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1. Matsuzaki K, Uno M, Kageji T, Hirose T, Nagahiro S: Anaplastic ganglioglioma of the cerebellopontine angle. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Nov;45(11):591-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma of the cerebellopontine angle. Case report.
  • A 64-year-old woman presented with a rare anaplastic ganglioglioma in the right cerebellopontine angle manifesting as dizziness persisting for 2 weeks.
  • Histological examination showed neoplastic ganglional and glial cells with anaplastic features such as mitosis, pleomorphism, and endothelial proliferation.
  • The diagnosis was anaplastic ganglioglioma (World Health Organization grade IV).
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16308520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Kawataki T, Sato E, Sato T, Kinouchi H: Anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant features in both neuronal and glial components--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(3):228-31
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.

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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant features in both neuronal and glial components--case report.
  • A 34-year-old man presented with a case of anaplastic ganglioglioma with malignant features in both neuronal and glial components manifesting as seizure episodes over 11 months.
  • The histological diagnosis was anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • This rare case of anaplastic ganglioglioma with both neuronal and glial components, which were extremely positive for nestin, showed progressive worsening of the clinical course.
  • The expression of nestin may suggest that the origin or malignant transformation in anaplastic gangliogliomas is related to the undifferentiated neural stem cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20339274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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3. Kang DH, Lee CH, Hwang SH, Park IS, Han JW, Jung JM: Anaplastic ganglioglioma in a middle-aged woman: a case report with a review of the literature. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Sep;22 Suppl:S139-44
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.

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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma in a middle-aged woman: a case report with a review of the literature.
  • We report a case of anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical studies showed an anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • Gangliogliomas of the central nervous system are rather uncommon tumors, and anaplastic ones are extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17923741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 24
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2694381
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4. Perry A, Burton SS, Fuller GN, Robinson CA, Palmer CA, Resch L, Bigio EH, Gujrati M, Rosenblum MK: Oligodendroglial neoplasms with ganglioglioma-like maturation: a diagnostic pitfall. Acta Neuropathol; 2010 Aug;120(2):237-52
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  • [Title] Oligodendroglial neoplasms with ganglioglioma-like maturation: a diagnostic pitfall.
  • Nevertheless, ganglioglioma-like foci (GGLF) have not been previously described.
  • Herein, we report seven examples where the primary differential diagnosis was a ganglioglioma with an oligodendroglial component.
  • At presentation, the glial component was oligodendroglioma in six and oligoastrocytoma in one; one was low-grade and six were anaplastic.
  • In contrast to classic ganglioglioma, however, cases lacked eosinophilic granular bodies and CD34-positive tumor cells.
  • Recognition of this pattern will prevent a misdiagnosis of ganglioglioma with its potential for under-treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20464403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0533
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2892612
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5. Majores M, von Lehe M, Fassunke J, Schramm J, Becker AJ, Simon M: Tumor recurrence and malignant progression of gangliogliomas. Cancer; 2008 Dec 15;113(12):3355-63
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  • METHODS: The authors analyzed their experience with 4 recurrent/progressive GGs (World Health Organization [WHO] grade I), 21 tumors with atypical features (WHO grade II), and 5 tumors with anaplastic histologic features (WHO grade III).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18988291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Talos IF, Zou KH, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA: Volumetric assessment of tumor infiltration of adjacent white matter based on anatomic MRI and diffusion tensor tractography. Acad Radiol; 2007 Apr;14(4):431-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: There were five patients with low-grade oligodendroglioma (WHO Grade II), one with low-grade mixed oligoastrocytoma (WHO Grade II), one with ganglioglioma, two with low-grade astrocytoma (WHO Grade II), and three with anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO Grade III).

