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1. Jurkiewicz E, Pakuła-Kościesza I, Chełstowska S, Nowak K, Roszkowski M, Grajkowska W, Szary C: Infratentorial tumors in children - value of ADC in prediction of grade of neoplasms. Pol J Radiol; 2010 Oct;75(4):18-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Infratentorial tumors in children - value of ADC in prediction of grade of neoplasms.
  • All children were operated on and tumors were histopathologically proved as low-grade - 25 (24 pilocytic astrocytomas, 1 ependymoma) and high-grade lesions - 25 (19 medulloblastomas, 6 anaplastic ependymomas).
  • RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the comparisons of mean ADC of pilocytic astrocytomas (1.54×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.2) with medulloblastomas (0.75×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.075) and pilocytic astrocytomas (1.54×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.2) with anaplastic ependymomas (0.99×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.25).
  • Statistical analysis including ependymomas should be discussed, because of small number of these tumors and a non-homogenous group of lesions.

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  • (PMID = 22802799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-0967
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3389889
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; children / diffusion-weighted imaging – DWI / infratentorial tumors / magnetic resonance
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2. Shuangshoti S, Rushing EJ, Mena H, Olsen C, Sandberg GD: Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2598-605
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  • [Title] Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Published research on the clinicopathologic features of extraventricular ependymal neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres has been scant.
  • RESULTS: Among these 32 cases were 2 subependymomas, 19 ependymomas, and 11 anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Ki-67 proliferation index paralleled tumor grade.
  • Immunoreactivity for p53 protein was observed in the 2 cases of subependymoma, in 10 of 11 anaplastic ependymomas, and in 6 of 17 ependymomas.
  • Flow cytometry performed in 27 tumors revealed diploidy in 20 cases and aneuploidy in 4 cases (3 anaplastic and 1 classic ependymomas), with S-phase fraction ranging from 0.2-9.7.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that there is no significant relation between histopathology, Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 immunolabeling, tumor ploidy, and biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Prognosis. S Phase. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 by the American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15861411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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3. Hashiba T, Izumoto S, Kagawa N, Suzuki T, Hashimoto N, Maruno M, Yoshimine T: Expression of WT1 protein and correlation with cellular proliferation in glial tumors. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Apr;47(4):165-70; discussion 170
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  • The expression of Wilms' tumor gene WT1 protein was investigated immunohistochemically in 73 glial tumors, including 60 astrocytic tumors, eight oligodendroglial tumors, and five ependymal tumors.
  • Almost all glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas expressed high levels of WT1 protein.
  • Histological examination found that WT1 protein was strongly expressed in the anaplastic portions and areas with perivascular proliferation and high cellularity, implying that WT1 gene might be important in glial tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study indicates that many malignant glial tumors are good candidates for cancer immunotherapy targeting WT1 protein and that WT1 protein expression could be used as a proliferation marker in glial tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17457020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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4. Panigrahy A, Krieger MD, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Liu X, McComb JG, Finlay JL, Nelson MD Jr, Gilles FH, Blüml S: Quantitative short echo time 1H-MR spectroscopy of untreated pediatric brain tumors: preoperative diagnosis and characterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Mar;27(3):560-72
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  • [Title] Quantitative short echo time 1H-MR spectroscopy of untreated pediatric brain tumors: preoperative diagnosis and characterization.
  • PURPOSE: Our aims were to evaluate the metabolic profiles of pediatric brain tumors with short echo time (TE) MR spectroscopy and absolute quantitation of metabolite concentrations (in mmol/kg of tissue) and to describe metabolic features that distinguish individual tumor types and that may help to improve preoperative diagnosis of specific tumors.
  • METHODS: MR imaging examinations of 60 patients with untreated brain tumors (14 medulloblastomas, 5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 low-grade astrocytomas, 17 pilocytic astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 5 ependymomas, 3 choroid plexus papillomas, 3 choroid plexus carcinomas, and 6 pineal germinomas) were reviewed.
  • Guanidinoacetate was reduced in low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (P < .00001) versus All Other, whereas ependymoma and anaplastic ependymomas exhibited particularly low N-acetylaspartate (P < .00001 versus All Other).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 16551993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R33-CA096032-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA97452-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. de Bont JM, van Doorn J, Reddingius RE, Graat GH, Passier MM, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Various components of the insulin-like growth factor system in tumor tissue, cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of pediatric medulloblastoma and ependymoma patients. Int J Cancer; 2008 Aug 1;123(3):594-600
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  • [Title] Various components of the insulin-like growth factor system in tumor tissue, cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of pediatric medulloblastoma and ependymoma patients.
  • In this study, we studied mRNA expression levels of IGFs, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) and insulin-like growth factor receptors (IGFRs) in 27 pediatric medulloblastomas, 13 pediatric ependymomas and 5 control cerebella.
  • Compared to normal cerebellum, mRNA levels of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 were significantly increased in medulloblastomas and ependymomas.
  • IGFBP-2 expression was indicative of poor prognosis in medulloblastomas, whereas IGFBP-3 mRNA levels were especially high in anaplastic ependymomas.
  • IGFBP-5 and IGF-II mRNA levels were significantly increased in ependymomas compared to control cerebellum.
  • Protein expression levels of IGFs and IGFBPs were analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 16 medulloblastoma, 4 ependymoma and 23 control patients by radioimmuno assay to determine whether they could be used as markers for residual disease after surgery.
  • No aberrant CSF protein expression levels were found for ependymoma patients.
  • In medulloblastoma patients, the IGFBP-3 protein levels were significantly higher than in ependymoma patients and controls.
  • In conclusion, our data suggest that the IGF system is of importance in pediatric medulloblastomas and ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18478565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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11. Schuurmans M, Vanneste JA, Verstegen MJ, van Furth WR: Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):57-9
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  • [Title] Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases.
  • We describe a 29-year-old woman who presented with progressive neck pain, sensory deficit and weakness in both arms.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed an extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression.
  • During surgery an intradural extramedullary tumor was found.
  • Further imaging showed a second lumbar spinal tumor.
  • Microscopy of both tumors showed that both tumors were anaplastic ependymomas, which almost never present as extramedullary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16614942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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12. Roma AA, Prayson RA: Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors. Neuropathology; 2006 Oct;26(5):422-8
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  • [Title] Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors.
  • Little is known about its expression in ependymal neoplasms.
  • The objective of the present study was to assess COX-2 immunostaining of ependymal tumors.
  • Retrospective COX-2 immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on 117 ependymal tumors.
  • The study group (56 men and 44 women, mean age, 30.8 years) was comprised of 48 low-grade ependymomas (WHO grade II), 12 anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III), 27 myxopapillary ependymomas (WHO grade I) and 13 subependymomas (WHO grade I).
  • At last known follow-up (range, 12-226 months; mean, 74 months), 52 patients were alive with no evidence of tumor, 16 patients were alive with residual tumor, nine patients died with tumor, one patient died with no tumor and three died with tumor status unknown.
  • Thirty-six (36%) patients had tumors, which demonstrated positive COX-2 staining, including 16/27 (59%) myxopapillary ependymomas, 3/13 (23%) subependymomas, 14/48 (29%) ependymomas and 3/12 (25%) anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Statistically significant COX-2 positive immunostaining was observed in myxopapillary ependymomas versus WHO grade II (P = 0.03) and grade III (P = 0.02) tumors.
  • Increased COX-2 expression in myxopapillary ependymoma as compared to the WHO grade II and II ependymoma was observed.
  • The reason for this apparent increased immunoexpression in these low-grade tumors is uncertain.
  • COX-2 inhibitors may play a role in treatment of the subset of ependymal tumors that demonstrate increased expression.
  • COX-2 staining did not reliably predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17080719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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13. Kumar R, Singhal N, Jaiswal SK, Mahapatra AK: Recurrence in supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(5):364-8
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  • [Title] Recurrence in supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma.
  • AIM: To study the outcome and recurrence in supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma.
  • METHODS: Sixteen cases of supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Gross total excision of tumor was achieved in 14 cases, as judged on the basis of intraoperative impression and confirmed with postoperative contrast MR or CT scan.
  • Two operated and irradiated cases of differentiated ependymomas (grade II) developed anaplastic recurrence at follow-up of 5 years and 9 years, respectively, suggesting a malignant transformation of tumor at follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: It is obvious that anaplastic ependymomas of the supratentorial compartment are aggressive tumors with high rates of recurrence even after gross total excision and irradiation.
  • Gross total excision and postoperative irradiation are not effective in preventing early recurrence in anaplastic ependymomas, and other factors affecting the outcome need to be analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17786000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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14. Green RM, Cloughesy T, Stupp R, DeAngelis LM, Woyshner EA, Ney DE, Lassman AB: Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2060

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  • [Title] Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma.
  • : 2060 Background: Ependymoma is a rare type of glioma, representing less than 5% of brain tumors in adults.
  • At recurrence ependymoma is notoriously refractory to therapy and the prognosis is poor.
  • Therefore, we treated patients with recurrent ependymoma and anaplastic ependymoma with bevacizumab containing chemotherapy regimens.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively identified adults treated for recurrent ependymoma and anaplastic ependymoma with bevacizumab containing chemotherapy regimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizuamb has efficacy in the treatment of recurrent ependymoma.

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  • (PMID = 27964675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Mora J, Cruz O, Parareda A, Guillen A, Puy R, Massaguer S, de Torres C, Garcia G, Costa JM: Treatment of childhood glial tumors with cisplatin and irinotecan. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10062

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  • After a pilot study suggesting that irinotecan/cisplatin (I/C) may be effective in children (Mora et al, Neuro Oncol 2007), we initiated a phase II prospective trial with the aim of avoiding radiation therapy for low grade's (LG) and improve outcome for high grade's (HG).
  • RESULTS: From January 2004 to December 2007, 30 children aged 6 months to 17 years were treated, 21 at diagnosis, 7 at progression and 2 at relapse.
  • Fourteen tumors were WHO grades I-II gliomas (LGG), 10 grade III (6 gliomas, 2 anaplastic ependymomas and 2 AT/RT), and 6 had no biopsy (3 brainstem (BST) and 3 optic-pathway tumors (OPT)).
  • Two patients had type-1 neurofibromatosis and OPT.
  • All but 6 patients, 2 because of C allergy and 4 BST because of progression, completed the protocol, with no grade 3-4 side effects.

