiovascular medicines in Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 5 years study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf; 2009 Apr;18(4):320-6
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  • ATC/DDD methodology was used to monitor utilisation of medicines.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / trends

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  • (PMID = 19156752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1557
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiovascular Agents
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59. Kim DH, Lee NY, Lee MH, Sohn SK, Do YR, Park JY: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene (VEGFA) polymorphism can predict the prognosis in acute myeloid leukaemia patients. Br J Haematol; 2008 Jan;140(1):71-9
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  • Accordingly, four haplotypes were generated based on the genotypes of -2578, -460 and +405 as follows: CTC (40.2%), CTG (35.0%), ACG (22.0%) and ATC (1.2%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Gene Frequency. Genotype. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17983459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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60. Thirlway J, Soultanas P: In the Bacillus stearothermophilus DnaB-DnaG complex, the activities of the two proteins are modulated by distinct but overlapping networks of residues. J Bacteriol; 2006 Feb;188(4):1534-9
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  • We demonstrate the primase activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus DnaG and show that it initiates at 3'-ATC-5' and 3'-ATT-5' sites synthesizing primers that are 22 or 23 nucleotides long.
  • Nine residues from the N- and C-terminal domains of DnaB, as well as its linker region, have been reported previously to affect this interaction.
  • In Bacillus stearothermophilus only three residues from the linker region (I119 and I125) and the N-terminal domain (Y88) of DnaB have been shown previously to have direct structural importance, and I119 and I125 mediate DnaG-induced effects on DnaB activity.

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  • (PMID = 16452437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9193
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bacteriology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bacteriol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/C500579/1; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/E004717/1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; EC 2.7.7.- / DNA Primase; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases; EC 3.6.4.12 / DnaB Helicases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1367256
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61. Lee MY, Doh EJ, Park CH, Kim YH, Kim ES, Ko BS, Oh SE: Development of SCAR marker for discrimination of Artemisia princeps and A. argyi from other Artemisia herbs. Biol Pharm Bull; 2006 Apr;29(4):629-33
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  • Based on nucleotide sequence of the primer 329 product, we designed a Fb (5'-CAT CAA CCA TGG CTT ATC CT-3') and R7 (5'-GCG AAC CTC CCC ATT CCA-3') primer-set to amplify a 254 bp sized SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, through which A. princeps and A. argyi can be efficiently discriminated from other Artemisia herbs, particularly, A. capillaris and A. iwayomogi.
  • [MeSH-major] Artemisia / classification

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  • (PMID = 16595892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Plant; 0 / Genetic Markers
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62. Scott A, Khan KM, Duronio V: IGF-I activates PKB and prevents anoxic apoptosis in Achilles tendon cells. J Orthop Res; 2005 Sep;23(5):1219-25
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  • The objectives of the current study were to (i) investigate the effect of oxygen withdrawal on the viability of porcine Achilles tendon cells (ATCs), and (ii) examine the ability of IGF-I, a factor with known regenerative properties in tendon, to prevent ATC death.

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  • (PMID = 16140203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 78141-1; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 78141-1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ CAMS4204; NLM/ PMC3951482
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63. Ruangpratheep C, Lohachittranond C, Poonpracha T, Punyarit P: OCT4 expression on a case of poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland and minireview. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Nov;88 Suppl 3:S281-9
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  • [Title] OCT4 expression on a case of poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland and minireview.
  • Poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare and defined as follicular-cell neoplasms that show limited evidence of structural follicular cell differentiation and occupy both morphologically and behaviourally an intermediate position between differentiated (follicular and papillary carcinomas) and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinomas.
  • The authors report a case of a 37-year-old Thai woman who presented with a prolonged left thyroid nodule.
  • Final pathological diagnoses of her mass were poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma with lymphovascular invasion and nodular goiter.
  • The authors believe that poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland probably develops from the remnant of thyroid stem cells and is not associated with dedifferentiation (anaplasia or loss of cellular differentiation) from nodular goiter or cells of other thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although there was negative immunostain for OCT4 in the presented case, the authors assumed that the tumor cells behave with an intermediate position between thyroid stem cells and prothyrocytes Also they do not behave with thyroblasts.
  • However, there is only one case of immunohistochemistry of OCT4 in poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Further research on expression of OCT4 gene on thyroid cancers and other malignant tumors relating to tumorigenic cancer cells (cancer stem cells) may be useful to prognostic evaluation and administration of a new chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy that is specific for tumor-initiating cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16858970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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64. Yu XH, Zhao TQ, Wang L, Liu ZP, Zhang CM, Chen R, Li L, Liu G, Hu WC: A novel substitution at the translation initiator codon (ATG--&gt;ATC) of the lipoprotein lipase gene is mainly responsible for lipoprotein lipase deficiency in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2006 Mar 3;341(1):82-7
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  • [Title] A novel substitution at the translation initiator codon (ATG-->ATC) of the lipoprotein lipase gene is mainly responsible for lipoprotein lipase deficiency in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis.

