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1. Subramanian M, Pilli T, Bhattacharya P, Pacini F, Nikiforov YE, Kanteti PV, Prabhakar BS: Knockdown of IG20 gene expression renders thyroid cancer cells susceptible to apoptosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;94(4):1467-71
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  • We evaluated the functional consequence of IG20 knockdown in WRO (follicular carcinoma) and FRO (anaplastic carcinoma) thyroid cancer cell lines by measuring spontaneous, TNFalpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and TNFalpha-induced apoptosis.

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  • (PMID = 19190106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA107506; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA107506
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Death Domain Receptor Signaling Adaptor Proteins; 0 / Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors; 0 / MADD protein, human; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2682475
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2. Avenia N, Ragusa M, Cirocchi R, Puxeddu E, Cavaliere A, De Feo P, Sidoni A, Roila F, Sanguinetti A, Puma F: Surgical treatment of primitive thyroid lymphoma. Tumori; 2009 Nov-Dec;95(6):712-9
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  • The diagnosis of such neoplasms is not always straightforward.
  • METHODS: A retrospective observational analysis was performed to establish whether patients with incidental thyroid lymphomas who underwent total thyroidectomy for another pathology had major surgical complications and worse prognostic results than patients with an accurate preoperative diagnosis.
  • Of these, 2 were correctly preoperatively identified by fine-needle aspiration biopsy and 4 were an unexpected finding at histology: 3 cases of total thyroidectomy carried out for huge hypothyroid goiter in patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and in 1 case of total thyroidectomy carried out for anaplastic carcinoma in a patient affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, a correct preoperative diagnosis was extremely difficult (33%).
  • In patients who underwent fine-needle aspiration, a correct diagnosis was made in 66% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Incidental Findings. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hashimoto Disease / complications. Humans. Incidence. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


3. Lang BH, Lo CY: Surgical options in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2007 May;31(5):969-77
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  • [Title] Surgical options in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinoma is an uncommon histologic type of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17483987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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4. Cozzaglio L, Coladonato M, Doci R, Gennari L: [The lymph node dissection in thyroid carcinoma]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 May-Jun;77(3):187-97
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  • [Title] [The lymph node dissection in thyroid carcinoma].
  • Rule and indications of lymph node dissection (LD) in thyroid carcinoma is still under debate because of the biological variety of different histological types and the difficulty to have an accurate preoperative diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes; moreover prognostic factors of metastatic lymph nodes are still unclear.
  • The AA. have separately analyzed different thyroid carcinomas and different clinical situations requiring thyroid LD.
  • Metastatic lymph nodes from differentiated carcinomas, including papillary and follicular type, range from 12 to 90% and apparently do not worsen the prognosis.
  • Lymph node metastases from medullary carcinoma range from 25 to 63%.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma represents 5% of all thyroid carcinomas; it is the most aggressive type with an early tendency to invade surrounding organs and to give metastases; prognosis is very poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17137033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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5. Santeusanio G, Schiaroli S, Ortenzi A, Mulè A, Perrone G, Fadda G: Solitary fibrous tumour of thyroid: report of two cases with immunohistochemical features and literature review. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):231-5
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  • The differential diagnosis of thyroid SFT includes different types of spindle cell proliferation, benign and malignant mesenchymal tumours, medullary thyroid carcinoma, fasciitis-like papillary carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • However, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings of SFT are so characteristic that this diagnosis seldom represent a difficulty.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mesenchymoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20614321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807559
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / Review / Solitary fibrous tumour / Thyroid
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6. Chakravarty G, Santillan AA, Galer C, Adams HP, El-Naggar AK, Jasser SA, Mohsin S, Mondal D, Clayman GL, Myers JN: Phosphorylated insulin like growth factor-I receptor expression and its clinico-pathological significance in histologic subtypes of human thyroid cancer. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 2009 Apr;234(4):372-86
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  • Accordingly, a quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) method was used to evaluate the clinico-pathological significance of pIGF-IR expression in archival samples of human thyroid carcinomas.
  • This was further confirmed in individual tumor sections of thyroid carcinoma where anaplastic and differentiated components co-existed.
  • Our data indicates that pIGF-IR is upregulated in a majority of follicular thyroid carcinomas, suggesting it may be a potential target for therapy for patients with this disease.
