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1. Nakamura M, Shimada K, Ishida E, Higuchi T, Nakase H, Sakaki T, Konishi N: Molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytic tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):113-23
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of pediatric astrocytic tumors.
  • Astrocytomas are the most common pediatric brain tumors, accounting for 7%-8% of all childhood cancers.
  • Relatively few studies have been performed on their molecular properties; therefore, classification of pediatric astrocytic tumors into genetic subtypes similar to that of adult tumors remains to be defined.
  • Here, we report an extensive characterization of 44 pediatric astrocytomas--16 diffuse astrocytomas (WHO grade II), 10 anaplastic astrocytomas (WHO grade III), and 18 glioblastomas (WHO grade IV)--in terms of genetic alterations frequently observed in adult astrocytomas.
  • Some form of p53 mutation was found in three diffuse astrocytomas, in three anaplastic astrocytomas, and in six glioblastomas examined; PTEN mutations were detected only in two glioblastomas.
  • EGFR amplification was detected in only one anaplastic astrocytoma and two glioblastomas, but no amplification was observed for the PDGFR-alpha gene.
  • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 1p/19q and 10p/10q was less common in pediatric astrocytic tumors than in those seen in adults, but the frequency of LOH on 22q was comparable, occurring in 44% of diffuse astrocytomas, 40% of anaplastic astrocytomas, and 61% of glioblastomas.
  • Our results suggest some differences in children compared to adults in the genetic pathways leading to the formation of de novo astrocytic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17327574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871665
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2. Ahmed N, Bhurgri Y, Sadiq S, Shakoor KA: Pediatric brain tumours at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):399-404
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  • [Title] Pediatric brain tumours at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiology of brain tumors during infancy and childhood and to define and segregate childhood brain tumors vis-a-vis their morphological characteristics.
  • The present study includes pediatric brain tumors, ICD-10 category C71 encountered during 10 years (January 1989 through December 1998) at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi.
  • The morphological distribution of cases was astrocytoma (28 cases, 34.6%), primitive neuroectodermal tumor or PNET (40 cases; 49.4%), ependymoma (8 cases, 10%), mixed glioma (4 cases; 5%) and a case of oligodendroglioma.
  • The morphological categorization of supratentorial tumors was astrocytoma (17 cases; 63%), ependymoma (5 cases; 18.5%), mixed glioma (2 cases; 7.4%).
  • The 17 supratentorial astrocytoma were sub-categorized as follows - pilocytic astrocytoma (5 cases; 29.4%), grade II astrocytoma (6 cases; 35.3%); grade III astrocytoma (2 cases; 11.8%), anaplastic astrocytoma (1 case; 5.9%) and glioblastoma multiforme (3 cases; 17.7%).
  • The morphological categorization of infratentorial tumors was astrocytoma (11 cases; 20.4%), medulloblastoma (38 cases; 70.4%), ependymoma (3 cases; 5.6%) and mixed glioma - astroependymoma (2 cases, 3.7%).
  • The morphological sub-categorization of infratentorial astrocytoma was pilocytic astrocytoma (7 cases, 63.6%), with gemistocytic astrocytoma, grade II, grade III and anaplastic astrocytoma comprising 1 (9.1%) case each.
  • The morphological categorization of medulloblastoma was classical medulloblastoma (15 cases; 39.5%), desmoplastic medulloblastoma (8 cases; 21.1%), medulloblastoma with astrocytic differentiation (12 cases; 31.5%), medulloblastoma with neural differentiation (2 cases; 5.3%), and neuroblastic medulloblastoma (1 case; 2.6%).
  • The pediatric brain tumors in Karachi reflect a developing country scenario, with a strong male predisposition and a late presentation with a peak in the 5-9 year age group.
  • Population-based studies are required to determine the cancer burden due to pediatric malignancies of the brain in this population and for the morphological categorization of brain tumors in Karachi.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18159977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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3. Finlay JL, Dhall G, Boyett JM, Dunkel IJ, Gardner SL, Goldman S, Yates AJ, Rosenblum MK, Stanley P, Zimmerman RA, Wallace D, Pollack IF, Packer RJ, Children's Cancer Group: Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Dec;51(6):806-11
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  • [Title] Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow rescue in children and adolescents with recurrent malignant astrocytoma: outcome compared with conventional chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • METHODS: Twenty-seven children and adolescents with malignant astrocytomas [17 glioblastoma multiforme and 10 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)] following initial tumor progression, received myeloablative chemotherapy followed by autologous marrow rescue with one of three thiotepa and etoposide-based chemotherapy regimens, administered alone (n = 11) or combined with carmustine (n = 5) or carboplatin (n = 11).
  • Time to progression and death following myeloablative chemotherapy for these patients was compared non-randomly with outcome of a contemporaneously treated cohort of similar patients who received only conventional chemotherapy following initial tumor progression.
  • Of 56 children with recurrent malignant astrocytoma who received conventional chemotherapy following initial progression, no patient survives.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous marrow rescue can produce durable remissions in children and young adults with recurrent malignant gliomas, in the setting of minimal residual tumor burden achieved surgically.