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  • (PMID = 16431216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon, Initiator; EC 3.1.1.34 / Lipoprotein Lipase
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65. Mooney CJ, Nagaiah G, Fu P, Wasman JK, Cooney MM, Savvides PS, Bokar JA, Dowlati A, Wang D, Agarwala SS, Flick SM, Hartman PH, Ortiz JD, Lavertu PN, Remick SC: A phase II trial of fosbretabulin in advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and correlation of baseline serum-soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 with outcome. Thyroid; 2009 Mar;19(3):233-40
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of fosbretabulin in advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and correlation of baseline serum-soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 with outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Fosbretabulin is a novel vascular-disrupting agent that has antitumor activity against anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cell lines, xenografts, and demonstrable efficacy in a phase I trial.
  • This phase II study determined the efficacy and safety of fosbretabulin in patients with advanced ATC and whether fosbretabulin altered the natural history of ATC by virtue of doubling the median survival.
  • Treatment was continued until disease progression.
  • Median duration of stable disease in seven patients was 12.3 months (range, 4.4-37.9 months).
  • This is among the largest prospective trials ever conducted for ATC.
  • Fosbretabulin has an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced ATC, and one-third survived more than 6 months.
  • Further prospective validation of sICAM as a therapeutic biomarker and exploring combination regimens with fosbretabulin are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bibenzyls / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19265494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00060242
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024989; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR-00080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA43703
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Bibenzyls; 0 / NCAM1 protein, human; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Stilbenes; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; I5590ES2QZ / fosbretabulin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913806
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66. Bravo SB, García-Rendueles ME, Seoane R, Dosil V, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, López-Lázaro L, Zalvide J, Barreiro F, Pombo CM, Alvarez CV: Plitidepsin has a cytostatic effect in human undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Nov 1;11(21):7664-73
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  • [Title] Plitidepsin has a cytostatic effect in human undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma.
  • Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma is a highly aggressive human cancer with very poor prognosis.
  • A strong association has been observed between undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma and TP53 mutations in numerous molecular genetic and expression studies.
  • We investigated the actions of plitidepsin in human thyroid cancer cells.
  • In initial experiments using primary cultured cells from a differentiated (papillary) carcinoma, we found that 100 nmol/L plitidepsin induced apoptosis, whereas lower doses were cytostatic.
  • This plitidepsin dosage regimen blocked the proliferation of a primary undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma culture obtained in our laboratory and of a commercial cell line (8305C) obtained from an undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma; however, it did not induce apoptosis.
  • Cells from undifferentiated tumors needed more than 3 days to recover logarithmic growth, and after 7 days, cell number was still significantly lower than in control cultures.
  • Whether plitidepsin will prove to be clinically useful in the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancers remains to be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Depsipeptides / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Agar / chemistry. Aged. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Flow Cytometry. Genes, p53. HeLa Cells. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Immunoblotting. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Time Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


67. Rumstadt B, Klein B, Kirr H, Kaltenbach N, Homenu W, Schilling D: Thyroid surgery in Burkina Faso, West Africa: experience from a surgical help program. World J Surg; 2008 Dec;32(12):2627-30
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  • [Title] Thyroid surgery in Burkina Faso, West Africa: experience from a surgical help program.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was made of patients who underwent operation for thyroid diseases during a surgical help program in Leo/Burkina Faso during a 7-year period from 2001 to 2008.
  • RESULTS: A total of 253 cases presented with goiters grade III (WHO classification) were operated on: 134 hemithyroidectomies, 108 hemithyroidectomies combined with subtotal contralateral resection, and 11 total thyroidectomies were performed.
  • Histological examinations showed Graves' disease in 6 cases, and multinodular goiter in 231 cases.
  • Follicular cancer was found in 15 cases, and anaplastic carcinoma was found in 1 case.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid surgery can be performed with low complication rates under basic surgical conditions.

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  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
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68. Dralle H, Lorenz K, Machens A: [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2009 Nov;80(11):1069-82; quiz 1083
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  • [Title] [Surgery of thyroid carcinoma].
  • The 5 main types of thyroid cancer (papillary, PTC, follicular, FTC, poorly differentiated, PDTC undifferentiated, UTC, medullary, MTC) not only differ regarding morphology, pathogenesis, genetics,and pathophysiology (iodine metabolism, thyroglobulin and calcitonin production), but also concerning tumor biology, metastatic behavior (lymphogenous, locally invasive and hematogenous routes) and prognosis.
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  • Differentiated carcinomas may have an acceptable prognosis despite local invasion of the cervical aerodigestive system, thus resections are justified when technical prerequisites are given.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Microsurgery / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / mortality. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Prognosis. Reoperation. Survival Rate. Trachea / pathology. Trachea / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19902289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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69. Massant J, Glansdorff N: New experimental approaches for investigating interactions between Pyrococcus furiosus carbamate kinase and carbamoyltransferases, enzymes involved in the channeling of thermolabile carbamoyl phosphate. Archaea; 2005 Dec;1(6):365-73
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  • Using the yeast two-hybrid system, Hummel-Dreyer chromatography and isothermal titration calorimetry, we obtained additional concrete evidence for an interaction between CK and OTC, the first evidence for an interaction between CK and aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ATC) and an estimate of the binding constant between CK and ATC.
  • The physical interaction between CK and OTC or ATC may prevent thermodenaturation of CP in the aqueous cytoplasmic environment.

