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1. Matsuzaki K, Uno M, Kageji T, Hirose T, Nagahiro S: Anaplastic ganglioglioma of the cerebellopontine angle. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Nov;45(11):591-5
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma of the cerebellopontine angle. Case report.
  • A 64-year-old woman presented with a rare anaplastic ganglioglioma in the right cerebellopontine angle manifesting as dizziness persisting for 2 weeks.
  • The tumor was thought to originate from the brain stem with exophytic growth into the right cerebellopontine angle.
  • Histological examination showed neoplastic ganglional and glial cells with anaplastic features such as mitosis, pleomorphism, and endothelial proliferation.
  • The diagnosis was anaplastic ganglioglioma (World Health Organization grade IV).
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16308520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Kawataki T, Sato E, Sato T, Kinouchi H: Anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant features in both neuronal and glial components--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(3):228-31
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant features in both neuronal and glial components--case report.
  • A 34-year-old man presented with a case of anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant features in both neuronal and glial components manifesting as seizure episodes over 11 months.
  • The histological diagnosis was anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • This rare case of anaplastic ganglioglioma with both neuronal and glial components, which were extremely positive for nestin, showed progressive worsening of the clinical course.
  • The expression of nestin may suggest that the origin or malignant transformation in anaplastic gangliogliomas is related to the undifferentiated neural stem cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20339274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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3. Kang DH, Lee CH, Hwang SH, Park IS, Han JW, Jung JM: Anaplastic ganglioglioma in a middle-aged woman: a case report with a review of the literature. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Sep;22 Suppl:S139-44
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma in a middle-aged woman: a case report with a review of the literature.
  • We report a case of anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical studies showed an anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • Gangliogliomas of the central nervous system are rather uncommon tumors, and anaplastic ones are extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17923741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 24
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694381
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4. Karremann M, Pietsch T, Janssen G, Kramm CM, Wolff JE: Anaplastic ganglioglioma in children. J Neurooncol; 2009 Apr;92(2):157-63
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma in children.
  • PURPOSE: Anaplastic gangliogliomas (AGG) are gangliogliomas with areas of pronounced hypercellularity, vascular proliferation, necrosis, and many mitotic figures.
  • Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of AGG proven by a central neuropathological review and patient age 0 to 17 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology


5. Majores M, von Lehe M, Fassunke J, Schramm J, Becker AJ, Simon M: Tumor recurrence and malignant progression of gangliogliomas. Cancer; 2008 Dec 15;113(12):3355-63
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  • METHODS: The authors analyzed their experience with 4 recurrent/progressive GGs (World Health Organization [WHO] grade I), 21 tumors with atypical features (WHO grade II), and 5 tumors with anaplastic histologic features (WHO grade III).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18988291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Talos IF, Zou KH, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA: Volumetric assessment of tumor infiltration of adjacent white matter based on anatomic MRI and diffusion tensor tractography. Acad Radiol; 2007 Apr;14(4):431-6
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  • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To perform a retrospective, quantitative assessment of the anatomic relationship between intra-axial, supratentorial, primary brain tumors, and adjacent white matter fiber tracts based on anatomic and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • RESULTS: There were five patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma (WHO Grade II), one with low-grade mixed oligoastrocytoma (WHO Grade II), one with ganglioglioma, two with low-grade astrocytoma (WHO Grade II), and three with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III).
  • Our results confirm previous reports that extensive white matter infiltration by primary brain tumors is a common occurrence.

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  • (PMID = 17368212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-098542; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM074068; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703-03S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / P41 EB015898; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / R01 LM007861; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR019703-03S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-108434; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-098542; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA067165; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-108434
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS21072; NLM/ PMC2397554
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7. Perry A, Burton SS, Fuller GN, Robinson CA, Palmer CA, Resch L, Bigio EH, Gujrati M, Rosenblum MK: Oligodendroglial neoplasms with ganglioglioma-like maturation: a diagnostic pitfall. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Aug;120(2):237-52
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  • [Title] Oligodendroglial neoplasms with ganglioglioma-like maturation: a diagnostic pitfall.