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  • (PMID = 18802947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA013539-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA013539-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA021765-259003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-259003; None / None / / U10 CA098543-06; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myeloablative Agonists; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS65899; NLM/ PMC2844080
  • [Investigator] Bleyer A; Khayat A; Sather H; Krailo M; Buckley J; Stram D; Sposto R; Hutchinson R; Matthay K; Gaynon P; Geyer JR; Shurin S; Reaman G; Ortega J; Ruymann F; Weiner M; Blatt J; Lukens J; Wolff L; Neglia J; Lange B; Steinherz P; Breitfeld P; O'Brien R; Cohen H; Fryer C; Wells R; Finklestein J; Feig S; Tannous R; Odom L; Gilchrist G; Barnard D; Wiley J; Ettinger L; Hetherington M; Coccia P; Norris D; Nachman J; Raney B; Baker D; Sanders J; Rausen A; Cairo M
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4. Williams G, Fahey FH, Treves ST, Kocak M, Pollack IF, Boyett JM, Kun LE, Poussaint TY: Exploratory evaluation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods of FDG PET quantification in pediatric anaplastic astrocytoma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC). Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2008 Sep;35(9):1651-8
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  • [Title] Exploratory evaluation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods of FDG PET quantification in pediatric anaplastic astrocytoma: a report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC).
  • PURPOSE: The rationale of this study was to investigate the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) methods to analyze (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) uptake in children with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) in a multi-institutional trial, to compare 3D and two-dimensional (2D) methods and explore data associations with progression-free survival (PFS).
  • METHODS: 3D tumor volumes from pretreatment MR images (fluid attenuation inversion recovery and postgadolinium) of children with recurrent AA on a phase I trial of imatinib mesylate were co-registered to FDG positron emission tomography (PET) images.
  • Four metrics were defined: the maximum ratio (maximum pixel value within the 3D tumor volume, normalized), the total ratio (cumulative pixel values within the tumor volume, normalized) and tumor mean ratio (total pixel value divided by volume, normalized).
  • The analyses suggest 3D maximum tumor and mean tumor ratios, whether normalized by gray matter or white matter, were associated with PFS.
  • These methods yield an estimate of metabolically active tumor burden and may add prognostic information after tumor grade is determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Organizations. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / metabolism. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Phantoms, Imaging. Prognosis. Recurrence. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18425516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UM1 CA081457; United States / PHS HHS / / U01 A 81457
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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5. Massimino M, Gandola L, Luksch R, Spreafico F, Riva D, Solero C, Giangaspero F, Locatelli F, Podda M, Bozzi F, Pignoli E, Collini P, Cefalo G, Zecca M, Casanova M, Ferrari A, Terenziani M, Meazza C, Polastri D, Scaramuzza D, Ravagnani F, Fossati-Bellani F: Sequential chemotherapy, high-dose thiotepa, circulating progenitor cell rescue, and radiotherapy for childhood high-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2005 Jan;7(1):41-8
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  • [Title] Sequential chemotherapy, high-dose thiotepa, circulating progenitor cell rescue, and radiotherapy for childhood high-grade glioma.
  • Childhood malignant gliomas are rare, but their clinical behavior is almost as aggressive as in adults, with resistance to therapy, rapid progression, and not uncommonly, dissemination.
  • Histologies were glioblastoma multiforme in 10, anaplastic astrocytoma in nine, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma in two; sites of origin were supratentorial areas in 17, spine in two, and posterior fossa in two.
  • Four of 12 relapsed children had tumor dissemination.
  • Sequential and high-dose chemotherapy can be afforded in front-line therapy of childhood malignant glioma without excessive morbidity and rather encouraging results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy. Thiotepa / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15701281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871624
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6. Hope AJ, Mansur DB, Tu PH, Simpson JR: Metachronous secondary atypical meningioma and anaplastic astrocytoma after postoperative craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Sep;22(9):1201-7
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  • [Title] Metachronous secondary atypical meningioma and anaplastic astrocytoma after postoperative craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant brain tumors have been reported to occur after childhood irradiation more frequently than in the nonirradiated population.
  • DISCUSSION: In this study, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy treated for medulloblastoma with surgery and craniospinal radiotherapy, who developed a meningioma 18 years after initial treatment and subsequently an anaplastic astrocytoma 23 years after primary treatment.
  • The patient is currently alive but with recurrent astrocytoma after a complete remission on temozolomide monotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16570196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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7. Graham C, Tucker C, Creech J, Favours E, Billups CA, Liu T, Fouladi M, Freeman BB 3rd, Stewart CF, Houghton PJ: Evaluation of the antitumor efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide in childhood cancer models in vivo. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 1;12(1):223-34
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the antitumor efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide in childhood cancer models in vivo.
  • Here, we have evaluated depsipeptide, a natural tetrapeptide HDAC inhibitor, against a panel of pediatric solid tumor models in vivo and evaluated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variables with tumor sensitivity.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Depsipeptide was administered at the maximum tolerated dose (4.4 mg/kg administered every 7 days x 3 i.v. repeated q21d for a total of two cycles) to scid mice bearing 39 independently derived childhood tumors (9 brain tumors, 11 kidney cancers, 9 rhabdomyosarcomas, 3 neuroblastomas, and 7 osteosarcomas).