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  • (PMID = 27962497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Saito R, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: Dissemination limits the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma after extensive surgical resection, meticulous follow up, and intensive treatment for recurrence. Neurosurg Rev; 2010 Apr;33(2):185-91; discussion 191-2
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  • [Title] Dissemination limits the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma after extensive surgical resection, meticulous follow up, and intensive treatment for recurrence.
  • The extent of resection is the most consistent factor affecting outcome of intracranial ependymomas.
  • The outcomes in patients with intracranial anaplastic ependymomas who underwent more than subtotal resection and intensive treatment for recurrence were reviewed retrospectively.
  • High resection rate, meticulous follow-up, and intensive treatment for recurrence improved the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


17. Haberler C, Laggner U, Slavc I, Czech T, Ambros IM, Ambros PF, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Immunohistochemical analysis of INI1 protein in malignant pediatric CNS tumors: Lack of INI1 in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and in a fraction of primitive neuroectodermal tumors without rhabdoid phenotype. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Nov;30(11):1462-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of INI1 protein in malignant pediatric CNS tumors: Lack of INI1 in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and in a fraction of primitive neuroectodermal tumors without rhabdoid phenotype.
  • Immunohistochemical lack of nuclear INI1 protein expression has been recently described as characteristic finding in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs), and has been suggested as useful marker to distinguish AT/RTs from other malignant pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • In this study, we examined a large series of malignant pediatric CNS tumors to determine the immunohistochemical expression of INI1 protein in different malignant pediatric tumor entities.
  • Archival paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of 289 malignant pediatric CNS tumors including medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, choroid plexus carcinomas, germ cell tumors, and AT/RTs were analyzed immunohistochemically for expression of nuclear INI1 protein.
  • In summary, immunohistochemical expression of INI1 protein is lacking in tumors displaying characteristic morphologic features of AT/RT.
  • We conclude that INI1 protein analysis should be routinely performed in all malignant pediatric embryonal CNS tumors to detect cases with lack of INI1 protein, because patients with these tumors are likely to benefit from intensified treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17063089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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18. Mühlisch J, Bajanowski T, Rickert CH, Roggendorf W, Würthwein G, Jürgens H, Frühwald MC: Frequent but borderline methylation of p16 (INK4a) and TIMP3 in medulloblastoma and sPNET revealed by quantitative analyses. J Neurooncol; 2007 May;83(1):17-29
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  • Certain risk groups among tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) in children take an almost inevitably fatal course.
  • Aberrant methylation is common in malignant brain tumors of childhood and may have implications for stratification and therapy.
  • Methylation of p16 (INK4A), p14 (ARF), TIMP3, CDH1, p15 (INK4B )and DAPK1 in medulloblastoma (MB) and ependymoma has been discussed controversially in the literature.
  • We examined methylation in MB, sPNET and ependymoma using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), quantitative Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) and direct and clone sequencing of bisulfite PCR products.
  • Only p16 (INK4A )and TIMP3 were methylated consistently in medulloblastomas (p16 (INK4A ) 14%, TIMP3 11%) and p16 (INK4A) also in anaplastic ependymomas (1/4 tumors).
  • Therapeutic and diagnostic implications urge into depth analyses of methylation as a mechanism, which might fill some of the gaps of our understanding of brain tumor origin.

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  • (PMID = 17206475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / TIMP3 protein, human; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3; 0 / roundabout protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / DAPK1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Death-Associated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.17 / Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
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19. Kuncova K, Janda A, Kasal P, Zamecnik J: Immunohistochemical prognostic markers in intracranial ependymomas: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):605-14
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical prognostic markers in intracranial ependymomas: systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Distinction between grade II ependymomas and anaplastic ependymomas based on histopathological examination solely is problematic and, therefore, the management of intracranial ependymomas remains controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) of data published on immunohistochemical prognostic markers (IPM) in intracranial ependymomas (IE), and to establish an evidence-based perspective on their clinical value.
  • Although the prognostic impact of MIB-1 immunoexpression in IE could be confirmed, there remains lack of further reliable IPM that could be used in routine diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19301151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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20. Juric-Sekhar G, Zarkovic K, Waeg G, Cipak A, Zarkovic N: Distribution of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates as a marker of lipid peroxidation and parameter of malignancy in astrocytic and ependymal tumors of the brain. Tumori; 2009 Nov-Dec;95(6):762-8
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  • [Title] Distribution of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates as a marker of lipid peroxidation and parameter of malignancy in astrocytic and ependymal tumors of the brain.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of HNE in 120 astrocytic and 40 ependymal tumors in relation to tumor type, grade of malignancy, angiogenesis, and presence of necrosis and apoptosis.
  • The incidence of HNE-immunopositive tumor cells increased with increasing grades of malignancy.
  • Significantly higher HNE expression was found in tumor cells of glioblastomas multiforme than in cells of pilocytic astrocytomas (P < 0.005), and in anaplastic ependymomas than in benign ependymomas (P < 0.01).
  • HNE-immunopositive tumor cells were distributed more diffusely than in perivascular locations (P < 0.05).
  • HNE was expressed in the endothelium of almost all tumor vessels, but its expression in the walls of the vessels was significantly higher in diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas than in pilocytic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme (P < 0.05).
  • The number of microvessels containing HNE in their endothelium and walls was significantly associated with the grade of malignancy in both astrocytic (P < 0.001) and ependymal tumors (P < 0.05), although microvessels in pilocytic astrocytomas were significantly more numerous (P < 0.05) than in diffuse astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LPO seems to be a common pathological process in astrocytic and ependymal glial tumors, proportional to the level of malignancy and neovascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehydes / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / chemistry. Lipid Peroxidation. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20210242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 29343-52-0 / 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
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21. Larysz D, Blamek S, Larysz P, Pietras K, Mandera M: Posterior fossa brain tissue injury: developmental, neuropsychological, and neurological consequences of brain tumors in children. Acta Neurochir Suppl; 2010;106:271-4
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  • The aim of the study was the functional neurodevelopmental assessment of children with posterior fossa tumors, specifically examining whether tumor location in particular cerebellar structures determines particular neuropsychological deficits.
  • There were 21 total and 8 subtotal resections of tumor, and marsupialization was performed in cases of arachnoid cysts.
  • Histopathological diagnoses of tumors were as follows: 4 medulloblastomas, 8 pilocytic astrocytomas, 6 fibrillary astrocytomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 1 choroid plexus papilloma, and 5 arachnoid cysts.

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  • (PMID = 19812963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-1419
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir. Suppl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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22. Pipp I, Wagner L, Rössler K, Budka H, Preusser M: Secretagogin expression in tumours of the human brain and its coverings. APMIS; 2007 Apr;115(4):319-26
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  • We found focal or widespread secretagogin expression in tumour cells in 1/18 oligoastrocytomas, 1/19 oligodendrogliomas, 2/20 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, 2/9 ependymomas, 2/11 anaplastic ependymomas, 2/10 glioblastomas, 3/11 gangliogliomas and 1/2 anaplastic gangliogliomas, 10/10 central neurocytomas, 5/10 classic medulloblastomas, 4/5 desmoplastic medulloblastomas, 3/5 large cell/anaplastic medulloblastomas, 3/5 neuroblastomas, 3/10 meningiomas, 2/10 haemangioblastomas, and 13/19 pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17504298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins
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23. Fujisawa H, Misaki K, Takabatake Y, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J: Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with hSNF5/INI1 gene inactivation. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):117-24
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  • [Title] Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with hSNF5/INI1 gene inactivation.
  • OBJECT: Although atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is known to generate through inactivation of the hSNF5/INI1 gene on chromosome 22q, the downstream molecular mechanism remains unclear.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 16 tumors under three years of age: seven medulloblastomas, three anaplastic ependymomas (E IIIs), two each of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs) and choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs), and one each of neuroblastoma and pineoblastoma.
  • Because of the presence of rhabdoid cells and the polyimmunophenotypic features, the diagnosis was revised to AT/RT in five (31%) tumors, namely, two E IIIs and one each of medulloblastoma, CPC and pineoblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: AT/RT can be misdiagnosed as a variety of tumors, including ependymoma that potentially harbors LOH 22q.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Rhabdoid Tumor / genetics. Teratoma / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15981100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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24. Rodríguez D, Cheung MC, Housri N, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Camphausen K, Koniaris LG: Outcomes of malignant CNS ependymomas: an examination of 2408 cases through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2005). J Surg Res; 2009 Oct;156(2):340-51
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  • [Title] Outcomes of malignant CNS ependymomas: an examination of 2408 cases through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2005).
  • BACKGROUND: Determine the role of surgery and radiation therapy for patients with malignant CNS ependymomas.
  • RESULTS: Overall, a total of 2408 cases of malignant ependymomas were identified.
  • Of these, 2132 cases (88.5%) were identified as WHO grade II ependymomas and 276 cases (11.5%) as WHO grade III (anaplastic) ependymomas.
  • The annual incidence of ependymomas was approximately 1.97 cases per million in 2005.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 37 y among females and 34 y in males.
  • Patients who successfully underwent surgical resection had a considerably longer median survival (237 mo versus 215 mo, P<0.001) as well as a significantly improved five-year survival (72.4% versus 52.6%, P<0.001).
  • Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, gender, ethnicity, primary tumor site, WHO grade and surgical resection were significant predictors of improved survival for ependymoma patients.
  • Multivariate analysis identified that a WHO grade III tumor, male gender, patient age, intracranial tumor locations and failure to undergo surgical resection were independent predictors of poorer outcomes.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical extirpation of ependymomas is associated with significantly improved patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19577759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Nafe R, Yan B, Schlote W, Schneider B: Application of different methods for nuclear shape analysis with special reference to the differentiation of brain tumors. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Apr;28(2):69-77
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  • STUDY DESIGN: At least 300 tumor cell nuclei per case were measured by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • (1) oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II (n = 13) vs. grade III (n = 11), (2) medulloblastomas WHO grade IV (n = 14) vs. anaplastic ependymomas WHO grade III (n = 12), (3) Ki-67-positive vs. Ki-67-negative tumor cell nuclei in the 14 medulloblastomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Fourier analysis provided an optimal statistical discrimination between different brain tumor entities and between data sets from proliferating and nonproliferating tumor cell nuclei.