  • In addition, since low pIGF-IR expression was found to correlate with aggressive human thyroid carcinoma, it also suggests that IGF-IR may not be needed for progression of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma possibly because other cell signaling pathways are activated, obviating the need for IGF-IR signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19176870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3702
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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7. Bakar B, Tekkök IH: Primary undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma diagnosed by its metastasis to brain: an unusual case report. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):431-5
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  • [Title] Primary undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma diagnosed by its metastasis to brain: an unusual case report.
  • OBJECTIVES: Intracranial metastasis of ovarian tumours is rarely seen with an incidence 0.1- 5% but simultaneous diagnosis of primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the ovary and its CNS metastasis has not been published previously.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma which dedifferentiated from endometrioid-type ovarian adenocarcinoma.
  • A week after gynecologic surgery, the patient underwent surgery for a left occipital tumour which proved to be anaplastic carcinoma metastasis.
  • The patient succumbed 15 months after the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although metastasis from undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas to the central nervous system have been published with the CNS disease often developing long after the initial diagnosis of primary tumour; simultaneous diagnosis of primary undifferentiated carcinoma of the ovary and its CNS metastasis as described in our case may rarely occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19107695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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8. Sawai H, Okada Y, Funahashi H, Matsuo Y, Takeyama H, Manabe T: Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with squamous features: report of a case and immunohistochemical study. Med Sci Monit; 2005 Nov;11(11):CS65-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with squamous features: report of a case and immunohistochemical study.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic carcinomas of the pancreas are rare aggressive tumors with survival measurable in weeks.
  • Many terms have been applied used to describe these tumors, and anaplastic foci are identified in ductal adenocarcinomas and in ectopic pancreata, but are not the dominant pattern of growth.
  • We herein present our experience with a case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with squamous features in order that allowed us to delineate the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of this rare entity.
  • Histopathologically, anaplastic tumor cells showed focal ductal and squamous features infiltrated into pancreatic parenchyma, extrapancreatic fatty tissue, and stomach.
  • Although immunoreactivity against p53 was negative, strong positive immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) was observed in a the majority of tumor cells, while the alpha6 integrin subunit was predominantly strong expressed in the adenocarcinomatous lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our immunohistochemical studies suggested that the prognosis of the case with anaplastic carcinoma presented here would be poor, due to the strong expression of integrins and IL-1RI.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Integrins / analysis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Interleukin-1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16258403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Integrins; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-1
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9. Kim TY, Kim WB, Song JY, Rhee YS, Gong G, Cho YM, Kim SY, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Nov;63(5):588-93
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  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common genetic alteration reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma, has been associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded thyroid tumour specimens taken from 60 patients with conventional micro-PTC, as well as from nine patients with follicular variant papillary carcinoma, six with nodular hyperplasia, four with follicular carcinoma (including one with Hürthle cell carcinoma), four with follicular adenoma (including two with Hürthle cell adenoma) and one each with medullary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16268813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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10. Albores-Saavedra J, Grider DJ, Wu J, Henson DE, Goodman ZD: Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):495-500
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • We report four previously undescribed primary giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree and morphologically compare them with 10 anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells of the gallbladder.
  • The anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas contained a fewer number of osteoclast-like giant cells, and their mononuclear cells showed considerable variation in size and shape, marked cytologic atypia, and numerous mitotic figures.
  • Giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree are benign true histiocytic neoplasms that should be distinguished from the highly lethal anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells by detailed cytologic analysis and immunohistochemical stains for CD163, CD68, HAM 56, and cytokeratins.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Feb;32(2):335-7; author response 337 [18223338.001]
  • (PMID = 16625096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Little JW: Thyroid disorders. Part III: neoplastic thyroid disease. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2006 Sep;102(3):275-80
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  • However, 5% to 10% of the lesions that come to medical attention are carcinomas.
  • History, clinical findings, ultrasonography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy are the mainstays for diagnosis.
  • There are 3 main histologic types of thyroid cancer: differentiated, medullary, and anaplastic.
  • Differentiated lesions are subdivided into papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cell carcinomas.
  • An important neoplastic syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), involves medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • The overall 10-year survival for papillary carcinoma is 80% to 90%, follicular carcinoma 65% to 75%, and medullary carcinoma 60% to 70%.