  • RESULTS: Of 39 tumors evaluated, three showed objective tumor regressions [two brain tumors (primitive neuroectodermal tumor and atypical teratoid malignant rhabdoid tumor) and one Wilms' tumor].
  • Depsipeptide inhibited growth of many tumor lines but achieved stable disease (<25% increase in volume during treatment cycle 1) in only two tumor models (anaplastic astrocytoma, two rhabdomyosarcomas, and a Wilms' tumor).
  • In two sensitive tumor lines, IRS56 and BT27 (both wild-type p53) p53 increased in treated tumors being maximal at 8 hours and associated with induction of p21(cip1), whereas p53 was stable in tumors with mutant p53.
  • The relatively low objective response rate [3 of 39 (8%) tumor lines showing greater than or equal to partial response and 4 (10%) stable disease] administered at dose levels that give clinically relevant drug exposures suggests that as a single agent depsipeptide may have limited clinical utility against pediatric solid tumors in a first-line setting.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation / drug effects. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Child. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Histones / drug effects. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16397046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96696
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Depsipeptides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histones; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
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8. Passone E, Pizzolitto S, D'Agostini S, Skrap M, Gardiman MP, Nocerino A, Scarzello G, Perilongo G: Non-anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with neuroradiological evidences of leptomeningeal dissemination. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Jun;22(6):614-8
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  • [Title] Non-anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with neuroradiological evidences of leptomeningeal dissemination.
  • CASE REPORT: A case of a non-anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) presenting with leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) affecting a 9-year-old girl is presented.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case of a non-anaplastic PXA presenting with disseminated disease.
  • Thus, it was thought important to describe this case in order to add further information regarding the spectrum of the presenting clinical features of this rare neoplasm and the phenomenon of LMD of non-malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16369851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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9. Momota H, Narita Y, Miyakita Y, Hosono A, Makimoto A, Shibui S: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia after temozolomide treatment for anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with a germline TP53 mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):577-9
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  • [Title] Acute lymphoblastic leukemia after temozolomide treatment for anaplastic astrocytoma in a child with a germline TP53 mutation.
  • We present a case of a 12-year-old female with a germline TP53 mutation who presented with anaplastic astrocytoma and subsequent acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 13 months after starting treatment with temozolomide (TMZ).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Frontal Lobe. Genes, p53 / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / chemically induced

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011 Mar;56(3):509. Nariata, Yoshitaka [corrected to Narita, Yoshitaka]
  • (PMID = 20658636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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10. Sanders RP, Kocak M, Burger PC, Merchant TE, Gajjar A, Broniscer A: High-grade astrocytoma in very young children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Dec;49(7):888-93
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  • [Title] High-grade astrocytoma in very young children.
  • BACKGROUND: High-grade astrocytomas are rare in young children, but have been reported to have a better prognosis than similar tumors in older patients.
  • PROCEDURE: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics, survival, and long-term sequelae for patients younger than 3 years old with high-grade astrocytoma, treated at a single institution between 1984 and 2005.
  • Histology included anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 9), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 5), and malignant glioma (n = 2).
  • All evaluable survivors (n = 9) had some neurocognitive impairment, with estimated overall cognitive ability ranging from significantly delayed to average; all survivors attending school (n = 5) performed below grade level on achievement testing.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Young children with high-grade astrocytoma have better long-term overall survival than older patients, but recurrence is common, and most children require irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007 Dec;49(7):879-80 [17941062.001]
  • (PMID = 17554787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Ellis JA, Waziri A, Balmaceda C, Canoll P, Bruce JN, Sisti MB: Rapid recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adult patients. J Neurooncol; 2009 Dec;95(3):377-382
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  • [Title] Rapid recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adult patients.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma is a slow-growing, circumscribed glioma that most frequently occurs within the pediatric population.
  • In general, surgical resection for pilocytic astrocytoma is thought to be curative with tumor recurrence or malignant transformation being relatively rare.
  • However, there have been very few studies specifically looking at the prognosis for adult patients diagnosed with pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • To evaluate the frequency of recurrence and malignant transformation of pilocytic astrocytoma in adults, we performed a retrospective analysis of all adult patients who underwent surgical resection for this tumor at our institution over a period of 10 years.
  • A high rate of malignant transformation was observed in the patients that underwent repeat surgery with 75% (3/4) progressing to anaplastic astrocytoma on pathological examination.
  • This study provides further evidence that the clinical course of a subset of adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma will not be benign.
  • The potential for rapid tumor recurrence and malignant transformation necessitates careful post-operative follow-up for adult patients with this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19533024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Okazaki T, Kageji T, Matsuzaki K, Horiguchi H, Hirose T, Watanabe H, Ohnishi T, Nagahiro S: Primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with widespread neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis--a pediatric case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2009 Sep;94(3):431-7
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with widespread neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis--a pediatric case report and review of the literature.
  • We report a 5 year-old boy with primary anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) with whole neuroaxis dissemination at diagnosis who experienced the sudden onset of generalized convulsion.
  • Under a histopathologic diagnosis of anaplastic PXA he underwent adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 12 cycles of carboplatin and vincristine.