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  • (PMID = 16637509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb;64(2):279-87; discussion 287-8
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  • [Title] Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop outcome predictors after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with intracranial ependymomas who had received previous fractionated radiation therapy, we compared tumor control, survival, and complications with tumor grade, volume, age of patients, and imaging characteristics.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 39 consecutive ependymoma patients who underwent SRS for 56 tumors.
  • All patients had previous surgical resection of their ependymomas followed by radiotherapy, and 14 patients underwent previous chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-five patients had low-grade ependymomas (34 tumors), and 14 patients had anaplastic ependymomas (22 tumors).
  • The progression-free survival rates after SRS at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81.6, 45.8, and 45.8%, respectively, for all grades of ependymomas.
  • Lower histological tumor grade was not significantly associated with better progression-free survival (P = 0.725).
  • Factors associated with an improved progression-free survival included smaller tumor volume and homogeneous tumor contrast enhancement in low-grade ependymomas.
  • CONCLUSION: SRS provides another management option for patients with residual or recurrent ependymomas that have failed surgery and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Radiosurgery / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 19190457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Kano H, Yang HC, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Arai Y, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric recurrent intracranial ependymomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Nov;6(5):417-23
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric recurrent intracranial ependymomas.
  • OBJECT: To evaluate the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with recurrent or residual intracranial ependymomas after resection and fractionated radiation therapy (RT), the authors assessed overall survival, distant tumor relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and complications.
  • METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 21 children with ependymomas who underwent SRS for 32 tumors.
  • All patients underwent resection of an ependymoma followed by cranial or neuraxis (if spinal metastases was confirmed) RT.
  • Twelve patients had low-grade ependymomas (17 tumors), and 9 patients had anaplastic ependymomas (15 tumors).
  • The median radiosurgical target volume was 2.2 cm(3) (range 0.1-21.4 cm(3)), and the median dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 9-22 Gy).
  • Factors associated with a longer PFS included patients without spinal metastases (p = 0.033) and tumor volumes < 2.2 cm(3) (median tumor volume 2.2 cm(3), p = 0.029).
  • The distant tumor relapse rate despite RT and SRS was 33.6%, 41.0%, and 80.3% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively.
  • Factors associated with a higher rate of distant tumor relapse included patients who had spinal metastases before RT (p = 0.037), a fourth ventricle tumor location (p = 0.002), and an RT to SRS interval < 18 months (p = 0.015).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery offers an additional option beyond repeat surgery or RT in pediatric patients with residual or recurrent ependymomas after initial management.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 21039163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • [Title] Ependymal tumors in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymal tumors are classified as ependymoma (benign or low grade) versus anaplastic ependymoma (malignant or high grade).
  • Ependymomas represent 5-10% of intracranial neoplasm in children.
  • In this study, demographic data and the treatment results of pediatric patients with ependymal tumors, treated in a single institute, is reported.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 2001, 40 (22 M/18 F) previously untreated patients with a median age of 5.5 years (3 months-15 years), of histologically proven ependymal tumors (except ependymoblastomas) were referred to the Institute of Oncology, University of Istanbul.
  • Histologic subgroups were 18 ependymomas (43.6%), and 22 anaplastic ependymomas (56.4%).
  • Total tumor resection was performed in 20 patients (50%), subtotal in 18 patients (45%), and biopsy only in 2 patients (5%).
  • Postoperative treatment consisted of regional (8 patients) or craniospinal (CSI) (9 patients) radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ependymoma; regional (7 patients) or CSI RT (14 patients) with chemotherapy (ChT) in patients with anaplastic ependymoma; ChT only (1 patient) in patients less than 3 years of age.
  • Patients who were treated between June 1991 and July 1994, received regimen B, which included two courses of postoperative "VEC" (vincristine, etoposide, cisplatin) ChT, administered every 3 weeks, followed by RT applied with low dose concomitant cisplatin used as a radiosensitizer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of complete responders were patients who had total tumor removal.
  • Treatment failure occurred mainly within the first 2 years, and outcome was dismal for patients who relapsed or had progressive disease.
  • The median age at diagnosis is 6 years in our patient group; younger children (less than 3 years old) have less favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Ahmadi R, Schmitt HP, Kunze S, Steiner HH: Supratentorial malignant ependymoma in childhood: 16 years without relapse after hemispherectomy. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Feb;21(2):156-60
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  • [Title] Supratentorial malignant ependymoma in childhood: 16 years without relapse after hemispherectomy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant intracranial ependymomas in childhood have a poor prognosis, supratentorial ependymomas have the poorest clinical course with a survival rate after 5 years of 45%.
  • CASE REPORT: We demonstrate the case of a large malignant ependymoma of the left cerebral hemisphere in a child who has so far lived for 16 years without relapse after an extensive but uncomplicated left-sided hemispherectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case shows the significance of complete tumor resection in malignant ependymomas, which may, under certain circumstances, lead to lasting tumor control.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Hemispherectomy / methods. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15095106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Borrelli A, Mattiazzi L, Capucchio MT, Biolatti C, Cagnasso A, Gianella P, D'Angelo A: Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog. J Small Anim Pract; 2009 Oct;50(10):554-7
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  • [Title] Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog.
  • On physical examination, cachexia was the only reported abnormality.
  • Based on the morphological features of the tumour, marked parenchymal invasion, extensive necrosis and cellular atypia, the mass was classified as an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / veterinary. Cachexia / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Ependymoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female

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  • (PMID = 19796316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Azarpira N, Rakei M, Mokhtari M: Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):1023-6
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  • [Title] Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative imprint cytology has proved to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • Ependymomas are uncommon glial neoplasms of the CNS, arising from ependymal lining of the ventricular system and central canal of the spinal cord.
  • Anaplastic ependymoma is a rare tumor that causes diagnostic difficulties in imprint cytology because of variable cytomorphologic findings.
  • Computed tomography of the head showed hydrocephalus with a large parietal lobe tumor with midline structural shift.
  • The tumor showed pseudorosettes with glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen expression.
  • The diagnosis was made with histologic and immunologic confirmation.
  • CONCLUSION: Although imprint cytology is a useful method for making a rapid diagnosis, but immunohistochemical markers play a major role in the final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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32. Mogler C, Kohlhof P, Penzel R, Grenacher L, Haag GM, Schirmacher P, Mueller W: A primary malignant ependymoma of the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature. Virchows Arch; 2009 Apr;454(4):475-8
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  • [Title] A primary malignant ependymoma of the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Ependymomas generally arise in the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Rare primary extraneural ependymomas have been observed.
  • Here, we describe the first case of an overt malignant primary extraneural ependymoma in a young female patient.
  • Careful reevaluation together with extensive review of the literature and comparison of related cases established the diagnosis after treatment failure and tumor progression.
  • The tumor was large and firm with some small cysts and showed pseudorosettes with strong glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression.
  • In conclusion, primary extraneural ependymomas have to be included into the differential diagnosis of abdominal tumors with pseudorosette-formation, even in unusual sites, and GFAP-immunohistochemistry (IHC) supports the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Cavity / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Ependymoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19238432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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33. Gilbert MR, Ruda R, Soffietti R: Ependymomas in adults. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2010 May;10(3):240-7
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  • [Title] Ependymomas in adults.
  • Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors in adults.
  • They occur most commonly in the spinal cord, where histopathologic evaluation is critical to differentiate the grade I myxopapillary ependymoma from the grade II ependymoma or grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Brain ependymomas are either grade II or III.
  • For myxopapillary ependymoma, complete removal while maintaining capsule integrity may be curative.
  • Some grade II ependymomas may be observed carefully after imaging confirms complete resection, but grade III tumors require adjuvant radiation treatment.
  • Radiation commonly is given to the region of tumor, except in cases in which there is imaging or cerebrospinal fluid evidence of tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • (PMID = 20425040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6293
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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34. Wang Z, Huang G, Yan P, Liang R, Wang J, Yan Q, Zhang J, Cheng H, Hu P, Ma MJ: Ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Dec;55(12):781-4
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  • [Title] Ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Ependymomas generally arise in the central nervous system (CNS), although rare primary extraneural ependymomas have been observed.
  • Reported herein for the first time is the case of a patient with primary ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma.
  • The tumor was found in the right neck root region of a 35-year-old man.
  • No additional tumor was found in the CNS or in other parts of the body.
  • Microscopically, the tumor consisted of round to oval cells with fine chromatin, distinct nucleoli, moderate nuclear atypia and numerous mitoses (>25/10 high-power fields) in a densely cellular growth pattern with characteristic fibrillary cytoplasm and formation of perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), vimentin and S-100 protein.
  • Electron microscopic studies revealed that tumor cells form micro rosettes, into which microvilli and cilia projected.
  • The diagnosis was World Health Organization grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • There is no evidence of local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis after 30 months follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16287493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin
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35. Combs SE, Kelter V, Welzel T, Behnisch W, Kulozik AE, Bischof M, Hof H, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Influence of radiotherapy treatment concept on the outcome of patients with localized ependymomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):972-8
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  • [Title] Influence of radiotherapy treatment concept on the outcome of patients with localized ependymomas.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the outcome of 57 patients with localized ependymomas treated with radiotherapy (RT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-seven patients with localized ependymomas were treated with RT.
  • Histology was myxopapillary ependymoma (n = 4), ependymoma (n = 23), and anaplastic ependymoma (n = 30).
  • Forty-one patients were treated with local RT, with a local dose of 45 Gy to the posterior fossa, including a boost to the tumor bed of 9 Gy.
  • In 19 patients, the tumor bed was irradiated with a median dose of 54 Gy.
  • RESULTS: Overall survival after primary diagnosis was 83% and 71% at 3 and 5 years.
  • Five-year overall survival was 80% in low-grade and 79% in high-grade tumors.
  • The radiation oncologist must keep in mind that patients with localized ependymomas benefit from local doses > or =45 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 18337022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohnishi H, Ueno Y, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Soma G: Evaluation of intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with malignant glioma. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6A):4027-32
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  • [Title] Evaluation of intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with malignant glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: This study assessed safety and efficacy for intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-SAM2) into the post-operative tumor cavity through an Ommaya reservoir for patients with malignant glioma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with malignant glioma, comprising 3 cases with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 3 cases with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 1 case with malignant ependymoma (ME) were included in the study.
  • TNF-SAM2 was administrated into the post-operative tumor cavity through a reservoir at a concentration of 1x10(4) U/body when recurrence was detected, or as initial induction therapy concomitant with radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Partial response to this regional immunotherapy was seen in 4 out of 7 patients, and 1 patient with GBM has remained clinically stable for >184 weeks without tumor progression.
  • With AA, 2 cases appeared to display slowed advance and longer times to tumor recurrence or regrowth.
  • CONCLUSION: Local immunotherapy with TNF-SAM2 may safely contribute to therapeutic efficacy in some patients with malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17195453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TNF-SAM2; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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37. Valera ET, Machado HR, Santos AC, de Oliveira RS, Araújo D, Neder L, Tone LG: The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to achieve complete surgical resection in recurring supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Mar;21(3):230-3
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  • [Title] The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to achieve complete surgical resection in recurring supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ependymoma is a central nervous system neoplasm that is often managed with surgery and radiotherapy.
  • The benefits of chemotherapy in treating this tumor remain poorly defined.
  • CASE REPORT: The use of a platinum-based chemotherapy as a neoadjuvant treatment to permit complete surgical resection of a supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma recurring for the third time is described.
  • DISCUSSION: This paper also discusses the possible use of chemotherapy as a strategy that may allow tumor shrinkage and ease tumor resection in giant recurring ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Combined Modality Therapy. Ependymoma / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15338180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Iddrissu M, Dakurah T, Wepeba G: Anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricle causing obstrictive hydrocephalus. Ghana Med J; 2005 Mar;39(1):33-6

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  • [Title] Anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricle causing obstrictive hydrocephalus.
  • The case of fourth ventricular anaplastic epednymoma in a four-year-old child is reported in which the initial presentation was deterioration of the level of consciousness secondary to acute obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • The most important prognostic factors are tumour grade and the presence of residual tumour on post operative imaging studies.
  • A median survival of 31 months is noted in children with infratentorial ependymomas and one year survival is quoted as 81%.

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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992;23(2):313-9 [1587752.001]
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  • (PMID = 17299539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-9560
  • [Journal-full-title] Ghana medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ghana Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ghana
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1790804
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39. Mridha AR, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Garg A, Singh MM, Suri V: Anaplastic ependymoma with cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia: report of a rare case and review of literature. J Neurooncol; 2007 Mar;82(1):75-80
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ependymoma with cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia: report of a rare case and review of literature.
  • The present paper describes an unusual case of anaplastic ependymoma with cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia in a young boy which was located in the suprasellar, interpeduncular prepontine and left cerebello-pontine cistern.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this cartilaginous metaplasia in ependymomas has been reported only thrice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cartilage / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Osteochondrodysplasias / pathology


40. Lin YH, Huang CI, Wong TT, Chen MH, Shiau CY, Wang LW, Ming-Tak Ho D, Yen SH: Treatment of spinal cord ependymomas by surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):205-10

