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1. Hamano E, Tsutsumi S, Nonaka Y, Abe Y, Yasumoto Y, Saeki H, Ito M: Huge supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with massive calcification--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(2):150-3
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  • [Title] Huge supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with massive calcification--case report.
  • A 15-year-old boy presented with an anaplastic supratentorial ependymoma causing massive intratumoral calcification, without contributory medical and family history, and manifesting as persistent headache for 2 months.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the tumor as an assembly of medullated masses with extraventricular location, 7 x 6.5 x 6.5 cm in diameter, and appearing as heterogeneous intensity on both T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images with inhomogeneous enhancement except for the central cores.
  • The patient underwent tumor resection.
  • Intraoperative findings revealed that the cortical veins overlying the tumor were reddish and moderately engorged.
  • The hypervascular tumor, entirely extraventricular in location, was totally resected without neurological deterioration.
  • Histological examination revealed that the tumor was highly cellular with hyperchromatic nuclei and cell atypia.
  • The findings were compatible with anaplastic ependymoma (World Health Organization classification grade 3).
  • Ependymoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a supratentorially located, extraventricular mass with massive intratumoral calcification.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Edema / pathology. Brain Edema / radiography. Cerebral Veins / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Occipital Lobe / blood supply. Occipital Lobe / pathology. Occipital Lobe / surgery. Parietal Lobe / blood supply. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Skull / pathology. Skull / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20185883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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2. Iddrissu M, Dakurah T, Wepeba G: Anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricle causing obstrictive hydrocephalus. Ghana Med J; 2005 Mar;39(1):33-6

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  • [Title] Anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricle causing obstrictive hydrocephalus.
  • The case of fourth ventricular anaplastic epednymoma in a four-year-old child is reported in which the initial presentation was deterioration of the level of consciousness secondary to acute obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • The most important prognostic factors are tumour grade and the presence of residual tumour on post operative imaging studies.
  • A median survival of 31 months is noted in children with infratentorial ependymomas and one year survival is quoted as 81%.

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  • [Cites] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992;23(2):313-9 [1587752.001]
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  • (PMID = 17299539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-9560
  • [Journal-full-title] Ghana medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ghana Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ghana
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1790804
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3. Barut F, Kandemir NO, Ozdamar SO, Gul S, Bektas S, Gun BD, Bahadir B: Gliosarcoma with chondroblastic osteosarcomatous differentation: report of two case with clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features. Turk Neurosurg; 2009 Oct;19(4):417-22
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  • Gliosarcoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system characterized by a biphasic histological pattern.
  • CASE 1: A 52- year-old male patient underwent parietal craniotomy due to anaplastic ependymoma.
  • After the first operation, additional resections were performed for tumor because of recurrences at the fourth, seventh and tenth months.
  • The patient died after the last tumor resection.
  • Histopathologic examination of the postmortem biopsy revealed neoplasm displaying a biphasic morphologic pattern including both gliomatous and sarcomatous components.
  • We report two cases with an extremely rare histopathological diagnosis of "gliosarcoma with features of chondroblastic osteosarcoma".
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19847765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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4. Nakamura Y, Kanemura Y, Yamada T, Sugita Y, Higaki K, Yamamoto M, Takahashi M, Yamasaki M: D2-40 antibody immunoreactivity in developing human brain, brain tumors and cultured neural cells. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):974-85
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  • Some brain tumors such as anaplastic ependymoma, some medulloblastomas, glioblastoma, pineal germinoma, craniopharyngioma, choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma, and meningioma showed positive immunoreactivity with D2-40.
  • Therefore, D2-40 antibody is considered a useful marker for research on developing brain and diagnosis of brain tumors, differentiation between choroid plexus carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / immunology. Cerebellum / immunology. Telencephalon / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16648867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; 0 / oncofetal antigens
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5. Valera ET, Machado HR, Santos AC, de Oliveira RS, Araújo D, Neder L, Tone LG: The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to achieve complete surgical resection in recurring supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Mar;21(3):230-3
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  • [Title] The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to achieve complete surgical resection in recurring supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Ependymoma is a central nervous system neoplasm that is often managed with surgery and radiotherapy.
  • The benefits of chemotherapy in treating this tumor remain poorly defined.
  • CASE REPORT: The use of a platinum-based chemotherapy as a neoadjuvant treatment to permit complete surgical resection of a supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma recurring for the third time is described.
  • DISCUSSION: This paper also discusses the possible use of chemotherapy as a strategy that may allow tumor shrinkage and ease tumor resection in giant recurring ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Combined Modality Therapy. Ependymoma / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15338180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Timmermann B, Kortmann RD, Kühl J, Rutkowski S, Dieckmann K, Meisner C, Bamberg M: Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92. Radiother Oncol; 2005 Dec;77(3):278-85
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  • [Title] Role of radiotherapy in anaplastic ependymoma in children under age of 3 years: results of the prospective German brain tumor trials HIT-SKK 87 and 92.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of very young children with anaplastic ependymoma after delayed or omitted radiotherapy (RT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children under age of 3 years with anaplastic ependymoma were enrolled in the HIT-SKK 87 trial from 1987.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four children with anaplastic ependymoma were eligible (age 1.0-33.0 months).
  • Predominant site of failure is the primary tumor site.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy


7. Schuurmans M, Vanneste JA, Verstegen MJ, van Furth WR: Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):57-9
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  • [Title] Spinal extramedullary anaplastic ependymoma with spinal and intracranial metastases.
  • We describe a 29-year-old woman who presented with progressive neck pain, sensory deficit and weakness in both arms.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed an extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression.
  • During surgery an intradural extramedullary tumor was found.
  • Further imaging showed a second lumbar spinal tumor.
  • Microscopy of both tumors showed that both tumors were anaplastic ependymomas, which almost never present as extramedullary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16614942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins
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8. Jaremko JL, Jans LB, Coleman LT, Ditchfield MR: Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Oct;31(9):1613-6

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  • [Title] Value and limitations of diffusion-weighted imaging in grading and diagnosis of pediatric posterior fossa tumors.
  • Ependymoma (n = 5) could not be reliably differentiated from medulloblastoma or JPA.
  • A trend toward increased diffusion restriction in higher grade tumors (1/14 grade I, 7%; 9/12 grade IV, 75%) had too much overlap to predict the grade of individual cases.
  • The overlap in ADC between tumor types appeared partly due to technical factors (in small, heterogeneous, calcific, or hemorrhagic tumors) but also likely reflected true histologic variability, given that our 3 overlap cases included a desmoplastic medulloblastoma, an anaplastic ependymoma, and a JPA with restricted diffusion in its nodule.
  • Simple structural features (macrocystic tumor, location off midline) aided in distinguishing JPA from the other tumors in these cases.

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  • [CommentIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Oct;31(9):1617-8 [20581070.001]
  • [ErratumIn] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov;31(10):E90
  • (PMID = 20538820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Sardi I, Sanzo M, Giordano F, Sandri A, Mussa F, Donati PA, Genitori L: Intracavitary chemotherapy (Gliadel) and oral low-dose etoposide for recurrent anaplastic ependymoma. Oncol Rep; 2008 May;19(5):1219-23
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  • [Title] Intracavitary chemotherapy (Gliadel) and oral low-dose etoposide for recurrent anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Anaplastic ependymoma is associated with a higher incidence of tumor recurrence and its prognosis still remains unsatisfactory.
  • Consolidated therapy for ependymoma includes surgery followed by focal radiotherapy when resection is incomplete.
  • In the case of relapse treatment, options are limited especially for patients who have already received radiotherapy.
  • We sought to establish the feasibility of administering low-dose oral etoposide (50 mg/m(2)/day for 21 days) in combination with the implantation of intracavitary carmustine (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel) at the gross total resection for achieving synergistic treatment in three children affected by recurrent anaplastic ependymoma.
  • This multimodal approach was not effective for the treatment of refractory anaplastic ependymoma and further studies are required in order to define the role of the combination of multidrug systemic chemotherapy with BCNU wafer implantation in children with high-risk brain tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials. Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Decanoic Acids / therapeutic use. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Polyesters / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18425379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Decanoic Acids; 0 / Polyesters; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 90409-78-2 / decanedioic acid-4,4'-(1,3-propanediylbis(oxy))bis(benzoic acid) copolymer; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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10. Cerase A, Venturi C, Oliveri G, De Falco D, Miracco C: Intradural extramedullary spinal anaplastic ependymoma. Case illustration. J Neurosurg Spine; 2006 Nov;5(5):476
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  • [Title] Intradural extramedullary spinal anaplastic ependymoma. Case illustration.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17120902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Kumar R, Singhal N, Jaiswal SK, Mahapatra AK: Recurrence in supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2007;43(5):364-8
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  • [Title] Recurrence in supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma.
  • AIM: To study the outcome and recurrence in supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma.
  • METHODS: Sixteen cases of supratentorial anaplastic ependymoma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Gross total excision of tumor was achieved in 14 cases, as judged on the basis of intraoperative impression and confirmed with postoperative contrast MR or CT scan.
  • Two operated and irradiated cases of differentiated ependymomas (grade II) developed anaplastic recurrence at follow-up of 5 years and 9 years, respectively, suggesting a malignant transformation of tumor at follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: It is obvious that anaplastic ependymomas of the supratentorial compartment are aggressive tumors with high rates of recurrence even after gross total excision and irradiation.
  • Gross total excision and postoperative irradiation are not effective in preventing early recurrence in anaplastic ependymomas, and other factors affecting the outcome need to be analyzed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17786000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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12. Wang Z, Huang G, Yan P, Liang R, Wang J, Yan Q, Zhang J, Cheng H, Hu P, Ma MJ: Ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Dec;55(12):781-4
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  • [Title] Ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Ependymomas generally arise in the central nervous system (CNS), although rare primary extraneural ependymomas have been observed.
  • Reported herein for the first time is the case of a patient with primary ectopic cervical anaplastic ependymoma.
  • The tumor was found in the right neck root region of a 35-year-old man.
  • No additional tumor was found in the CNS or in other parts of the body.
  • Microscopically, the tumor consisted of round to oval cells with fine chromatin, distinct nucleoli, moderate nuclear atypia and numerous mitoses (>25/10 high-power fields) in a densely cellular growth pattern with characteristic fibrillary cytoplasm and formation of perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • By immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), vimentin and S-100 protein.
  • Electron microscopic studies revealed that tumor cells form micro rosettes, into which microvilli and cilia projected.
  • The diagnosis was World Health Organization grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • There is no evidence of local tumor recurrence or distant metastasis after 30 months follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16287493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin
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13. Kumar R, Wani AA, Reddy J, Pal L, Pradhan S: Development of anaplastic ependymoma in Rasmussen's encephalitis: review of the literature and case report. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Apr;22(4):416-9
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  • [Title] Development of anaplastic ependymoma in Rasmussen's encephalitis: review of the literature and case report.
  • The occurrence of anaplastic ependymoma in a diagnosed case of RE has not been reported in the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: We report an eight and a half year-old boy, a diagnosed case of RE, suffering from intractable right-sided focal seizures, who developed features of raised intracranial pressure during follow-up.
  • Histopathology of the mass revealed anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Encephalitis / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15928965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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14. Kano T, Ikota H, Wada H, Iwasa S, Kurosaki S: A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):11-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components.
  • The tumor was removed, and pathological studies revealed a cerebellar astrocytoma corresponding to World Health Organization grade II.
  • When she was 35 years old, or 6 years after the surgery, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a recurrence of the tumor in the right cerebellum, and subtotal removal of the recurrent tumor was performed.
  • Pathological studies revealed a mixed glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Thereafter, at 39 years of age, or 4 years after radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging again revealed a recurrence of the tumor, which was heterogeneously enhanced with gadoliniumdiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in the right cerebellum.
  • Subtotal removal of the tumor was performed; pathological studies revealed an anaplastic ependymoma with sarcomatous components.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paraffin Embedding. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19408092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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15. Mora J, Cruz O, Parareda A, Guillen A, Puy R, Massaguer S, de Torres C, Garcia G, Costa JM: Treatment of childhood glial tumors with cisplatin and irinotecan. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10062

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • After a pilot study suggesting that irinotecan/cisplatin (I/C) may be effective in children (Mora et al, Neuro Oncol 2007), we initiated a phase II prospective trial with the aim of avoiding radiation therapy for low grade's (LG) and improve outcome for high grade's (HG).
  • RESULTS: From January 2004 to December 2007, 30 children aged 6 months to 17 years were treated, 21 at diagnosis, 7 at progression and 2 at relapse.
  • Fourteen tumors were WHO grades I-II gliomas (LGG), 10 grade III (6 gliomas, 2 anaplastic ependymomas and 2 AT/RT), and 6 had no biopsy (3 brainstem (BST) and 3 optic-pathway tumors (OPT)).
  • Two patients had type-1 neurofibromatosis and OPT.
  • All but 6 patients, 2 because of C allergy and 4 BST because of progression, completed the protocol, with no grade 3-4 side effects.

