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1. Hamano E, Tsutsumi S, Nonaka Y, Abe Y, Yasumoto Y, Saeki H, Ito M: Huge supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with massive calcification--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(2):150-3
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  • [Title] Huge supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with massive calcification--case report.
  • A 15-year-old boy presented with an anaplastic supratentorial ependymoma causing massive intratumoral calcification, without contributory medical and family history, and manifesting as persistent headache for 2 months.
  • Cranial computed tomography revealed a huge calcified mass in the left parietooccipital lobe, with extensive perilesional brain edema.
  • The findings were compatible with anaplastic ependymoma (World Health Organization classification grade 3).
  • Ependymoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a supratentorially located, extraventricular mass with massive intratumoral calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Edema / pathology. Brain Edema / radiography. Cerebral Veins / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Occipital Lobe / blood supply. Occipital Lobe / pathology. Occipital Lobe / surgery. Parietal Lobe / blood supply. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Skull / pathology. Skull / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20185883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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2. Ghosal N, Murthy G, Dadlani R, Hegde AS, Singh D: Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):787-9
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  • [Title] Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: a case report and review of literature.
  • We report an unusual case of a recurrent fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia in a 16-year-old male.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21045418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Mucin-1
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3. Qian X, Goumnerova LC, De Girolami U, Cibas ES: Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study. Cancer; 2008 Oct 25;114(5):307-14
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  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymoma cells are known to occasionally exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the authors' knowledge the cytomorphologic features of the tumor cells have not been described in detail to date.
  • In this study, the CSF findings in patients with ependymal neoplasms are summarized and the cytomorphologic features of ependymoma, including its variants, are illustrated.
  • METHODS: A search of the pathology databases of 2 medical centers was performed to identify all patients with a histologic diagnosis of ependymoma in whom CSF samples were examined.
  • RESULTS: In all, 177 patients with a diagnosis of ependymoma were identified.
  • Of the 8 patients with positive and/or suspicious diagnoses, 5 ependymomas exhibited anaplastic features and 1 tumor was a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • The positive samples were usually hypercellular, with cohesive epithelioid cells; long cytoplasmic processes resembling bipolar tanycytes were observed in the tanycytic variant of ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exfoliated cells from ependymomas are recognizable in CSF samples, especially in patients with myxopapillary tumors and tumors with anaplastic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / pathology


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4. Panigrahy A, Krieger MD, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Liu X, McComb JG, Finlay JL, Nelson MD Jr, Gilles FH, Blüml S: Quantitative short echo time 1H-MR spectroscopy of untreated pediatric brain tumors: preoperative diagnosis and characterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Mar;27(3):560-72
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  • [Title] Quantitative short echo time 1H-MR spectroscopy of untreated pediatric brain tumors: preoperative diagnosis and characterization.
  • PURPOSE: Our aims were to evaluate the metabolic profiles of pediatric brain tumors with short echo time (TE) MR spectroscopy and absolute quantitation of metabolite concentrations (in mmol/kg of tissue) and to describe metabolic features that distinguish individual tumor types and that may help to improve preoperative diagnosis of specific tumors.
  • METHODS: MR imaging examinations of 60 patients with untreated brain tumors (14 medulloblastomas, 5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 low-grade astrocytomas, 17 pilocytic astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 5 ependymomas, 3 choroid plexus papillomas, 3 choroid plexus carcinomas, and 6 pineal germinomas) were reviewed.
  • Guanidinoacetate was reduced in low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (P < .00001) versus All Other, whereas ependymoma and anaplastic ependymomas exhibited particularly low N-acetylaspartate (P < .00001 versus All Other).
  • CONCLUSION: Quantitative proton MR spectroscopy reveals features of pediatric brain tumors that are likely to improve preoperative diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 16551993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R33-CA096032-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA97452-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Nakamura Y, Kanemura Y, Yamada T, Sugita Y, Higaki K, Yamamoto M, Takahashi M, Yamasaki M: D2-40 antibody immunoreactivity in developing human brain, brain tumors and cultured neural cells. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):974-85
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  • [Title] D2-40 antibody immunoreactivity in developing human brain, brain tumors and cultured neural cells.