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  • [Title] Treatment of spinal cord ependymomas by surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of complete resection and postoperative radiotherapy in spinal cord ependymomas.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective study over 20 patients (13 males and 7 females) with histologically confirmed spinal cord ependymomas between July 1985 and April 2001.
  • Among them, 13 patients had ependymomas, 6 had myxopapillary ependymomas, and 1 had anaplastic ependymoma.
  • All patients received radical surgery for tumor removal with 13 patients achieving complete resection and 7 incomplete resection due to technical difficulty.
  • Among those with incomplete resection, 6 patients received postoperative radiotherapy to tumor bed and only one patient with anaplastic ependymoma received surgery alone.
  • The total tumor dose ranged from 50 to 60 Gy.
  • One patient with anaplastic ependymoma and no postoperative radiotherapy developed leptomeningeal seeding 9 months after surgery.
  • The patient expired 34 months from the initial diagnosis due to progression of leptomeningeal seeding.
  • CONCLUSION: Complete resection alone in spinal cord ependymoma can achieve excellent local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Nervous System / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15690140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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41. Niazi TN, Jensen EM, Jensen RL: WHO Grade II and III supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas in adults: case series and review of treatment options. J Neurooncol; 2009 Feb;91(3):323-8
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  • [Title] WHO Grade II and III supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas in adults: case series and review of treatment options.
  • Supratentorial ependymomas and their anaplastic variants are relatively uncommon central nervous system neoplasms that afflict both adults and children.
  • In our case series of three adult patients with supratentorial ependymomas, two patients had tumors of WHO Grade III (anaplastic variant) and one had tumor of WHO Grade II.
  • Additional radiation therapy was administered in the Grade III patients.
  • Twenty-four-month follow-up in case 1 yielded no tumor recurrence and no requirement of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In case 2, tumor recurred with leptomeningeal gliomatosis by 6 months.
  • In case 3 (WHO Grade II), no radiation therapy was required.
  • Tumor did not recur during the 42-month follow-up.
  • In our experience, gross total resection was achieved in all patients with hemispheric supratentorial WHO Grade II or Grade III ependymomas with additional radiation therapy for Grade III variants.
  • The role of chemotherapy is still uncertain but may be necessary in younger patients who may have tumors that behave more like the pediatric ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Functional Laterality

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  • (PMID = 18974933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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42. Hussain M, Mallucci C, Abernethy L, Godhamgaonkar V, Thorp N, Pizer B: Anaplastic ependymoma with sclerotic bone metastases. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;55(6):1204-6
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ependymoma with sclerotic bone metastases.
  • Ependymomas are glial central nervous system (CNS) tumors that arise from the ependymal layer of brain and spinal cord.
  • They frequently relapse at the primary site and may disseminate to other CNS sites.
  • We present a case of ependymoma in a child with widespread metastasis to her bones, a previously unreported event.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20979177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Gaspar N, Grill J, Geoerger B, Lellouch-Tubiana A, Michalowski MB, Vassal G: p53 Pathway dysfunction in primary childhood ependymomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 May 1;46(5):604-13
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  • [Title] p53 Pathway dysfunction in primary childhood ependymomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Childhood ependymoma remains a major therapeutic challenge despite surgery, chemotherapy, and irradiation.
  • We hypothesized that p53 function might be abrogated in ependymomas and implicated in their resistance to anti-cancer therapy.
  • PROCEDURE: Primary ependymomas at diagnosis or relapse from 24 children were analyzed for p53 pathway, using a functional assay in yeast, RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and/or immunohistochemistry for TP53 mutation, p14(ARF) deletion and promoter hypermethylation, MDM2 and PAX5 expression, respectively. p53-mediated response to radiation-induced DNA damage was evaluated using Western blot and flow cytometry analysis in two ependymoma xenograft models, IGREP37 and IGREP83, derived from primary anaplastic childhood ependymomas.
  • RESULTS: No TP53, MDM2, p14(ARF), PAX5 gene abnormalities were detected in the primary ependymomas tumors and xenografts tested.
  • In contrast, irradiation yielded significant tumor growth delays and tumor regressions in the p53 functional IGREP83 xenografts.
  • CONCLUSION: Alterations in p53-mediated growth arrest in ependymomas might be implicated in the radio-resistance of these tumors and demand further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / genetics. B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Mice. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16086408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / Pax5 protein, mouse; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Mdm2 protein, mouse; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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44. López-Aguilar E, Sepúlveda-Vildósola AC, Betanzos-Cabrera Y, Gascón-Lastiri G, Ortiz-Suárez L, Rivera-Márquez H, Cerecedo-Díaz F, Wanzke-Del Angel V, De la Cruz-Yáñez H, Ramírez-Reyes G, Arenas-Aranda D, Siordia-Reyes G: [Prognostic and survival factors among pediatric patients with ependymomas]. Gac Med Mex; 2009 Jan-Feb;145(1):7-13
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  • [Title] [Prognostic and survival factors among pediatric patients with ependymomas].
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymomas constitute the third most common intracranial tumors in children.
  • OBJECTIVE: Determine global survival of patients with ependymomas according to different prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the medical charts of every pediatric patient with ependymoma from 1996 to 2005.
  • The presence of chromosomal imbalances, particularly in chromosome 21, significantly affected survival Being under 5 years of age, anaplastic histology, chemotherapy other than ICE (ifosfamida-carboplatin-etoposide) and partial resection increased the risk of death.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Ependymoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19256405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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45. Duda-Szymańska J, Papierz W: Morphological analysis of vascular density in ependymomas. Folia Neuropathol; 2007;45(3):115-9

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  • [Title] Morphological analysis of vascular density in ependymomas.
  • Ependymomas generally show slow growth rate and are associated with a long clinical history.
  • Density of microvessels was shown to serve in various malignant neoplasms as a prognostic factor that correlates with increased risk of metastasis and overall free survival.
  • The aim of this study was to determinate whether that observation can be applied to ependymomas.
  • The materials included 51 ependymomas G2 and G3 according to the WHO classification.
  • The density of blood vessels in anaplastic (WHO G3) ependymomas was shown to be significantly higher than that in WHO G2 type of the tumour, while there was no statistical difference between subtypes of WHO G2 ependymomas.
  • The results suggest a connection between density of vasculature and the degree of histological malignancy in gliomas of ependymal derivation.

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  • (PMID = 17849361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1641-4640
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Neuropathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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46. Rudà R, Gilbert M, Soffietti R: Ependymomas of the adult: molecular biology and treatment. Curr Opin Neurol; 2008 Dec;21(6):754-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ependymomas of the adult: molecular biology and treatment.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review state of art and relevant advances in the molecular biology and management of ependymomas of the adult.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Ependymomas of the adult are uncommon neoplasms of the central nervous system, and may occur either in the brain or the spinal cord.
  • Compared with intracranial ependymomas, spinal ependymomas are less frequent and exhibit a better prognosis.
  • Studies performed on genetic changes in ependymoma provide some insight into the pathogenesis and prognostic markers and yield new therapeutic targets, particularly focused on signal transduction modulators.
  • Involved field radiotherapy is recommended for anaplastic or incompletely resected grade II tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Owing to the rarity of the disease, the literature regarding ependymomas in adults is scarce and limited to retrospective series.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / therapy. Molecular Biology / methods

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  • (PMID = 18989122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-7540
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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47. Rodriguez FJ, Scheithauer BW, Robbins PD, Burger PC, Hessler RB, Perry A, Abell-Aleff PC, Mierau GW: Ependymomas with neuronal differentiation: a morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):313-24
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  • [Title] Ependymomas with neuronal differentiation: a morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum.
  • The category of mixed glioneuronal tumors of the CNS is rapidly losing its definition as encompassing tumors composed of histologically distinct neuron variants and glia.
  • We encountered five ependymomas with neuronal differentiation seen in two by histology, in two by immunohistochemistry alone, and in one by electron microscopy.
  • In addition, 33 randomly selected ependymomas of various histologic types were screened for these same antigens.
  • Cases 1 and 2 were anaplastic and showed clearly defined neuropil islands or pale islands as in nodular desmoplastic medulloblastoma, respectively.
  • Cases 3-5, as well as 7 of the 33 screened ependymomas, showed a suggestion of neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemistry alone, including immunoreactivity for Neu-N (n = 8), synaptophysin (n = 4), neurofilament protein (n = 4), and chromogranin (n = 2).
  • Five tumors each were WHO grade II and III.
  • Neuronal differentiation occurs in ependymomas but is less frequently definitive (histologic, ultrastructural) than merely a limited immunohistochemical finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neurons / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17061076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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48. Schneider D, Monoranu CM, Huang B, Rutkowski S, Gerber NU, Krauss J, Puppe B, Roggendorf W: Pediatric supratentorial ependymomas show more frequent deletions on chromosome 9 than infratentorial ependymomas: a microsatellite analysis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2009 Jun;191(2):90-6
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  • [Title] Pediatric supratentorial ependymomas show more frequent deletions on chromosome 9 than infratentorial ependymomas: a microsatellite analysis.
  • In our previous screening study in ependymomas, we used microsatellite analysis to identify frequent aberrations on this chromosome.
  • A total of 48 pairs of matched normal and tumor specimens from patients with ependymoma, including 28 children (mean age, 4.4 years) and 20 adults (mean age, 44.9 years), were genotyped.
  • Pediatric tumors, which were predominantly anaplastic, showed fewer aberrations (57.1%) than adult tumors (70%), and two common regions of deletions were identified (9p21.1 approximately p22.3 and 9q31.3 approximately q33.2).
  • Adults with ependymomas harboring aberrations on chromosome 9 (n=14) showed significantly longer overall survival than patients of the same group without this aberration (n=6; P=0.034), irrespective of the extent of resection in multivariate analysis.
  • Aberrations of chromosome 9, and particularly of DCR1, may play a role in the prognostic evaluation for ependymomas in adults in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Allelic Imbalance / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9. Ependymoma / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19446744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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49. Monoranu CM, Huang B, Zangen IL, Rutkowski S, Vince GH, Gerber NU, Puppe B, Roggendorf W: Correlation between 6q25.3 deletion status and survival in pediatric intracranial ependymomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Apr 1;182(1):18-26
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  • [Title] Correlation between 6q25.3 deletion status and survival in pediatric intracranial ependymomas.
  • We previously used microsatellite analysis of ependymomas to identify frequent deletions in regions 6q15 approximately q16, 6q21 approximately q22.1, and 6q24.3 approximately q25.3.
  • To refine our preliminary analysis of potential prognostic regions, we used a panel of 25 microsatellite markers located between 6q15 and 6qter in 49 pairs of matched normal and tumor specimens from 28 children and 21 adults with ependymoma.
  • Pediatric anaplastic intracranial (supra- and infratentorial) ependymomas harboring the 6q25.3 deletion (n = 9) showed significantly longer overall survival than did patients of the same group without the aberration (n = 6), independent of the extent of resection (P = 0.013).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Ependymoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18328946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Volpp PB, Han K, Kagan AR, Tome M: Outcomes in treatment for intradural spinal cord ependymomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Nov 15;69(4):1199-204

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  • [Title] Outcomes in treatment for intradural spinal cord ependymomas.
  • PURPOSE: Spinal cord ependymomas are rare tumors, accounting for <2% of all primary central nervous system tumors.
  • This study assessed the treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with spinal cord ependymomas within the Southern California Kaiser Permanente system.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that en bloc gross total resection should be the initial treatment, with radiotherapy reserved primarily for postoperative cases with unfavorable characteristics such as residual tumor, anaplastic histologic features, or piecemeal resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Salvage Therapy / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17689025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Conter C, Carrie C, Bernier V, Geoffray A, Pagnier A, Gentet JC, Lellouch-Tubiana A, Chabaud S, Frappaz D: Intracranial ependymomas in children: society of pediatric oncology experience with postoperative hyperfractionated local radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Aug 1;74(5):1536-42
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  • [Title] Intracranial ependymomas in children: society of pediatric oncology experience with postoperative hyperfractionated local radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate the role of local hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection in the treatment of intracranial ependymomas in children.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postoperative local hyperfractionated RT was proposed for every child (>5 years old at diagnosis) with localized intracranial ependymoma.
  • RESULTS: Between November 1996 and December 2002, 24 children with infratentorial (n = 20) or supratentorial (n = 4) intracranial ependymoma were included.
  • The World Health Organization grade was anaplastic in 10 of the 24 patients (not assessable in 1).
  • The histological grade and extent of resection were not prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose Fractionation. Feasibility Studies. Female. France / epidemiology. Hearing / radiation effects. Humans. Intelligence / radiation effects. Male. Medical Oncology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Psychomotor Performance / radiation effects. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Societies, Medical. Survival Rate. Vision, Ocular / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 19362789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Sharma MC, Ghara N, Jain D, Sarkar C, Singh M, Mehta VS: A study of proliferative markers and tumor suppressor gene proteins in different grades of ependymomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Apr;29(2):148-55
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  • [Title] A study of proliferative markers and tumor suppressor gene proteins in different grades of ependymomas.
  • Ependymomas are CNS tumors that originate from the spinal canal and walls of the ventricular system.
  • The authors report a retrospective study of a homogenous population of 119 patients harbouring ependymomas between 1991 and 2002.
  • Histopathologic grades show relationship with MIB1 and Topo IIalpha labelling indices and cut-off values of 5% can differentiate between anaplastic and lower grades. p53 and MDM2 proteins expression are not common in ependymomas; however, they are seen in higher grades only and may be involved in the tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18721229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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53. Metellus P, Figarella-Branger D, Guyotat J, Barrie M, Giorgi R, Jouvet A, Chinot O, Club de Neuro-Oncologie de la Société Française de Neurochirurgie and the Association des Neuro-Oncologues d'Expression Française: Supratentorial ependymomas: prognostic factors and outcome analysis in a retrospective series of 46 adult patients. Cancer; 2008 Jul 1;113(1):175-85