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  • (PMID = 27962497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Hussain M, Mallucci C, Abernethy L, Godhamgaonkar V, Thorp N, Pizer B: Anaplastic ependymoma with sclerotic bone metastases. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;55(6):1204-6
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ependymoma with sclerotic bone metastases.
  • Ependymomas are glial central nervous system (CNS) tumors that arise from the ependymal layer of brain and spinal cord.
  • They frequently relapse at the primary site and may disseminate to other CNS sites.
  • We present a case of ependymoma in a child with widespread metastasis to her bones, a previously unreported event.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Ependymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20979177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Paramanathan N, Ooi KG, Reeves D, Wilcsek GA: Synchronous radiation-induced orbital meningioma and multiple cavernomas. Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2010 May;38(4):414-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We present the first reported case of synchronous radiation-induced orbital meningioma and cavernomas of the cerebellum and bilateral basal ganglia, presenting 16 years after ionizing radiation therapy for parietal anaplastic ependymoma, at the age of five.

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  • (PMID = 20491803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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18. Erdoğan G, Ozel E, Peştereli HE, Salar Z, Tirak B, Karaveli S: Ovarian ependymoma. APMIS; 2005 Apr;113(4):301-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian ependymoma.
  • The tumor contained solid areas of a yellowish white color.
  • Microscopic examination revealed highly cellular solid areas with many typical ependymal perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunopositivity was observed in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells.
  • Based on the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • This is to the best of our knowledge only the second case of anaplastic ependymoma in the medical literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15865613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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19. Green RM, Cloughesy T, Stupp R, DeAngelis LM, Woyshner EA, Ney DE, Lassman AB: Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):2060

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma.
  • : 2060 Background: Ependymoma is a rare type of glioma, representing less than 5% of brain tumors in adults.
  • At recurrence ependymoma is notoriously refractory to therapy and the prognosis is poor.
  • Therefore, we treated patients with recurrent ependymoma and anaplastic ependymoma with bevacizumab containing chemotherapy regimens.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively identified adults treated for recurrent ependymoma and anaplastic ependymoma with bevacizumab containing chemotherapy regimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizuamb has efficacy in the treatment of recurrent ependymoma.

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  • (PMID = 27964675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Gilhuis HJ, van der Laak JA, Pomp J, Kappelle AC, Gijtenbeek JM, Wesseling P: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes. Angiogenesis; 2006;9(4):201-8
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and quantitative analysis of the microvasculature in medulloblastoma and ependymoma subtypes.
  • In the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of tumours of the nervous system, four main histopathological subtypes of medulloblastomas (classic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic medulloblastoma, medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity and advanced neuronal differentiation and large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma) as well as of ependymal tumours (low-grade ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma) are recognised.
  • Under the hypothesis that the microvascular architecture of tumours is a reflection of the histopathological subtype, we performed three-dimensional reconstructions of the microvasculature in these subtypes of medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours using computerised image analysis.
  • Three-dimensional analysis of ependymal tumours showed that low-grade ependymoma had larger but fewer vessels compared to anaplastic ependymoma, while myxopapillary ependymoma had a complex, heterogeneous pattern of vessels and subependymoma few but regular vessels.
  • In ependymal tumours, the highest values for vessel number, vessel area and vessel perimeter were found in anaplastic ependymoma and the lowest values in subependymoma.
  • We conclude that our three-dimensional reconstructions shed unprecedented light on the tumour vasculature in medulloblastomas and ependymal tumours and expect that such reconstructions are helpful tools for further studies on tumour angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / blood supply. Ependymoma / blood supply. Medulloblastoma / blood supply. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 17109194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-6970
  • [Journal-full-title] Angiogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Angiogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Bannykh S, Baehring JM: Images in neuro-oncology: rapid development of osseous and chondrous metaplasia in recurrent anaplastic ependymoma. J Neurooncol; 2007 Feb;81(3):257-8
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  • [Title] Images in neuro-oncology: rapid development of osseous and chondrous metaplasia in recurrent anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Calcinosis / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17039399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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22. Shervington A, Patel R, Lu C, Cruickshanks N, Lea R, Roberts G, Dawson T, Shervington L: Telomerase subunits expression variation between biopsy samples and cell lines derived from malignant glioma. Brain Res; 2007 Feb 23;1134(1):45-52
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  • [Title] Telomerase subunits expression variation between biopsy samples and cell lines derived from malignant glioma.
  • In this study, a recurrent anaplastic ependymoma and seven glioblastoma biopsy samples, four cell lines and four controls including two normal brain tissues were analysed for telomerase subunit expression profiles together with telomerase activity.
  • Tankyrase was expressed in 85% of the glioblastoma tissues and was down-regulated in the recurrent anaplastic ependymoma tissue control cell lines.
  • Dyskerin was expressed in all cell lines and tissues apart from U87-MG and NHA cells and the recurrent anaplastic ependymoma tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Telomerase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Tankyrases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17196947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DKC1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TEP1 protein, human; EC 2.4.2.30 / Tankyrases; EC 2.4.4.30 / TNKS protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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23. Nakagawa Y, Kageji T, Mizobuchi Y, Kumada H, Nakagawa Y: Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children. Appl Radiat Isot; 2009 Jul;67(7-8 Suppl):S27-30
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  • [Title] Clinical results of BNCT for malignant brain tumors in children.
  • It is very difficult to treat the patients with malignant brain tumor in children, especially under 3 years, because the conventional irradiation cannot be applied due to the damage of normal brain tissue.
  • However, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has tumor selectivity such that it can make damage only in tumor cells.
  • We evaluated the clinical results and courses in patients with malignant glioma under 15 years.
  • There were 3 glioblastomas (GBM), 6 anaplastic astrocytomas(AAS), 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 6 pontine gliomas and 1 anaplastic ependymoma.
  • All GBM and PNET patients died due to CSF and/or CNS dissemination without local tumor regrowth.
  • All pontine glioma patients died due to regrowth of the tumor.
  • Four of 6 anaplastic astrocytoma and 1 anaplastic ependymoma patients alive without tumor recurrence.
  • BNCT can be applied to malignant brain tumors in children, especially under 3 years instead of conventional radiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Angiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19406652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9800
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Radiat Isot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Lin YH, Huang CI, Wong TT, Chen MH, Shiau CY, Wang LW, Ming-Tak Ho D, Yen SH: Treatment of spinal cord ependymomas by surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2005 Jan;71(2):205-10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of spinal cord ependymomas by surgery with or without postoperative radiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of complete resection and postoperative radiotherapy in spinal cord ependymomas.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective study over 20 patients (13 males and 7 females) with histologically confirmed spinal cord ependymomas between July 1985 and April 2001.
  • Among them, 13 patients had ependymomas, 6 had myxopapillary ependymomas, and 1 had anaplastic ependymoma.
  • All patients received radical surgery for tumor removal with 13 patients achieving complete resection and 7 incomplete resection due to technical difficulty.
  • Among those with incomplete resection, 6 patients received postoperative radiotherapy to tumor bed and only one patient with anaplastic ependymoma received surgery alone.
  • The total tumor dose ranged from 50 to 60 Gy.
  • One patient with anaplastic ependymoma and no postoperative radiotherapy developed leptomeningeal seeding 9 months after surgery.
  • The patient expired 34 months from the initial diagnosis due to progression of leptomeningeal seeding.
  • CONCLUSION: Complete resection alone in spinal cord ependymoma can achieve excellent local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Nervous System / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15690140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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25. Martínez-Lage JF, Girón Vallejo O, López López-Guerrero A, Martínez-Lage Azorín L, Roqués JL, Almagro MJ: Acute cholecystitis complicating ventriculo-peritoneal shunting: report of a case and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Jun;24(6):777-9
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  • CASE: A 3-year-old boy underwent emergency external ventricular drainage and excision of a fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Fourth Ventricle / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Staphylococcus epidermidis / isolation & purification. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18365208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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26. Park EK, Lee YH, Kim DS, Choi JU, Kim TS, Shim KW: 17-year-old girl with headache and complex partial seizure. Brain Pathol; 2010 Nov;20(6):1111-4
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  • Supratentorial cortical ependymoma is a rare clinical entity where ependymoma occurring in the cortex without any connection to the ventricular system since ependymoma usually arises from the lining of the ventricular system or central canal of spinal cord.
  • There have been 14 such cases reported in the literature.We report the first case of a supratentorial extraaxial cortical anaplastic ependymoma with minimal cortical attachment in a 17-years-old girl, presented with headache and complex partial seizure.

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  • (PMID = 20925697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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27. Bouvier C, De Paula AM, Fernandez C, Quilichini B, Scavarda D, Gentet JC, Figarella-Branger D: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour: 7-year event-free survival with gross total resection and radiotherapy in a 7-year-old boy. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Jan;24(1):143-7
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  • CASE STUDY: We report the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented in 1998 a tumour of the left frontal lobe.
  • Initially diagnosed as anaplastic ependymoma, the boy was treated by gross total resection followed by radiotherapy at the operated site.
  • Molecular techniques performed on frozen specimen of the orbital tumour confirmed the diagnosis of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour (ATRT).
  • DISCUSSION: We discuss the pathological criteria for diagnosis of ATRT and the usefulness of early radiotherapy in the light of the recent literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Frontal Lobe / chemistry. Frontal Lobe / radiation effects. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mucin-1 / analysis. Muscle, Smooth / chemistry. Rhabdoid Tumor / diagnosis. Rhabdoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Rhabdoid Tumor / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17968559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin
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28. Borrelli A, Mattiazzi L, Capucchio MT, Biolatti C, Cagnasso A, Gianella P, D'Angelo A: Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog. J Small Anim Pract; 2009 Oct;50(10):554-7
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  • [Title] Cachexia secondary to intracranial anaplastic (malignant) ependymoma in a boxer dog.
  • On physical examination, cachexia was the only reported abnormality.
  • Based on the morphological features of the tumour, marked parenchymal invasion, extensive necrosis and cellular atypia, the mass was classified as an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / veterinary. Cachexia / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Ependymoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female