  • We report a very rare pediatric case of primary anaplastic PXA with dissemination involving the entire neuroaxis at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / diagnosis


13. Postovsky S, Eran A, Weyl Ben Arush M: Unusual case of leptomeningeal dissemination of a diffuse pontine high-grade astrocytoma in a child. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2008;44(3):208-11
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  • [Title] Unusual case of leptomeningeal dissemination of a diffuse pontine high-grade astrocytoma in a child.
  • Treatment with radiotherapy was suggested, but the parents rejected this plan and took the child to another hospital where partial resection of the tumor was performed.
  • The histological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18334845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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14. Gu J, Zhang C, Chen R, Pan J, Wang Y, Ming M, Gui W, Wang D: Clinical implications and prognostic value of EMMPRIN/CD147 and MMP2 expression in pediatric gliomas. Eur J Pediatr; 2009 Jun;168(6):705-10
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  • [Title] Clinical implications and prognostic value of EMMPRIN/CD147 and MMP2 expression in pediatric gliomas.
  • Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is present on the surface of tumor cells where it stimulates adjacent fibroblasts to produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • We have analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics of EMMPRIN and MMP2 expression in normal brain tissue and pediatric gliomas and evaluated their prognostic value in diagnosing the latter.
  • Immunochemistry analysis revealed EMMPRIN and MMP2 expression in cryo-sections of pediatric gliomas (45 samples) and normal brain tissue (20 samples).
  • Both EMMPRIN and MMP2 were expressed in normal brain and glioma tissues with different levels of malignancy.
  • The intensively positive expression rates of EMMPRIN (22/27) and MMP2 (21/27) in anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma tissues were significantly higher than those in normal brain and low-grade astrocytoma tissues (2/28 and (1/2)8, respectively).
  • The positive expression of EMMPRIN and MMP2 was associated with higher grade gliomas.
  • Based on these results, we conclude that EMMPRIN and MMP2 are expressed differently in normal brain and pediatric gliomas.
  • The detection of their co-expression may facilitate the prediction of pediatric gliomas prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD147 / metabolism. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18795327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1076
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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15. De Sio L, Milano GM, Castellano A, Jenkner A, Fidani P, Dominici C, Donfrancesco A: Temozolomide in resistant or relapsed pediatric solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):30-6
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  • [Title] Temozolomide in resistant or relapsed pediatric solid tumors.
  • PURPOSE: We report the off-label study aimed at investigating the use of temozolomide (TMZ) as single agent in relapsed or resistant pediatric solid tumors.
  • Tumor types were: neuroblastoma (NB; n = 17), medulloblastoma (MB; 8), brain stem glioma (BSG; 8), extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (EOES; 4), Ewing's sarcoma (ES; 4), anaplastic astrocytoma (AA; 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS; 2), ependymoma (EP; 2), cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (cPNET; 2), hepatocarcinoma (HC; 1), and osteosarcoma (OS; 1).
  • Haematological toxicity grade 3-4 (mainly thrombocytopenia) was observed in 21.4% of administered courses, nausea was reported in 3.1% and respiratory distress in 0.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006 Oct 15;47(5):647-8
  • (PMID = 16047361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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16. Antonelli M, Buttarelli FR, Arcella A, Nobusawa S, Donofrio V, Oghaki H, Giangaspero F: Prognostic significance of histological grading, p53 status, YKL-40 expression, and IDH1 mutations in pediatric high-grade gliomas. J Neurooncol; 2010 Sep;99(2):209-15
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of histological grading, p53 status, YKL-40 expression, and IDH1 mutations in pediatric high-grade gliomas.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a series of 43 pediatric high-grade gliomas (21 anaplastic astrocytoma WHO grade III and 22 glioblastoma WHO grade IV), the prognostic value of histological grading and expression of p53 and YKL-40.
  • The prognostic stratification for histological grading showed no difference in overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) between glioblastomas and anaplastic astrocytomas.
  • TP53 mutations were detected in five of 27 (18%) cases (four glioblastomas and one anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • Our results suggest that in pediatric high-grade gliomas: (i) histological grading does not have strong prognostic significance, (ii) YKL-40 overexpression is less frequent than adult high-grade gliomas and does not correlate with a more aggressive behavior, (iii) TP53 mutations but not p53 expression may correlate with a more aggressive behavior, and (iv) IDH1 mutations are absent.
  • These observations support the concept that, despite identical histological features, the biology of high-grade gliomas in children differs from that in adults, and therefore different prognostic factors are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Lectins / metabolism. Mutation / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipokines. Adolescent. Adult. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20174854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipokines; 0 / CHI3L1 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Lectins; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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17. Kaderali Z, Lamberti-Pasculli M, Rutka JT: The changing epidemiology of paediatric brain tumours: a review from the Hospital for Sick Children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jul;25(7):787-93
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  • [Title] The changing epidemiology of paediatric brain tumours: a review from the Hospital for Sick Children.
  • PURPOSE: This study examines the changing epidemiology of paediatric brain tumours over the past three decades (1980-2008) in a single institution, SickKids, Toronto, Canada.