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  • (PMID = 16243776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Archaea (Vancouver, B.C.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Archaea
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 590-55-6 / Carbamyl Phosphate; EC 2.1.3.3 / Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase; EC 2.7.2.- / Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor); EC 2.7.2.2 / carbamate kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2685582
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70. Dedecjus M, Tazbir J, Kaurzel Z, Lewinski A, Strozyk G, Brzezinski J: Selective embolization of thyroid arteries as a preresective and palliative treatment of thyroid cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):847-52
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  • [Title] Selective embolization of thyroid arteries as a preresective and palliative treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • Although many tumours of head and neck have been successfully embolized, the number of publications on the application of selective embolization of thyroid arteries (SETA) is limited.
  • The aim of the present study is to evaluate the safety, efficacy and possible indications and contraindications for preresective or palliative SETA in thyroid cancer.
  • The study group comprised 20 patients with thyroid tumours: 7 cases of advanced inoperable anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and 13 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • All the patients underwent SETA of the superior and/or inferior thyroid arteries.
  • After SETA, selective angiographies of thyroid arteries were performed to ensure that the targeted arteries had been completely occluded.
  • In all the cases, SETA decreased the blood flow through the thyroid.
  • We observed a massive increase of thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations in cases of DTC that started 36-48 h after SETA and did not occur in cases of ATC.
  • Although SETA had no influence on the mortality of ATC patients, they reported improvements in swallowing, breathing and decrease of the pain.
  • Concluding, SETA is minimally invasive and safe method limiting blood flow through thyroid tumours.
  • In DTC patients, SETA causes ischaemic necrosis of the gland which results in important increases in serum concentrations of Tg.
  • Moreover, SETA may become an attractive option of palliative treatment for ATC patients with intractable bleeding, pain or signs of tracheal and oesophageal compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Palliative Care / methods. Thyroid Gland / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17914113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Wiseman SM, Masoudi H, Niblock P, Turbin D, Rajput A, Hay J, Filipenko D, Huntsman D, Gilks B: Derangement of the E-cadherin/catenin complex is involved in transformation of differentiated to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg; 2006 May;191(5):581-7
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  • [Title] Derangement of the E-cadherin/catenin complex is involved in transformation of differentiated to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid cancer arises, or transforms, from pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the change in E-cadherin/beta-catenin expression in the transformation of differentiated to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray was constructed from 12 anaplastic thyroid tumors and their adjacent associated differentiated foci.
  • RESULTS: There was decreased expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin by the anaplastic tumors when compared with the differentiated thyroid tumors from which they evolved.
  • The expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin was 92% and 67%, respectively, by the differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and 17% and 50%, respectively, by the anaplastic tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report shows that derangement of the E-cadherin/catenin complex is associated with the transformation of differentiated into anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Catenins / biosynthesis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. beta Catenin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anaplasia. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16647341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Catenins; 0 / beta Catenin
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72. Sehestedt T, Knudsen N, Perrild H, Johansen C: Iodine intake and incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Aug;65(2):229-33
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  • [Title] Iodine intake and incidence of thyroid cancer in Denmark.
  • OBJECTIVE: Iodine intake is suspected to be a risk factor for thyroid cancer.
  • The objective of the study was to determine whether the incidence of thyroid cancer differs between these two regions, as any difference would have important safety implications for the national iodine supplementation programme.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied all thyroid cancers notified to the Danish Cancer Registry in the period 1973-1997, focusing on the four most frequent subtypes: papillary, follicular, anaplastic and medullary thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: No regional difference was found in the overall incidence of follicular (0.3% 100 000 person-years) or papillary (0.7% 100 000 person-years) thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that modest differences in iodine intake do not affect thyroid cancer incidence or the distribution of subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine / deficiency. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Denmark / epidemiology. Dietary Supplements. Female. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Regression Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16886965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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73. Schuler G, Greven H, Kowalewski MP, Döring B, Ozalp GR, Hoffmann B: Placental steroids in cattle: hormones, placental growth factors or by-products of trophoblast giant cell differentiation? Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Jul;116(7):429-36
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  • Specific features of bovine placental steroidogenesis are 1) the expression of all enzymes needed for the production of estrogens from cholesterol in the trophoblast 2) an only marginal and temporal contribution to peripheral maternal P4 levels restricted to a period between approx. days 150 - 240 of gestation 3) the predominance of sulfoconjugated over free E1 and 4) a complementary setting of steroidogenic enzymes in the two morphologically discriminable trophoblast cell types, the uninucleated trophoblast cells (UTC) and the trophoblast giant cells (TGC).
  • The down-regulation of P450scc and P450c17 and the up-regulation of 3beta-HSD and aromatase during the differentiation of TGC from UTC in parallel with the up-regulation of ER beta and estrogen sulfotransferase in maturing TGC suggests a function of placental estrogens primarily as autoor intracrine regulators during this process and assigns to conjugated placental estrogens a role as inactivated by-products of TGC differentiation intended for excretion.