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  • (PMID = 17368212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-6332
  • [Journal-full-title] Academic radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acad Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-098542; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM074068; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U41 RR019703-03S1; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / P41 EB015898; United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / R01 LM007861; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR019703-03S1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-108434; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR013218-098542; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA067165; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR013218-108434
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS21072; NLM/ PMC2397554
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7. Zhi L, Yang L, Quan H, Bo-Ning L, Ying-Jie L: Anaplastic ganglioglioma with gliosarcoma component. Pathology; 2009;41(6):590-3
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma with gliosarcoma component.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioglioma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19900112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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8. Karabekir HS, Balci C, Tokyol C: Primary spinal anaplastic ganglioglioma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(6):374-8
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  • [Title] Primary spinal anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • Gangliogliomas of the spinal cord are very unusual and the anaplastic variant of these tumors is extremely rare.
  • In spinal anaplastic gangliogliomas, malignant changes (hypercellularity, vascular proliferation, necrosis, high numbers of mitotic figures) are typically evident in the glial element of the tumor.
  • We describe the case of a pediatric patient who had a spinal anaplastic ganglioglioma extending from the T9 to the L3 level.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioglioma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17047418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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9. Schittenhelm J, Reifenberger G, Ritz R, Nägele T, Weller M, Pantazis G, Capper D, Beschorner R, Meyermann R, Mittelbronn M: Primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with a small-cell glioblastoma component. Clin Neuropathol; 2008 Mar-Apr;27(2):91-5
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  • [Title] Primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with a small-cell glioblastoma component.
  • Very rarely, gangliogliomas show histological features of malignancy and are then classified as anaplastic gangliogliomas of WHO Grade III or IV.
  • In most cases, anaplastic gangliogliomas developed after radiation therapy or progression from a pre-existing low-grade ganglioglioma.
  • Here, we report the case of a 77-year-old male patient who was operated on a primary ganglioglioma with a highly anaplastic glial component corresponding to a small-cell glioblastoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a primary anaplastic ganglioglioma with a small-cell glioblastoma component.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology


10. Takei H, Dauser R, Su J, Chintagumpala M, Bhattacharjee MB, Jones J, Adesina AM: Anaplastic ganglioglioma arising from a Lhermitte-Duclos-like lesion. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2007 Aug;107(2 Suppl):137-42
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma arising from a Lhermitte-Duclos-like lesion. Case report.
  • A retrospective review of the tissue sections showed a nidus of associated astrocytic proliferation, suggesting a diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • The resected tissue specimen consisted primarily of a mixed proliferation of glial and ganglion cells consistent with a ganglioglioma.
  • Histologically, the tumor showed progressive anaplasia and was most accurately classified as an anaplastic ganglioglioma.
  • This case represents the first report of an anaplastic ganglioglioma arising in an LDD-like lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / pathology


11. Karremann M, Pietsch T, Janssen G, Kramm CM, Wolff JE: Anaplastic ganglioglioma in children. J Neurooncol; 2009 Apr;92(2):157-63
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Childhood Brain Tumors.

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  • [Title] Anaplastic ganglioglioma in children.
  • PURPOSE: Anaplastic gangliogliomas (AGG) are gangliogliomas with areas of pronounced hypercellularity, vascular proliferation, necrosis, and many mitotic figures.
  • Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of AGG proven by a central neuropathological review and patient age 0 to 17 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology


12. Chou S, Varikatt W, Dexter M, Ng T: Extraventricular neurocytoma with atypical features and ganglionic differentiation. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Jul;17(7):920-2

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We discuss the important differential diagnoses given the site of the tumour as well as the differentiating features from olfactory neuroblastoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic ganglioglioma and supra-tentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour.

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  • (PMID = 20399667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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13. Tzika AA, Astrakas L, Cao H, Mintzopoulos D, Andronesi OC, Mindrinos M, Zhang J, Rahme LG, Blekas KD, Likas AC, Galatsanos NP, Carroll RS, Black PM: Combination of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale genomics to type brain tumor biopsies. Int J Mol Med; 2007 Aug;20(2):199-208
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  • Advancements in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumor patients, and thus in their survival and quality of life, can be achieved using biomarkers that facilitate improved tumor typing.
  • The data also suggest Sonic Hedgehog pathway (SHH) dysregulation may play a role in anaplastic ganglioglioma pathogenesis.
  • Our combined metabolic/molecular MRS/genomic approach provides insights into the biology of anaplastic ganglioglioma and a new potential tumor typing methodology that could aid neurologists and neurosurgeons to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing evaluation of brain tumor patients.