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  • (PMID = 19796316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Ortiz J, Otero A, Bengoechea O, Gonçalves J, Sousa P, Figols J, Bullón A: Divergent ependymal tumor (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) of the posterior fossa: an uncommon case observed in a child. J Child Neurol; 2008 Sep;23(9):1058-61
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  • [Title] Divergent ependymal tumor (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) of the posterior fossa: an uncommon case observed in a child.
  • We report a divergent ependymal tumor of the posterior fossa (ependymoblastoma/anaplastic ependymoma) observed in an 8-year-old boy.
  • The tumor showed the histological pattern typical of an ependymoblastoma (tubular-papillary fetaloid architecture with stratification of the tumor cells) next to areas in which findings typical of an anaplastic ependymoma were detected.
  • The immunohistochemical study confirmed our diagnostic suspicion, allowing us to establish a differential diagnosis with other entities such as medulloblastoma, medulloepithelioma, atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumor, or metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Age of Onset. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem / physiopathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / physiopathology. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Headache / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medulloblastoma / diagnosis. Neurosurgical Procedures. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18827270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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30. Azarpira N, Rakei M, Mokhtari M: Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):1023-6
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  • [Title] Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraoperative imprint cytology has proved to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • Ependymomas are uncommon glial neoplasms of the CNS, arising from ependymal lining of the ventricular system and central canal of the spinal cord.
  • Anaplastic ependymoma is a rare tumor that causes diagnostic difficulties in imprint cytology because of variable cytomorphologic findings.
  • Computed tomography of the head showed hydrocephalus with a large parietal lobe tumor with midline structural shift.
  • The tumor showed pseudorosettes with glial fibrillary acidic protein and epithelial membrane antigen expression.
  • The diagnosis was made with histologic and immunologic confirmation.
  • CONCLUSION: Although imprint cytology is a useful method for making a rapid diagnosis, but immunohistochemical markers play a major role in the final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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31. Rutten I, Raket D, Francotte N, Philippet P, Chao SL, Lemort M: Contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the differential diagnosis of a recurrent cranial mass 7 years after irradiation for a pediatric ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Nov;22(11):1475-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contribution of NMR spectroscopy to the differential diagnosis of a recurrent cranial mass 7 years after irradiation for a pediatric ependymoma.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 5-year-old-boy who underwent surgery and focal radiotherapy for an anaplastic ependymoma of the fourth ventricle.
  • To help the differential diagnosis between a relapse, a radio-induced modification, and a new tumor, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Cites] Magn Reson Med. 2003 Apr;49(4):632-7 [12652533.001]
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  • (PMID = 16708251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Reni M, Gatta G, Mazza E, Vecht C: Ependymoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2007 Jul;63(1):81-9
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  • [Title] Ependymoma.
  • Ependymomas are rare tumours of neuroectodermal origin classified as myxopapillary ependymoma and subependymoma (grade I), ependymoma (grade II) and anaplastic ependymoma (grade III).
  • Age <40 years and extent of surgery appear related to better prognosis, while the role of other prognostic factors, such as tumour grade and tumour site are equivocal.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy is indicated in high-grade ependymomas, and is recommended in low-grade ependymomas after subtotal or incomplete resection (confirmed by postoperative MR).
  • Recommended dose to involved fields is 45-54 Gy for low-grade (grade II) and 54-60 Gy for high-grade ependymomas (grade III).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17482475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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33. Gilbert MR, Ruda R, Soffietti R: Ependymomas in adults. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2010 May;10(3):240-7
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  • [Title] Ependymomas in adults.
  • Ependymomas are rare primary central nervous system tumors in adults.
  • They occur most commonly in the spinal cord, where histopathologic evaluation is critical to differentiate the grade I myxopapillary ependymoma from the grade II ependymoma or grade III anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Brain ependymomas are either grade II or III.
  • For myxopapillary ependymoma, complete removal while maintaining capsule integrity may be curative.
  • Some grade II ependymomas may be observed carefully after imaging confirms complete resection, but grade III tumors require adjuvant radiation treatment.
  • Radiation commonly is given to the region of tumor, except in cases in which there is imaging or cerebrospinal fluid evidence of tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • (PMID = 20425040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6293
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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34. Patel R, Shervington L, Lea R, Shervington A: Epigenetic silencing of telomerase and a non-alkylating agent as a novel therapeutic approach for glioma. Brain Res; 2008 Jan 10;1188:173-81
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  • To further evaluate the effect of these findings, the level of hTERT and MGMT expression was measured in a recurrent anaplastic ependymoma, seven glioblastoma and two normal brain tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Aging / drug effects. Cell Aging / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Down-Regulation / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Methyltransferases / antagonists & inhibitors. Methyltransferases / metabolism. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18021753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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35. Shibahara I, Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Endo H, Sonoda Y, Ogawa Y, Watanabe M, Tominaga T: Hemorrhagic onset of pilocytic astrocytoma and pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):1-5
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  • Hemorrhagic onset was observed in 4 of 35 (11.4%) patients with pilocytic astrocytoma and pilomyxoid astrocytoma, with higher incidence than in glioblastoma (3.9%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (7.7%), and anaplastic ependymoma (7.1%).
  • The hemorrhagic onset occurred in 2 patients with sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma, 1 with pilocytic astrocytoma associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, and 1 with pilomyxoid astrocytoma.
  • There was no correlation between hemorrhagic onset and clinical features, including age, sex, tumor location, proliferative activity, or microvascular proliferation.
  • Hemorrhagic onset of pilocytic astrocytoma and pilomyxoid astrocytoma is not as uncommon as was previously thought, so pilocytic astrocytoma or pilomyxoid astrocytoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with brain tumors manifesting as hemorrhagic onset.

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  • (PMID = 19408090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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36. Aghili M, Zahedi F, Rafiee E: Hydroxyglutaric aciduria and malignant brain tumor: a case report and literature review. J Neurooncol; 2009 Jan;91(2):233-6
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  • [Title] Hydroxyglutaric aciduria and malignant brain tumor: a case report and literature review.
  • To make a definitive diagnosis, an anomalous accumulation of L -2-hydroxyglutaric acid must be detected in body fluids.
  • Here, we present a 17-year-old boy with L: -2-OHGA who developed an anaplastic ependymoma during the course of this disease.
  • We also present a literature review including seven other patients who developed malignant brain tumors during the course of L -2-OHGA.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Hydroxy Acids / urine


37. Liu JG, Liu YH, Cai J, Liu XS, Song WZ, Huang Y, Mao Q: [Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and PTEN in malignancy brain tumors]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2006 Nov;37(6):868-71
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  • METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of EGFR and PTEN and adopting confocal technology to verify their location in the specimens of 25 respectively glioblastoma multiformes, medulloblastomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and anaplastic ependymomas.
  • They were 36% and 8% in medulloblastomas, and 28% and 8% in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, and 24% and 4% in anaplastic ependymomas.
  • PTEN mutation and EGFR overexpression are rare in medulloblastoma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and anaplastic ependymoma, so the EGFR or PTEN targeted antitumor approaches may be useful in glioblastoma multiformes but the other 3 tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17236582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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38. Mridha AR, Sharma MC, Sarkar C, Garg A, Singh MM, Suri V: Anaplastic ependymoma with cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia: report of a rare case and review of literature. J Neurooncol; 2007 Mar;82(1):75-80
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  • [Title] Anaplastic ependymoma with cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia: report of a rare case and review of literature.
  • The present paper describes an unusual case of anaplastic ependymoma with cartilaginous and osseous metaplasia in a young boy which was located in the suprasellar, interpeduncular prepontine and left cerebello-pontine cistern.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this cartilaginous metaplasia in ependymomas has been reported only thrice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cartilage / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Osteochondrodysplasias / pathology


39. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohmura T, Ohta M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):911-7
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  • [Title] Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported the clinical efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment for high-grade glioma, but information on Japanese populations has been limited.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects comprised ten patients with high-grade glioma [glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), n=3, gliosarcoma (GS), n=1, anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), n=3, anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma (AOA), n=1, and anaplastic ependymoma (AE), n=2].
  • As second- or third-line chemotherapy, patients received TMZ for recurrence or tumor progression.
  • As combination therapy, the local administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the addition of carboplatin and etoposide were included for three patients during the course of oral TMZ treatment.
  • One of the patients receiving combination therapy has continued to show shrinkage of the relapsed tumor.
  • Despite prior radio- and chemotherapy, most patients experienced only grade 1-2 hematotoxicity that was well-controlled by conservative therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ chemotherapy is effective for the treatment of high-grade glioma in some patients without serious toxicity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19414327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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40. Kanamori M, Kumabe T, Saito R, Yamashita Y, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: [The safety of combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide (ICE): single-institution retrospective review of 108 cases]. No Shinkei Geka; 2010 Nov;38(11):997-1005
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  • The histological diagnosis was newly diagnosed or recurrent germ cell tumor in 45 cases, medulloblastoma in 19, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in 7, anaplastic ependymoma in 6, recurrent glioblastoma in 13, and others in 18 cases.
  • 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0) grade 4 neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 81.4%, 14.8%, and 35.2% of patients, respectively.
  • The proportion of ICE cycles associated with CTCAE v3.0 grade 4 neutropenia, transfusion of platelets, and elevated AST/ALT significantly decreased after enforcement of dose reduction criteria.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Ependymoma / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Infant. Male. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21081811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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41. Bartolek F, Zganjer M, Pajić A, Cizmić A, Kljenak A, Cigit I, Car A, Stepan J, Bartolek D, Boras A: A 10-year experience in the treatment of intraabdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts. Coll Antropol; 2010 Dec;34(4):1397-400
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  • Recurrence of the abdominal cyst was observed in one girl who was in terminal stadium of anaplastic ependymoma.