  • Some brain tumors such as anaplastic ependymoma, some medulloblastomas, glioblastoma, pineal germinoma, craniopharyngioma, choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma, and meningioma showed positive immunoreactivity with D2-40.
  • Therefore, D2-40 antibody is considered a useful marker for research on developing brain and diagnosis of brain tumors, differentiation between choroid plexus carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cerebellum / immunology. Telencephalon / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16648867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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6. Shih CS, Hale GA, Gronewold L, Tong X, Laningham FH, Gilger EA, Srivastava DK, Kun LE, Gajjar A, Fouladi M: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with recurrent malignant brain tumors. Cancer; 2008 Mar 15;112(6):1345-53
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with recurrent malignant brain tumors.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 4.5 years (range, 0.4-16.6 years) and that at ASCR was 6.7 years (range, 1.1-18.5 years).
  • Diagnoses included medulloblastoma (13 patients), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (3 patients), pineoblastoma (2 patients), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (2 patients), ependymoma (3 patients), anaplastic astrocytoma (2 patients), and glioblastoma multiforme (2 patients).
  • The 5-year PFS rate for patients aged<3 years at diagnosis (57.1%) was significantly better than older patients (5.0%) (P=.019).
  • Among the 6 long-term survivors (5 with M0 disease and 1 with M3 disease at diagnosis), 5 received both radiotherapy and HDCT as part of their salvage regimen; 4 were aged<3 years at diagnosis and had received chemotherapy only as part of frontline therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Pinealoma / pathology. Pinealoma / therapy. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18224664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Schuurmans M, Vanneste JA, Verstegen MJ, van Furth WR: Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):57-9
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  • [Title] Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases.
  • Microscopy of both tumors showed that both tumors were anaplastic ependymomas, which almost never present as extramedullary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16614942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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8. Ortiz J, Otero A, Bengoechea O, Gonçalves J, Sousa P, Figols J, Bullón A: Divergent ependymal tumor (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) of the posterior fossa: an uncommon case observed in a child. J Child Neurol; 2008 Sep;23(9):1058-61
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  • [Title] Divergent ependymal tumor (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) of the posterior fossa: an uncommon case observed in a child.
  • We report a divergent ependymal tumor of the posterior fossa (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) observed in an 8-year-old boy.
  • The tumor showed the histological pattern typical of an ependymoblastoma (tubular-papillary fetaloid architecture with stratification of the tumor cells) next to areas in which findings typical of an anaplastic ependymoma were detected.
  • The immunohistochemical study confirmed our diagnostic suspicion, allowing us to establish a differential diagnosis with other entities such as medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumor, or metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Age of Onset. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem / physiopathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / physiopathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Neurosurgical Procedures. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18827270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Borrelli A, Mattiazzi L, Capucchio MT, Biolatti C, Cagnasso A, Gianella P, D'Angelo A: Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog. J Small Anim Pract; 2009 Oct;50(10):554-7
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  • [Title] Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog.
  • At post-mortem examination, a voluminous, soft, haemorrhagic mass was found invading the floor of the brain.
  • Based on the morphological features of the tumour, marked parenchymal invasion, extensive necrosis and cellular atypia, the mass was classified as an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Weight loss and cachexia are clinically relevant problems in small animals and these clinical signs should raise a suspicion, among the other differentials, of a brain tumour, even in absence of neurologic signs.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / veterinary. Cachexia / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Ependymoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female

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  • (PMID = 19796316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Kurimoto M, Nagai S, Hamada H, Tsuboi Y, Hayashi N, Kubota T, Endo S: Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2009 Jun;29(3):299-302
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma.
  • Recurrence of clear cell ependymoma is not a rare condition, but malignant transformation of clear cell ependymoma has not yet been well presented.
  • A brain tumor in the left frontal premotor area was removed and an initial pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • The first and second surgical specimens did not contain any ependymal rosettes or pseudorosettes, and thus a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • At this time, the tumor had an ultrastructural appearance compatible with ependymoma.