  • Nevertheless, ganglioglioma-like foci (GGLF) have not been previously described.
  • Herein, we report seven examples where the primary differential diagnosis was a ganglioglioma with an oligodendroglial component.
  • At presentation, the glial component was oligodendroglioma in six and oligoastrocytoma in one; one was low-grade and six were anaplastic.
  • In contrast to classic ganglioglioma, however, cases lacked eosinophilic granular bodies and CD34-positive tumor cells.
  • Recognition of this pattern will prevent a misdiagnosis of ganglioglioma with its potential for under-treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20464403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2892612
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8. Schittenhelm J, Reifenberger G, Ritz R, Nägele T, Weller M, Pantazis G, Capper D, Beschorner R, Meyermann R, Mittelbronn M: Primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with a small-cell glioblastoma component. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 Mar-Apr;27(2):91-5
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with a small-cell glioblastoma component.
  • Very rarely, gangliogliomas show histological features of malignancy and are then classified as anaplastic gangliogliomas of WHO Grade III or IV.
  • In most cases, anaplastic gangliogliomas developed after radiation therapy or progression from a pre-existing low-grade ganglioglioma.
  • Here, we report the case of a 77-year-old male patient who was operated on a primary ganglioglioma with a highly anaplastic glial component corresponding to a small-cell glioblastoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with a small-cell glioblastoma component.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


9. Tarnaris A, O'Brien C, Redfern RM: Ganglioglioma with anaplastic recurrence of the neuronal element following radiotherapy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;108(8):761-7
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  • [Title] Ganglioglioma with anaplastic recurrence of the neuronal element following radiotherapy.
  • Although malignant transformation is rare, and this mostly occurs in the glial element, we present a case of malignant neuroblastomatous transformation of a ganglioglioma.
  • This is only the second ever case to our knowledge in the literature reporting the participation of the neuronal element in the malignant transformation of a ganglioglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / radiation effects. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Ganglioglioma / radiotherapy. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Occipital Lobe / radiation effects. Occipital Lobe / surgery


10. Naydenov E, Tzekov C, Minkin K, Nachev S, Marinov M: [Malignant progression of an anaplastic ganglioglioma into a glioblastoma multiforme--report on two cases and review of the literature]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2009;(2-3):69-74
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  • [Title] [Malignant progression of an anaplastic ganglioglioma into a glioblastoma multiforme--report on two cases and review of the literature].
  • INTRODUCTION: Ganglioglioma is an uncommon type of primary brain tumors.
  • We present two cases ofhistologically confirmed anaplastic ganglioglioma in which malignant progression into a glioblastoma multiforme was seen.
  • The tumor was excised partially and the histological result was anaplastic ganglioglioma (World Health Organization - WHO. gr. III).
  • The patient died after one month, 23 months after her initial diagnosis.
  • The histological result was anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO gr. ILL).
  • 20 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology


11. Liauw SL, Byer JE, Yachnis AT, Amdur RJ, Mendenhall WM: Radiotherapy after subtotally resected or recurrent ganglioglioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jan 1;67(1):244-7
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy after subtotally resected or recurrent ganglioglioma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eight consecutive patients with low-grade gangliogliomas (n = 7) or anaplastic gangliogliomas (n = 1) were treated with RT between 1987 and 2004.
  • The patient with an anaplastic ganglioglioma was treated with adjuvant RT, and had recurrence in the radiation field after 4 months, then died 1 month later.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ganglioglioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17045420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Kikuchi T, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma. Neurol Res; 2009 Dec;31(10):1102-7
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  • [Title] Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values was evaluated for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • The minADC of ganglioglioma was compared with that of low- or high-grade astrocytomas (astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma).