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  • (PMID = 21874727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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42. Combs SE, Kelter V, Welzel T, Behnisch W, Kulozik AE, Bischof M, Hof H, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D: Influence of radiotherapy treatment concept on the outcome of patients with localized ependymomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):972-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of radiotherapy treatment concept on the outcome of patients with localized ependymomas.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the outcome of 57 patients with localized ependymomas treated with radiotherapy (RT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-seven patients with localized ependymomas were treated with RT.
  • Histology was myxopapillary ependymoma (n = 4), ependymoma (n = 23), and anaplastic ependymoma (n = 30).
  • Forty-one patients were treated with local RT, with a local dose of 45 Gy to the posterior fossa, including a boost to the tumor bed of 9 Gy.
  • In 19 patients, the tumor bed was irradiated with a median dose of 54 Gy.
  • RESULTS: Overall survival after primary diagnosis was 83% and 71% at 3 and 5 years.
  • Five-year overall survival was 80% in low-grade and 79% in high-grade tumors.
  • The radiation oncologist must keep in mind that patients with localized ependymomas benefit from local doses > or =45 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / mortality. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 18337022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Kumar P, Rastogi N, Jain M, Chhabra P: Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Apr-Jun;3(2):102-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extraneural metastases in anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Ependymoma are rare glial neoplasm, it rarely metastasize outside the central nervous system.
  • We present a case of anaplastic ependymoma with extraneural metastases with review of literature.
  • A ten-year-old male child presented with anaplastic ependymoma of choroid plexus and treated with craniospinal radiotherapy in 1998.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17998733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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44. Green RM, Cloughesy TF, Stupp R, DeAngelis LM, Woyshner EA, Ney DE, Lassman AB: Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma. Neurology; 2009 Nov 17;73(20):1677-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymoma is a rare type of glioma, representing 5% of all CNS malignancies.
  • At recurrence, ependymoma is notoriously refractory to therapy and the prognosis is poor.
  • METHODS: In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, we retrospectively analyzed the records of 8 adult patients treated for recurrent ependymoma and anaplastic ependymoma with bevacizumab containing chemotherapy regimens.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1990 Jul;8(7):1277-80 [2358840.001]
  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):987-96 [15758009.001]
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  • (PMID = 19917990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA-105663-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2788805
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45. Robles SG, Saldaña C, Boto GR, Martinez A, Zamarron AP, Jorquera M, Mata P: Intradural extramedullary spinal ependymoma: a benign pathology? Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2005 May 1;30(9):E251-4
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  • [Title] Intradural extramedullary spinal ependymoma: a benign pathology?
  • STUDY DESIGN: Spinal ependymoma is a benign central nervous system tumor described as an intramedullary lesion more frequently located at the conus medullaris.
  • It has been described exceptionally in the literature as an intradural extramedullary tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: Presentation of an extremelly rare location and evolution of extremedullary ependymoma and discussion of its probable origin, differential diagnosis, treatment options, and follow-up.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: This case demonstrates an unusual location of a benign ependymal tumor in the extramedullary space with a total resection, which recurred in a lower level with a malignant transformation with the same extramedullary location.
  • METHODS: The authors present the case of a 47-year-old woman with a subacute spinal cord dysfunction and an intradural extramedullary D2-D3 tumor mimicking meningioma or neurinoma.
  • RESULTS: After complete resection, anatomic-pathologic studies confirmed that the lesion was a benign classic ependymoma.
  • Good neurologic outcome was achieved, and no residual tumor was present at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) control performed at 3 and 9 months later.
  • One year after surgery, a new intradural extramedullary tumor was found at the D4 level without recurrence at D2.
  • The patient was operated on again, but at this time the histologic study showed an anaplastic ependymoma with a proliferation index of 25% measured by Ki-67.
  • CONCLUSION: All of the previously reported cases of spinal intradural extramedullary ependymomas carried out a benign course.
  • The case we are reporting is the first one in which malignant transformation occurred.
  • This tumor should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of intradural extramedullary lesions.
  • Moreover, close follow-up is recommended for this unusual location of ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Dura Mater / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15864145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Cao WD, Zhang X, Zhang JN, Yang ZJ, Zhen HN, Cheng G, Li B, Gao D: Immunocytochemical detection of 14-3-3 in primary nervous system tumors. J Neurooncol; 2006 Apr;77(2):125-30
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  • However, 14-3-3 immunoreactivity was seen in the majority of astrocytomas [grade I (9/11), II (16/21), III (13/17), IV (17/21)].
  • But the intensity and degree of 14-3-3 immunoreactivity in diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytoma, and glioblastoma multiformes showed trends with tumor grade, with glioblastomas having the highest positivity (P = 0.048).
  • The 14-3-3 immunoreactivity was also seen in the majority of other gliomas [oligodendroglioma (2/3), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (4/4), ependymoma (1/2), anaplastic ependymoma (2/2), choroid plexus papilloma (3/3), pineocytoma (2/2), medulloblastoma (5/8)].
  • The up-regulated expression of 14-3-3 may be a common mechanism for evading apoptosis in most primary human nervous system tumors, and targeting 14-3-3 may be a novel promising strategy for the treatment of these tumors, especially for malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] 14-3-3 Proteins / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16292484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / YWHAB protein, human
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47. Benesch M, Siegler N, Hoff Kv, Lassay L, Kropshofer G, Müller H, Sommer C, Rutkowski S, Fleischhack G, Urban C: Safety and toxicity of intrathecal liposomal cytarabine (Depocyte) in children and adolescents with recurrent or refractory brain tumors: a multi-institutional retrospective study. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Oct;20(9):794-9
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  • Nineteen heavily pretreated patients (males, n = 14; females, n = 5; median age at diagnosis 8.5 years; range, 1.4-22 years) were given intrathecal liposomal cytarabine on a compassionate use basis for recurrent refractory medulloblastoma (n = 12), mixed germ cell tumor (n = 2), central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the pons (n = 1), anaplastic ependymoma (n = 1), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (n = 1), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), or rhabdoid papillary meningioma (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Compassionate Use Trials. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Liposomes / administration & dosage. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19617818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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48. Agaoglu FY, Ayan I, Dizdar Y, Kebudi R, Gorgun O, Darendeliler E: Ependymal tumors in childhood. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Sep;45(3):298-303
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  • [Title] Ependymal tumors in childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymal tumors are classified as ependymoma (benign or low grade) versus anaplastic ependymoma (malignant or high grade).
  • Ependymomas represent 5-10% of intracranial neoplasm in children.
  • In this study, demographic data and the treatment results of pediatric patients with ependymal tumors, treated in a single institute, is reported.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 2001, 40 (22 M/18 F) previously untreated patients with a median age of 5.5 years (3 months-15 years), of histologically proven ependymal tumors (except ependymoblastomas) were referred to the Institute of Oncology, University of Istanbul.
  • Histologic subgroups were 18 ependymomas (43.6%), and 22 anaplastic ependymomas (56.4%).
  • Total tumor resection was performed in 20 patients (50%), subtotal in 18 patients (45%), and biopsy only in 2 patients (5%).
  • Postoperative treatment consisted of regional (8 patients) or craniospinal (CSI) (9 patients) radiotherapy (RT) in patients with ependymoma; regional (7 patients) or CSI RT (14 patients) with chemotherapy (ChT) in patients with anaplastic ependymoma; ChT only (1 patient) in patients less than 3 years of age.
  • Patients who were treated between June 1991 and July 1994, received regimen B, which included two courses of postoperative "VEC" (vincristine, etoposide, cisplatin) ChT, administered every 3 weeks, followed by RT applied with low dose concomitant cisplatin used as a radiosensitizer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of complete responders were patients who had total tumor removal.
  • Treatment failure occurred mainly within the first 2 years, and outcome was dismal for patients who relapsed or had progressive disease.
  • The median age at diagnosis is 6 years in our patient group; younger children (less than 3 years old) have less favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Ependymoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15770637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Ghosal N, Murthy G, Dadlani R, Hegde AS, Singh D: Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: a case report and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):787-9
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  • [Title] Recurrent posterior fossa anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia: a case report and review of literature.
  • We report an unusual case of a recurrent fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma with prominent chondroid metaplasia in a 16-year-old male.
  • On initial presentation, the patient had a WHO Grade II tumor.
  • However, at recurrence 1 year later, the tumor progressed to WHO Grade III tumor with more cellularity, necrosis and brisk mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21045418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Mucin-1
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50. Benesch M, Weber-Mzell D, Gerber NU, von Hoff K, Deinlein F, Krauss J, Warmuth-Metz M, Kortmann RD, Pietsch T, Driever PH, Quehenberger F, Urban C, Rutkowski S: Ependymoma of the spinal cord in children and adolescents: a retrospective series from the HIT database. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Aug;6(2):137-44
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  • [Title] Ependymoma of the spinal cord in children and adolescents: a retrospective series from the HIT database.
  • OBJECT: Reports on spinal cord ependymoma in children are rare.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical spectrum, treatment, and outcome of children with primary ependymoma of the spinal cord who were registered in the database of the pediatric German brain tumor studies Hirntumor (HIT) '91 and HIT 2000.
  • METHODS: Between 1991 and 2007, 29 patients (12 male and 17 female, median age at diagnosis 13.6 years) with primary spinal cord ependymoma (myxopapillary ependymoma WHO Grade I, II, and III tumors in 6, 17, and 6 patients, respectively) were identified.
  • Four patients had neurofibromatosis Type 2.
  • One patient with anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III) died 65 months after diagnosis of disease progression.
  • Primary adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both) was used in 8 (50%) of 16 patients following GTR and in 9 (82%) of 11 patients who underwent less than a GTR.
  • Progression-free survival at 5 years is 84.4% (95% CI 50%-96%) for patients following GTR compared with 57.1% (95% CI 25%-69%) for patients who achieved a less than GTR (p = 0.088, log-rank test).
  • A high relapse incidence (4 of 6) was observed among patients with myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gross-total resection is the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary spinal cord ependymoma and may be achieved in about 50% of the patients using modern surgical techniques.
  • Primary adjuvant treatment was commonly used in children with spinal cord ependymoma irrespective of the extent of resection or tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Austria. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disability Evaluation. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Male. Neurofibromatosis 2 / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 2 / drug therapy. Neurofibromatosis 2 / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 2 / radiotherapy. Neurofibromatosis 2 / surgery. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20672934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Kashyap R, Ryan C, Sharma R, Maloo MK, Safadjou S, Graham M, Tretheway D, Jain A, Orloff M: Liver grafts from donors with central nervous system tumors: a single-center perspective. Liver Transpl; 2009 Oct;15(10):1204-8
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  • Traditionally, patients who die with a malignancy have been excluded from donation.
  • However, it has become a common practice to accept organs from donors that have low-grade tumors or tumors with low metastatic potential.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze our experience with the use of liver grafts from donors with central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
  • A retrospective review of 1173 liver transplants performed between 1992 and 2006 identified 42 donors diagnosed with a CNS tumor.
  • Thirty-two tumors were malignant, and 10 tumors were benign.
  • Twenty (47.6%) of the CNS tumors were glioblastoma multiforme (astrocytoma grade IV), 11 (26.2%) were other astrocytomas, and 1 (2.4%) was an anaplastic ependymoma.
  • Twenty (62.5%) neoplasms were grade IV tumors, 8 (25%) were grade II tumors, and 4 (12.5%) were grade III tumors.
  • The rate of recurrence for the entire group was 2.4% (all CNS tumors).
  • There was no difference in survival between recipients of grafts from donors with CNS tumors and recipients of grafts from donors without CNS tumors (1 year: 82% versus 83.3%, P = not significant; 3 years: 77.4% versus 72%, P = not significant).
  • In conclusion, in our experience, despite violation of the blood-brain barrier and high-grade CNS tumors, recurrence was uncommon.
  • Grafts from these donors are often an overlooked source of high-quality organs from younger donors and can be appropriately used, particularly in patients who, despite low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, carry a high risk of mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Tissue and Organ Procurement / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood-Brain Barrier. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 AASLD
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):916 [20583090.001]
  • [CommentIn] Liver Transpl. 2010 Jul;16(7):914-5 [20583288.001]
  • (PMID = 19790151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6473
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Apel-Sarid L, Cochrane DD, Steinbok P, Byrne AT, Dunham C: Microfibrillar collagen hemostat-induced necrotizing granulomatous inflammation developing after craniotomy: a pediatric case series. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Oct;6(4):385-92
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  • Based primarily on MR imaging, postoperative reactions have most commonly elicited clinical differential diagnoses of tumor recurrence or abscess.
  • RESULTS: Case 1 is that of a 10-year-old girl whose diagnosis was a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma, classified as WHO Grade I.
  • Case 2 is that of a 9-year-old boy whose diagnosis was a left parietal lobe anaplastic ependymoma, classified as WHO Grade III.
  • Finally, Case 3 is that of a 15-year-old girl whose diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia Type IIA affecting the left occipital lobe.
  • The postsurgical reactions incited by MCH mimicked the radiological appearance of either an abscess (Cases 2 and 3) or recurrent tumor (Case 1).
  • Based on the authors' observations, the possibility of an idiopathic inflammatory reaction to MCH should be considered when either seizures, a typical radiological appearance (that is, consistent with tumor recurrence or abscess formation), or both arise shortly after initial surgery.
  • A conservative treatment approach to this type of inflammatory lesion appears to be the most appropriate management strategy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Child. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hemorrhages / prevention & control. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Malformations of Cortical Development / pathology. Malformations of Cortical Development / surgery. Necrosis. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20887115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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53. Lopez-Gines C, Gil-Benso R, Faus C, Monleon D, Mata M, Morales JM, Cigudosa JC, Gonzalez-Darder J, Celda B, Cerda-Nicolas M: Metastasizing anaplastic ependymoma in an adult. Chromosomal imbalances, metabolic and gene expression profiles. Histopathology; 2009 Mar;54(4):500-4
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  • [Title] Metastasizing anaplastic ependymoma in an adult. Chromosomal imbalances, metabolic and gene expression profiles.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anaplasia. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chromosome Aberrations. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, p53. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mutation. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19309408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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54. Merchant TE, Li C, Xiong X, Kun LE, Boop FA, Sanford RA: Conformal radiotherapy after surgery for paediatric ependymoma: a prospective study. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Mar;10(3):258-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conformal radiotherapy after surgery for paediatric ependymoma: a prospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Therapy for ependymoma includes aggressive surgical intervention and radiotherapy administered by use of methods that keep the risk of side-effects to a minimum.
  • METHODS: Between July 11, 1997, and Nov 18, 2007, 153 paediatric patients (median age 2.9 years [range 0.9-22.9 months]) with localised ependymoma were treated.
  • 85 patients had anaplastic ependymoma; the tumours of 122 were located in the infratentorial region, and 35 had received previous chemotherapy.
  • Variables considered included tumour grade, tumour location, ethnic origin, sex, age when undergoing conformal radiotherapy, total radiotherapy dose, number of surgical procedures, surgery extent, and preradiotherapy chemotherapy.
  • The incidence of secondary malignant brain tumour at 7 years was 2.3% (0-5.6) and brainstem necrosis 1.6% (0-4.0).
  • Overall survival was affected by tumour grade (anaplastic vs differentiated: HR 3.98 [95% CI 1.51-10.48]; p=0.0052), extent of resection (gross total vs near total or subtotal: 0.16 [0.07-0.37]; p<0.0001), and ethnic origin (non-white vs white: 3.0 [1.21-7.44]; p=0.018).
  • EFS was affected by tumour grade (anaplastic vs differentiated: 2.52 [1.2705.01]; p=0.008), extent of resection (gross total vs near total or subtotal: 0.20 [0.11-0.39]; p<0.0001]), and sex (male vs female: 2.19 [1.03-4.66]; p=0.042).
  • Distant recurrence was only affected by tumour grade (anaplastic vs differentiated: 4.1 [1.2-14.0]; p=0.017).
  • INTERPRETATION: Treatment of ependymoma should include surgery with the aim of gross-total resection and conformal, high-dose, postoperative irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 19274783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS429992; NLM/ PMC3615425
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55. Alexiou GA, Panagopoulos D, Moschovi M, Stefanaki K, Sfakianos G, Prodromou N: Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma in a 10-year-old girl. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2010;46(6):480-1
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  • [Title] Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma in a 10-year-old girl.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / radiography. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 21555909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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56. Saito R, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T: Dissemination limits the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma after extensive surgical resection, meticulous follow up, and intensive treatment for recurrence. Neurosurg Rev; 2010 Apr;33(2):185-91; discussion 191-2
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  • [Title] Dissemination limits the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma after extensive surgical resection, meticulous follow up, and intensive treatment for recurrence.
  • The extent of resection is the most consistent factor affecting outcome of intracranial ependymomas.
  • The outcomes in patients with intracranial anaplastic ependymomas who underwent more than subtotal resection and intensive treatment for recurrence were reviewed retrospectively.
  • High resection rate, meticulous follow-up, and intensive treatment for recurrence improved the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