  • Thereafter, the recurrent tumors showed anaplastic features such as nuclear pleomorphisms and necrosis with pseudopallisading.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18647267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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11. Adamek D, Dec M, Sobol G, Urbanowicz B, Jaworski M: Giant cell ependymoma: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;110(2):176-81
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  • [Title] Giant cell ependymoma: a case report.
  • A peculiar variant of ependymoma known as "giant cell ependymoma" ("GCE") is especially rarely reported, it may pose some difficulties for the diagnosing neuropathologist.
  • Here we present a case of a giant cell ependymoma occuring in a 17-year-old patient with the history of 2-year recurrent headaches and a 1-month history of vision impairment.
  • Histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings were consistent with high-grade ependymoma.
  • As a result the diagnosis of GCE was established.
  • This type of neoplasm necessitates, at least in theory, differentiation with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, giant cell glioblastoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles

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  • (PMID = 18006220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Rutten I, Raket D, Francotte N, Philippet P, Chao SL, Lemort M: Contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the differential diagnosis of a recurrent cranial mass 7 years after irradiation for a pediatric ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Nov;22(11):1475-8
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  • [Title] Contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the differential diagnosis of a recurrent cranial mass 7 years after irradiation for a pediatric ependymoma.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 5-year-old-boy who underwent surgery and focal radiotherapy for an anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricle.
  • To help the differential diagnosis between a relapse, a radio-induced modification, and a new tumor, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16708251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Benesch M, Weber-Mzell D, Gerber NU, von Hoff K, Deinlein F, Krauss J, Warmuth-Metz M, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, Driever PH, Quehenberger F, Urban C, Rutkowski S: Ependymoma of the spinal cord in children and adolescents: a retrospective series from the HIT database. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Aug;6(2):137-44
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  • [Title] Ependymoma of the spinal cord in children and adolescents: a retrospective series from the HIT database.
  • OBJECT: Reports on spinal cord ependymoma in children are rare.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical spectrum, treatment, and outcome of children with primary ependymoma of the spinal cord who were registered in the database of the pediatric German brain tumor studies Hirntumor (HIT) '91 and HIT 2000.
  • METHODS: Between 1991 and 2007, 29 patients (12 male and 17 female, median age at diagnosis 13.6 years) with primary spinal cord ependymoma (myxopapillary ependymoma WHO Grade I, II, and III tumors in 6, 17, and 6 patients, respectively) were identified.
  • One patient with anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III) died 65 months after diagnosis of disease progression.
  • A high relapse incidence (4 of 6) was observed among patients with myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gross-total resection is the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary spinal cord ependymoma and may be achieved in about 50% of the patients using modern surgical techniques.
  • Primary adjuvant treatment was commonly used in children with spinal cord ependymoma irrespective of the extent of resection or tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Austria. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disability Evaluation. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Male. Neurofibromatosis 2 / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 2 / drug therapy. Neurofibromatosis 2 / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 2 / radiotherapy. Neurofibromatosis 2 / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20672934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Massimino M, Giangaspero F, Garrè ML, Genitori L, Perilongo G, Collini P, Riva D, Valentini L, Scarzello G, Poggi G, Spreafico F, Peretta P, Mascarin M, Modena P, Sozzi G, Bedini N, Biassoni V, Urgesi A, Balestrini MR, Finocchiaro G, Sandri A, Gandola L, AIEOP Neuro-Oncology Group: Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Aug 1;65(5):1440-5
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  • [Title] Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment.
  • PURPOSE: To discuss the results obtained by giving adjuvant treatment for childhood ependymoma (EPD) at relapse after complete surgery only.
  • Diagnoses were classic EPD in 9 patients, anaplastic in 5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Relapsers after surgery only, especially if with PF-EPD, do worse than those treated after first diagnosis; subsequent surgery for tumor relapse has severe neurologic sequelae.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16863927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Asano K, Miyamoto S, Kubo O, Kikkukawa T, Yagihashi A, Ohkuma H: A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Apr;23(1):55-63
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  • [Title] A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • However, PXA cases having several recurrent patterns with poor prognosis have been reported in recent years, and a new concept of anaplastic PXA has been proposed.