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  • (PMID = 18704836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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74. Endo T, Nishio M, Enzler T, Cottam HB, Fukuda T, James DF, Karin M, Kipps TJ: BAFF and APRIL support chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cell survival through activation of the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. Blood; 2007 Jan 15;109(2):703-10
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  • On the other hand, specifically blocking the canonical NF-kappaB pathway with UTC, an inhibitor of IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), or transfection of CLL cells with the IkappaBalpha super-repressor, blocked the capacity of BAFF and APRIL to promote CLL cell survival in vitro.
  • These findings suggest that inhibitors of protein kinase IKKbeta, which is required for activation of the canonical NF-kappaB pathway, might have a therapeutic role in this disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Cell Maturation Antigen / biosynthesis. B-Cell Maturation Antigen / immunology. Carboxylic Acids / chemical synthesis. Carboxylic Acids / chemistry. Carboxylic Acids / pharmacology. Cell Fractionation. Cell Survival / immunology. Flow Cytometry / methods. Humans. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / chemical synthesis. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / chemistry. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thiophenes / chemical synthesis. Thiophenes / chemistry. Thiophenes / pharmacology. Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein / biosynthesis. Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16973958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-ureido-thiophene-3 carboxylic acid amide; 0 / B-Cell Activating Factor; 0 / B-Cell Maturation Antigen; 0 / Carboxylic Acids; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / TNFSF13 protein, human; 0 / TNFSF13B protein, human; 0 / Thiophenes; 0 / Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1890820
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75. Lee JJ, Foukakis T, Hashemi J, Grimelius L, Heldin NE, Wallin G, Rudduck C, Lui WO, Höög A, Larsson C: Molecular cytogenetic profiles of novel and established human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma models. Thyroid; 2007 Apr;17(4):289-301
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  • [Title] Molecular cytogenetic profiles of novel and established human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma models.
  • In this study we present two novel anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) lines (HTh 104 and HTh 112) and further characterize six frequently used ATC lines (HTh 7, HTh 74, HTh 83, C 643, KAT-4, and SW 1736).
  • Three of the lines carried a heterozygous BRAF mutation V600E, which is in line with reports of BRAF mutations in primary ATC and papillary thyroid cancer.
  • Several nonrandom breakpoints were identified by spectral karyotyping (SKY) and G-banding in these lines including the novel 1p36 and 17q24-25 as well as 3p21-22 and 15q26 that are also implicated in well-differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • Our results concur with previous studies in both primary tumors and cell lines, indicating that gain of chromosome 20 is important in the pathogenesis of ATC and/or progression of differentiated thyroid cancers to ATC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations / classification. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


76. Musumeci T, Vicari L, Ventura CA, Gulisano M, Pignatello R, Puglisi G: Lyoprotected nanosphere formulations for paclitaxel controlled delivery. J Nanosci Nanotechnol; 2006 Sep-Oct;6(9-10):3118-25
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  • They were chosen for specific studies on drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release and biological activity on the human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line 8305C.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryoprotective Agents / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Freeze Drying / methods. Nanotubes / chemistry. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / pharmacokinetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17048526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4880
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nanosci Nanotechnol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cryoprotective Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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77. Sipos JA, Shah MH: Thyroid cancer: emerging role for targeted therapies. Ther Adv Med Oncol; 2010 Jan;2(1):3-16
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer: emerging role for targeted therapies.
  • The histology and clinical behavior of thyroid cancer are highly diverse.
  • While surgery and radioactive iodine are the standard of care for differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) and are effective in curing a majority of such patients, those with iodine-resistant cancers pose a great challenge for clinicians, as these patients have limited treatment options and poor prognoses.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) has no effective systemic therapy despite the genetic and signaling defects that have been well characterized for the last two decades.
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors that remains fatal despite conventional multimodality therapy.
  • Increased understanding of the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma, the most common type of DTC, as well as ATC, has led to the development of targeted therapies aimed at signaling pathways and angiogenesis that are critical to the development and/or progression of such tumors.
  • Numerous clinical trials have been conducted over the last 5 years to examine the effects of these targeted molecular therapies on the outcomes of patients with iodine-refractory DTC, MTC and ATC.
  • Conduction of such trials in the last few years represents a major breakthrough in the field of thyroid cancer.
  • Several trials testing targeted therapies offer promise for setting new standards for the future of patients with progressive thyroid cancer.
  • The purpose of this paper is to outline the recent advances in understanding of the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer and to summarize the results of the clinical trials with these targeted therapies.

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  • (PMID = 21789122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-8359
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic advances in medical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Adv Med Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3126004
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; targeted therapy / thyroid cancer / tyrosine kinase inhibitors
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78. Zito G, Richiusa P, Bommarito A, Carissimi E, Russo L, Coppola A, Zerilli M, Rodolico V, Criscimanna A, Amato M, Pizzolanti G, Galluzzo A, Giordano C: In vitro identification and characterization of CD133(pos) cancer stem-like cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines. PLoS One; 2008;3(10):e3544
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  • [Title] In vitro identification and characterization of CD133(pos) cancer stem-like cells in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent publications suggest that neoplastic initiation and growth are dependent on a small subset of cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs).
  • Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is a very aggressive solid tumor with poor prognosis, characterized by high dedifferentiation.
  • The existence of CSCs might account for the heterogeneity of ATC lesions.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ATC cell lines ARO, KAT-4, KAT-18 and FRO were analyzed for CD133 expression.
  • Furthermore, ARO/CD133(pos) showed levels of thyroid transcription factor TTF-1 similar to the fetal thyroid cell line TAD-2, while the expression in ARO/CD133(neg) was negligible.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe CD133(pos) cells in ATC cell lines.
  • The simultaneous positivity for thyroid specific factor TTF-1 and onfFN suggest they might represent putative thyroid cancer stem-like cells.
  • Our in vitro findings might provide new insights for novel therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Peptides / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