  • Tumor cellularity of ganglioglioma was inversely correlated with the minADC value.
  • DISCUSSION: The minADC value reflects in the low tumor cellularity of gangliogliomas and may provide a method for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19138470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Samdani AF, Torre-Healy A, Khalessi A, McGirt M, Jallo GI, Carson B: Intraventricular ganglioglioma: a short illustrated review. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):635-40
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  • [Title] Intraventricular ganglioglioma: a short illustrated review.
  • The following review of the literature describes the ganglioglioma, an uncommon mixed glioneuronal neoplasm, most often of low-grade histology, with a small, albeit well-documented, malignant potential.
  • Despite their indolent course, the importance of gross total resection is well recognized to prevent anaplastic and malignant degeneration.
  • An exceedingly rare location of the ganglioglioma is within the lateral ventricle.
  • A systematic literature search revealed only eight reports documenting the occurrence of a ganglioglioma within the lateral ventricle.
  • We describe an illustrative case of an intraventricular ganglioglioma with a prominent cystic component and enhancing mural nodule, which represents the classic radiographic appearance of gangliogliomas described in other locations.
  • Regardless of location within the central nervous system, ganglioglioma should be on the differential diagnosis for any cystic mass with a mural nodule, particularly in the setting of epilepsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Central Nervous System Cysts / pathology. Central Nervous System Cysts / radiography. Central Nervous System Cysts / surgery. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Dizziness / etiology. Epilepsy / etiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19290468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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14. Mittelbronn M, Schittenhelm J, Lemke D, Ritz R, Nägele T, Weller M, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Low grade ganglioglioma rapidly progressing to a WHO grade IV tumor showing malignant transformation in both astroglial and neuronal cell components. Neuropathology; 2007 Oct;27(5):463-7
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  • [Title] Low grade ganglioglioma rapidly progressing to a WHO grade IV tumor showing malignant transformation in both astroglial and neuronal cell components.
  • Herein, we present the case of a now 47-year-old female patient presenting with a benign ganglioglioma and showing a tumor recurrence 2 years later with an anaplastic ganglioglioma, assigned to WHO grade IV, with malignant transformation in both glial and neuronal components.
  • The presented case is the first reported low-grade ganglioglioma rapidly progressing to a WHO grade IV glio-neuronal tumor not being associated with radiotherapy and showing malignant transformation in both astroglial and neuronal tumor cell components.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Neurons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Daou MC, Smith TW, Litofsky NS, Hsieh CC, Ross AH: Doublecortin is preferentially expressed in invasive human brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Nov;110(5):472-80
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  • [Title] Doublecortin is preferentially expressed in invasive human brain tumors.
  • These facts led us to hypothesize that DCX is increased in invasive brain tumors.
  • DCX expression was assessed in 69 paraffin-embedded brain tumors of neuroepithelial origin.
  • In addition, mouse brain sections of the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus were used as positive controls for immunostaining, and specificity of antibody staining was demonstrated by peptide neutralization.
  • DCX was highly expressed in both high-grade invasive tumors (glioblastoma, n=11; anaplastic astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=7; and medulloblastoma/PNET, n=6) and low-grade invasive tumors (oligodendroglioma, n=3; and astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=5).
  • However, DCX was less intensely expressed in the circumscribed group of tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, n=6; ependymoma/subependymoma, n=7; dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, n=4; ganglioglioma, n=2; meningioma, n=9; and schwannoma, n=9).
  • We conclude that DCX is preferentially expressed in invasive brain tumors.
  • Collectively, the immunohistochemistry, Western blots and Northern blots conclusively demonstrate expression of DCX by human brain tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16195916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021716; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA107372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-10737; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-21716
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / doublecortin protein
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16. Phi JH, Chung CK: Brain tumors in the mesial temporal lobe: long-term oncological outcome. Neurosurg Focus; 2009 Aug;27(2):E5
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  • [Title] Brain tumors in the mesial temporal lobe: long-term oncological outcome.