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  • (PMID = 17611638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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14. Mittelbronn M, Schittenhelm J, Lemke D, Ritz R, Nägele T, Weller M, Meyermann R, Beschorner R: Low grade ganglioglioma rapidly progressing to a WHO grade IV tumor showing malignant transformation in both astroglial and neuronal cell components. Neuropathology; 2007 Oct;27(5):463-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low grade ganglioglioma rapidly progressing to a WHO grade IV tumor showing malignant transformation in both astroglial and neuronal cell components.
  • Herein, we present the case of a now 47-year-old female patient presenting with a benign ganglioglioma and showing a tumor recurrence 2 years later with an anaplastic ganglioglioma, assigned to WHO grade IV, with malignant transformation in both glial and neuronal components.
  • The presented case is the first reported low-grade ganglioglioma rapidly progressing to a WHO grade IV glio-neuronal tumor not being associated with radiotherapy and showing malignant transformation in both astroglial and neuronal tumor cell components.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Neurons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Englund C, Alvord EC Jr, Folkerth RD, Silbergeld D, Born DE, Small R, Hevner RF: NeuN expression correlates with reduced mitotic index of neoplastic cells in central neurocytomas. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2005 Aug;31(4):429-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the other tumours (one extraventricular neurocytoma, one desmoplastic medulloblastoma, one olfactory neuroblastoma, one ganglioglioma and one anaplastic ganglioglioma), the Ki-67 labelling index was always at least fourfold lower in NeuN(+) cells than in NeuN(-) cells.

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  • (PMID = 16008827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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16. Mekni A, Chelly I, Haouet S, Zitouna M, Kchir N: [Malignant cerebellar ganglioglioma. A case report and review of the literature]. Neurochirurgie; 2006 Jun;52(2-3 Pt 1):119-22
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  • [Title] [Malignant cerebellar ganglioglioma. A case report and review of the literature].
  • Ganglioglioma is usually a well differentiated slowly growing mixed neuronal and glial neoplasm corresponding to WHO grade I or II.
  • However, some gangliogliomas are considered to be WHO grade III because they exhibit anaplastic features in their glial component.
  • We report a case of a 25-year-old woman with a family history of neurofibromatosis who presented initially with a World Health Organization grade IV anaplastic ganglioglioma (a mixed ganglion cell multiform tumor glioblastoma).
  • Histologically, two cell populations were noted: a predominant glial component consisting in a multiform glioblastoma and ganglion cells supporting a diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • Although other cases of grade III gangliogliomas and twelve cases of grade IV gangliogliomas have been reported, the present case is exceptional in that, to our knowledge, it is the second case of a patient who presented initially with a composite grade IV ganglioglioma and who was clinically followed up to the time of death.
  • This case allows direct comparison between the histological findings in a multiform glioblastoma and a ganglioglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioglioma / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16840971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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17. Naydenov E, Tzekov C, Minkin K, Nachev S, Marinov M: [Malignant progression of an anaplastic ganglioglioma into a glioblastoma multiforme--report on two cases and review of the literature]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2009;(2-3):69-74
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  • [Title] [Malignant progression of an anaplastic ganglioglioma into a glioblastoma multiforme--report on two cases and review of the literature].
  • INTRODUCTION: Ganglioglioma is an uncommon type of primary brain tumors.
  • We present two cases ofhistologically confirmed anaplastic ganglioglioma in which malignant progression into a glioblastoma multiforme was seen.
  • The tumor was excised partially and the histological result was anaplastic ganglioglioma (World Health Organization - WHO. gr. III).
  • The patient died after one month, 23 months after her initial diagnosis.
  • The histological result was anaplastic ganglioglioma (WHO gr. ILL).
  • 20 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology


18. Liauw SL, Byer JE, Yachnis AT, Amdur RJ, Mendenhall WM: Radiotherapy after subtotally resected or recurrent ganglioglioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jan 1;67(1):244-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiotherapy after subtotally resected or recurrent ganglioglioma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eight consecutive patients with low-grade gangliogliomas (n = 7) or anaplastic gangliogliomas (n = 1) were treated with RT between 1987 and 2004.
  • The patient with an anaplastic ganglioglioma was treated with adjuvant RT, and had recurrence in the radiation field after 4 months, then died 1 month later.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ganglioglioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17045420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Shibahara I, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Saito R, Sonoda Y, Watanabe M, Iwata R, Higano S, Takanami K, Takai Y, Tominaga T: Imaging of hypoxic lesions in patients with gliomas by using positron emission tomography with 1-(2-[18F] fluoro-1-[hydroxymethyl]ethoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole, a new 18F-labeled 2-nitroimidazole analog. J Neurosurg; 2010 Aug;113(2):358-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: The FRP-170 was injected and PET imaging was performed 2 hours later in 8 patients, including 3 with glioblastoma multiforme, 2 with oligodendroglioma, and 1 each with diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic ganglioglioma, and recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • Tissues obtained at biopsy or radical resection were immunostained with hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) antibody for the confirmation of hypoxia, except in the patient with recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma who was treated using Gamma Knife surgery.
  • RESULTS: The FRP-170 PET images showed marked uptake with upregulation of HIF-1alpha in the 3 glioblastomas multiforme, and moderate uptake in the recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma and one oligodendroglioma, but no uptake in the other tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19895196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Isotopes; 0 / FRP-170; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 0 / Protons; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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20. Tarnaris A, O'Brien C, Redfern RM: Ganglioglioma with anaplastic recurrence of the neuronal element following radiotherapy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;108(8):761-7
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  • [Title] Ganglioglioma with anaplastic recurrence of the neuronal element following radiotherapy.
  • Although malignant transformation is rare, and this mostly occurs in the glial element, we present a case of malignant neuroblastomatous transformation of a ganglioglioma.
  • This is only the second ever case to our knowledge in the literature reporting the participation of the neuronal element in the malignant transformation of a ganglioglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / radiation effects. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Ganglioglioma / radiotherapy. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Neuroblastoma / surgery. Occipital Lobe / radiation effects. Occipital Lobe / surgery