79. Siragusa M, Zerilli M, Iovino F, Francipane MG, Lombardo Y, Ricci-Vitiani L, Di Gesù G, Todaro M, De Maria R, Stassi G: MUC1 oncoprotein promotes refractoriness to chemotherapy in thyroid cancer cells. Cancer Res; 2007 Jun 1;67(11):5522-30
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  • [Title] MUC1 oncoprotein promotes refractoriness to chemotherapy in thyroid cancer cells.
  • Overexpression of MUC1 oncoprotein is frequently observed in cancer and contributes to confer resistance to genotoxic agents.
  • Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are the three forms of thyroid epithelial cancer.
  • Anaplastic tumors are less differentiated and extremely aggressive, characterized by a poor prognosis.
  • Little is known about the role of MUC1 in thyroid cancer.
  • We recently showed that autocrine production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 controls thyroid cancer cell survival, growth, and resistance to chemotherapy through activation of Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) and phosphatidylinositide 3'-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways.
  • In the present study, we showed that MUC1 COOH-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) is overexpressed in all the histologic variants of thyroid cancer cells and localizes to mitochondria where it interferes with the release of mitochondrial proapoptotic proteins.
  • Moreover, IL-4 and IL-10 promote the increase of MUC1-C expression levels in normal thyroid cells, whereas blockage of both cytokines or neutralization of JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt pathways through the exogenous expression of SOCS-1 and Akt(K179M) leads to a significant decrease of MUC1-C in primary thyroid cancer cells.
  • Interestingly, down-regulation of MUC1 expression by direct targeting with RNA interference sensitizes anaplastic thyroid cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in vitro.
  • Thus, MUC1 is a main component of the survival network acting in thyroid cancer and could be considered a key molecular target for sensitizing cancer cells to conventional or novel treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Mucins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism


80. Zou CC, Zhao ZY, Liang L: Childhood minimally invasive follicular carcinoma: clinical features and immunohistochemistry analysis. J Paediatr Child Health; 2010 Apr;46(4):166-70
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  • [Title] Childhood minimally invasive follicular carcinoma: clinical features and immunohistochemistry analysis.
  • AIM: To report on two cases of childhood thyroid minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) to highlight the clinical features, laboratory findings and diagnosis of this rare disease.
  • RESULTS: From 2000 to 2008, a total of 15 cases of thyroid cancer were confirmed by pathological analysis, which account for about 2.16% of all malignant solid tumours.
  • They included nine of thyroid papillary carcinoma, two of MIFC and one of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Thyroid mass was found as the primary sign.
  • Imaging findings showed well-defined heterogeneous mass and radionuclide scintigraphy with 99mTc demonstrated small cold nodules in the right lobe of thyroid in two cases.
  • Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of MIFC.
  • Immunohistochemical staining was positive for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, galectin-3, Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, cytokeratin-AE1/AE3, cytokeratin-19, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and E-cadherin in two cases, and S-100 in one case, while CD56, vimentin and desmin were negative.
  • CONCLUSION: MIFC is exceedingly rare in children and should be included in the differential diagnosis of thyroid mass.
  • The diagnosis of MIFC depends mainly on the pathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20105250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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81. Kakudo K, Bai Y, Li Y, Wakasa T, Mori I: [Thyroid carcinoma--differentiated, poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1979-84
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  • [Title] [Thyroid carcinoma--differentiated, poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma].
  • The poorly differentiated carcinoma was first added as a new member in the lists of classification of thyroid carcinomas in the WHO 2004 edition.
  • This modification creates a significant change in the incidence and prognosis of this carcinoma.
  • This carcinoma, defined by the new WHO classification, is about 1-5% of all thyroid malignancy and has more aggressive outcome than the previous definition.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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82. Milder IE, Klungel OH, Mantel-Teeuwisse AK, Verschuren WM, Bemelmans WJ: Relation between body mass index, physical inactivity and use of prescription drugs: the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Int J Obes (Lond); 2010 Jun;34(6):1060-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, musculoskeletal complaints, osteoporosis, certain types of cancer and depression.
  • Drugs were coded according to the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system.
  • Persons were defined as a user of a certain drug class if they filed at least one prescription in the year around (+/-6 months) the examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Mass Index. Obesity / complications. Prescription Drugs / therapeutic use. Sedentary Lifestyle. Smoking

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  • (PMID = 20125097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5497
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of obesity (2005)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Obes (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prescription Drugs
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83. Kolar M, Urbanek K, Vagnerova I, Koukalova D: The influence of antibiotic use on the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Clin Pharm Ther; 2006 Feb;31(1):67-72
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  • DHO antibiotic consumption data were processed according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC)/defined daily dose (DDD) system valid in 2003 and expressed in defined daily dose per 100 bed-days (DDD/100 bed-days) for each year of the period.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Enterococcus / isolation & purification. Vancomycin Resistance