  • OBJECT: Surgical treatment of brain tumors in the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is a highly demanding procedure.
  • All tumors were low-grade lesions except for 1 anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Temporal Lobe / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Epilepsy / etiology. Epilepsy / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Functional Laterality. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models

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  • (PMID = 19645561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Tzika AA, Astrakas L, Cao H, Mintzopoulos D, Andronesi OC, Mindrinos M, Zhang J, Rahme LG, Blekas KD, Likas AC, Galatsanos NP, Carroll RS, Black PM: Combination of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale genomics to type brain tumor biopsies. Int J Mol Med; 2007 Aug;20(2):199-208
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  • [Title] Combination of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale genomics to type brain tumor biopsies.
  • Advancements in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumor patients, and thus in their survival and quality of life, can be achieved using biomarkers that facilitate improved tumor typing.
  • We introduce and implement a combinatorial metabolic and molecular approach that applies state-of-the-art, high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton (1H) MRS and gene transcriptome profiling to intact brain tumor biopsies, to identify unique biomarker profiles of brain tumors.
  • The data also suggest Sonic Hedgehog pathway (SHH) dysregulation may play a role in anaplastic ganglioglioma pathogenesis.
  • Our combined metabolic/molecular MRS/genomic approach provides insights into the biology of anaplastic ganglioglioma and a new potential tumor typing methodology that could aid neurologists and neurosurgeons to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing evaluation of brain tumor patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Genomics / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 17611638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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18. Chrétien F, Djindjian M, Caramelle P, Ricolfi F, Christov C: A 42-year-old man with a densely vascular spinal mass. Brain Pathol; 2007 Jan;17(1):119-21
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  • The preoperative diagnosis was spinal hemangioblastoma.
  • The neuronal subpopulation was quite polymorphous and consisted of large anaplastic neurons including binucleate forms and smaller immature looking cells.
  • Because of necrosis and marked proliferative activity, the tumor was considered a de novo malignant ganglioglioma (GG).
  • In conformity with the diagnosis of malignancy, the tumor gave rise to extensive cerebrospinal deposits in the intracranial and spinal compartments 12 months post-diagnosis.
  • The diagnosis of spinal GGs should rely on both histologic hallmarks and unequivocal immunopositivity for several neuronal markers because of reported aberrant expression of synaptophysin by non-neoplastic spinal neurons.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17493047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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19. Adam C, Polivka M, Carpentier A, George B, Gray F: Papillary glioneuronal tumor: not always a benign tumor? Clin Neuropathol; 2007 May-Jun;26(3):119-24
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  • Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) is a variant of ganglioglioma, characterized by a pseudopapillary structure with a single pseudostratified layer of small, cuboidal, GFAP-positive cells around hyalinized blood vessels.
  • Our cases indicate that PGNT type of ganglioglioma can have a spectrum of anaplastic changes of higher grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19157003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Tamiya T, Takao S, Ichikawa T, Chayama K, Date I: Successful chemotherapy for congenital malignant gliomas: a report of two cases. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(4):240-4
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  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was malignant ganglioglioma.
  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ganglioglioma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16714866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; RYH2T97J77 / ranimustine
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21. Apel-Sarid L, Cochrane DD, Steinbok P, Byrne AT, Dunham C: Microfibrillar collagen hemostat-induced necrotizing granulomatous inflammation developing after craniotomy: a pediatric case series. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):385-92
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  • RESULTS: Case 1 is that of a 10-year-old girl whose diagnosis was a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma, classified as WHO Grade I.
  • Case 2 is that of a 9-year-old boy whose diagnosis was a left parietal lobe anaplastic ependymoma, classified as WHO Grade III.
  • Finally, Case 3 is that of a 15-year-old girl whose diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia Type IIA affecting the left occipital lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Collagen / adverse effects. Craniotomy / adverse effects. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Granuloma, Foreign-Body / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20887115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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22. Pimentel J, Barroso C, Miguéns J, Firmo C, Antunes JL: Papillary glioneuronal tumor--prognostic value of the extension of surgical resection. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4):287-94
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  • Histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies favored a diagnosis of PGNT.