  • METHODS: We classified 1,866 surgical pathology cases of brain tumours in children under the age of 19 according to the World Health Organization 2007 consensus and analysed them by gender, histological tumour type, age distribution and decade.
  • The main histological tumour types were low-grade (I/II) astrocytomas (26.4%), medulloblastoma (10.6%), anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma multiforme (7.1%) and ependymoma (7.0%).
  • Over three decades, an increasing proportion of certain tumour types, including pilocytic astrocytoma, atypical teratoma/rhabdoid tumours and neuronal/mixed neuronal-glial tumours was seen.
  • Any changes in the epidemiology of childhood central nervous system tumours over the past three decades may be attributed in part to changing classification systems, improved imaging technologies and developments in epilepsy surgery; however, continued surveillance remains important.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Canada / epidemiology. Child. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / epidemiology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Teratoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19082611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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18. Pérez-Gómez JL, Rodríguez-Alvarez CA, Marhx-Bracho A, Rueda-Franco F: Stereotactic biopsy for brainstem tumors in pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 Jan;26(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Stereotactic biopsy for brainstem tumors in pediatric patients.
  • The histopathology was anaplastic astrocytoma (30%), followed by fibrillary and pilocytic types (25% each), low-grade astrocytoma (5%), high-grade astrocytoma (5%), and normal tissue (10%).
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Biopsy / methods. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • (PMID = 19784659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Foreman NK, Schissel D, Le T, Strain J, Fleitz J, Quinones R, Giller R: A study of sequential high dose cyclophosphamide and high dose carboplatin with peripheral stem-cell rescue in resistant or recurrent pediatric brain tumors. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):181-7
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  • [Title] A study of sequential high dose cyclophosphamide and high dose carboplatin with peripheral stem-cell rescue in resistant or recurrent pediatric brain tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of carboplatin with autologous hematopoietic stem-cell rescue, in children with poor-prognosis brain tumors.
  • Toxicity and tumor response were recorded.
  • RESULTS: There were two grade IV toxicities at the dose level of 775 mg/m2/day.
  • One child with a metastatic anaplastic astrocytoma had a CR.
  • The median duration of tumor response was 10 months (range: 1.5-87 months) with two children disease free at 66 and 87 months.
  • Sequential stem-cell supported cyclophosphamide and carboplatin was tolerable in children with brain tumors and produced responses in PNETs and Germinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 15690136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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20. Kieran MW, Packer RJ, Onar A, Blaney SM, Phillips P, Pollack IF, Geyer JR, Gururangan S, Banerjee A, Goldman S, Turner CD, Belasco JB, Broniscer A, Zhu Y, Frank E, Kirschmeier P, Statkevich P, Yver A, Boyett JM, Kun LE: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 20;25(21):3137-43
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib administered twice daily to pediatric patients with advanced central nervous system tumors using a modified continuous reassessment method: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium Study.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three children with progressive or recurrent brain tumors were enrolled, with a median age of 12.2 years (range, 3.9 to 19.5 years).
  • Both radiographic response (one anaplastic astrocytoma) and stable disease (one medulloblastoma, two high-grade and four low-grade gliomas, one ependymoma, and one sarcoma) were noted, and seven patients remained on treatment for 1 year or longer.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Farnesyltranstransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Piperidines / pharmacokinetics. Pyridines / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17634493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA81457
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 193275-84-2 / lonafarnib; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase
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21. Kwon JW, Kim IO, Cheon JE, Kim WS, Moon SG, Kim TJ, Chi JG, Wang KC, Chung JK, Yeon KM: Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation. Pediatr Radiol; 2006 Sep;36(9):959-64

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  • [Title] Paediatric brain-stem gliomas: MRI, FDG-PET and histological grading correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: MRI and FDG-PET may predict the histological grading of paediatric brain-stem gliomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess MRI findings and metabolic imaging using FDG-PET of brain-stem gliomas based on histological grading.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in the study were 20 paediatric patients (age 3-14 years, mean 8.2 years) with brain-stem glioma (five glioblastomas, ten anaplastic astrocytomas and five low-grade astrocytomas).
  • Eight anaplastic astrocytomas were located in the pons and demonstrated diffuse pontine enlargement without exophytic features.
  • Low-grade astrocytomas were located in the pons, midbrain or medulla and showed focally exophytic growth features and peripheral enhancement.
  • In 12 patients in whom FDG-PET was undertaken, glioblastomas showed hypermetabolic or hypometabolic lesions, anaplastic astrocytomas showed no metabolic change or hypometabolic lesions and low-grade astrocytomas showed hypometabolism compared with the cerebellum.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI findings correlated well with histological grading of brain-stem gliomas and MRI may therefore predict the histological grading.
  • FDG-PET may be helpful in differentiating between anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastomas among high-grade tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16847598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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22. Carstensen H, Juhler M, Bøgeskov L, Laursen H: A report of nine newborns with congenital brain tumours. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Nov;22(11):1427-31
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  • [Title] A report of nine newborns with congenital brain tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Although rare, brain tumours represent one of the relatively larger groups of congenital neoplasias.
  • Few studies are dedicated to congenital brain tumours.