  • Histopathological findings showed that the tumor was typical PXA with strong pleomorphism and xanthomatous changes and contained an ependymoma-like component in the center area.
  • From these findings, the histopathological diagnosis was anaplastic PXA.
  • Histopathological findings suggested anaplastic PXA from the first surgical specimens, and PXA recurred many times.
  • We thus believe that the patient displayed primary anaplastic PXA rather than secondary anaplastic PXA that results in malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Hematoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18095120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Grundy RG, Wilne SH, Robinson KJ, Ironside JW, Cox T, Chong WK, Michalski A, Campbell RH, Bailey CC, Thorp N, Pizer B, Punt J, Walker DA, Ellison DW, Machin D, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (formerly UKCCSG) Brain Tumour Committee: Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jan;46(1):120-33
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  • [Title] Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is an effective adjuvant treatment for brain tumours arising in very young children, but it has the potential to damage the child's developing nervous system at a crucial time - with a resultant reduction in IQ leading to cognitive impairment, associated endocrinopathy and risk of second malignancy.
  • We aimed to assess the role of a primary chemotherapy strategy in avoiding or delaying radiotherapy in children younger than 3 years with malignant brain tumours other than ependymoma, the results of which have already been published.
  • Patients with medulloblastoma presented as a high-risk group, 83.9% having residual disease and/or metastases at diagnosis.
  • All children with large cell or anaplastic variants of medulloblastoma died within 2 years of diagnosis.
  • INTERPRETATION: The outcome for very young children with brain tumours is dictated by degree of surgical resection and histological tumour type and underlying biology as an indicator of treatment sensitivity.
  • This study highlights the differing therapeutic challenges presented by the malignant brain tumours of early childhood, the importance of surgical approaches and the need to explore individualised brain sparing approaches to the range of malignant brain tumours that present in early childhood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19818598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Aghili M, Zahedi F, Rafiee E: Hydroxyglutaric aciduria and malignant brain tumor: a case report and literature review. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jan;91(2):233-6
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  • [Title] Hydroxyglutaric aciduria and malignant brain tumor: a case report and literature review.
  • To make a definitive diagnosis, an anomalous accumulation of L -2-hydroxyglutaric acid must be detected in body fluids.
  • Here, we present a 17-year-old boy with L: -2-OHGA who developed an anaplastic ependymoma during the course of this disease.
  • We also present a literature review including seven other patients who developed malignant brain tumors during the course of L -2-OHGA.
  • This correlation may indicate a possible increased risk of brain tumors among patients with L -2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Hydroxy Acids / urine


18. Plotkin M, Amthauer H, Eisenacher J, Wurm R, Michel R, Wust P, Stockhammer F, Röttgen R, Gutberlet M, Ruf J, Felix R: Value of 123I-IMT SPECT for diagnosis of recurrent non-astrocytic intracranial tumours. Neuroradiology; 2005 Jan;47(1):18-26
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  • [Title] Value of 123I-IMT SPECT for diagnosis of recurrent non-astrocytic intracranial tumours.
  • The value of single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) using iodine-123-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) for the diagnosis of recurrent or residual gliomas is well established.
  • In the current study we investigated whether IMT-SPECT could also be useful in the follow-up of brain metastases and other intracranial tumours of non-astrocytic origin.
  • The study included 22 patients with suspected recurrent intracranial tumours of non-astrocytic origin (12 brain metastases, one supratentorial primitive neuroendocrine tumour (PNET), one rhabdoid tumour, two clivus chordomas, three ependymomas, two pituitary tumours, one anaplastic meningioma) who had previously been treated by surgery and/or radio/chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes. Methyltyrosines. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chordoma / radionuclide imaging. Ependymoma / radionuclide imaging. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glioma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningioma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / radionuclide imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdoid Tumor / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 15630586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3940
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Methyltyrosines; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 14684-02-7 / 3-iodo-alpha-methyltyrosine
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19. Barresi V, Tuccari G, Barresi G: NGAL immunohistochemical expression in brain primary and metastatic tumors. Clin Neuropathol; 2010 Sep-Oct;29(5):317-22
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  • [Title] NGAL immunohistochemical expression in brain primary and metastatic tumors.