21. Kikuchi T, Kumabe T, Higano S, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma. Neurol Res; 2009 Dec;31(10):1102-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minimum apparent diffusion coefficient for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values was evaluated for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • The minADC of ganglioglioma was compared with that of low- or high-grade astrocytomas (astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma).
  • Tumor cellularity of ganglioglioma was inversely correlated with the minADC value.
  • DISCUSSION: The minADC value reflects in the low tumor cellularity of gangliogliomas and may provide a method for the differential diagnosis of ganglioglioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19138470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-1328
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Samdani AF, Torre-Healy A, Khalessi A, McGirt M, Jallo GI, Carson B: Intraventricular ganglioglioma: a short illustrated review. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jun;151(6):635-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraventricular ganglioglioma: a short illustrated review.
  • The following review of the literature describes the ganglioglioma, an uncommon mixed glioneuronal neoplasm, most often of low-grade histology, with a small, albeit well-documented, malignant potential.
  • Despite their indolent course, the importance of gross total resection is well recognized to prevent anaplastic and malignant degeneration.
  • An exceedingly rare location of the ganglioglioma is within the lateral ventricle.
  • A systematic literature search revealed only eight reports documenting the occurrence of a ganglioglioma within the lateral ventricle.
  • We describe an illustrative case of an intraventricular ganglioglioma with a prominent cystic component and enhancing mural nodule, which represents the classic radiographic appearance of gangliogliomas described in other locations.
  • Regardless of location within the central nervous system, ganglioglioma should be on the differential diagnosis for any cystic mass with a mural nodule, particularly in the setting of epilepsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Central Nervous System Cysts / pathology. Central Nervous System Cysts / radiography. Central Nervous System Cysts / surgery. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Dizziness / etiology. Epilepsy / etiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19290468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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23. Chrétien F, Djindjian M, Caramelle P, Ricolfi F, Christov C: A 42-year-old man with a densely vascular spinal mass. Brain Pathol; 2007 Jan;17(1):119-21
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  • The preoperative diagnosis was spinal hemangioblastoma.
  • The neuronal subpopulation was quite polymorphous and consisted of large anaplastic neurons including binucleate forms and smaller immature looking cells.
  • Because of necrosis and marked proliferative activity, the tumor was considered a de novo malignant ganglioglioma (GG).
  • In conformity with the diagnosis of malignancy, the tumor gave rise to extensive cerebrospinal deposits in the intracranial and spinal compartments 12 months post-diagnosis.
  • The diagnosis of spinal GGs should rely on both histologic hallmarks and unequivocal immunopositivity for several neuronal markers because of reported aberrant expression of synaptophysin by non-neoplastic spinal neurons.
  • [MeSH-major] Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Hemangioma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17493047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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24. Apel-Sarid L, Cochrane DD, Steinbok P, Byrne AT, Dunham C: Microfibrillar collagen hemostat-induced necrotizing granulomatous inflammation developing after craniotomy: a pediatric case series. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):385-92
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  • RESULTS: Case 1 is that of a 10-year-old girl whose diagnosis was a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma, classified as WHO Grade I.
  • Case 2 is that of a 9-year-old boy whose diagnosis was a left parietal lobe anaplastic ependymoma, classified as WHO Grade III.
  • Finally, Case 3 is that of a 15-year-old girl whose diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia Type IIA affecting the left occipital lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Collagen / adverse effects. Craniotomy / adverse effects. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Granuloma, Foreign-Body / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20887115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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25. Adam C, Polivka M, Carpentier A, George B, Gray F: Papillary glioneuronal tumor: not always a benign tumor? Clin Neuropathol; 2007 May-Jun;26(3):119-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) is a variant of ganglioglioma, characterized by a pseudopapillary structure with a single pseudostratified layer of small, cuboidal, GFAP-positive cells around hyalinized blood vessels.
  • Our cases indicate that PGNT type of ganglioglioma can have a spectrum of anaplastic changes of higher grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19157003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Tamiya T, Takao S, Ichikawa T, Chayama K, Date I: Successful chemotherapy for congenital malignant gliomas: a report of two cases. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2006;42(4):240-4
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  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was malignant ganglioglioma.
  • The tumor was partially resected, and the histological diagnosis was anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ganglioglioma / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16714866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; RYH2T97J77 / ranimustine
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27. Pimentel J, Barroso C, Miguéns J, Firmo C, Antunes JL: Papillary glioneuronal tumor--prognostic value of the extension of surgical resection. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4):287-94
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  • Histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies favored a diagnosis of PGNT.
  • A survey of 38 reported PGNT cases together with our two disclosed the following typical profile: young adulthood predominance, temporal lobe location, presence of cystic components: a close association with the lateral ventricles, a few anaplastic tumors, and gross total resections were usually possible with no recurrences the extent of surgical removal being the main prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19642508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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28. Phi JH, Chung CK: Brain tumors in the mesial temporal lobe: long-term oncological outcome. Neurosurg Focus; 2009 Aug;27(2):E5
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  • All tumors were low-grade lesions except for 1 anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Epilepsy / etiology. Epilepsy / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Functional Laterality. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models

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  • (PMID = 19645561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Galloway M: CD34 expression in glioblastoma and giant cell glioblastoma. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Mar-Apr;29(2):89-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether CD34 is expressed in glioblastomas and giant cell glioblastomas, as this information may be of value when attempting to differentiate between giant cell glioblastomas and other relevant differential diagnoses such as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features and anaplastic gangliogliomas.
  • CD34 staining in isolation is unlikely to be of assistance in differentiating between giant cell glioblastoma and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features or anaplastic gangliogliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Glioblastoma / metabolism. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20175958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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30. Daou MC, Smith TW, Litofsky NS, Hsieh CC, Ross AH: Doublecortin is preferentially expressed in invasive human brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Nov;110(5):472-80
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  • DCX was highly expressed in both high-grade invasive tumors (glioblastoma, n=11; anaplastic astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=7; and medulloblastoma/PNET, n=6) and low-grade invasive tumors (oligodendroglioma, n=3; and astrocytoma/oligoastrocytoma, n=5).
  • However, DCX was less intensely expressed in the circumscribed group of tumors (pilocytic astrocytoma, n=6; ependymoma/subependymoma, n=7; dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, n=4; ganglioglioma, n=2; meningioma, n=9; and schwannoma, n=9).