57. Ahmadi R, Schmitt HP, Kunze S, Steiner HH: Supratentorial malignant ependymoma in childhood: 16 years without relapse after hemispherectomy. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Feb;21(2):156-60
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  • [Title] Supratentorial malignant ependymoma in childhood: 16 years without relapse after hemispherectomy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant intracranial ependymomas in childhood have a poor prognosis, supratentorial ependymomas have the poorest clinical course with a survival rate after 5 years of 45%.
  • CASE REPORT: We demonstrate the case of a large malignant ependymoma of the left cerebral hemisphere in a child who has so far lived for 16 years without relapse after an extensive but uncomplicated left-sided hemispherectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case shows the significance of complete tumor resection in malignant ependymomas, which may, under certain circumstances, lead to lasting tumor control.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Hemispherectomy / methods. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15095106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Mogler C, Kohlhof P, Penzel R, Grenacher L, Haag GM, Schirmacher P, Mueller W: A primary malignant ependymoma of the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature. Virchows Arch; 2009 Apr;454(4):475-8
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  • [Title] A primary malignant ependymoma of the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Ependymomas generally arise in the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Rare primary extraneural ependymomas have been observed.
  • Here, we describe the first case of an overt malignant primary extraneural ependymoma in a young female patient.
  • Careful reevaluation together with extensive review of the literature and comparison of related cases established the diagnosis after treatment failure and tumor progression.
  • The tumor was large and firm with some small cysts and showed pseudorosettes with strong glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression.
  • In conclusion, primary extraneural ependymomas have to be included into the differential diagnosis of abdominal tumors with pseudorosette-formation, even in unusual sites, and GFAP-immunohistochemistry (IHC) supports the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Cavity / pathology. Diagnostic Errors. Ependymoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19238432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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59. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb;64(2):279-87; discussion 287-8
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  • [Title] Outcome predictors for intracranial ependymoma radiosurgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To develop outcome predictors after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with intracranial ependymomas who had received previous fractionated radiation therapy, we compared tumor control, survival, and complications with tumor grade, volume, age of patients, and imaging characteristics.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 39 consecutive ependymoma patients who underwent SRS for 56 tumors.
  • All patients had previous surgical resection of their ependymomas followed by radiotherapy, and 14 patients underwent previous chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-five patients had low-grade ependymomas (34 tumors), and 14 patients had anaplastic ependymomas (22 tumors).
  • The progression-free survival rates after SRS at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81.6, 45.8, and 45.8%, respectively, for all grades of ependymomas.
  • Lower histological tumor grade was not significantly associated with better progression-free survival (P = 0.725).
  • Factors associated with an improved progression-free survival included smaller tumor volume and homogeneous tumor contrast enhancement in low-grade ependymomas.
  • CONCLUSION: SRS provides another management option for patients with residual or recurrent ependymomas that have failed surgery and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / methods. Radiosurgery / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 19190457.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohnishi H, Ueno Y, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Soma G: Evaluation of intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with malignant glioma. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6A):4027-32
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  • [Title] Evaluation of intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with malignant glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: This study assessed safety and efficacy for intratumoral administration of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-SAM2) into the post-operative tumor cavity through an Ommaya reservoir for patients with malignant glioma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with malignant glioma, comprising 3 cases with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), 3 cases with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 1 case with malignant ependymoma (ME) were included in the study.
  • TNF-SAM2 was administrated into the post-operative tumor cavity through a reservoir at a concentration of 1x10(4) U/body when recurrence was detected, or as initial induction therapy concomitant with radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Partial response to this regional immunotherapy was seen in 4 out of 7 patients, and 1 patient with GBM has remained clinically stable for >184 weeks without tumor progression.
  • With AA, 2 cases appeared to display slowed advance and longer times to tumor recurrence or regrowth.
  • CONCLUSION: Local immunotherapy with TNF-SAM2 may safely contribute to therapeutic efficacy in some patients with malignant glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17195453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TNF-SAM2; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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61. Buccoliero AM, Castiglione F, Rossi Degl'Innocenti D, Paglierani M, Maio V, Gheri CF, Garbini F, Moncini D, Taddei A, Sardi I, Sanzo M, Giordano F, Mussa F, Genitori L, Taddei GL: O6-Methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase in recurring anaplastic ependymomas: PCR and immunohistochemistry. J Chemother; 2008 Apr;20(2):263-8
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  • [Title] O6-Methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase in recurring anaplastic ependymomas: PCR and immunohistochemistry.
  • Ependymomas are the third most common brain tumor in children.
  • We evaluated the MGMT gene promoter methylation and the immunohistochemical MGMT protein expression in 12 recurrent anaplastic ependymomas affecting children.
  • Our purpose was to investigate the molecular rationale of the administration of alkylating agents to children affected by recurrent anaplastic ependymomas.
  • All ependymomas lacked MGMT promoter hypermethylation and 9 (75%) showed high MGMT protein expression (>50% tumoral cells).
  • These results may indicate MGMT as a factor of chemoresistance to alkylating drugs in anaplastic ependymomas and support the uncertainties regarding the actual benefit of chemotherapy for patients with anaplastic ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. DNA Modification Methylases / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / enzymology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / enzymology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anaplasia. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Promoter Regions, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18467255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1973-9478
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chemother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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62. Buccoliero AM, Castiglione F, Rossi Degl'Innocenti D, Sardi I, Genitori L, Taddei GL: Merlin expression in pediatric anaplastic ependymomas real time PCR study. Fetal Pediatr Pathol; 2010;29(4):245-54
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  • [Title] Merlin expression in pediatric anaplastic ependymomas real time PCR study.
  • The most common genetic abnormalities of ependymomas involve the chromosome 22 where there is the oncosuppressor gene neurofibromin 2 (NF2).
  • In contrast, NF2 alterations do not seem related to tumor grade.
  • We studied the NF2 expression through a real-time polymerase chain reaction in 25 pediatric anaplastic ependymomas.
  • We compared the NF2 expression in neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues, in supratentorial and infratentorial ependymomas and in primitive and non-primitive tumors (recurrences and metastases).
  • Our results suggest that NF2 alterations are not typical of intracranial anaplastic ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Neurofibromin 2 / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Infratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Infratentorial Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Supratentorial Neoplasms / genetics. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20594149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-3823
  • [Journal-full-title] Fetal and pediatric pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fetal Pediatr Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neurofibromin 2; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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63. Shintaku M, Nagata N, Itoh H: Tanycytic ependymoma of the spinal cord with anaplastic cytological features. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):7-10
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  • [Title] Tanycytic ependymoma of the spinal cord with anaplastic cytological features.
  • In a 43-year-old man, an intramedullary spinal cord tumor spreading from the level of the T2 to T5 vertebrae was subtotally resected.
  • The tumor predominantly consisted of a fascicular proliferation of spindle cells having bland nuclei and bipolar, long cytoplasmic processes, and a few perivascular pseudo-rosettes were found.
  • Although there were no true ependymal rosettes, intracytoplasmic dot-like immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) was found in a few cells.
  • In some areas, a dense and diffuse proliferation of anaplastic, short-spindled cells having hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm was noted, and the Ki-67 labeling index was remarkably higher (18.2%) in these areas.
  • This is the first documentation of tanycytic ependymoma in which tumor cells showed anaplastic cytological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19408091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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64. de Bont JM, van Doorn J, Reddingius RE, Graat GH, Passier MM, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Various components of the insulin-like growth factor system in tumor tissue, cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of pediatric medulloblastoma and ependymoma patients. Int J Cancer; 2008 Aug 1;123(3):594-600
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  • [Title] Various components of the insulin-like growth factor system in tumor tissue, cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood of pediatric medulloblastoma and ependymoma patients.
  • In this study, we studied mRNA expression levels of IGFs, insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) and insulin-like growth factor receptors (IGFRs) in 27 pediatric medulloblastomas, 13 pediatric ependymomas and 5 control cerebella.
  • Compared to normal cerebellum, mRNA levels of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 were significantly increased in medulloblastomas and ependymomas.
  • IGFBP-2 expression was indicative of poor prognosis in medulloblastomas, whereas IGFBP-3 mRNA levels were especially high in anaplastic ependymomas.
  • IGFBP-5 and IGF-II mRNA levels were significantly increased in ependymomas compared to control cerebellum.
  • Protein expression levels of IGFs and IGFBPs were analyzed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 16 medulloblastoma, 4 ependymoma and 23 control patients by radioimmuno assay to determine whether they could be used as markers for residual disease after surgery.
  • No aberrant CSF protein expression levels were found for ependymoma patients.
  • In medulloblastoma patients, the IGFBP-3 protein levels were significantly higher than in ependymoma patients and controls.
  • In conclusion, our data suggest that the IGF system is of importance in pediatric medulloblastomas and ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / metabolism. Medulloblastoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18478565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 6; 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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65. Gibson SE, Zeng WF, Weil RJ, Prayson RA: Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal neoplasms. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 May;16(3):274-8
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  • [Title] Aurora B kinase expression in ependymal neoplasms.
  • Overexpression of Aurora B kinase, which regulates cell progression through mitosis and cytokinesis, has been shown to be associated with higher-grade tumors and shortened survival in astrocytomas.
  • Aurora B expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 32 ependymomas, 10 anaplastic ependymomas, 16 myxopapillary ependymomas, and 9 subependymomas.
  • Aurora B expression was identified in 20 (62.5%) ependymomas, 5 (50%) anaplastic ependymomas, 1 (6.3%) myxopapillary ependymoma, and no subependymomas.
  • The association between Aurora B expression and World Health Organization grade II/III tumors was statistically significant (P<0.0001).
  • There was no difference in the level of Aurora B expression between ependymomas and anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Aurora B expression was not associated with patient age, sex, tumor location, tumor recurrence, or death from tumor.
  • In contrast to astrocytomas, elevated Aurora B expression in higher-grade ependymomas does not seem to correlate with clinical course, although it may be a potential target of Aurora kinase inhibitors.

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  • (PMID = 18301241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKB protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase B; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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66. Schroeder TM, Chintagumpala M, Okcu MF, Chiu JK, Teh BS, Woo SY, Paulino AC: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):987-93
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in childhood ependymoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the patterns of failure after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized intracranial ependymoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1994 to 2005, 22 children with pathologically proven, localized, intracranial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant IMRT.
  • Of the patients, 12 (55%) had an infratentorial tumor and 14 (64%) had anaplastic histology.
  • The clinical target volume encompassed the tumor bed and any residual disease plus margin (median dose 54 Gy).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 18258381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Vajtai I, Kuhlen D, Kappeler A, Mariani L, Zimmermann A, Paulus W: Rapid spontaneous malignant progression of supratentorial tanycytic ependymoma with sarcomatous features - "Ependymosarcoma". Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jul 15;206(7):493-8
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  • [Title] Rapid spontaneous malignant progression of supratentorial tanycytic ependymoma with sarcomatous features - "Ependymosarcoma".
  • By analogy to gliosarcoma, the term "ependymosarcoma" has recently been coined to thematize the rare phenomenon of a malignant mesenchymal component arising within an ependymoma.
  • We report on an example of this paradigm, involving tanycytic ependymoma as the host tumor in a 40-year-old female who underwent two tumor extirpation procedures at one-year interval.
  • Microscopically, the tumor consisted of solid, wavy fascicles of elongated cells that were occasionally interrupted by vague perivascular pseudorosettes.
  • A histological diagnosis of tanycytic ependymoma (WHO grade II) was rendered, and no adjuvant therapy given.
  • Histology showed a biphasic glial-sarcomatous architecture with remnants of the original ependymoma now displaying hypercellularity and atypical - yet not frankly anaplastic - features.
  • While the ependymal component was GFAP and S100 protein positive, and featured punctate staining for EMA, none of these markers was expressed in the adjacent sarcoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of tanycytic ependymoma undergoing malignant transformation, one driven by a highly anaplastic mesenchymal component, corresponding to "ependymosarcoma".
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19853384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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68. Kurimoto M, Nagai S, Hamada H, Tsuboi Y, Hayashi N, Kubota T, Endo S: Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma. Neuropathology; 2009 Jun;29(3):299-302
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of supratentorial clear cell ependymoma.
  • Recurrence of clear cell ependymoma is not a rare condition, but malignant transformation of clear cell ependymoma has not yet been well presented.
  • The authors report a 44-year-old man who presented with progressive right hemiparesis.
  • A brain tumor in the left frontal premotor area was removed and an initial pathological diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • The tumor recurred 4 months later, and reoperation of the tumor and adjuvant local radiotherapy were performed.
  • The first and second surgical specimens did not contain any ependymal rosettes or pseudorosettes, and thus a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma was made.
  • At this time, the tumor had an ultrastructural appearance compatible with ependymoma.
  • Thereafter, the recurrent tumors showed anaplastic features such as nuclear pleomorphisms and necrosis with pseudopallisading.
  • The autopsy specimens resembled a feature of glioblastoma but the tumor was sharply demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Brain / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18647267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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69. Adamek D, Dec M, Sobol G, Urbanowicz B, Jaworski M: Giant cell ependymoma: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Feb;110(2):176-81
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  • [Title] Giant cell ependymoma: a case report.
  • Ependymomas account for 3-9% of all neuroepithelial tumors.
  • A peculiar variant of ependymoma known as "giant cell ependymoma" ("GCE") is especially rarely reported, it may pose some difficulties for the diagnosing neuropathologist.
  • Here we present a case of a giant cell ependymoma occuring in a 17-year-old patient with the history of 2-year recurrent headaches and a 1-month history of vision impairment.
  • Histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic findings were consistent with high-grade ependymoma.
  • Especially striking was the presence of bizzare pleomorphic giant cells which predominated in the tumor tissue.
  • As a result the diagnosis of GCE was established.
  • This type of neoplasm necessitates, at least in theory, differentiation with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, clear cell ependymoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, giant cell glioblastoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.
  • To date giant cell ependymomas (GCEs) were reported in seven cases in the literature.
  • In spite of apparently "worrisome" histology GCE seems to be a neoplasm with a relatively good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles

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  • (PMID = 18006220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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70. Shu HK, Sall WF, Maity A, Tochner ZA, Janss AJ, Belasco JB, Rorke-Adams LB, Phillips PC, Sutton LN, Fisher MJ: Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution. Cancer; 2007 Jul 15;110(2):432-41
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  • [Title] Childhood intracranial ependymoma: twenty-year experience from a single institution.
  • BACKGROUND: Because few large studies of pediatric ependymoma treatment are available, the authors believed that a retrospective review of treatment outcomes from a single institution would yield potentially valuable information regarding potential prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: Medical records were reviews of patients with intracranial ependymoma who received their initial treatment at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP)/Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (HUP) between January 1980 and December 2000.
  • Of the 61 patients who were identified, 49 patients underwent primary therapy at CHOP/HUP and formed the basis for the study.
  • Anaplastic histology predicted for decreased PFS.
  • Patients who had a favorable prognosis (aged >/=3 years, no dissemination or cord extension, complete resection, and radiation dose >/=54 grays [Gy]) had 5-year OS and PFS rates of 83.1% and 60.6%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study of patients with pediatric intracranial ependymoma, OS and PFS rates were concordant with the rates published in other modern series.
  • Tumor extension to the cervical spine was identified as a predictor for failure outside of the primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology


71. Sangoi AR, Lim M, Dulai M, Vogel H, Chang S: Suprasellar giant cell ependymoma: a rare neoplasm in a unique location. Hum Pathol; 2008 Sep;39(9):1396-401
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  • [Title] Suprasellar giant cell ependymoma: a rare neoplasm in a unique location.
  • Ependymomas are glial tumors that usually present in the posterior fossa in children and in the spinal cord in adults.
  • Giant cell ependymoma, a rare ependymal subtype only recently recognized as a diagnostic entity in the last decade, demonstrates pleomorphic giant cells admixed with features of typical ependymoma.
  • Although only 8 giant cell ependymomas have been reported to date, none have been reported in the suprasellar space.
  • Moreover, as these neoplasms demonstrate a high incidence of anaplastic grade, recognition of this ependymal subtype is paramount.
  • We describe the presentation and pertinent radiologic, histologic, immunologic, and ultrastructural findings in conjunction with relevant clinical implications of the first reported case of a suprasellar giant cell ependymoma occurring in a 34-year-old female 7 years after an initial diagnosis of a medullary ependymoma with rare atypical giant cells, a potential tumor seeding culprit.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18602668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Qian X, Goumnerova LC, De Girolami U, Cibas ES: Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study. Cancer; 2008 Oct 25;114(5):307-14
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  • [Title] Cerebrospinal fluid cytology in patients with ependymoma: a bi-institutional retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymoma cells are known to occasionally exfoliate into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • However, the frequency of CSF involvement in patients with ependymoma is unclear, and to the authors' knowledge the cytomorphologic features of the tumor cells have not been described in detail to date.
  • In this study, the CSF findings in patients with ependymal neoplasms are summarized and the cytomorphologic features of ependymoma, including its variants, are illustrated.
  • METHODS: A search of the pathology databases of 2 medical centers was performed to identify all patients with a histologic diagnosis of ependymoma in whom CSF samples were examined.
  • RESULTS: In all, 177 patients with a diagnosis of ependymoma were identified.
  • The detection rate of tumor cells in CSF was 6.7% in 15 adults and 21.2% in 33 children, with an overall rate of 16.7%.
  • Of the 8 patients with positive and/or suspicious diagnoses, 5 ependymomas exhibited anaplastic features and 1 tumor was a myxopapillary ependymoma.
  • The positive samples were usually hypercellular, with cohesive epithelioid cells; long cytoplasmic processes resembling bipolar tanycytes were observed in the tanycytic variant of ependymoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exfoliated cells from ependymomas are recognizable in CSF samples, especially in patients with myxopapillary tumors and tumors with anaplastic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Ependymoma / pathology


73. Wu WX, Yu SZ, Sun CY, Wang Q, Jin SM, An TL: [Detection of chromosomal imbalance in ependymoma by comparative genomic hybridization]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Mar;38(3):148-52
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  • [Title] [Detection of chromosomal imbalance in ependymoma by comparative genomic hybridization].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate genomic DNA imbalances in ependymomas (EDMs) and their correlations with the tumor histological types, grades, locations, patients' gender and age.
  • Both regional gains and losses were mostly seen in myxopapillary EDMs (MPE, WHO grade I), more commonly seen in cellular EDMs (CE, WHO grade II) and tanycytic EDMs (TE, WHO grade II) than in anaplastic EDMs (AE, WHO grade III).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The frequencies of chromosomal imbalances in EDMs decrease as the tumor grade increases.
  • Characteristic chromosomal imbalances in each subtype may play an important role in determination of histological phenotypes and tumor grades.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Ependymoma / genetics. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19575847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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74. Massimino M, Giangaspero F, Garrè ML, Genitori L, Perilongo G, Collini P, Riva D, Valentini L, Scarzello G, Poggi G, Spreafico F, Peretta P, Mascarin M, Modena P, Sozzi G, Bedini N, Biassoni V, Urgesi A, Balestrini MR, Finocchiaro G, Sandri A, Gandola L, AIEOP Neuro-Oncology Group: Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Aug 1;65(5):1440-5
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  • [Title] Salvage treatment for childhood ependymoma after surgery only: Pitfalls of omitting "at once" adjuvant treatment.
  • PURPOSE: To discuss the results obtained by giving adjuvant treatment for childhood ependymoma (EPD) at relapse after complete surgery only.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1993 and 2002, 63 children older than 3 years old entered the first Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology protocol for EPD (group A), and another 14 patients were referred after relapsing after more tumor excisions only (group B).
  • Diagnoses were classic EPD in 9 patients, anaplastic in 5.
  • All received radiotherapy (RT) to tumor bed and 5 also had pre-RT chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Relapsers after surgery only, especially if with PF-EPD, do worse than those treated after first diagnosis; subsequent surgery for tumor relapse has severe neurologic sequelae.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16863927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Kuncova K, Janda A, Kasal P, Zamecnik J: Immunohistochemical prognostic markers in intracranial ependymomas: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Dec;15(4):605-14
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical prognostic markers in intracranial ependymomas: systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Distinction between grade II ependymomas and anaplastic ependymomas based on histopathological examination solely is problematic and, therefore, the management of intracranial ependymomas remains controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) of data published on immunohistochemical prognostic markers (IPM) in intracranial ependymomas (IE), and to establish an evidence-based perspective on their clinical value.
  • Although the prognostic impact of MIB-1 immunoexpression in IE could be confirmed, there remains lack of further reliable IPM that could be used in routine diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ependymoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Prognosis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19301151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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76. Asano K, Miyamoto S, Kubo O, Kikkukawa T, Yagihashi A, Ohkuma H: A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2006 Apr;23(1):55-63
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  • [Title] A case of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma presenting with tumor bleeding and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) has been considered an astrocytic tumor with a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • However, PXA cases having several recurrent patterns with poor prognosis have been reported in recent years, and a new concept of anaplastic PXA has been proposed.
  • The present case was a 59-year-old woman who presented with tumor bleeding onset and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination.
  • After emergency surgery had removed the hematoma, postoperative contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a left temporal tumor.
  • A second surgery was therefore performed for initial tumor removal 2 months later.
  • Histopathological findings showed that the tumor was typical PXA with strong pleomorphism and xanthomatous changes and contained an ependymoma-like component in the center area.
  • From these findings, the histopathological diagnosis was anaplastic PXA.
  • This case report is the first case in which PXA presented with tumor bleeding onset.
  • Histopathological findings suggested anaplastic PXA from the first surgical specimens, and PXA recurred many times.
  • We thus believe that the patient displayed primary anaplastic PXA rather than secondary anaplastic PXA that results in malignant transformation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Mitosis / physiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18095120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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77. Grundy RG, Wilne SH, Robinson KJ, Ironside JW, Cox T, Chong WK, Michalski A, Campbell RH, Bailey CC, Thorp N, Pizer B, Punt J, Walker DA, Ellison DW, Machin D, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (formerly UKCCSG) Brain Tumour Committee: Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial. Eur J Cancer; 2010 Jan;46(1):120-33
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  • [Title] Primary postoperative chemotherapy without radiotherapy for treatment of brain tumours other than ependymoma in children under 3 years: results of the first UKCCSG/SIOP CNS 9204 trial.
  • We aimed to assess the role of a primary chemotherapy strategy in avoiding or delaying radiotherapy in children younger than 3 years with malignant brain tumours other than ependymoma, the results of which have already been published.
  • METHODS: Ninety-seven children were enrolled between March 1993 and July 2003 and, following diagnostic review, comprised: medulloblastoma (n=31), astrocytoma (26), choroid plexus carcinoma [CPC] (15), CNS PNET (11), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours [AT/RT] (6) and ineligible (6).
  • FINDINGS: Over all diagnostic groups the cumulative progression rate was 80.9% at 5 years while the corresponding need-for-radiotherapy rate for progression was 54.6%, but both rates varied by tumour type.
  • Patients with medulloblastoma presented as a high-risk group, 83.9% having residual disease and/or metastases at diagnosis.
  • All children with large cell or anaplastic variants of medulloblastoma died within 2 years of diagnosis.
  • The 5-year EFS for non-brainstem high-grade gliomas [HGGs] was 13.0% (CI: 2.2-33.4) and the OS was 30.9% (CI: 11.5-52.8).
  • This treatment strategy was less effective for AT/RT with 3-year OS of 16.7% (CI: 0.8-51.7) and CNS PNET with 1-year OS of 9.1% (CI: 0.5-33.3).
  • INTERPRETATION: The outcome for very young children with brain tumours is dictated by degree of surgical resection and histological tumour type and underlying biology as an indicator of treatment sensitivity.
  • Desmoplastic/nodular sub-type of medulloblastoma has a better prognosis than classic histology, despite traditional adverse clinical features of metastatic disease and incomplete surgical resection.
  • This study highlights the differing therapeutic challenges presented by the malignant brain tumours of early childhood, the importance of surgical approaches and the need to explore individualised brain sparing approaches to the range of malignant brain tumours that present in early childhood.