  • Thus NGAL urinary detection has been proposed as a method for the early diagnosis of brain tumors.
  • In view of this, the objective of this study was to investigate whether NGAL expression differs according to brain tumor type or in primary vs. metastatic brain neolasias.
  • 42 surgically resected formalin fixed and paraffin embedded neoplasias, including 15 cases of brain metastasis and 27 cases of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors (11 meningiomas; 1 pilocytic astrocytoma, 2 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 oligoastrocytomas, 2 oligodendrogliomas, 1 anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, 7 glioblastomas, 1 ependymoma) were submitted to the immunohistochemical procedure.
  • NGAL staining was found in all the analyzed glioblastomas and in the anaplastic oligoastrocytoma.
  • In conclusion, our findings suggest that NGAL expression is restricted to high grade gliomas among primary brain tumors, and that brain metastases do not express this protein.
  • Considering the correlation between NGAL expression in tumors and its urinary levels, if our observations will be further validated, NGAL urinary detection might be used as an additional tool in the pre-surgical definition of brain lesions involving difficult differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute-Phase Proteins / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lipocalins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20860895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acute-Phase Proteins; 0 / LCN2 protein, human; 0 / Lipocalins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins
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20. Nafe R, Yan B, Schlote W, Schneider B: Application of different methods for nuclear shape analysis with special reference to the differentiation of brain tumors. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Apr;28(2):69-77
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  • [Title] Application of different methods for nuclear shape analysis with special reference to the differentiation of brain tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the discriminatory power of different methods designed for nuclear shape analysis with reference to the differentiation and grading of brain tumors and the differentiation between proliferating and nonproliferating nuclei.
  • (1) oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II (n = 13) vs. grade III (n = 11), (2) medulloblastomas WHO grade IV (n = 14) vs. anaplastic ependymomas WHO grade III (n = 12), (3) Ki-67-positive vs. Ki-67-negative tumor cell nuclei in the 14 medulloblastomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Fourier analysis provided an optimal statistical discrimination between different brain tumor entities and between data sets from proliferating and nonproliferating tumor cell nuclei.

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  • (PMID = 16637509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Sugita Y, Ono T, Ohshima K, Niino D, Ito M, Toda K, Baba H: Brain surface spindle cell glioma in a patient with medically intractable partial epilepsy: a variant of monomorphous angiocentric glioma? Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):516-20
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  • [Title] Brain surface spindle cell glioma in a patient with medically intractable partial epilepsy: a variant of monomorphous angiocentric glioma?
  • We report a case of brain surface angiocentric glioma in a 6-year-old Japanese boy with medically intractable partial epilepsy.
  • These perivascular pseudorosettes closely resembled those of ependymoma.
  • However, no de novo anaplastic monomorphous angiocentric glioma similar to our case has yet been reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Epilepsies, Partial / etiology. Glioma / complications. Glioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Malformations of Cortical Development / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 18179412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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22. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • [Title] Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study.
  • This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with refractory or recurrent brain tumors.
  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, although intrathecal liposomal cytarabine was generally well tolerated, it should be used cautiously and only with dexamethasone prophylaxis in extensively pretreated patients with recurrent brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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23. Jaremko JL, Jans LB, Coleman LT, Ditchfield MR: Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Oct;31(9):1613-6

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  • [Title] Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors.
  • Ependymoma (n = 5) could not be reliably differentiated from medulloblastoma or JPA.
  • The overlap in ADC between tumor types appeared partly due to technical factors (in small, heterogeneous, calcific, or hemorrhagic tumors) but also likely reflected true histologic variability, given that our 3 overlap cases included a desmoplastic medulloblastoma, an anaplastic ependymoma, and a JPA with restricted diffusion in its nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct;31(9):1617-8 [20581070.001]
  • [ErratumIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov;31(10):E90
  • (PMID = 20538820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Combs SE, Kelter V, Welzel T, Behnisch W, Kulozik AE, Bischof M, Hof H, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Influence of radiotherapy treatment concept on the outcome of patients with localized ependymomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):972-8
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  • Histology was myxopapillary ependymoma (n = 4), ependymoma (n = 23), and anaplastic ependymoma (n = 30).