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  • [Title] Supratentorial ependymomas: prognostic factors and outcome analysis in a retrospective series of 46 adult patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymomas account for 2% of all intracranial tumors in adults.
  • Supratentorial ependymomas are less common than their infratentorial counterparts.
  • The authors report a series of adult patients with supratentorial ependymomas to characterize the roles of surgery and histology in tumor control.
  • METHODS: The authors retrospectively studied a homogenous population of 46 adult patients who had supratentorial ependymomas from 24 French neurosurgical centers between 1990 and 2004.
  • On both univariate and multivariate analysis, age <55 years, greater extent of surgery, and lower histologic grade were associated with longer overall and progression-free survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In association with age and extent of surgery, histologic grade was identified as a major prognostic factor in adult supratentorial ependymomas.
  • The application of a simple and reproducible grading scheme using objective anaplastic criteria appeared to be both useful practically and clinically applicable.
  • The role of adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with incompletely resected, low-grade ependymomas needs to be investigated further.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (Copyright) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18470910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Metellus P, Barrie M, Figarella-Branger D, Chinot O, Giorgi R, Gouvernet J, Jouvet A, Guyotat J: Multicentric French study on adult intracranial ependymomas: prognostic factors analysis and therapeutic considerations from a cohort of 152 patients. Brain; 2007 May;130(Pt 5):1338-49
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  • [Title] Multicentric French study on adult intracranial ependymomas: prognostic factors analysis and therapeutic considerations from a cohort of 152 patients.
  • Ependymomas account for 2% of all intracranial tumours in adults.
  • The authors report a retrospective study of a homogenous population of 152 adult patients harbouring intracranial ependymomas from 24 French Neurosurgical Centres between 1990 and 2004.
  • On multivariate analysis, overall survival rates were associated with histological grade (P < 0.001), extent of surgery (P = 0.006), patient age (P = 0.004) and patient Karnofski performance status (P = 0.03).
  • The multivariate analysis also revealed that the risk of recurrence was associated with high histological grade (P < 0.001), incomplete resection (P < 0.001) and Karnofski performance status < or = 80 (P = 0.04).
  • The impact of radiotherapy was found to be beneficial for incompletely resected low-grade ependymomas and to a lesser extent for completely removed high-grade tumours.
  • In association with Karnofski performance status and extent of surgery, histological grade is a major prognostic factor in adult intracranial ependymomas.
  • The application of a simple and reproducible grading scheme using objective anaplastic criteria seems useful practically and clinically applicable.
  • The role of adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with incompletely resected low-grade ependymomas seems to be beneficial but remains to be addressed for high-grade tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Ependymoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17449478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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55. Kumar P, Rastogi N, Jain M, Chhabra P: Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Apr-Jun;3(2):102-4
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  • [Title] Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Ependymoma are rare glial neoplasm, it rarely metastasize outside the central nervous system.
  • We present a case of anaplastic ependymoma with extraneural metastases with review of literature.
  • A ten-year-old male child presented with anaplastic ependymoma of choroid plexus and treated with craniospinal radiotherapy in 1998.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17998733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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56. Osztie E, Hanzély Z, Afra D: Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Jan;69(1):67-73
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  • [Title] Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives.
  • In our series ventricular ependymomas (eight cases) were mostly hyperdense with pronounced contrast uptake.
  • Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones.
  • In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK.
  • WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neurocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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57. Sardi I, Sanzo M, Giordano F, Sandri A, Mussa F, Donati PA, Genitori L: Intracavitary chemotherapy (Gliadel) and oral low-dose etoposide for recurrent anaplastic ependymoma. Oncol Rep; 2008 May;19(5):1219-23
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  • [Title] Intracavitary chemotherapy (Gliadel) and oral low-dose etoposide for recurrent anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Anaplastic ependymoma is associated with a higher incidence of tumor recurrence and its prognosis still remains unsatisfactory.
  • Consolidated therapy for ependymoma includes surgery followed by focal radiotherapy when resection is incomplete.
  • In the case of relapse treatment, options are limited especially for patients who have already received radiotherapy.
  • We sought to establish the feasibility of administering low-dose oral etoposide (50 mg/m(2)/day for 21 days) in combination with the implantation of intracavitary carmustine (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel) at the gross total resection for achieving synergistic treatment in three children affected by recurrent anaplastic ependymoma.
  • This multimodal approach was not effective for the treatment of refractory anaplastic ependymoma and further studies are required in order to define the role of the combination of multidrug systemic chemotherapy with BCNU wafer implantation in children with high-risk brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Decanoic Acids / therapeutic use. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Polyesters / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18425379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Decanoic Acids; 0 / Polyesters; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 90409-78-2 / decanedioic acid-4,4'-(1,3-propanediylbis(oxy))bis(benzoic acid) copolymer; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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58. Hamano E, Tsutsumi S, Nonaka Y, Abe Y, Yasumoto Y, Saeki H, Ito M: Huge supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with massive calcification--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(2):150-3
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  • [Title] Huge supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with massive calcification--case report.
  • A 15-year-old boy presented with an anaplastic supratentorial ependymoma causing massive intratumoral calcification, without contributory medical and family history, and manifesting as persistent headache for 2 months.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the tumor as an assembly of medullated masses with extraventricular location, 7 x 6.5 x 6.5 cm in diameter, and appearing as heterogeneous intensity on both T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images with inhomogeneous enhancement except for the central cores.
  • The patient underwent tumor resection.
  • Intraoperative findings revealed that the cortical veins overlying the tumor were reddish and moderately engorged.
  • The hypervascular tumor, entirely extraventricular in location, was totally resected without neurological deterioration.
  • Histological examination revealed that the tumor was highly cellular with hyperchromatic nuclei and cell atypia.
  • The findings were compatible with anaplastic ependymoma (World Health Organization classification grade 3).
  • Ependymoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a supratentorially located, extraventricular mass with massive intratumoral calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Edema / pathology. Brain Edema / radiography. Cerebral Veins / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Occipital Lobe / blood supply. Occipital Lobe / pathology. Occipital Lobe / surgery. Parietal Lobe / blood supply. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Skull / pathology. Skull / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20185883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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59. Kumar R, Wani AA, Reddy J, Pal L, Pradhan S: Development of anaplastic ependymoma in Rasmussen's encephalitis: review of the literature and case report. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Apr;22(4):416-9
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  • [Title] Development of anaplastic ependymoma in Rasmussen's encephalitis: review of the literature and case report.
  • The occurrence of anaplastic ependymoma in a diagnosed case of RE has not been reported in the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: We report an eight and a half year-old boy, a diagnosed case of RE, suffering from intractable right-sided focal seizures, who developed features of raised intracranial pressure during follow-up.
  • Histopathology of the mass revealed anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Encephalitis / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology


60. Kano T, Ikota H, Wada H, Iwasa S, Kurosaki S: A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):11-7
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  • [Title] A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components.
  • The tumor was removed, and pathological studies revealed a cerebellar astrocytoma corresponding to World Health Organization grade II.
  • When she was 35 years old, or 6 years after the surgery, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a recurrence of the tumor in the right cerebellum, and subtotal removal of the recurrent tumor was performed.
  • Pathological studies revealed a mixed glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Thereafter, at 39 years of age, or 4 years after radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging again revealed a recurrence of the tumor, which was heterogeneously enhanced with gadoliniumdiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in the right cerebellum.
  • Subtotal removal of the tumor was performed; pathological studies revealed an anaplastic ependymoma with sarcomatous components.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paraffin Embedding. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19408092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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61. Timmermann B, Kortmann RD, Kühl J, Rutkowski S, Dieckmann K, Meisner C, Bamberg M: Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92. Radiother Oncol; 2005 Dec;77(3):278-85
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  • [Title] Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of very young children with anaplastic ependymoma after delayed or omitted radiotherapy (RT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children under age of 3 years with anaplastic ependymoma were enrolled in the HIT-SKK 87 trial from 1987.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four children with anaplastic ependymoma were eligible (age 1.0-33.0 months).
  • Predominant site of failure is the primary tumor site.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy


62. Ghosal N, Murthy G, Dadlani R, Hegde AS, Singh D: Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):787-9
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  • [Title] Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: a case report and review of literature.
  • We report an unusual case of a recurrent fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia in a 16-year-old male.
  • On initial presentation, the patient had a WHO Grade II tumor.
  • However, at recurrence 1 year later, the tumor progressed to WHO Grade III tumor with more cellularity, necrosis and brisk mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21045418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Mucin-1
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63. Watanabe T, Nobusawa S, Kleihues P, Ohgaki H: IDH1 mutations are early events in the development of astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Am J Pathol; 2009 Apr;174(4):1149-53
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  • IDH1 mutations were frequent in low-grade diffuse astrocytomas (88%) and in secondary glioblastomas that developed through progression from low-grade diffuse or anaplastic astrocytoma (82%).
  • IDH1 mutations were co-present with TP53 mutations in 63% of low-grade diffuse astrocytomas and with loss of heterozygosity 1p/19q in 64% of oligodendrogliomas; they were rare in pilocytic astrocytomas (10%) and primary glioblastomas (5%) and absent in ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19246647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671348
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64. Alaraj A, Chan M, Oh S, Michals E, Valyi-Nagy T, Hersonsky T: Astroblastoma presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage misdiagnosed as dural arteriovenous fistula: review of a rare entity. Surg Neurol; 2007 Mar;67(3):308-13
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  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells show diffuse strong positivity for GFAP, S-100 protein, vimentin, as well as neuron-specific enolase and focal positivity for EMA.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: Our patient is a 33-year-old gentleman who presented with intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe.
  • Because of its high degree of proliferation, the presence of astroblastic pseudorosettes, prominent perivascular hyalinization, regional hyaline changes, and pushing borders with regard to the adjacent brain, the tumor was considered anaplastic.
  • The diagnosis of astroblastoma is often difficult because of the astroblastic aspects that can be found in astrocytic tumors, in ependymomas, and in nonneuroepithelial tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / diagnosis. Cerebral Hemorrhage. Diagnostic Errors. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Angiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17320647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohmura T, Ohta M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):911-7
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  • [Title] Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported the clinical efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment for high-grade glioma, but information on Japanese populations has been limited.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects comprised ten patients with high-grade glioma [glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), n=3, gliosarcoma (GS), n=1, anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), n=3, anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma (AOA), n=1, and anaplastic ependymoma (AE), n=2].
  • As second- or third-line chemotherapy, patients received TMZ for recurrence or tumor progression.
  • As combination therapy, the local administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the addition of carboplatin and etoposide were included for three patients during the course of oral TMZ treatment.
  • One of the patients receiving combination therapy has continued to show shrinkage of the relapsed tumor.
  • Despite prior radio- and chemotherapy, most patients experienced only grade 1-2 hematotoxicity that was well-controlled by conservative therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ chemotherapy is effective for the treatment of high-grade glioma in some patients without serious toxicity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19414327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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66. Shrivastava RK, Epstein FJ, Perin NI, Post KD, Jallo GI: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors in patients older than 50 years of age: management and outcome analysis. J Neurosurg Spine; 2005 Mar;2(3):249-55
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  • Ependymoma was the most common tumor (83%), and 55% were located in the thoracic spine.
  • There were two deaths due tumor progression (both malignant tumors) and one recurrence (anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • All three patients in whom malignant astrocytomas were diagnosed underwent postoperative radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the population of patients older than age 50 years, thoracic ependymomas are the most common IMSCTs that present characteristically with sensory symptoms.
  • The longer prodromal period in the older adult population may reflect the fact that their diagnosis and workup is inadequate.
  • The authors recommend motor evoked potential-guided aggressive microsurgical resection, because the long-term outcome of benign lesions is excellent (good functional recovery and no tumor recurrence).
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15796348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Reni M, Gatta G, Mazza E, Vecht C: Ependymoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2007 Jul;63(1):81-9
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  • [Title] Ependymoma.
  • Ependymomas are rare tumours of neuroectodermal origin classified as myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma (grade I), ependymoma (grade II) and anaplastic ependymoma (grade III).
  • Age <40 years and extent of surgery appear related to better prognosis, while the role of other prognostic factors, such as tumour grade and tumour site are equivocal.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy is indicated in high-grade ependymomas, and is recommended in low-grade ependymomas after subtotal or incomplete resection (confirmed by postoperative MR).
  • Recommended dose to involved fields is 45-54 Gy for low-grade (grade II) and 54-60 Gy for high-grade ependymomas (grade III).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17482475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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68. Green RM, Cloughesy TF, Stupp R, DeAngelis LM, Woyshner EA, Ney DE, Lassman AB: Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma. Neurology; 2009 Nov 17;73(20):1677-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymoma is a rare type of glioma, representing 5% of all CNS malignancies.
  • At recurrence, ependymoma is notoriously refractory to therapy and the prognosis is poor.
  • METHODS: In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 8 adult patients treated for recurrent ependymoma and anaplastic ependymoma with bevacizumab containing chemotherapy regimens.

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  • (PMID = 19917990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA-105663-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2788805
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69. Beschorner R, Wehrmann M, Ernemann U, Bonin M, Horber V, Oehl-Jaschkowitz B, Meyermann R, Dufke A: Extradural ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation in a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):339-46
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  • [Title] Extradural ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation in a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.
  • Primary extradural ependymomas are rare neoplasms usually of the myxopapillary type.
  • Reports on malignant primary extradural ependymal tumors are exceptionally rare.
  • We here report on a 3-year-old boy with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS), who presented with lumbar spina bifida occulta and a progressive extraspinal lesion in the subcutaneous sacrococcygeal region.
  • Microscopic examinations revealed an uncommon ependymal tumor with well-differentiated regions reflecting myxopapillary ependymoma and highly anaplastic regions with numerous mitoses, necroses, ependymal rosettes and ependymoblastic rosettes.
  • Final neuropathologic diagnosis was an extraspinal anaplastic ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation, corresponding to WHO grade IV.
  • So far, 42 cases have been reported, among them 7 were diagnosed to have malignant neoplasms, including three malignant sacrococcygeal teratomas, two sacrococcygeal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), one hepatoblastoma and one malignant kidney tumor.
  • The present case is the first report on an ependymal tumor with a mixture of myxopapillary, anaplastic and ependymoblastic features and the first report on an ependymal tumor arising on the genetic background of SGS.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Genetic Diseases, Inborn / complications. Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17165030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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70. Erdoğan G, Ozel E, Peştereli HE, Salar Z, Tirak B, Karaveli S: Ovarian ependymoma. APMIS; 2005 Apr;113(4):301-3
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  • [Title] Ovarian ependymoma.
  • The tumor contained solid areas of a yellowish white color.
  • Microscopic examination revealed highly cellular solid areas with many typical ependymal perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunopositivity was observed in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells.
  • Based on the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • This is to the best of our knowledge only the second case of anaplastic ependymoma in the medical literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15865613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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71. Salajegheh M, Rudnicki A, Smith TW: Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in primary central nervous system neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2005 Jun;13(2):184-9
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  • [Title] Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in primary central nervous system neoplasms.
  • The cellular receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a member of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein family.
  • It is a specific cell surface receptor for its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which catalyzes the formation of plasmin from plasminogen to generate the proteolytic cascade and leads to the breakdown of the extracellular matrix. uPAR has been shown to correlate with a propensity to tumor invasion and metastasis in several types of non-central nervous system tumors.
  • In this study, the authors examined the immunohistochemical expression of uPAR in 65 primary brain tumors (5 pilocytic astrocytomas, 5 diffuse astrocytomas, 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, 8 glioblastomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 6 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, 4 gangliogliomas, 4 ependymomas, 5 medulloblastomas, 6 schwannomas, 5 meningiomas, 2 atypical meningiomas).
  • A significant positive correlation (P = 0.0006) between tumor grade and staining intensity was identified within the astrocytoma/glioblastoma subgroup, suggesting a possible correlation with anaplastic change and propensity to tumor invasion.
  • Expression of uPAR in nonmalignant, noninvasive tumors such as schwannoma and meningioma suggests that uPAR may have other biologic functions in addition to promotion of tumor invasion.

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  • (PMID = 15894933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PLAUR protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator
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72. Apel-Sarid L, Cochrane DD, Steinbok P, Byrne AT, Dunham C: Microfibrillar collagen hemostat-induced necrotizing granulomatous inflammation developing after craniotomy: a pediatric case series. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):385-92
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  • Based primarily on MR imaging, postoperative reactions have most commonly elicited clinical differential diagnoses of tumor recurrence or abscess.
  • RESULTS: Case 1 is that of a 10-year-old girl whose diagnosis was a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma, classified as WHO Grade I.
  • Case 2 is that of a 9-year-old boy whose diagnosis was a left parietal lobe anaplastic ependymoma, classified as WHO Grade III.
  • Finally, Case 3 is that of a 15-year-old girl whose diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia Type IIA affecting the left occipital lobe.
  • The postsurgical reactions incited by MCH mimicked the radiological appearance of either an abscess (Cases 2 and 3) or recurrent tumor (Case 1).
  • Based on the authors' observations, the possibility of an idiopathic inflammatory reaction to MCH should be considered when either seizures, a typical radiological appearance (that is, consistent with tumor recurrence or abscess formation), or both arise shortly after initial surgery.
  • A conservative treatment approach to this type of inflammatory lesion appears to be the most appropriate management strategy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Child. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hemorrhages / prevention & control. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Malformations of Cortical Development / pathology. Malformations of Cortical Development / surgery. Necrosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20887115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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73. Armstrong TS, Vera-Bolanos E, Bekele BN, Aldape K, Gilbert MR: Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):862-70
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  • [Title] Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience.
  • Ependymomas in adults are rare and often misdiagnosed.
  • This study reports on a series of adult patients with confirmed ependymoma treated at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Patients aged >17 and with ependymoma were identified, and clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review.
  • The majority were Grade I/II lesions (108) vs Grade III (anaplastic; 15).
  • Eighteen patients had tumors that were reclassified as ependymal tumors at MDACC.
  • The most common presenting symptom was pain, with an average of 4 symptoms reported prior to diagnosis.
  • Median time to recurrence was 21 months (Grade II) brain and 18 months (Grade III).
  • Worse outcome measured by overall and progression-free survival were associated with brain location (P = .01, P = .04) and tumor anaplasia (P = .0025, P = .001).
  • Tumor grade and brain location are associated with a worse prognosis.
  • Reclassification of ependymoma by neuropathologists is common.
  • Results of this study have lead to a multicenter study to further define important diagnostic and prognostic variables for adults with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20511182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940672
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74. Glanz C, Rebetz J, Stewénius Y, Persson A, Englund E, Mandahl N, Mertens F, Salford LG, Widegren B, Fan X, Gisselsson D: Genetic intratumour heterogeneity in high-grade brain tumours is associated with telomere-dependent mitotic instability. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol; 2007 Aug;33(4):440-54
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  • [Title] Genetic intratumour heterogeneity in high-grade brain tumours is associated with telomere-dependent mitotic instability.
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and other high-grade brain tumours are typically characterized by complex chromosome abnormalities and extensive intratumour cytogenetic heterogeneity.
  • Anaphase bridging was also found in two medulloblastomas (7-15%), one anaplastic astrocytoma (17%) and one oligodendroglioma (6%).
  • In contrast, cell division abnormalities were not found in low-grade brain tumours with less complex karyotypes, including two pilocytic astrocytomas and two ependymomas.
  • Telomere-dependent abnormal segregation of chromosomes at mitosis is thus a common phenomenon in high-grade brain tumours and may be one important factor behind cytogenetic intratumour diversity in GBM.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromatids / genetics. Chromosome Segregation / physiology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred NOD. Mice, SCID. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Transplantation. Phenotype. Sister Chromatid Exchange / genetics. Telomerase / antagonists & inhibitors. Telomerase / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 17617873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-1846
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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75. Robles SG, Saldaña C, Boto GR, Martinez A, Zamarron AP, Jorquera M, Mata P: Intradural extramedullary spinal ependymoma: a benign pathology? Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2005 May 1;30(9):E251-4
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  • [Title] Intradural extramedullary spinal ependymoma: a benign pathology?
  • STUDY DESIGN: Spinal ependymoma is a benign central nervous system tumor described as an intramedullary lesion more frequently located at the conus medullaris.
  • It has been described exceptionally in the literature as an intradural extramedullary tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Presentation of an extremelly rare location and evolution of extremedullary ependymoma and discussion of its probable origin, differential diagnosis, treatment options, and follow-up.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This case demonstrates an unusual location of a benign ependymal tumor in the extramedullary space with a total resection, which recurred in a lower level with a malignant transformation with the same extramedullary location.
  • METHODS: The authors present the case of a 47-year-old woman with a subacute spinal cord dysfunction and an intradural extramedullary D2-D3 tumor mimicking meningioma or neurinoma.
  • RESULTS: After complete resection, anatomic-pathologic studies confirmed that the lesion was a benign classic ependymoma.
  • Good neurologic outcome was achieved, and no residual tumor was present at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) control performed at 3 and 9 months later.
  • One year after surgery, a new intradural extramedullary tumor was found at the D4 level without recurrence at D2.
  • The patient was operated on again, but at this time the histologic study showed an anaplastic ependymoma with a proliferation index of 25% measured by Ki-67.
  • CONCLUSION: All of the previously reported cases of spinal intradural extramedullary ependymomas carried out a benign course.
  • The case we are reporting is the first one in which malignant transformation occurred.
  • This tumor should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of intradural extramedullary lesions.
  • Moreover, close follow-up is recommended for this unusual location of ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Dura Mater / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15864145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Paramanathan N, Ooi KG, Reeves D, Wilcsek GA: Synchronous radiation-induced orbital meningioma and multiple cavernomas. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2010 May;38(4):414-7
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  • We present the first reported case of synchronous radiation-induced orbital meningioma and cavernomas of the cerebellum and bilateral basal ganglia, presenting 16 years after ionizing radiation therapy for parietal anaplastic ependymoma, at the age of five.