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  • (PMID = 16195916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS021716; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA107372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-10737; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS-21716
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / doublecortin protein
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31. Guzman G, Oh S, Shukla D, Engelhard HH, Valyi-Nagy T: Expression of entry receptor nectin-1 of herpes simplex virus 1 and/or herpes simplex virus 2 in normal and neoplastic human nervous system tissues. Acta Virol; 2006;50(1):59-66
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  • Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme and meningothelial meningioma showed weak focal nectin-1-positivity.
  • Ganglion cells of ganglioglioma were strongly positive.

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  • (PMID = 16599187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-723X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta virologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / nectins
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32. Hoischen A, Ehrler M, Fassunke J, Simon M, Baudis M, Landwehr C, Radlwimmer B, Lichter P, Schramm J, Becker AJ, Weber RG: Comprehensive characterization of genomic aberrations in gangliogliomas by CGH, array-based CGH and interphase FISH. Brain Pathol; 2008 Jul;18(3):326-37
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  • Two gangliogliomas and their anaplastic recurrences (WHO grade III) were analyzed.
  • Losses of CDKN2A/B and DMBT1 or a gain/amplification of CDK4 found in the anaplastic tumors were already present in the respective gangliogliomas by array CGH and interphase FISH.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Ganglioglioma / genetics


33. Tsuji K, Nakasu S, Tsuji A, Fukami T, Nozaki K: [Postoperative regression of desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma]. No Shinkei Geka; 2008 Nov;36(11):1035-9
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  • Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma/ganglioglioma (DIA/DIG) is a rare tumor that is usually located superficially with a large cystic component.
  • In the central portion of the tumor, anaplastic features, such as necrosis, mitosis, and high nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, were noticed.
  • Diagnosis was DIA.

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  • (PMID = 19048924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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34. Uro-Coste E, Ssi-Yan-Kai G, Guilbeau-Frugier C, Boetto S, Bertozzi AI, Sevely A, Lolmede K, Delisle MB: Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma with benign histological phenotype and multiple intracranial localizations at presentation. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;98(1):143-9
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  • Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) are rare intracranial tumors that mostly occur in the first 2 years of life and involve superficial cerebral cortex.
  • The surgical samples, corresponding exclusively to subtentorial lesions, were devoid of anaplastic features; the temporal lesion was untouched because of the interpeduncular extension.

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  • (PMID = 20012157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Tobias ME, McGirt MJ, Chaichana KL, Goldstein IM, Kothbauer KF, Epstein F, Jallo GI: Surgical management of long intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Feb;24(2):219-23
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  • Pathology revealed astrocytoma in six cases (two pilocytic, four grade II), gangliogliomas in four cases, oligodendroglioma in two cases (one anaplastic), and lipoma in one case.
  • One (8%) patient died from progression of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and two (15%) underwent reoperation for recurrent tumor (ganglioglioma, grade II astrocytoma).

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  • [Cites] Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1984;73(3-4):243-50 [6516922.001]
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  • (PMID = 17639420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Brat DJ, Parisi JE, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK, Yachnis AT, Montine TJ, Boyer PJ, Powell SZ, Prayson RA, McLendon RE, Neuropathology Committee, College of American Pathologists: Surgical neuropathology update: a review of changes introduced by the WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system, 4th edition. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Jun;132(6):993-1007
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  • The new WHO classification introduces 7 changes in the grading of central nervous system neoplasms, ranging in significance from minor to major, in categories of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, meningiomas, choroid plexus tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, ganglioglioma, cerebellar liponeurocytoma, and hemangiopericytomas.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Jun;132(6):906 [18517270.001]
  • (PMID = 18517285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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37. Torii K, Tsuyuguchi N, Kawabe J, Sunada I, Hara M, Shiomi S: Correlation of amino-acid uptake using methionine PET and histological classifications in various gliomas. Ann Nucl Med; 2005 Dec;19(8):677-83
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  • Tumors included diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, ependymoma, oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, choroid plexus papilloma, central neurocytoma, optic glioma, gliomatosis cerebri, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and ganglioglioma.

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  • (PMID = 16444993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 58576-49-1 / carbon-11 methionine; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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