  • RESULTS: Overall survival after primary diagnosis was 83% and 71% at 3 and 5 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 18337022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Barut F, Kandemir NO, Ozdamar SO, Gul S, Bektas S, Gun BD, Bahadir B: Gliosarcoma with chondroblastic osteosarcomatous differentation: report of two case with clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. Turk Neurosurg; 2009 Oct;19(4):417-22
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  • CASE 1: A 52- year-old male patient underwent parietal craniotomy due to anaplastic ependymoma.
  • We report two cases with an extremely rare histopathological diagnosis of "gliosarcoma with features of chondroblastic osteosarcoma".
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Chondroblastoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19847765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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26. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Saito R, Yamashita Y, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: [The safety of combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE): single-institution retrospective review of 108 cases]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 Nov;38(11):997-1005
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  • PURPOSE: The adverse effects of combination chemotherapy of ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE) were evaluated in the treatment of various intracranial brain tumors.
  • The histological diagnosis was newly diagnosed or recurrent germ cell tumor in 45 cases, medulloblastoma in 19, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 7, anaplastic ependymoma in 6, recurrent glioblastoma in 13, and others in 18 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21081811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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27. Beschorner R, Wehrmann M, Ernemann U, Bonin M, Horber V, Oehl-Jaschkowitz B, Meyermann R, Dufke A: Extradural ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation in a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):339-46
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  • Microscopic examinations revealed an uncommon ependymal tumor with well-differentiated regions reflecting myxopapillary ependymoma and highly anaplastic regions with numerous mitoses, necroses, ependymal rosettes and ependymoblastic rosettes.
  • Final neuropathologic diagnosis was an extraspinal anaplastic ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation, corresponding to WHO grade IV.
  • The present case is the first report on an ependymal tumor with a mixture of myxopapillary, anaplastic and ependymoblastic features and the first report on an ependymal tumor arising on the genetic background of SGS.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Genetic Diseases, Inborn / complications. Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17165030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Tekkök IH, Sav A: Aggressive spinal germinoma with ascending metastases. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):135-41
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  • The initial histopathological diagnosis was ependymoma.
  • After second surgery, 5,100 cGy of local spinal radiation was given since the pathologist believed that the new tumor exhibited anaplastic features.
  • Surgery was undertaken for both recurrences and radiation to whole spine and to whole brain respectively followed surgery.
  • The new and correct histological diagnosis was germinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Reoperation. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Sacrum / anatomy & histology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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29. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • BACKGROUND: Ependymal tumors are classified as ependymoma (benign or low grade) versus anaplastic ependymoma (malignant or high grade).
  • Histologic subgroups were 18 ependymomas (43.6%), and 22 anaplastic ependymomas (56.4%).
  • Postoperative treatment consisted of regional (8 patients) or craniospinal (CSI) (9 patients) radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ependymoma; regional (7 patients) or CSI RT (14 patients) with chemotherapy (ChT) in patients with anaplastic ependymoma; ChT only (1 patient) in patients less than 3 years of age.
  • The median age at diagnosis is 6 years in our patient group; younger children (less than 3 years old) have less favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Conter C, Carrie C, Bernier V, Geoffray A, Pagnier A, Gentet JC, Lellouch-Tubiana A, Chabaud S, Frappaz D: Intracranial ependymomas in children: society of pediatric oncology experience with postoperative hyperfractionated local radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Aug 1;74(5):1536-42
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Postoperative local hyperfractionated RT was proposed for every child (>5 years old at diagnosis) with localized intracranial ependymoma.
  • RESULTS: Between November 1996 and December 2002, 24 children with infratentorial (n = 20) or supratentorial (n = 4) intracranial ependymoma were included.