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  • (PMID = 20491803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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77. Park EK, Lee YH, Kim DS, Choi JU, Kim TS, Shim KW: 17-year-old girl with headache and complex partial seizure. Brain Pathol; 2010 Nov;20(6):1111-4
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  • Supratentorial cortical ependymoma is a rare clinical entity where ependymoma occurring in the cortex without any connection to the ventricular system since ependymoma usually arises from the lining of the ventricular system or central canal of spinal cord.
  • There have been 14 such cases reported in the literature.We report the first case of a supratentorial extraaxial cortical anaplastic ependymoma with minimal cortical attachment in a 17-years-old girl, presented with headache and complex partial seizure.

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  • (PMID = 20925697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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78. Martínez-Lage JF, Girón Vallejo O, López López-Guerrero A, Martínez-Lage Azorín L, Roqués JL, Almagro MJ: Acute cholecystitis complicating ventriculo-peritoneal shunting: report of a case and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Jun;24(6):777-9
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  • CASE: A 3-year-old boy underwent emergency external ventricular drainage and excision of a fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Fourth Ventricle / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Staphylococcus epidermidis / isolation & purification. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18365208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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79. Shervington A, Patel R, Lu C, Cruickshanks N, Lea R, Roberts G, Dawson T, Shervington L: Telomerase subunits expression variation between biopsy samples and cell lines derived from malignant glioma. Brain Res; 2007 Feb 23;1134(1):45-52
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  • [Title] Telomerase subunits expression variation between biopsy samples and cell lines derived from malignant glioma.
  • In this study, a recurrent anaplastic ependymoma and seven glioblastoma biopsy samples, four cell lines and four controls including two normal brain tissues were analysed for telomerase subunit expression profiles together with telomerase activity.
  • Tankyrase was expressed in 85% of the glioblastoma tissues and was down-regulated in the recurrent anaplastic ependymoma tissue control cell lines.
  • Dyskerin was expressed in all cell lines and tissues apart from U87-MG and NHA cells and the recurrent anaplastic ependymoma tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Telomerase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Tankyrases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17196947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DKC1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TEP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Tankyrases; EC 2.4.4.30 / TNKS protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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80. Hirose Y, Yoshida K: Chromosomal abnormalities subdivide neuroepithelial tumors into clinically relevant groups. Keio J Med; 2006 Jun;55(2):52-8

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  • Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumor, and are histopathologically classified according to their cell type and the degree of malignancy.
  • However, sometimes diagnosis can be controversial,and tumors of the same entity possibly have a wide range of survival.
  • Previous studies using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) demonstrated that copy number aberrations(CNAs) were frequently recognized in these tumors, and revealed that a gain on chromosomal arm 7q was the most common CNA in diffuse astrocytomas, whereas a small population of the tumor showed losses on 1p/19q which characterizes oligodendrogliomas with good responsiveness to chemotherapeutic regime using procarbazine, nitrosourea and vincristine.
  • High grade (malignant) gliomas(i.e. anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and glioblastomas) have been reported to have a gain on 7p and losses on 9p and 10q.
  • In case of ependymomas, frequent chromosomal aberrations in intracranial tumors were a gain on 1q and losses on 6q, and, on the other hand, a gain on chromosome 7 was recognized almost exclusively in spinal cord tumors.
  • These data suggest that intracranial and spinal cord ependymomas are different genetic diseases and comprise different subgroups within one histological entity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Glioma / genetics. Glioma / pathology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 16823260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-9717
  • [Journal-full-title] The Keio journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Keio J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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81. Asano K, Takeda T, Nakano T, Ohkuma H: Correlation of MIB-1 staining index and (201)Tl-SPECT retention index in preoperative evaluation of malignancy of brain tumors. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2010 Apr;27(1):1-6
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  • The subjects of this study were 47 patients who underwent tumor removal surgery at our hospital in 2006 and 2007.
  • The tumors consisted of 16 intraaxial tumors (all gliomas: 9 glioblastomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, 1 oligodendroglioma, and 2 ependymomas), 8 other malignant brain tumors, and 23 extraaxial tumors (10 meningiomas, 7 pituitary adenomas, and 6 schwannomas).
  • Thus, the MIB-1 SI values of highly malignant intraaxial tumors was strongly correlated with their RI values, and the (201)Tl-SPECT RI values were useful as an index of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Preoperative Period. Staining and Labeling. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 20425041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes
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82. Weller M: [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients]. Nervenarzt; 2008 Feb;79(2):231-41
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  • Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas.
  • In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Methylation. DNA Modification Methylases / genetics. DNA Repair Enzymes / genetics. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Genetic Markers / genetics. Humans. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Topotecan / adverse effects. Topotecan / therapeutic use. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18253773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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83. Hoffman S, Propp JM, McCarthy BJ: Temporal trends in incidence of primary brain tumors in the United States, 1985-1999. Neuro Oncol; 2006 Jan;8(1):27-37
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  • The purpose of this study was to describe incidence rate trends in a population-based series of newly diagnosed primary nonmalignant and malignant brain and other CNS tumors, contributing five additional years to previously published incidence trends.
  • Data for the years 1985 through 1999 from six collaborating state cancer registries of the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States were used to determine incidence trends in the broad age groups 0-19, 20-64, and >or=65 years, overall and for selected histologies.
  • Specific histologies that were increasing included anaplastic astrocytomas in individuals aged >or=65 years, microscopically confirmed gliomas in both adult age groups, and microscopically confirmed glioma, not otherwise specified (NOS), in children.
  • Increases that were not specific to any population subgroup were seen for oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, meningiomas, and nerve sheath tumors.
  • Improvements in diagnosis and classification are likely reflected in the decreasing trends in unspecified glioma subgroups and the accompanying increasing trends in more specific glioma subgroups.

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  • (PMID = 16443945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871920
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84. Rutten I, Raket D, Francotte N, Philippet P, Chao SL, Lemort M: Contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the differential diagnosis of a recurrent cranial mass 7 years after irradiation for a pediatric ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Nov;22(11):1475-8
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  • [Title] Contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the differential diagnosis of a recurrent cranial mass 7 years after irradiation for a pediatric ependymoma.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 5-year-old-boy who underwent surgery and focal radiotherapy for an anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricle.
  • To help the differential diagnosis between a relapse, a radio-induced modification, and a new tumor, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16708251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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85. Barut F, Kandemir NO, Ozdamar SO, Gul S, Bektas S, Gun BD, Bahadir B: Gliosarcoma with chondroblastic osteosarcomatous differentation: report of two case with clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. Turk Neurosurg; 2009 Oct;19(4):417-22
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  • Gliosarcoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system characterized by a biphasic histological pattern.
  • CASE 1: A 52- year-old male patient underwent parietal craniotomy due to anaplastic ependymoma.
  • After the first operation, additional resections were performed for tumor because of recurrences at the fourth, seventh and tenth months.
  • The patient died after the last tumor resection.
  • Histopathologic examination of the postmortem biopsy revealed neoplasm displaying a biphasic morphologic pattern including both gliomatous and sarcomatous components.
  • We report two cases with an extremely rare histopathological diagnosis of "gliosarcoma with features of chondroblastic osteosarcoma".
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19847765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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86. Patel R, Shervington L, Lea R, Shervington A: Epigenetic silencing of telomerase and a non-alkylating agent as a novel therapeutic approach for glioma. Brain Res; 2008 Jan 10;1188:173-81
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  • To further evaluate the effect of these findings, the level of hTERT and MGMT expression was measured in a recurrent anaplastic ependymoma, seven glioblastoma and two normal brain tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Aging / drug effects. Cell Aging / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Methyltransferases / antagonists & inhibitors. Methyltransferases / metabolism. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18021753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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87. Maiuri F, Del Basso De Caro M, Siciliano A, Peca C, Vergara P, Mariniello G, Pettinato G: Expression of growth factors in brain tumors: correlation with tumor grade, recurrence and survival. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Mar-Apr;29(2):109-14
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  • [Title] Expression of growth factors in brain tumors: correlation with tumor grade, recurrence and survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the expression of some growth factors (GFs) and the tumor grade, recurrence and survival of brain glial and ependymal tumors.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), tenascine, transforming growth factor (TGFbeta), isomeres, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and p53 was studied in 40 primary brain tumors, both low-grade and high-grade, including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, glioblastomas and ependymomas.
  • The positivity and intensity of the immunohistochemical expression were correlated with the tumor grade, the interval and type of recurrence, and the survival.
  • RESULTS: The expression of all GFs, excepting TGFbeta1, TGFbetaRI and tenascine, was found to be correlated with the tumor grade in all tumors of both astroglial and oligodendroglial origin, whereas ependymomas showed significant differences only for EGFR.
  • Low-grade (Grade II) tumors recurring as anaplastic (Grade III) forms showed GF expression rather similar to initially high-grade gliomas and significantly higher than that of low-grade (Grade II) tumors in both initial surgery and recurrence.
  • Besides, low-grade (Grade II) tumors recurring as low-grade showed significantly longer median recurrence time (5.4 vs. 3.5 years) and better median survival (8.3 vs. 5.4 years) than those recurring as anaplastic forms (WHO III).
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical study of expression of VEGF, EGFR, TGFbeta2, TGFbeta3, PDGF and p53 in all low-grade (Grade II) brain gliomas at the first operation may help to differentiate cases with slower evolution and longer survival from those with higher potential of anaplastic transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Prognosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20175962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
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88. Sangoi AR, Lim M, Dulai M, Vogel H, Chang S: Suprasellar giant cell ependymoma: a rare neoplasm in a unique location. Hum Pathol; 2008 Sep;39(9):1396-401
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  • [Title] Suprasellar giant cell ependymoma: a rare neoplasm in a unique location.
  • Ependymomas are glial tumors that usually present in the posterior fossa in children and in the spinal cord in adults.
  • Giant cell ependymoma, a rare ependymal subtype only recently recognized as a diagnostic entity in the last decade, demonstrates pleomorphic giant cells admixed with features of typical ependymoma.
  • Although only 8 giant cell ependymomas have been reported to date, none have been reported in the suprasellar space.
  • Moreover, as these neoplasms demonstrate a high incidence of anaplastic grade, recognition of this ependymal subtype is paramount.
  • We describe the presentation and pertinent radiologic, histologic, immunologic, and ultrastructural findings in conjunction with relevant clinical implications of the first reported case of a suprasellar giant cell ependymoma occurring in a 34-year-old female 7 years after an initial diagnosis of a medullary ependymoma with rare atypical giant cells, a potential tumor seeding culprit.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18602668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Adamek D, Dec M, Sobol G, Urbanowicz B, Jaworski M: Giant cell ependymoma: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;110(2):176-81
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  • [Title] Giant cell ependymoma: a case report.
  • Ependymomas account for 3-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors.
  • A peculiar variant of ependymoma known as "giant cell ependymoma" ("GCE") is especially rarely reported, it may pose some difficulties for the diagnosing neuropathologist.
  • Here we present a case of a giant cell ependymoma occuring in a 17-year-old patient with the history of 2-year recurrent headaches and a 1-month history of vision impairment.
  • Histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings were consistent with high-grade ependymoma.
  • Especially striking was the presence of bizzare pleomorphic giant cells which predominated in the tumor tissue.
  • As a result the diagnosis of GCE was established.
  • This type of neoplasm necessitates, at least in theory, differentiation with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, giant cell glioblastoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • To date giant cell ependymomas (GCEs) were reported in seven cases in the literature.
  • In spite of apparently "worrisome" histology GCE seems to be a neoplasm with a relatively good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles

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  • (PMID = 18006220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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90. Gilhuis HJ, van der Laak JA, Pomp J, Kappelle AC, Gijtenbeek JM, Wesseling P: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes. Angiogenesis; 2006;9(4):201-8
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes.
  • In the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system, four main histopathological subtypes of medulloblastomas (classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma) as well as of ependymal tumours (low-grade ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma) are recognised.
  • Under the hypothesis that the microvascular architecture of tumours is a reflection of the histopathological subtype, we performed three-dimensional reconstructions of the microvasculature in these subtypes of medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours using computerised image analysis.
  • Three-dimensional analysis of ependymal tumours showed that low-grade ependymoma had larger but fewer vessels compared to anaplastic ependymoma, while myxopapillary ependymoma had a complex, heterogeneous pattern of vessels and subependymoma few but regular vessels.
  • In ependymal tumours, the highest values for vessel number, vessel area and vessel perimeter were found in anaplastic ependymoma and the lowest values in subependymoma.
  • We conclude that our three-dimensional reconstructions shed unprecedented light on the tumour vasculature in medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours and expect that such reconstructions are helpful tools for further studies on tumour angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / blood supply. Ependymoma / blood supply. Medulloblastoma / blood supply. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 17109194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-6970
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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91. Sulman EP, Guerrero M, Aldape K: Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2009 Jul;19(3):142-9
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  • [Title] Beyond grade: molecular pathology of malignant gliomas.
  • High-grade gliomas (HGGs) represent a heterogenous group of tumors and account for most primary brain tumors.
  • These tumors include the anaplastic (World Health Organization [WHO] grade III) histologies of astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas and the WHO grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
  • Prognostication for patients with these tumors has relied principally on tumor grade and clinical factors (age, performance status, and so on) and has been inexact at best in identifying those with long-term survival potential.
  • An even greater challenge has been to identify predictive biomarkers of therapy in the hope of tailoring a patient's therapy based on their tumor's molecular characteristics.
  • This review discusses the molecular pathology of high-grade gliomas, with particular emphasis on anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs because these represent the most common forms of malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19464628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-9461
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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92. Hilbig A, Barbosa-Coutinho LM, Netto GC, Bleil CB, Toscani NV: [Immunohistochemistry in oligodendrogliomas]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2006 Mar;64(1):67-71
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  • These features can also be seen in central neurocytomas, DNTs and clear cell ependymomas.
  • Immunohistochemistry with glial and neuronal markers may be helpful in differential diagnosis.
  • Ten cases showed anaplastic characteristics.
  • The widespread staining with neuronal marker suggests central neurocytoma, but this diagnosis should not be done with small amount of tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroglia / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16622556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins
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93. El-Bahy K: Telovelar approach to the fourth ventricle: operative findings and results in 16 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Feb;147(2):137-42; discussion 142

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  • The inferior medullary velum was thinned out and stretched as a neural tissue sheet over the tumour surface in 10 cases (4 ependymomas, 2 meningiomas, 2 epidermoids, one dermoid and one choroid plexus papilloma).
  • Subtotal removal was achieved in the remaining patients (31.25%); three ependymomas, one medulloblastoma, and one anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Ataxia / etiology. Cerebellar Ataxia / pathology. Cerebellar Ataxia / physiopathology. Child. Choroid Plexus / pathology. Choroid Plexus / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / surgery. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / pathology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15605202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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94. Ortiz J, Otero A, Bengoechea O, Gonçalves J, Sousa P, Figols J, Bullón A: Divergent ependymal tumor (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) of the posterior fossa: an uncommon case observed in a child. J Child Neurol; 2008 Sep;23(9):1058-61
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  • [Title] Divergent ependymal tumor (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) of the posterior fossa: an uncommon case observed in a child.
  • We report a divergent ependymal tumor of the posterior fossa (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) observed in an 8-year-old boy.
  • The tumor showed the histological pattern typical of an ependymoblastoma (tubular-papillary fetaloid architecture with stratification of the tumor cells) next to areas in which findings typical of an anaplastic ependymoma were detected.
  • The immunohistochemical study confirmed our diagnostic suspicion, allowing us to establish a differential diagnosis with other entities such as medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumor, or metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Age of Onset. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem / physiopathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / physiopathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Neurosurgical Procedures. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18827270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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95. Hunter SB, Varma V, Shehata B, Nolen JD, Cohen C, Olson JJ, Ou CY: Apolipoprotein D expression in primary brain tumors: analysis by quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Histochem Cytochem; 2005 Aug;53(8):963-9
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  • Sixteen poorly infiltrating WHO grade I glial neoplasms (i.e., pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas) showed an average 20-fold higher apoD expression level compared with the 20 diffusely infiltrating glial neoplasms (i.e., glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, oligodendrogliomas; p=0.00004).
  • Analyzed as individual tumor groups, poorly infiltrating grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas differed significantly from each tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating higher-grade category (p<0.05 for each comparison) but not from each other (p>0.05).
  • Conversely, each individual tumor type within the diffusely infiltrating category differed significantly from both pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas (p<0.05) but did not vary from other infiltrating tumors (p>0.05).
  • Ependymomas, non-infiltrating grade II neoplasms, expressed levels of apoD similar to or lower than levels expressed by the diffusely infiltrating gliomas.
  • In addition, apoD expression was 5-fold higher in the slowly proliferating grade I glial neoplasms compared with non-proliferating normal brain tissue (p=0.01), suggesting that apoD expression is not simply an inverse measure of proliferation.
  • ApoD expression measured by quantitative RT-PCR may be useful in the differential diagnosis of primary brain tumors, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas and gangliogliomas.

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  • (PMID = 16055749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoproteins; 0 / Apolipoproteins D; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; 8002-74-2 / Paraffin
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96. Nakamura Y, Kanemura Y, Yamada T, Sugita Y, Higaki K, Yamamoto M, Takahashi M, Yamasaki M: D2-40 antibody immunoreactivity in developing human brain, brain tumors and cultured neural cells. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):974-85
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  • Some brain tumors such as anaplastic ependymoma, some medulloblastomas, glioblastoma, pineal germinoma, craniopharyngioma, choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma, and meningioma showed positive immunoreactivity with D2-40.
  • Therefore, D2-40 antibody is considered a useful marker for research on developing brain and diagnosis of brain tumors, differentiation between choroid plexus carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cerebellum / immunology. Telencephalon / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16648867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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97. Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S, Howe G, Lubin F, Mueller BA, Holly EA, Filippini G, Peris-Bonet R, McCredie MR, Cordier S, Choi W: An international case-control study of maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk: a histology-specific analysis by food group. Ann Epidemiol; 2009 Mar;19(3):148-60
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  • [Title] An international case-control study of maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk: a histology-specific analysis by food group.
  • The cured meat association was specific to astrocytomas (odds ratio [OR] range=1.8-2.5 across astrocytoma subtypes for 4th vs. 1st quartile of consumption, p trends <or= 0.03) and ependymomas (OR, 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-2.9 for 4th vs. 1(st) quartile; p trend=0.03) and was similar in magnitude to previously reported ORs relating maternal cured meat consumption to increased astroglial risk.
  • Other histology-specific associations were decreased risk of anaplastic astrocytomas from cruciferous vegetables (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7 for 4th vs. 1st quartile; p trend<0.0001), decreased risk of astroglial tumors from fresh fish (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9 for 4th vs. 1st quartile; p trend=0.008), and increased risk of medulloblastoma from oil products (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2 for 4th vs. 1(st) quartile; p trend=0.005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the need for dietary analysis not only by brain tumor histology, but also by specific foods within a broad food group.

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  • (PMID = 19216997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2585
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES007048; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA017054-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01 PC035139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47082; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES007048-029003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47081; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA17054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-05230; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES007048-029003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-25403; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA017054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CN025403; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01 CN005230; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 5P30 ES07048
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitroso Compounds
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS98974; NLM/ PMC2832584
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98. Bartolek F, Zganjer M, Pajić A, Cizmić A, Kljenak A, Cigit I, Car A, Stepan J, Bartolek D, Boras A: A 10-year experience in the treatment of intraabdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts. Coll Antropol; 2010 Dec;34(4):1397-400
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hydrocephalus.

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  • Recurrence of the abdominal cyst was observed in one girl who was in terminal stadium of anaplastic ependymoma.

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  • (PMID = 21874727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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99. Benesch M, Weber-Mzell D, Gerber NU, von Hoff K, Deinlein F, Krauss J, Warmuth-Metz M, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, Driever PH, Quehenberger F, Urban C, Rutkowski S: Ependymoma of the spinal cord in children and adolescents: a retrospective series from the HIT database. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Aug;6(2):137-44
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Ependymoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ependymoma of the spinal cord in children and adolescents: a retrospective series from the HIT database.
  • OBJECT: Reports on spinal cord ependymoma in children are rare.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical spectrum, treatment, and outcome of children with primary ependymoma of the spinal cord who were registered in the database of the pediatric German brain tumor studies Hirntumor (HIT) '91 and HIT 2000.
  • METHODS: Between 1991 and 2007, 29 patients (12 male and 17 female, median age at diagnosis 13.6 years) with primary spinal cord ependymoma (myxopapillary ependymoma WHO Grade I, II, and III tumors in 6, 17, and 6 patients, respectively) were identified.
  • Four patients had neurofibromatosis Type 2.
  • One patient with anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III) died 65 months after diagnosis of disease progression.
  • Primary adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both) was used in 8 (50%) of 16 patients following GTR and in 9 (82%) of 11 patients who underwent less than a GTR.
  • Progression-free survival at 5 years is 84.4% (95% CI 50%-96%) for patients following GTR compared with 57.1% (95% CI 25%-69%) for patients who achieved a less than GTR (p = 0.088, log-rank test).
  • A high relapse incidence (4 of 6) was observed among patients with myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gross-total resection is the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary spinal cord ependymoma and may be achieved in about 50% of the patients using modern surgical techniques.
  • Primary adjuvant treatment was commonly used in children with spinal cord ependymoma irrespective of the extent of resection or tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Austria. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disability Evaluation. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Male. Neurofibromatosis 2 / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 2 / drug therapy. Neurofibromatosis 2 / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 2 / radiotherapy. Neurofibromatosis 2 / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20672934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Jaremko JL, Jans LB, Coleman LT, Ditchfield MR: Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Oct;31(9):1613-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors.
  • Ependymoma (n = 5) could not be reliably differentiated from medulloblastoma or JPA.
  • A trend toward increased diffusion restriction in higher grade tumors (1/14 grade I, 7%; 9/12 grade IV, 75%) had too much overlap to predict the grade of individual cases.
  • The overlap in ADC between tumor types appeared partly due to technical factors (in small, heterogeneous, calcific, or hemorrhagic tumors) but also likely reflected true histologic variability, given that our 3 overlap cases included a desmoplastic medulloblastoma, an anaplastic ependymoma, and a JPA with restricted diffusion in its nodule.
  • Simple structural features (macrocystic tumor, location off midline) aided in distinguishing JPA from the other tumors in these cases.

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  • [CommentIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct;31(9):1617-8 [20581070.001]
  • [ErratumIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov;31(10):E90
  • (PMID = 20538820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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