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  • (PMID = 19818598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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78. Onguru O, Kurt B, Gunhan O, Soylemezoglu F: Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) expression and angiogenesis in intracranial ependymomas. Clin Neuropathol; 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):216-20
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) expression and angiogenesis in intracranial ependymomas.
  • Little is known about the role of Cox-2 in angiogenesis and proliferation of ependymomas.
  • We studied Cox-2 expression, Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and microvessel density (MVD) in 30 intracranial ependymomas and analyzed the relationship among these parameters to evaluate their importance in the tumor biology of ependymomas.
  • Statistically significant difference was present for Ki-67 LI between ependymomas (grade II, WHO) and anaplastic ependymomas (grade III, WHO) (p < 0.001) (mean Ki-67 LI for ependymoma, 2.8%, for anaplastic ependymomas, 15.6%).
  • Anaplastic ependymomas did not demonstrate a greater vascularization than ependymomas, and the MVD values were 84.5 +/- 39.7 for ependymomas, and 90.6 +/- 61.4 for anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Although Cox-2 expression was slightly higher in anaplastic ependymomas, it was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: Similar to morphologic and prognostic heterogeneity in ependymomas, Cox-2 expression, MVD and Ki-67 LI also show a great variability.
  • Other factors may be more important for the proliferation and angiogenesis of ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / blood supply. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / blood supply. Ependymoma / enzymology. Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male

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  • (PMID = 17007443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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79. Roma AA, Prayson RA: Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors. Neuropathology; 2006 Oct;26(5):422-8
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  • [Title] Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in ependymal tumors.
  • Little is known about its expression in ependymal neoplasms.
  • The objective of the present study was to assess COX-2 immunostaining of ependymal tumors.
  • Retrospective COX-2 immunohistochemical analysis was conducted on 117 ependymal tumors.
  • The study group (56 men and 44 women, mean age, 30.8 years) was comprised of 48 low-grade ependymomas (WHO grade II), 12 anaplastic ependymomas (WHO grade III), 27 myxopapillary ependymomas (WHO grade I) and 13 subependymomas (WHO grade I).
  • At last known follow-up (range, 12-226 months; mean, 74 months), 52 patients were alive with no evidence of tumor, 16 patients were alive with residual tumor, nine patients died with tumor, one patient died with no tumor and three died with tumor status unknown.
  • Thirty-six (36%) patients had tumors, which demonstrated positive COX-2 staining, including 16/27 (59%) myxopapillary ependymomas, 3/13 (23%) subependymomas, 14/48 (29%) ependymomas and 3/12 (25%) anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Statistically significant COX-2 positive immunostaining was observed in myxopapillary ependymomas versus WHO grade II (P = 0.03) and grade III (P = 0.02) tumors.
  • Increased COX-2 expression in myxopapillary ependymoma as compared to the WHO grade II and II ependymoma was observed.
  • The reason for this apparent increased immunoexpression in these low-grade tumors is uncertain.
  • COX-2 inhibitors may play a role in treatment of the subset of ependymal tumors that demonstrate increased expression.
  • COX-2 staining did not reliably predict tumor behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis. Ependymoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17080719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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80. Panigrahy A, Krieger MD, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Liu X, McComb JG, Finlay JL, Nelson MD Jr, Gilles FH, Blüml S: Quantitative short echo time 1H-MR spectroscopy of untreated pediatric brain tumors: preoperative diagnosis and characterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2006 Mar;27(3):560-72
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  • [Title] Quantitative short echo time 1H-MR spectroscopy of untreated pediatric brain tumors: preoperative diagnosis and characterization.
  • PURPOSE: Our aims were to evaluate the metabolic profiles of pediatric brain tumors with short echo time (TE) MR spectroscopy and absolute quantitation of metabolite concentrations (in mmol/kg of tissue) and to describe metabolic features that distinguish individual tumor types and that may help to improve preoperative diagnosis of specific tumors.
  • METHODS: MR imaging examinations of 60 patients with untreated brain tumors (14 medulloblastomas, 5 anaplastic astrocytomas, 3 low-grade astrocytomas, 17 pilocytic astrocytomas, 4 anaplastic ependymomas, 5 ependymomas, 3 choroid plexus papillomas, 3 choroid plexus carcinomas, and 6 pineal germinomas) were reviewed.
  • Guanidinoacetate was reduced in low-grade astrocytomas and anaplastic astrocytomas (P < .00001) versus All Other, whereas ependymoma and anaplastic ependymomas exhibited particularly low N-acetylaspartate (P < .00001 versus All Other).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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  • (PMID = 16551993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R33-CA096032-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA97452-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Kano H, Yang HC, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Arai Y, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric recurrent intracranial ependymomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Nov;6(5):417-23
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric recurrent intracranial ependymomas.
  • OBJECT: To evaluate the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with recurrent or residual intracranial ependymomas after resection and fractionated radiation therapy (RT), the authors assessed overall survival, distant tumor relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and complications.
  • METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of 21 children with ependymomas who underwent SRS for 32 tumors.
  • All patients underwent resection of an ependymoma followed by cranial or neuraxis (if spinal metastases was confirmed) RT.
  • Twelve patients had low-grade ependymomas (17 tumors), and 9 patients had anaplastic ependymomas (15 tumors).
  • The median radiosurgical target volume was 2.2 cm(3) (range 0.1-21.4 cm(3)), and the median dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 9-22 Gy).
  • Factors associated with a longer PFS included patients without spinal metastases (p = 0.033) and tumor volumes < 2.2 cm(3) (median tumor volume 2.2 cm(3), p = 0.029).
  • The distant tumor relapse rate despite RT and SRS was 33.6%, 41.0%, and 80.3% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively.
  • Factors associated with a higher rate of distant tumor relapse included patients who had spinal metastases before RT (p = 0.037), a fourth ventricle tumor location (p = 0.002), and an RT to SRS interval < 18 months (p = 0.015).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery offers an additional option beyond repeat surgery or RT in pediatric patients with residual or recurrent ependymomas after initial management.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 21039163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Rodríguez D, Cheung MC, Housri N, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Camphausen K, Koniaris LG: Outcomes of malignant CNS ependymomas: an examination of 2408 cases through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2005). J Surg Res; 2009 Oct;156(2):340-51
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  • [Title] Outcomes of malignant CNS ependymomas: an examination of 2408 cases through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2005).
  • BACKGROUND: Determine the role of surgery and radiation therapy for patients with malignant CNS ependymomas.
  • RESULTS: Overall, a total of 2408 cases of malignant ependymomas were identified.
  • Of these, 2132 cases (88.5%) were identified as WHO grade II ependymomas and 276 cases (11.5%) as WHO grade III (anaplastic) ependymomas.
  • The annual incidence of ependymomas was approximately 1.97 cases per million in 2005.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 37 y among females and 34 y in males.
  • Patients who successfully underwent surgical resection had a considerably longer median survival (237 mo versus 215 mo, P<0.001) as well as a significantly improved five-year survival (72.4% versus 52.6%, P<0.001).
  • Univariate analysis demonstrated that age, gender, ethnicity, primary tumor site, WHO grade and surgical resection were significant predictors of improved survival for ependymoma patients.
  • Multivariate analysis identified that a WHO grade III tumor, male gender, patient age, intracranial tumor locations and failure to undergo surgical resection were independent predictors of poorer outcomes.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical extirpation of ependymomas is associated with significantly improved patient survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / radiotherapy. Ependymoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19577759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Beschorner R, Wehrmann M, Ernemann U, Bonin M, Horber V, Oehl-Jaschkowitz B, Meyermann R, Dufke A: Extradural ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation in a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. Acta Neuropathol; 2007 Mar;113(3):339-46
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  • [Title] Extradural ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation in a case of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome.
  • Primary extradural ependymomas are rare neoplasms usually of the myxopapillary type.
  • Reports on malignant primary extradural ependymal tumors are exceptionally rare.
  • We here report on a 3-year-old boy with Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS), who presented with lumbar spina bifida occulta and a progressive extraspinal lesion in the subcutaneous sacrococcygeal region.
  • Microscopic examinations revealed an uncommon ependymal tumor with well-differentiated regions reflecting myxopapillary ependymoma and highly anaplastic regions with numerous mitoses, necroses, ependymal rosettes and ependymoblastic rosettes.
  • Final neuropathologic diagnosis was an extraspinal anaplastic ependymal tumor with myxopapillary and ependymoblastic differentiation, corresponding to WHO grade IV.
  • So far, 42 cases have been reported, among them 7 were diagnosed to have malignant neoplasms, including three malignant sacrococcygeal teratomas, two sacrococcygeal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), one hepatoblastoma and one malignant kidney tumor.
  • The present case is the first report on an ependymal tumor with a mixture of myxopapillary, anaplastic and ependymoblastic features and the first report on an ependymal tumor arising on the genetic background of SGS.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Genetic Diseases, Inborn / complications. Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17165030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Hashiba T, Izumoto S, Kagawa N, Suzuki T, Hashimoto N, Maruno M, Yoshimine T: Expression of WT1 protein and correlation with cellular proliferation in glial tumors. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Apr;47(4):165-70; discussion 170
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  • The expression of Wilms' tumor gene WT1 protein was investigated immunohistochemically in 73 glial tumors, including 60 astrocytic tumors, eight oligodendroglial tumors, and five ependymal tumors.
  • Almost all glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas expressed high levels of WT1 protein.
  • Histological examination found that WT1 protein was strongly expressed in the anaplastic portions and areas with perivascular proliferation and high cellularity, implying that WT1 gene might be important in glial tumor cell proliferation.
  • This study indicates that many malignant glial tumors are good candidates for cancer immunotherapy targeting WT1 protein and that WT1 protein expression could be used as a proliferation marker in glial tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17457020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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85. Juric-Sekhar G, Zarkovic K, Waeg G, Cipak A, Zarkovic N: Distribution of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates as a marker of lipid peroxidation and parameter of malignancy in astrocytic and ependymal tumors of the brain. Tumori; 2009 Nov-Dec;95(6):762-8
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  • [Title] Distribution of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates as a marker of lipid peroxidation and parameter of malignancy in astrocytic and ependymal tumors of the brain.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of HNE in 120 astrocytic and 40 ependymal tumors in relation to tumor type, grade of malignancy, angiogenesis, and presence of necrosis and apoptosis.
  • The incidence of HNE-immunopositive tumor cells increased with increasing grades of malignancy.
  • Significantly higher HNE expression was found in tumor cells of glioblastomas multiforme than in cells of pilocytic astrocytomas (P < 0.005), and in anaplastic ependymomas than in benign ependymomas (P < 0.01).
  • HNE-immunopositive tumor cells were distributed more diffusely than in perivascular locations (P < 0.05).
  • HNE was expressed in the endothelium of almost all tumor vessels, but its expression in the walls of the vessels was significantly higher in diffuse and anaplastic astrocytomas than in pilocytic astrocytomas and glioblastomas multiforme (P < 0.05).
  • The number of microvessels containing HNE in their endothelium and walls was significantly associated with the grade of malignancy in both astrocytic (P < 0.001) and ependymal tumors (P < 0.05), although microvessels in pilocytic astrocytomas were significantly more numerous (P < 0.05) than in diffuse astrocytomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LPO seems to be a common pathological process in astrocytic and ependymal glial tumors, proportional to the level of malignancy and neovascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Aldehydes / analysis. Astrocytoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / chemistry. Lipid Peroxidation. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20210242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aldehydes; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 29343-52-0 / 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
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86. Shuangshoti S, Rushing EJ, Mena H, Olsen C, Sandberg GD: Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2598-605
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  • [Title] Supratentorial extraventricular ependymal neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 32 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Published research on the clinicopathologic features of extraventricular ependymal neoplasms of the cerebral hemispheres has been scant.
  • RESULTS: Among these 32 cases were 2 subependymomas, 19 ependymomas, and 11 anaplastic ependymomas.
  • Ki-67 proliferation index paralleled tumor grade.
  • Immunoreactivity for p53 protein was observed in the 2 cases of subependymoma, in 10 of 11 anaplastic ependymomas, and in 6 of 17 ependymomas.
  • Flow cytometry performed in 27 tumors revealed diploidy in 20 cases and aneuploidy in 4 cases (3 anaplastic and 1 classic ependymomas), with S-phase fraction ranging from 0.2-9.7.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that there is no significant relation between histopathology, Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 immunolabeling, tumor ploidy, and biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioma, Subependymal / pathology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cell Proliferation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Ploidies. Prognosis. S Phase. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

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  • [Copyright] Published 2005 by the American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15861411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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87. Monoranu CM, Huang B, Zangen IL, Rutkowski S, Vince GH, Gerber NU, Puppe B, Roggendorf W: Correlation between 6q25.3 deletion status and survival in pediatric intracranial ependymomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Apr 1;182(1):18-26
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  • [Title] Correlation between 6q25.3 deletion status and survival in pediatric intracranial ependymomas.
  • We previously used microsatellite analysis of ependymomas to identify frequent deletions in regions 6q15 approximately q16, 6q21 approximately q22.1, and 6q24.3 approximately q25.3.
  • To refine our preliminary analysis of potential prognostic regions, we used a panel of 25 microsatellite markers located between 6q15 and 6qter in 49 pairs of matched normal and tumor specimens from 28 children and 21 adults with ependymoma.
  • Pediatric anaplastic intracranial (supra- and infratentorial) ependymomas harboring the 6q25.3 deletion (n = 9) showed significantly longer overall survival than did patients of the same group without the aberration (n = 6), independent of the extent of resection (P = 0.013).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Ependymoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18328946.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Rudà R, Gilbert M, Soffietti R: Ependymomas of the adult: molecular biology and treatment. Curr Opin Neurol; 2008 Dec;21(6):754-61
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  • [Title] Ependymomas of the adult: molecular biology and treatment.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review state of art and relevant advances in the molecular biology and management of ependymomas of the adult.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Ependymomas of the adult are uncommon neoplasms of the central nervous system, and may occur either in the brain or the spinal cord.
  • Compared with intracranial ependymomas, spinal ependymomas are less frequent and exhibit a better prognosis.
  • Studies performed on genetic changes in ependymoma provide some insight into the pathogenesis and prognostic markers and yield new therapeutic targets, particularly focused on signal transduction modulators.
  • Involved field radiotherapy is recommended for anaplastic or incompletely resected grade II tumors.
  • SUMMARY: Owing to the rarity of the disease, the literature regarding ependymomas in adults is scarce and limited to retrospective series.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / genetics. Ependymoma / therapy. Molecular Biology / methods