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  • (PMID = 16476122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-4727
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Pharm Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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84. Trajkov D, Trajchevska M, Arsov T, Petlichkovski A, Strezova A, Efinska-Mladenovska O, Sandevski A, Spiroski M: Association of 22 cytokine gene polymorphisms with tuberculosis in Macedonians. Indian J Tuberc; 2009 Jul;56(3):117-31
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  • RESULTS: TNF-alpha-238/G, IL-1R psti1970/C, IL-1beta + 3962/T:T, IL-4-1098/T:T, IFNgamma utr5644/A:A, IL-10-1082/G:G, IL-4-590/C:C, IL-10/ATC, IL-4/TCT, IL-4/TCC, IL-10/ATC:GCC, IL-4/TCT:TTT, IL-4/TCC:TTC, IL-10/GCC:GCC and IL-4/TCC:TCC were positively associated with TB, while protective association was identified for IL-4-098/G, IL-1beta + 3962/C, IFNgamma utr5644/T, IL-1beta + 3962/C:T, IL-4-1098/G:T, IL-4-590/C:T, IFNgamma utr5644/A:T, IL-4/GCC, IL-4/TTC and IL-4/GCC:TTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytokines / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic. Tuberculosis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20349753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5707
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of tuberculosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Tuberc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukins
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85. Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):297-310, vii
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  • [Title] Unusual tumors of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid neoplasms are classified into three major categories: epithelial, nonepithelial, and secondary.
  • Most primary epithelial tumors of thyroid are derived from follicular cells.
  • These include follicular adenoma and carcinoma (Hürthle and non-Hürthle), and papillary carcinoma and its variants.
  • Other primary epithelial tumors include medullary carcinoma, mixed medullary and follicular carcinomas, insular and poorly differentiated carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and the least common squamous carcinoma and related tumors.
  • The secondary tumors represent metastatic tumors to the thyroid usually originating in lung, kidney, and breast.
  • In this article, the authors review the unusual tumors of the thyroid, their morphologic features, and clinical and prognostic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18502328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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86. Chung KW, Yang SK, Lee GK, Kim EY, Kwon S, Lee SH, Park DJ, Lee HS, Cho BY, Lee ES, Kim SW: Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Nov;65(5):660-6
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  • [Title] Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area.
  • BACKGROUND: Between 10 and 30% of the fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid nodules are diagnosed as 'indeterminate'.
  • In Korea, most thyroid cancer is the classic papillary type and the BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent.
  • AIM: To evaluate the role of pre-operative detection of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the FNAB specimens of thyroid nodules in a BRAF(V600E) mutation-prevalent geographical area.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 137 specimens of FNAB (107 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC); 2 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas; 25 benign lesions), both direct DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP were used for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was present in 93 (83%) of 112 thyroid cancers.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in FNAB specimens refines the FNAB-cytology diagnosis, especially in a BRAF(V600E) mutation-prevalent area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17054470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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87. Kárpati K, Brandtmüller A, Májer I, Gulácsi L: [Priorisation in health-care; drug-reimbursement priorities in Hungary in 2004]. Acta Pharm Hung; 2006;76(4):191-9
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  • In our research we assessed the drug reimbursement of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (NHIFA) in different ATC groups.
  • As for the number of patients in the cancer group it is much smaller, but as a result of the huge costs of their therapies these belong to the highest reimbursed categories as well.
  • HUF spent on the treatment of cancer, diabetic and some psychiatric disorders.