  • The World Health Organization grade was anaplastic in 10 of the 24 patients (not assessable in 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19362789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Armstrong TS, Vera-Bolanos E, Bekele BN, Aldape K, Gilbert MR: Adult ependymal tumors: prognosis and the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Aug;12(8):862-70
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  • This study reports on a series of adult patients with confirmed ependymoma treated at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Patients aged >17 and with ependymoma were identified, and clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review.
  • Forty had tumors in the brain, 80 in the spine, and 3 had both.
  • The majority were Grade I/II lesions (108) vs Grade III (anaplastic; 15).
  • The most common presenting symptom was pain, with an average of 4 symptoms reported prior to diagnosis.
  • Median time to recurrence was 21 months (Grade II) brain and 18 months (Grade III).
  • Worse outcome measured by overall and progression-free survival were associated with brain location (P = .01, P = .04) and tumor anaplasia (P = .0025, P = .001).
  • Tumor grade and brain location are associated with a worse prognosis.
  • Reclassification of ependymoma by neuropathologists is common.
  • Results of this study have lead to a multicenter study to further define important diagnostic and prognostic variables for adults with ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20511182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940672
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32. Apel-Sarid L, Cochrane DD, Steinbok P, Byrne AT, Dunham C: Microfibrillar collagen hemostat-induced necrotizing granulomatous inflammation developing after craniotomy: a pediatric case series. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):385-92
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  • RESULTS: Case 1 is that of a 10-year-old girl whose diagnosis was a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma, classified as WHO Grade I.
  • Case 2 is that of a 9-year-old boy whose diagnosis was a left parietal lobe anaplastic ependymoma, classified as WHO Grade III.
  • Finally, Case 3 is that of a 15-year-old girl whose diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia Type IIA affecting the left occipital lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Collagen / adverse effects. Craniotomy / adverse effects. Ganglioglioma / surgery. Granuloma, Foreign-Body / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Child. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hemorrhages / prevention & control. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Malformations of Cortical Development / pathology. Malformations of Cortical Development / surgery. Necrosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20887115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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33. Kuncova K, Janda A, Kasal P, Zamecnik J: Immunohistochemical prognostic markers in intracranial ependymomas: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):605-14
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  • Distinction between grade II ependymomas and anaplastic ependymomas based on histopathological examination solely is problematic and, therefore, the management of intracranial ependymomas remains controversial.
  • Although the prognostic impact of MIB-1 immunoexpression in IE could be confirmed, there remains lack of further reliable IPM that could be used in routine diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19301151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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34. Shibahara I, Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Endo H, Sonoda Y, Ogawa Y, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Hemorrhagic onset of pilocytic astrocytoma and pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):1-5
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  • Hemorrhagic onset was observed in 4 of 35 (11.4%) patients with pilocytic astrocytoma and pilomyxoid astrocytoma, with higher incidence than in glioblastoma (3.9%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (7.7%), and anaplastic ependymoma (7.1%).
  • Hemorrhagic onset of pilocytic astrocytoma and pilomyxoid astrocytoma is not as uncommon as was previously thought, so pilocytic astrocytoma or pilomyxoid astrocytoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with brain tumors manifesting as hemorrhagic onset.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Intracranial Hemorrhages / etiology. Intracranial Hemorrhages / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain / pathology. Capillaries / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Paralysis / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19408090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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35. Bouvier C, De Paula AM, Fernandez C, Quilichini B, Scavarda D, Gentet JC, Figarella-Branger D: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour: 7-year event-free survival with gross total resection and radiotherapy in a 7-year-old boy. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Jan;24(1):143-7
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  • Initially diagnosed as anaplastic ependymoma, the boy was treated by gross total resection followed by radiotherapy at the operated site.
  • Molecular techniques performed on frozen specimen of the orbital tumour confirmed the diagnosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (ATRT).
  • DISCUSSION: We discuss the pathological criteria for diagnosis of ATRT and the usefulness of early radiotherapy in the light of the recent literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Frontal Lobe / chemistry. Frontal Lobe / radiation effects. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mucin-1 / analysis. Muscle, Smooth / chemistry. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17968559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin
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36. Marcus KJ, Goumnerova L, Billett AL, Lavally B, Scott RM, Bishop K, Xu R, Young Poussaint T, Kieran M, Kooy H, Pomeroy SL, Tarbell NJ: Stereotactic radiotherapy for localized low-grade gliomas in children: final results of a prospective trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):374-9
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for small, localized, pediatric brain tumors and to determine the patterns of failure.