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  • (PMID = 18989122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-7540
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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89. Niazi TN, Jensen EM, Jensen RL: WHO Grade II and III supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas in adults: case series and review of treatment options. J Neurooncol; 2009 Feb;91(3):323-8
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  • [Title] WHO Grade II and III supratentorial hemispheric ependymomas in adults: case series and review of treatment options.
  • Supratentorial ependymomas and their anaplastic variants are relatively uncommon central nervous system neoplasms that afflict both adults and children.
  • In our case series of three adult patients with supratentorial ependymomas, two patients had tumors of WHO Grade III (anaplastic variant) and one had tumor of WHO Grade II.
  • Additional radiation therapy was administered in the Grade III patients.
  • Twenty-four-month follow-up in case 1 yielded no tumor recurrence and no requirement of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In case 2, tumor recurred with leptomeningeal gliomatosis by 6 months.
  • In case 3 (WHO Grade II), no radiation therapy was required.
  • Tumor did not recur during the 42-month follow-up.
  • In our experience, gross total resection was achieved in all patients with hemispheric supratentorial WHO Grade II or Grade III ependymomas with additional radiation therapy for Grade III variants.
  • The role of chemotherapy is still uncertain but may be necessary in younger patients who may have tumors that behave more like the pediatric ependymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / therapy. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Functional Laterality

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  • (PMID = 18974933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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90. López-Aguilar E, Sepúlveda-Vildósola AC, Betanzos-Cabrera Y, Gascón-Lastiri G, Ortiz-Suárez L, Rivera-Márquez H, Cerecedo-Díaz F, Wanzke-Del Angel V, De la Cruz-Yáñez H, Ramírez-Reyes G, Arenas-Aranda D, Siordia-Reyes G: [Prognostic and survival factors among pediatric patients with ependymomas]. Gac Med Mex; 2009 Jan-Feb;145(1):7-13
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  • [Title] [Prognostic and survival factors among pediatric patients with ependymomas].
  • BACKGROUND: Ependymomas constitute the third most common intracranial tumors in children.
  • OBJECTIVE: Determine global survival of patients with ependymomas according to different prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the medical charts of every pediatric patient with ependymoma from 1996 to 2005.
  • The presence of chromosomal imbalances, particularly in chromosome 21, significantly affected survival Being under 5 years of age, anaplastic histology, chemotherapy other than ICE (ifosfamida-carboplatin-etoposide) and partial resection increased the risk of death.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Ependymoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19256405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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91. Kaderali Z, Lamberti-Pasculli M, Rutka JT: The changing epidemiology of paediatric brain tumours: a review from the Hospital for Sick Children. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jul;25(7):787-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We classified 1,866 surgical pathology cases of brain tumours in children under the age of 19 according to the World Health Organization 2007 consensus and analysed them by gender, histological tumour type, age distribution and decade.
  • The main histological tumour types were low-grade (I/II) astrocytomas (26.4%), medulloblastoma (10.6%), anaplastic astrocytoma/glioblastoma multiforme (7.1%) and ependymoma (7.0%).
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Canada / epidemiology. Child. Ependymoma / epidemiology. Ependymoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / epidemiology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / epidemiology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Teratoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19082611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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92. Shrivastava RK, Epstein FJ, Perin NI, Post KD, Jallo GI: Intramedullary spinal cord tumors in patients older than 50 years of age: management and outcome analysis. J Neurosurg Spine; 2005 Mar;2(3):249-55
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  • Ependymoma was the most common tumor (83%), and 55% were located in the thoracic spine.
  • There were two deaths due tumor progression (both malignant tumors) and one recurrence (anaplastic astrocytoma).
  • All three patients in whom malignant astrocytomas were diagnosed underwent postoperative radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the population of patients older than age 50 years, thoracic ependymomas are the most common IMSCTs that present characteristically with sensory symptoms.
  • The longer prodromal period in the older adult population may reflect the fact that their diagnosis and workup is inadequate.
  • The authors recommend motor evoked potential-guided aggressive microsurgical resection, because the long-term outcome of benign lesions is excellent (good functional recovery and no tumor recurrence).
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15796348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Capper D, Weissert S, Balss J, Habel A, Meyer J, Jäger D, Ackermann U, Tessmer C, Korshunov A, Zentgraf H, Hartmann C, von Deimling A: Characterization of R132H mutation-specific IDH1 antibody binding in brain tumors. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):245-54
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  • Heterozygous point mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 codon 132 are frequent in grade II and III gliomas.
  • Here we investigate the capability of this antibody to differentiate wild type and mutated IDH1 protein in central nervous system (CNS) tumors by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.
  • Intriguing is the ability of mIDH1R132H to detect single infiltrating tumor cells.
  • The very high frequency and the distribution of this mutation among specific brain tumor entities allow the highly sensitive and specific discrimination of various tumors by immunohistochemistry, such as anaplastic astrocytoma from primary glioblastoma or diffuse astrocytoma World Health Organization (WHO) grade II from pilocytic astrocytoma or ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / enzymology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Ependymoma / genetics. Glioma / enzymology. Glioma / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigen-Antibody Reactions. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. Cloning, Molecular. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation / genetics. Mutation / physiology. Protein Biosynthesis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19903171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.42. / IDH1 protein, human
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94. Osztie E, Hanzély Z, Afra D: Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives. Eur J Radiol; 2009 Jan;69(1):67-73
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  • [Title] Lateral ventricle gliomas and central neurocytomas in adults diagnosis and perspectives.
  • In our series ventricular ependymomas (eight cases) were mostly hyperdense with pronounced contrast uptake.
  • Ependymomas and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas followed the characteristics of the similar extraventricular ones.
  • In our series low-grade astrocytomas, WHO I-II [Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Canevee WK.
  • WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Glioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neurocytoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 18023315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7727
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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95. El-Bahy K: Telovelar approach to the fourth ventricle: operative findings and results in 16 cases. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2005 Feb;147(2):137-42; discussion 142

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The inferior medullary velum was thinned out and stretched as a neural tissue sheet over the tumour surface in 10 cases (4 ependymomas, 2 meningiomas, 2 epidermoids, one dermoid and one choroid plexus papilloma).
  • Subtotal removal was achieved in the remaining patients (31.25%); three ependymomas, one medulloblastoma, and one anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Ataxia / etiology. Cerebellar Ataxia / pathology. Cerebellar Ataxia / physiopathology. Child. Choroid Plexus / pathology. Choroid Plexus / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / surgery. Ependymoma / pathology. Ependymoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / pathology. Papilloma, Choroid Plexus / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15605202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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96. Nafe R, Yan B, Schlote W, Schneider B: Application of different methods for nuclear shape analysis with special reference to the differentiation of brain tumors. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Apr;28(2):69-77
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  • STUDY DESIGN: At least 300 tumor cell nuclei per case were measured by means of a digital image analysis system.
  • (1) oligodendrogliomas WHO grade II (n = 13) vs. grade III (n = 11), (2) medulloblastomas WHO grade IV (n = 14) vs. anaplastic ependymomas WHO grade III (n = 12), (3) Ki-67-positive vs. Ki-67-negative tumor cell nuclei in the 14 medulloblastomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Fourier analysis provided an optimal statistical discrimination between different brain tumor entities and between data sets from proliferating and nonproliferating tumor cell nuclei.

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  • (PMID = 16637509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Gaspar N, Grill J, Geoerger B, Lellouch-Tubiana A, Michalowski MB, Vassal G: p53 Pathway dysfunction in primary childhood ependymomas. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 May 1;46(5):604-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p53 Pathway dysfunction in primary childhood ependymomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Childhood ependymoma remains a major therapeutic challenge despite surgery, chemotherapy, and irradiation.
  • We hypothesized that p53 function might be abrogated in ependymomas and implicated in their resistance to anti-cancer therapy.
  • PROCEDURE: Primary ependymomas at diagnosis or relapse from 24 children were analyzed for p53 pathway, using a functional assay in yeast, RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and/or immunohistochemistry for TP53 mutation, p14(ARF) deletion and promoter hypermethylation, MDM2 and PAX5 expression, respectively. p53-mediated response to radiation-induced DNA damage was evaluated using Western blot and flow cytometry analysis in two ependymoma xenograft models, IGREP37 and IGREP83, derived from primary anaplastic childhood ependymomas.
  • RESULTS: No TP53, MDM2, p14(ARF), PAX5 gene abnormalities were detected in the primary ependymomas tumors and xenografts tested.
  • In contrast, irradiation yielded significant tumor growth delays and tumor regressions in the p53 functional IGREP83 xenografts.
  • CONCLUSION: Alterations in p53-mediated growth arrest in ependymomas might be implicated in the radio-resistance of these tumors and demand further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / genetics. B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA Methylation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Mice. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16086408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / Pax5 protein, mouse; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Mdm2 protein, mouse; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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98. Sharma MC, Ghara N, Jain D, Sarkar C, Singh M, Mehta VS: A study of proliferative markers and tumor suppressor gene proteins in different grades of ependymomas. Neuropathology; 2009 Apr;29(2):148-55
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  • [Title] A study of proliferative markers and tumor suppressor gene proteins in different grades of ependymomas.
  • Ependymomas are CNS tumors that originate from the spinal canal and walls of the ventricular system.
  • The authors report a retrospective study of a homogenous population of 119 patients harbouring ependymomas between 1991 and 2002.
  • Histopathologic grades show relationship with MIB1 and Topo IIalpha labelling indices and cut-off values of 5% can differentiate between anaplastic and lower grades. p53 and MDM2 proteins expression are not common in ependymomas; however, they are seen in higher grades only and may be involved in the tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Ependymoma / metabolism. Ependymoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18721229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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99. Tekkök IH, Sav A: Aggressive spinal germinoma with ascending metastases. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):135-41
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  • We report the case of a 28-year-old young man who presented with progressive paraparesis and urinary incontinence.
  • At surgery, an encapsulated intradural extramedullary tumor was removed en bloc.
  • The initial histopathological diagnosis was ependymoma.
  • The tumor recurred locally to double its original size only 4 months later.
  • After second surgery, 5,100 cGy of local spinal radiation was given since the pathologist believed that the new tumor exhibited anaplastic features.
  • Subsequently tumor recurred at T6-10 levels and later in the right parasellar region.
  • At 11 months after the initial presentation, a new tumor was diagnosed at T11-T12 levels.
  • The new and correct histological diagnosis was germinoma.
  • Our case is clearly unique in aggressivity of the tumor, a feature often unexpected for germinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Reoperation. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Sacrum / anatomy & histology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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100. Jurkiewicz E, Pakuła-Kościesza I, Chełstowska S, Nowak K, Roszkowski M, Grajkowska W, Szary C: Infratentorial tumors in children - value of ADC in prediction of grade of neoplasms. Pol J Radiol; 2010 Oct;75(4):18-23

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  • [Title] Infratentorial tumors in children - value of ADC in prediction of grade of neoplasms.
  • All children were operated on and tumors were histopathologically proved as low-grade - 25 (24 pilocytic astrocytomas, 1 ependymoma) and high-grade lesions - 25 (19 medulloblastomas, 6 anaplastic ependymomas).
  • RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in the comparisons of mean ADC of pilocytic astrocytomas (1.54×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.2) with medulloblastomas (0.75×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.075) and pilocytic astrocytomas (1.54×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.2) with anaplastic ependymomas (0.99×10(-3)mm(2)/s ±0.25).
  • Statistical analysis including ependymomas should be discussed, because of small number of these tumors and a non-homogenous group of lesions.

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  • (PMID = 22802799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-0967
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3389889
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; children / diffusion-weighted imaging – DWI / infratentorial tumors / magnetic resonance
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