  • We present nine newborns (four boys and five girls) who were diagnosed with congenital brain tumours during the 8-year period 1 January 1992-31 December 1999 at our institution, which covers all paediatric neuro-oncology cases for Eastern Denmark.
  • The seven remaining congenital cases thus represent 4% of all paediatric brain tumour cases in the area (95% confidence interval 1.7-8.3%).
  • The population of the referral area is 2.383x10(6), and based on the total number of living births, the incidence of congenital brain tumour was calculated to be 2.9 per 100,000 live births.
  • CLINICAL FEATURES: In five of the cases, brain abnormality was suspected antenatally.
  • The histological diagnoses were teratoma in four cases, GBM in two cases, anaplastic astrocytoma in two cases and, finally, haemangioma capillare in one case.
  • OUTCOME: Four of the patients (44%) are still alive, including two patients with totally resected combined orbital/intracranial teratomas, one patient with a totally resected haemangioma and one patient with anaplastic astrocytoma who did not receive any treatment apart from supportive care.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / congenital. Brain Neoplasms / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] Childs Nerv Syst. 2006 Nov;22(11):1433 [16804714.001]
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  • (PMID = 16804715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Wagner S, Csatary CM, Gosztonyi G, Koch HC, Hartmann C, Peters O, Hernáiz-Driever P, Théallier-Janko A, Zintl F, Längler A, Wolff JE, Csatary LK: Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid. APMIS; 2006 Oct;114(10):731-43
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  • [Title] Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid.
  • The case of a 12-year-old boy with anaplastic astrocytoma of the left thalamus is reported.
  • Postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy could not repress tumor progression; therefore, treatment was undertaken with an oncolytic virus, MTH-68/H, an attenuated strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, which also has antineoplastic properties.
  • This treatment resulted in a far-reaching regression of the thalamic glioma, but 4 months later a new tumor manifestation, an extension of the thalamic tumor, appeared in the wall of the IVth ventricle, which required a second neurosurgical intervention.
  • Under continuous MTH-68/H - VPA administration the thalamic tumor remained under control, but the rhombencephalic one progressed relentlessly and led to the fatal outcome.
  • In the final stage, a third tumor manifestation appeared in the left temporal lobe.
  • The comparative histological study of the thalamic and rhombencephalic tumor manifestations revealed that MTH-68/H treatment induces, similar to in vitro observations, a massive apoptotic tumor cell decline.
  • In the rhombencephalic tumor, in and around the declining tumor cells, NDV antigen could be demonstrated immunohistochemically, and virus particles have been found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells at electron microscopic investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use. Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antigens, Viral / analysis. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Brain / virology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / virology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Newcastle disease virus / immunology. Recurrence. Thalamus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Newcastle disease virus vaccine MTH-68-H; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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24. Larysz D, Blamek S, Larysz P, Pietras K, Mandera M: Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2010;106:271-4
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  • [Title] Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children.
  • The aim of the study was the functional neurodevelopmental assessment of children with posterior fossa tumors, specifically examining whether tumor location in particular cerebellar structures determines particular neuropsychological deficits.
  • The examined group consisted of 34 children treated between 1999 and 2007 at the Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery Silesian University Medical School in Katowice, Poland.
  • There were 21 total and 8 subtotal resections of tumor, and marsupialization was performed in cases of arachnoid cysts.
  • Histopathological diagnoses of tumors were as follows: 4 medulloblastomas, 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 6 fibrillary astrocytomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 1 choroid plexus papilloma, and 5 arachnoid cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain. Brain Injuries / etiology. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Infratentorial Neoplasms. Nervous System Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19812963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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25. Miyata S, Gomi A, Yamaguchi T, Tanaka Y, Watanabe E, Tanaka A: Case of unclassified, radiosensitive, malignant neuroepithelial tumor in the temporal lobe of a child. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Apr;27(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Case of unclassified, radiosensitive, malignant neuroepithelial tumor in the temporal lobe of a child.
  • A case of unclassified, pediatric cerebral neuroepithelial tumor in a 10-year-old girl that showed remarkable radiosensitivity is reported.
  • MRI revealed a brain tumor of mixed intensity with heterogeneous enhancement in the medial temporal lobe, extending to the basal ganglia.
  • The tumor was partially removed.
  • On pathology, the main part of the tumor showed immature features: the tumor cells had a chromatin-rich large nucleus and less cytoplasm, and mitoses and fragmentation of the nuclei were frequent.
  • On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin and positive for Olig2.
  • The part invading into the surrounding brain showed similarities in form to a highly anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The infiltrating tumor cells were positive for GFAP and less positive for Olig2.
  • After 40 Gy radiation, the residual tumor was markedly reduced.
  • Neuroepithelial tumors rarely show such high radiosensitivity, and the reason for the radiosensitivity in the present case may have been the immaturity of the tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / therapy. Radiation Tolerance. Temporal Lobe
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Neoplasm, Residual. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Synaptophysin / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20425048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / OLIG2 protein, human; 0 / Synaptophysin
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26. Tamiya T, Takao S, Ichikawa T, Chayama K, Date I: Successful chemotherapy for congenital malignant gliomas: a report of two cases. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(4):240-4
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  • A T(1)-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance image showed a large tumor in his right frontal lobe.