  • Of the 81 patients, 50 had low-grade astrocytoma, 23 had residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma, 4 had posterior fossa ependymoma, and 4 had other histologic types.
  • All patients underwent biopsy for diagnosis, with the exception of patients with neurofibromatosis and radiographic evidence of an optic system tumor.
  • Two of the patients with local progression had pathologic progression to anaplastic astrocytoma 3 and 7 years after initial SRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 15667955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Denaro L, Gardiman M, Calderone M, Rossetto M, Ciccarino P, Giangaspero F, Perilongo G, d'Avella D: Intraventricular astroblastoma. Case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2008 Feb;1(2):152-5
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  • Astroblastoma is a rare primary brain neoplasm that accounts for 0.45-2.8% of brain gliomas.
  • In patients harboring anaplastic astroblastoma, gross-total resection and adjuvant therapy after the initial surgery seems to be the best choice.
  • It is important to distinguish astroblastoma from ependymoma in clinical practice because of the differences in therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18352788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0707
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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38. Giller CA, Berger BD, Pistenmaa DA, Sklar F, Weprin B, Shapiro K, Winick N, Mulne AF, Delp JL, Gilio JP, Gall KP, Dicke KA, Swift D, Sacco D, Harris-Henderson K, Bowers D: Robotically guided radiosurgery for children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):304-10
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  • Potential advantages for the pediatric population include the avoidance of the cognitive decline associated with whole brain radiotherapy, the ability to treat young children with thin skulls unsuitable for frame-based methods, and the possible avoidance of general anesthesia.
  • Three had pilocytic astrocytomas, two had anaplastic astrocytomas, three had ependymomas (two anaplastic), four had medulloblastomas, three had atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, three had craniopharyngiomas, and three had other pathologies.
  • RESULTS: Local control was achieved in the patients with pilocytic and anaplastic astrocytoma, three of the patients with medulloblastoma, and the three with craniopharyngioma, but not for those with ependymoma.
  • Two of the patients with rhabdoid tumors are alive 16 and 35 months after this diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Robotics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15558704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Kashyap R, Ryan C, Sharma R, Maloo MK, Safadjou S, Graham M, Tretheway D, Jain A, Orloff M: Liver grafts from donors with central nervous system tumors: a single-center perspective. Liver Transpl; 2009 Oct;15(10):1204-8
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  • Twenty (47.6%) of the CNS tumors were glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma grade IV), 11 (26.2%) were other astrocytomas, and 1 (2.4%) was an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Over 80% of the patients had at least 1 kind of invasive procedure violating the blood-brain barrier.
  • In conclusion, in our experience, despite violation of the blood-brain barrier and high-grade CNS tumors, recurrence was uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Tissue and Organ Procurement / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood-Brain Barrier. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AASLD
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):916 [20583090.001]
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):914-5 [20583288.001]
  • (PMID = 19790151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6473
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Fujisawa H, Misaki K, Takabatake Y, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J: Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with hSNF5/INI1 gene inactivation. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jun;73(2):117-24
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  • We histologically and molecularly reviewed our pediatric brain tumors for unrecognized AT/RTs and evaluated the role of cyclin D1, a potential molecular target of hSNF5/INI1.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 16 tumors under three years of age: seven medulloblastomas, three anaplastic ependymomas (E IIIs), two each of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs) and choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs), and one each of neuroblastoma and pineoblastoma.
  • Because of the presence of rhabdoid cells and the polyimmunophenotypic features, the diagnosis was revised to AT/RT in five (31%) tumors, namely, two E IIIs and one each of medulloblastoma, CPC and pineoblastoma.
  • CONCLUSION: AT/RT can be misdiagnosed as a variety of tumors, including ependymoma that potentially harbors LOH 22q.

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  • (PMID = 15981100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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