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  • (PMID = 17575799.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6659
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta pharmaceutica Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Pharm Hung
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations
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88. Ganguly R, Mitra S, Datta AK: Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):337-9
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  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland.
  • Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis.
  • Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers.
  • We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years.
  • The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma.
  • The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma.
  • The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers.
  • This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):434-5 [21623130.001]
  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):414-5; author reply 415 [21623114.001]
  • (PMID = 20551551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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89. Liu J, Brown RE: Immunohistochemical detection of epithelialmesenchymal transition associated with stemness phenotype in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(8):755-62
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of epithelialmesenchymal transition associated with stemness phenotype in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm resistant to radiation and chemotherapy.
  • However, EMT and stem cell properties in ATC have not been fully investigated.
  • In this study, we retrieved 2 thyroidectomy specimens of ATC with coexisting well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) including one papillary carcinoma (PTC) and one follicular carcinoma (FTC).
  • In contrast, the PTC and FTC, and non-neoplastic thyroid tissue in both cases were negative for nestin and positive for E-cadherin.
  • The expressions of CD133 and CD44 were variable in the PTC, FTC, and non-neoplastic thyroid tissue and were at a lower level of expression of these markers in the overall pattern.
  • The results confirmed EMT, demonstrated the stem cell phenotype in ATC, and revealed the difference in expression of these markers between ATC and DTCs/non-neoplastic thyroid tissue.
  • Nestin may be the most specific marker for stemness in ATC by immuno-histochemial staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / physiology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21151388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AC133 antigen; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Peptides
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993225
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma / cancer stem cell / epithelial-mesenchymal transition / follicular thyroid carcinoma / immunohistochemistry / papillary thyroid carcinoma
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90. Prommegger R, Häussler B, Gabriel M, Ensinger C, Sauper T, Hager J: Insular-type component follicular thyroid carcinoma in a 10-year-old girl--case report. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jun;41(6):e5-7
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  • [Title] Insular-type component follicular thyroid carcinoma in a 10-year-old girl--case report.
  • Insular-type carcinoma of the thyroid is a rare form of undifferentiated thyroid cancer.
  • The manifestation of disease occurs mainly in adults and is extremely rare in children.
  • Prognosis of this type of thyroid carcinoma is unfavorable in childhood.
  • The history of a 10-year-old girl with insular-type thyroid carcinoma is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16769328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Mensch J, Mitchell M: Choosing a career in athletic training: exploring the perceptions of potential recruits. J Athl Train; 2008 Jan-Mar;43(1):70-9
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  • [Title] Choosing a career in athletic training: exploring the perceptions of potential recruits.
  • CONTEXT: The success of any academic program, including athletic training, depends upon attracting and keeping quality students.
  • Therefore, understanding potential recruits' perceptions of athletic training is important.
  • OBJECTIVE: To (1) gain insight regarding undergraduate students' decisions to enter or not enter an athletic training education program (ATEP), and (2) examine potential athletic training recruits' perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of certified athletic trainers.
  • DESIGN: We used a descriptive study employing a grounded theory approach to explore perceptions of the athletic training profession by college students with various levels of interest in athletic training.
  • SETTING: Athletic training education program from a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I research-intensive university.
  • RESULTS: Three contributing factors appeared to influence the recruitment of students to a career in athletic training:.
  • (1) a strong affiliation to a sports/team model, (2) initial exposure at the high school level, and (3) an incomplete understanding of athletic training.
  • Educators and administrators must create a comprehensive recruitment strategy using factors that influence potential recruits' decisions to enter the athletic training profession, specifically their association with sports and their experiences during high school.
  • [MeSH-major] Athletic Injuries / prevention & control. Career Choice. Decision Making. Perception. Professional Role. Sports. Sports Medicine. Students

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  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of athletic training
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Athl Train
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2231402
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; career choice / recruitment / socialization / subjective warrant
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92. Duborija-Kovacević N, Tomić Z: [Did a reform strategy in drug management improve doctors' prescribing habits in Montenegro: the example for the cardiovascular drugs]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2006 May;63(5):451-6
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  • The reform strategy covered: an information system named "The Control of Distribution and Use of Drugs", a new List of Essential Drugs (that are reimbursed by the Republic Fund for Health), legislative and regulatory measures in order to establish a better control of drug prescribing and more efficient processing of the prescriptions.
  • All the drugs were classified according to the uniform anatomical-therapeutic-chemical (ATC) classification of the drugs.
  • RESULTS: Although prescribing and the resulting outpatient use of cardiovascular drugs (ATC group C) that were reimbursed by the Republic Fund for Health was increased approximately by 13% in 2004 in comparison with 2000 (67.98 vs. 60.17 DDD/1000 inh.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Agents / therapeutic use. Practice Patterns, Physicians'

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  • (PMID = 16758794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8450
  • [Journal-full-title] Vojnosanitetski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vojnosanit Pregl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiovascular Agents
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93. Kozlowski P, de Mezer M, Krzyzosiak WJ: Trinucleotide repeats in human genome and exome. Nucleic Acids Res; 2010 Jul;38(12):4027-39
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  • We found that some triplet repeats, specifically CNG, are overrepresented, while CTT, ATC, AAC and AAT are underrepresented in exons.

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  • (PMID = 20215431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4962
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleic acids research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleic Acids Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2896521
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94. Naqiyah I, Zulkarnaen AN, Rohaizak M, Das S: Carcinosarcoma of the thyroid: a case report. Hippokratia; 2010 Apr;14(2):141-2
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the thyroid: a case report.
  • Thyroid carcinosarcoma (TC) is a very rare, aggressive thyroid malignancy with a clinical course similar to anaplastic carcinoma.
  • A 54-year-old Chinese gentleman with a long history of a nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid presented with recent history of hemoptysis and shortness of breath.