  • A survey of 38 reported PGNT cases together with our two disclosed the following typical profile: young adulthood predominance, temporal lobe location, presence of cystic components: a close association with the lateral ventricles, a few anaplastic tumors, and gross total resections were usually possible with no recurrences the extent of surgical removal being the main prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19642508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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23. Galloway M: CD34 expression in glioblastoma and giant cell glioblastoma. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Mar-Apr;29(2):89-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether CD34 is expressed in glioblastomas and giant cell glioblastomas, as this information may be of value when attempting to differentiate between giant cell glioblastomas and other relevant differential diagnoses such as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features and anaplastic gangliogliomas.
  • CD34 staining in isolation is unlikely to be of assistance in differentiating between giant cell glioblastoma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features or anaplastic gangliogliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20175958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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24. Guzman G, Oh S, Shukla D, Engelhard HH, Valyi-Nagy T: Expression of entry receptor nectin-1 of herpes simplex virus 1 and/or herpes simplex virus 2 in normal and neoplastic human nervous system tissues. Acta Virol; 2006;50(1):59-66
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  • Herpes simplex virus 1 and/or Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV) are important pathogens of human nervous system (NS) and genetically modified HSV strains have been proposed as vectors for gene therapy targeting the brain and brain tumors.
  • The expression pattern of nectin-1 in normal human NS and brain tumors is not well understood.
  • To better understand the nectin-1 expression in normal and neoplastic human NS, immunohistochemistry was used to detect the nectin-1 expression in sections of normal human brain, spinal cord and trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (n=10) and in sections of primary NS neoplasms (n=22).
  • Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme and meningothelial meningioma showed weak focal nectin-1-positivity.
  • Ganglion cells of ganglioglioma were strongly positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Genetic Therapy. Nervous System / chemistry. Neurons / chemistry. Simplexvirus / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16599187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-723X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta virologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / nectins
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25. Hoischen A, Ehrler M, Fassunke J, Simon M, Baudis M, Landwehr C, Radlwimmer B, Lichter P, Schramm J, Becker AJ, Weber RG: Comprehensive characterization of genomic aberrations in gangliogliomas by CGH, array-based CGH and interphase FISH. Brain Pathol; 2008 Jul;18(3):326-37
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  • Two gangliogliomas and their anaplastic recurrences (WHO grade III) were analyzed.
  • Losses of CDKN2A/B and DMBT1 or a gain/amplification of CDK4 found in the anaplastic tumors were already present in the respective gangliogliomas by array CGH and interphase FISH.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Ganglioglioma / genetics


26. Englund C, Alvord EC Jr, Folkerth RD, Silbergeld D, Born DE, Small R, Hevner RF: NeuN expression correlates with reduced mitotic index of neoplastic cells in central neurocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Aug;31(4):429-38
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  • In the developing brain, neuronal differentiation is associated with permanent exit from the mitotic cycle.
  • As a first step towards understanding the relation between neuronal differentiation and mitotic cycling in brain tumours, we studied the expression of NeuN (a neuronal marker) and Ki-67 (a mitotic marker) by double-labelling immuno-fluorescence in 16 brain tumours with neuronal differentiation.
  • In the other tumours (one extraventricular neurocytoma, one desmoplastic medulloblastoma, one olfactory neuroblastoma, one ganglioglioma and one anaplastic ganglioglioma), the Ki-67 labelling index was always at least fourfold lower in NeuN(+) cells than in NeuN(-) cells.