  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was malignant ganglioglioma.
  • The child then underwent 6 cycles of chemotherapy (mainly carboplatin and etoposide), and the residual tumor shrank.
  • The tumor was then partially resected during a second operation, after which the patient underwent 5 cycles of chemotherapy (a combination of carboplatin, etoposide, vincristine, ifosfamide, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide).
  • The tumor has not recurred in more than 8.5 years.
  • The T(1)-weighted gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance image showed a large suprasellar tumor.
  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The patient underwent 8 cycles of chemotherapy (MCNU, carboplatin and etoposide) and the tumor has not recurred in more than 7.5 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ganglioglioma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16714866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; RYH2T97J77 / ranimustine
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27. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Lavally B, Scott RM, Bishop K, Xu R, Young Poussaint T, Kieran M, Kooy H, Pomeroy SL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):374-9
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for small, localized, pediatric brain tumors and to determine the patterns of failure.
  • Of the 81 patients, 50 had low-grade astrocytoma, 23 had residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, 4 had posterior fossa ependymoma, and 4 had other histologic types.
  • All patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis, with the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis and radiographic evidence of an optic system tumor.
  • This report focused on the patients with low-grade gliomas only.
  • The indications for treatment of patients with low-grade gliomas were progression during or after chemotherapy or progression after surgery alone.
  • The target volume generally included the preoperative tumor plus a 2-mm margin for the planning target volume.
  • Two of the patients with local progression had pathologic progression to anaplastic astrocytoma 3 and 7 years after initial SRT.
  • One patient developed a presumed radiation-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumor 6 years after initial treatment.
  • Six patients died, three of dissemination, two of progression to higher grade tumors, and one of a secondary radiation-induced tumor.
  • All 6 cases of local progression were within the primary tumor bed at the time of progression and had received the full prescription dose.
  • CONCLUSION: Stereotactic radiotherapy provides excellent local control for children with small, localized low-grade glial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Confidence Intervals. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15667955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Fernandez C, Maues de Paula A, Colin C, Quilichini B, Bouvier-Labit C, Girard N, Scavarda D, Lena G, Figarella-Branger D: Thalamic gliomas in children: an extensive clinical, neuroradiological and pathological study of 14 cases. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Dec;22(12):1603-10
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  • OBJECT: Thalamic tumors represent only 1 to 5% of brain neoplasms but frequently affect children.
  • However, pediatric series are rare and go back to several years in spite of recent advances in the neuroradiological, pathological, and molecular fields.
  • METHODS: We report a series of 14 pediatric thalamic gliomas with clinical, neuroradiological, and pathological studies including p53 immunostaining in 11 cases and 1p19q status in three cases.
  • Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and glioblastomas displayed a poor outcome, with a mean survival of 8 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Our series of pediatric thalamic gliomas clearly distinguishes pilocytic astrocytomas from anaplastic oligodendrogliomas regarding neuroimaging, pathology, and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / diagnostic imaging. Glioma / pathology. Thalamus / diagnostic imaging. Thalamus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / diagnostic imaging. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnostic imaging. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / therapy. Humans. Male. Oligodendroglioma / diagnostic imaging. Oligodendroglioma / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / therapy. Prognosis. Radiography. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16951965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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29. Hsu TR, Wong TT, Chang FC, Ho DM, Tang RB, Thien PF, Chang KP: Responsiveness of progressive optic pathway tumors to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Dec;24(12):1457-61
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  • BACKGROUND: Though the pathology of optic pathway tumor is mostly pilocytic astrocytoma, the benign tumor behaves like malignant tumor because total resection is not feasible.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy might be a reasonable strategy for management of these low grade tumors which keep growing.
  • We evaluate the responsiveness of optic pathway tumor to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Brain MRI was performed every 3 months to evaluate the objective response to chemotherapy.
  • The pathology showed pilocytic astrocytomas in 11 patients, astrocytoma in one patient, and anaplastic astrocytomas in two patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18769928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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30. Rosenfeld A, Listernick R, Charrow J, Goldman S: Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system. Childs Nerv Syst; 2010 May;26(5):663-7
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  • [Title] Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system.
  • Although the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor is a low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway, there have been sporadic reports of NF1 patients with more aggressive CNS lesions.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with NF1 and any CNS tumor being followed in the Children's Memorial Hospital NF1 Clinic.
  • Five patients (3%) were identified as having high-grade tumors, which consisted of anaplastic medulloblastoma (n = 1) and high-grade glioma (n = 4).
  • Three of the five patients had a history of an OPT prior to the development of their high-grade lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: High-grade CNS tumors may occur in children with NF1.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications

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  • (PMID = 19937438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Pollack IF, Hamilton RL, Sobol RW, Burnham J, Yates AJ, Holmes EJ, Zhou T, Finlay JL: O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression strongly correlates with outcome in childhood malignant gliomas: results from the CCG-945 Cohort. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jul 20;24(21):3431-7
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  • [Title] O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression strongly correlates with outcome in childhood malignant gliomas: results from the CCG-945 Cohort.
  • PURPOSE: O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) functions to counteract the cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents, such as nitrosoureas, which play a central role in the treatment of childhood malignant gliomas.