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  • (PMID = 20596275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Hippokratia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hippokratia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2895280
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cancer / carcinosarcoma / follicular / thyroid / undifferentiated
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95. Njim L, Moussa A, Hadhri R, Gassab I, Ben Yahia N, Mahmoudi H, Zakhama A: [Angiomatoid tumor of the thyroid gland: primitive angiosarcoma or variant of anaplastic carcinoma?]. Ann Pathol; 2008 Jun;28(3):221-4
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  • [Title] [Angiomatoid tumor of the thyroid gland: primitive angiosarcoma or variant of anaplastic carcinoma?].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur angiomatoïde de la thyroïde: angiosarcome primitif ou variante du carcinome anaplasique?
  • Thyroid gland angiomatoid tumors are an extremely aggressive neoplasms with varied histological patterns and features of endothelial differentiation.
  • The histogenesis of thyroid angiomatoid tumors has been controversial for many years: these tumors may be either a variant of anaplastic carcinoma, or an angiosarcoma.
  • We report a case of thyroid angiomatoid tumor in a 68-year-old woman.
  • We also discuss, through a review of the literature, the pathologic criteria that could be used to distinguish between angiosarcoma and anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18706366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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96. Fury MG, Solit DB, Su YB, Rosen N, Sirotnak FM, Smith RP, Azzoli CG, Gomez JE, Miller VA, Kris MG, Pizzo BA, Henry R, Pfister DG, Rizvi NA: A phase I trial of intermittent high-dose gefitinib and fixed-dose docetaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Mar;59(4):467-75
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  • METHODS: This was a phase I study where patients with advanced cancer were treated with escalating doses of gefitinib (1,000, 1,500, 2,250, 3,000 mg) on days 1 and 2 followed by docetaxel (75 mg/m2) on day 3 of a 21 day cycle.
  • RESULTS: 18 patients were enrolled in this study with the most frequent tumor types being non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell cancer.
  • Partial responses were observed in one patient with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and one patient with anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16896930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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97. Chiappetta G, Ammirante M, Basile A, Rosati A, Festa M, Monaco M, Vuttariello E, Pasquinelli R, Arra C, Zerilli M, Todaro M, Stassi G, Pezzullo L, Gentilella A, Tosco A, Pascale M, Marzullo L, Belisario MA, Turco MC, Leone A: The antiapoptotic protein BAG3 is expressed in thyroid carcinomas and modulates apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;92(3):1159-63
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  • [Title] The antiapoptotic protein BAG3 is expressed in thyroid carcinomas and modulates apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze BAG3 expression in thyroid neoplastic cells and investigate its influence in cell apoptotic response to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We investigated BAG3 expression in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines, including NPA, and the effect of BAG3-specific small interfering RNA on TRAIL-induced apoptosis in NPA cells.
  • Subsequently, we analyzed BAG3 expression in 30 benign lesions and 56 carcinomas from patients of the Naples Tumor Institute Fondazione Senatore Pascale.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were: analysis of BAG3 protein in NPA cells by Western blot and immunocytochemistry; analysis of apoptosis in TRAIL-stimulated NPA cells by flow cytometry; and evaluation of BAG3 expression in specimens from thyroid lesions by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: BAG3 was expressed in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines; small interfering RNA-mediated downmodulation of its levels significantly (P < 0.0195) enhanced NPA cell apoptotic response to TRAIL.
  • The protein was not detectable in 19 of 20 specimens of normal thyroid or goiters, whereas 54 of 56 analyzed carcinomas (15 follicular, 28 papillary, and 13 anaplastic) were clearly positive for BAG3 expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BAG3 downmodulates the apoptotic response to TRAIL in human neoplastic thyroid cells.
  • The protein is specifically expressed in thyroid carcinomas and not in normal thyroid tissue or goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism. Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / physiology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma / metabolism. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17164298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BAG3 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
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98. Marley MS, Givens MD, Galik PK, Riddell KP, Stringfellow DA: Amplification of bovine viral diarrhoea virus introduced into an in vitro embryo production system via oocytes from persistently infected cattle. Reprod Domest Anim; 2009 Jun;44(3):532-5
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  • [Title] Amplification of bovine viral diarrhoea virus introduced into an in vitro embryo production system via oocytes from persistently infected cattle.
  • 1) oocytes and uterine tubal cells (UTC) free of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (negative control), 2)oocytes free of BVDV fertilized and cultured in media containing UTC obtained from PI heifers, and 3) oocytes from PI heifers fertilized and cultured in media containing UTC free of BVDV.
  • The developmental media, UTC and embryos (individual or groups of five) were assayed for virus.Virus was not isolated from any samples in treatment group 1.As shown in previous studies, a proportion of embryo samples were positive for BVDV in treatment group 2.

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  • (PMID = 19655440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-0531
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Domest. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media
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99. Cariou JL: [Composite tissues allotransplantation (CTA). Conclusions]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2007 Oct;52(5):551-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Allotransplantation de tissus composites (ATC). Conclusions.

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  • (PMID = 17766025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0294-1260
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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100. Uchida N, Chong MY, Tan CH, Nagai H, Tanaka M, Lee MS, Fujii S, Yang SY, Si T, Sim K, Wei H, Ling HY, Nishimura R, Kawaguchi Y, Edwards G, Sartorius N, Shinfuku N: International study on antidepressant prescription pattern at 20 teaching hospitals and major psychiatric institutions in East Asia: Analysis of 1898 cases from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci; 2007 Oct;61(5):522-8
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  • Out of 56 antidepressants listed in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) index by the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics Methodology (Oslo), only 26 antidepressants were prescribed in participating countries in East Asia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use. Cross-Cultural Comparison. Depressive Disorder / drug therapy. Drug Prescriptions / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, Psychiatric / statistics & numerical data. Hospitals, Teaching / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation / therapeutic use. China. Cross-Sectional Studies. Drug Utilization / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Japan. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Singapore. Taiwan. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17875031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1323-1316
  • [Journal-full-title] Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation; 0 / Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
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