  • These results indicate that neuronal differentiation is associated with a substantial decrease of proliferative activity in neoplastic cells of central neurocytomas, and suggest that the same may be true across diverse types of brain tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Mitotic Index. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Neurocytoma / metabolism. Neurons / cytology

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  • (PMID = 16008827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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27. Tsuji K, Nakasu S, Tsuji A, Fukami T, Nozaki K: [Postoperative regression of desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma]. No Shinkei Geka; 2008 Nov;36(11):1035-9
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  • Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma/ganglioglioma (DIA/DIG) is a rare tumor that is usually located superficially with a large cystic component.
  • In the central portion of the tumor, anaplastic features, such as necrosis, mitosis, and high nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, were noticed.
  • Diagnosis was DIA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19048924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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28. Torii K, Tsuyuguchi N, Kawabe J, Sunada I, Hara M, Shiomi S: Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Dec;19(8):677-83
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  • If the degree of malignancy of brain tumors can be evaluated by MET-PET, the usefulness of MET-PET as a means of diagnosing brain tumors will increase.
  • Tumors included diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, choroid plexus papilloma, central neurocytoma, optic glioma, gliomatosis cerebri, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Methionine / pharmacokinetics. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16444993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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29. Shibahara I, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Saito R, Sonoda Y, Watanabe M, Iwata R, Higano S, Takanami K, Takai Y, Tominaga T: Imaging of hypoxic lesions in patients with gliomas by using positron emission tomography with 1-(2-[18F] fluoro-1-[hydroxymethyl]ethoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole, a new 18F-labeled 2-nitroimidazole analog. J Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;113(2):358-68
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  • OBJECT: Assessment of hypoxic conditions in brain tumors is important for predicting tumor aggressiveness and treatment response.
  • METHODS: The FRP-170 was injected and PET imaging was performed 2 hours later in 8 patients, including 3 with glioblastoma multiforme, 2 with oligodendroglioma, and 1 each with diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic ganglioglioma, and recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Tissues obtained at biopsy or radical resection were immunostained with hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) antibody for the confirmation of hypoxia, except in the patient with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma who was treated using Gamma Knife surgery.
  • RESULTS: The FRP-170 PET images showed marked uptake with upregulation of HIF-1alpha in the 3 glioblastomas multiforme, and moderate uptake in the recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma and one oligodendroglioma, but no uptake in the other tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Glioblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Hypoxia, Brain / radionuclide imaging. Nitroimidazoles. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19895196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Isotopes; 0 / FRP-170; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 0 / Protons; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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30. Brat DJ, Parisi JE, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Yachnis AT, Montine TJ, Boyer PJ, Powell SZ, Prayson RA, McLendon RE, Neuropathology Committee, College of American Pathologists: Surgical neuropathology update: a review of changes introduced by the WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system, 4th edition. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Jun;132(6):993-1007
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The new WHO classification introduces 7 changes in the grading of central nervous system neoplasms, ranging in significance from minor to major, in categories of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, meningiomas, choroid plexus tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, ganglioglioma, cerebellar liponeurocytoma, and hemangiopericytomas.
  • A number of established brain tumors are reorganized, including medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors, in an attempt to more closely align classification with current understanding of central nervous system neoplasia.
  • (2) newly codified tumor entities, variants, patterns, and syndromes; and (3) changes in the classification of existing brain tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The new edition of the WHO blue book reflects advancements in the understanding of brain tumors in terms of classification, grading, and new entities.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Jun;132(6):906 [18517270.001]
  • (PMID = 18517285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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31. Uro-Coste E, Ssi-Yan-Kai G, Guilbeau-Frugier C, Boetto S, Bertozzi AI, Sevely A, Lolmede K, Delisle MB: Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma with benign histological phenotype and multiple intracranial localizations at presentation. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;98(1):143-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) are rare intracranial tumors that mostly occur in the first 2 years of life and involve superficial cerebral cortex.
  • The surgical samples, corresponding exclusively to subtentorial lesions, were devoid of anaplastic features; the temporal lesion was untouched because of the interpeduncular extension.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Brain / radiography. Child, Preschool. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.
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  • (PMID = 20012157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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