  • Epigenetic silencing of MGMT has been associated with prolonged survival in adults with malignant gliomas, although the association between MGMT expression status and outcome in pediatric malignant gliomas has not been defined.
  • METHODS: We examined the association between MGMT expression and survival duration using tumor samples from the Children's Cancer Group 945 study, the largest randomized trial for childhood malignant gliomas completed to date.
  • RESULTS: Twelve of the 109 samples demonstrated overexpression of MGMT compared with normal brain.
  • The association between MGMT overexpression and adverse outcome remained significant after stratifying for institutional histologic diagnosis (eg, anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme), as well as age, amount of residual tumor, and tumor location.
  • CONCLUSION: Overexpression of MGMT in childhood malignant gliomas is strongly associated with an adverse outcome in children treated with alkylator-based chemotherapy, independently of a variety of clinical prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / enzymology. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16849758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13539; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
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32. Bien E, Stachowicz-Stencel T, Szalewska M, Krawczyk M, Synakiewicz A, Dubaniewicz-Wybieralska M, Zielinski P, Adamkiewicz-Drozynska E, Balcerska A: Poor-risk high-grade gliomas in three survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia--an overview of causative factors and possible therapeutic options. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 May;25(5):619-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Poor-risk high-grade gliomas in three survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia--an overview of causative factors and possible therapeutic options.
  • PURPOSE: Malignant high-grade gliomas are the most common secondary neoplasms in children cured of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • Although many predisposing factors exist (including systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy, young age, brain infiltration and genetic predispositions), cranial irradiation appears to be the strongest one.
  • METHODS: Three cases of secondary high-grade gliomas (two multiform glioblastomas, grade IV; one anaplastic astrocytoma, grade III) developed in ALL survivors (F-M, 1:2) 3 to 6.3 years after stopping ALL therapy according to BFM-90 trial.

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  • [CommentIn] Childs Nerv Syst. 2009 Jul;25(7):779; author reply 781-2 [19452153.001]
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  • (PMID = 19301014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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33. Rao AA, Laack NN, Giannini C, Wetmore C: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in children and adolescents. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Aug;55(2):290-4
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  • BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare astrocytic tumor occurring primarily in children and young adults.
  • The superficial location of the tumor facilitates gross total resection (GTR) thus conferring a relatively favorable outcome with a reported 10-year overall survival (OS) of 70%.
  • Two of three patients with anaplastic features or malignant transformation at initial presentation progressed.
  • Anaplastic features, though uncommon at initial presentation, confer a less favorable outcome.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy with primary and recurrent anaplastic PXAs, especially when complete resection is not feasible, warrants further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain Neoplasms. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20582976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Giller CA, Berger BD, Pistenmaa DA, Sklar F, Weprin B, Shapiro K, Winick N, Mulne AF, Delp JL, Gilio JP, Gall KP, Dicke KA, Swift D, Sacco D, Harris-Henderson K, Bowers D: Robotically guided radiosurgery for children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):304-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Potential advantages for the pediatric population include the avoidance of the cognitive decline associated with whole brain radiotherapy, the ability to treat young children with thin skulls unsuitable for frame-based methods, and the possible avoidance of general anesthesia.
  • Three had pilocytic astrocytomas, two had anaplastic astrocytomas, three had ependymomas (two anaplastic), four had medulloblastomas, three had atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, three had craniopharyngiomas, and three had other pathologies.
  • RESULTS: Local control was achieved in the patients with pilocytic and anaplastic astrocytoma, three of the patients with medulloblastoma, and the three with craniopharyngioma, but not for those with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Robotics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15558704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Jha P, Agarwal S, Pathak P, Srivastava A, Suri V, Sharma MC, Chosdol K, Srivastava T, Gupta D, Gupta A, Suri A, Sarkar C: Heterozygosity status of 1p and 19q and its correlation with p53 protein expression and EGFR amplification in patients with astrocytic tumors: novel series from India. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Apr 15;198(2):126-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Heterozygosity status of 1p and 19q and its correlation with p53 protein expression and EGFR amplification in patients with astrocytic tumors: novel series from India.
  • There are few reports of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 1p and 19q in astrocytic tumors, especially glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • We evaluated 1p and 19q (either or both) heterozygosity status in 71 astrocytomas, including 6 pediatric cases: 20 diffuse astrocytomas (DA), 9 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 42 GBM.
  • Pediatric GBMs also harbored isolated 1p and 19q LOH (50%).
  • Thus, 1p and 19q LOH can occur in astrocytic tumors, most commonly in secondary GBMs without morphological correlation with an oligodendroglial histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-1. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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36. Korones DN, Smith A, Foreman N, Bouffet E: Temozolomide and oral VP-16 for children and young adults with recurrent or treatment-induced malignant gliomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):37-41
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DACARBAZINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Diagnoses included recurrent brain stem glioma (2), recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma (2), and glioblastoma (7) (3 treatment-induced, 2 malignant transformations of lower grade tumors, 1 recurrence, and 1 second tumor arising 10 months after diagnosis of medulloblastoma).
  • There was one grade 4 neutropenia, but no other grade 3 or 4 toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16047359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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