  • The prognosis for anaplastic carcinoma is very poor and 5-year survival is rare.
  • Patients with identified nodules or enlarged thyroid glands should be referred for diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / blood. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16920533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-395X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Trimboli P, Ulisse S, Graziano FM, Marzullo A, Ruggieri M, Calvanese A, Piccirilli F, Cavaliere R, Fumarola A, D'Armiento M: Trend in thyroid carcinoma size, age at diagnosis, and histology in a retrospective study of 500 cases diagnosed over 20 years. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1151-5
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  • [Title] Trend in thyroid carcinoma size, age at diagnosis, and histology in a retrospective study of 500 cases diagnosed over 20 years.
  • Recently, the Italian Network of Cancer Registries analyzed 5101 cases of thyroid carcinoma showing a reduction of mortality rate of 4%/year.
  • This prompts us to evaluate the temporal trend in tumor size, age at diagnosis, and histology in a retrospective analysis of 500 thyroid cancers diagnosed over 20 years.
  • In particular, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) size decreased from 28 +/- 1.2mm to 14 +/- 0.8mm and follicular carcinoma from 40 +/- 6.3mm to 17 +/- 4.5 mm.
  • Age at diagnosis of all carcinomas increased significantly from 40 +/- 1.3 years in the first group to 48 +/- 0.9 years in the second group.
  • Analysis of the histological types revealed a significant increase of PTC rate in the second decade from 82% to 92% and a concomitant reduction of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) from 3.7% to 1.0%.
  • In conclusion, it may be speculated that the above mentioned decreased mortality rate for thyroid carcinoma could be related to the significant reduction with time of cancer size, to the progressive increase of PTC rate and to the reduction of ATC rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Mortality / trends. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17123342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Vaiman M, Olevson Y, Habler L, Kessler A, Zehavi S, Sandbank J: Diagnostic value of estrogen receptors in thyroid lesions. Med Sci Monit; 2010 Jul;16(7):BR203-7
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  • MATERIAL/METHODS: Immunohistochemical stains were performed for both ERalpha and ERbeta, for evaluation of immunoreactivity in 296 thyroid tissue samples that consisted of 150 goiters, 90 papillary carcinomas, 19 follicular adenomas, 15 Hurtle cell adenomas, 6 Hashimoto thyroiditis, 5 anaplastic carcinomas, 4 medullary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 2 Hurtle cell carcinomas, and 1 squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20581768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
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14. Voltolini L, Rapicetta C, Luzzi L, Ghiribelli C, Ligabue T, Paladini P, Gotti G: Lung cancer with chest wall involvement: predictive factors of long-term survival after surgical resection. Lung Cancer; 2006 Jun;52(3):359-64
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  • Multimodal management of lung cancer extending to chest wall and type of surgical procedure to be performed are still debated.
  • The aim of this retrospective analysis was to analyze the predictive factors of long-term survival after surgery, focusing on depth of infiltration, type of surgical intervention and possible role of preoperative therapies, comparing survival of these patients with that of a group of patients affected by a Pancoast tumour and surgical treated in the same period.
  • Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 23 cases, squamous cell carcinoma in 34, large cells anaplastic carcinoma in 8, adenosquamous carcinoma in 3.
  • Histological type was adenocarcinoma in 10 cases, squamous cell carcinoma in 4 and adenosquamous carcinoma in 1.
  • A univariate analysis performed in the CW group showed that survival was significantly affected by nodal status, stage, extension of chest wall invasion, type of lung resection and residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Thoracic Wall

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  • (PMID = 16644062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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15. Miccoli P, Materazzi G, Berti P: Minimally invasive thyroidectomy in the treatment of well differentiated thyroid cancers: indications and limits. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2010 Apr;18(2):114-8
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent papers in the literature with respect to minimally invasive thyroidectomy and discuss indications and limits of the endoscopic/video-assisted treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • SUMMARY: Papillary carcinoma is the main indication for MIVAT, this cancer usually being found in normal glands of young women.
  • In contrast, for locally invasive carcinomas, lymph node metastasis or both, the procedure must be immediately converted to the conventional technique.
  • MIVAT also is not indicated for the treatment of medullary and anaplastic carcinomas.
  • Recent prospective randomized studies clearly demonstrate that MIVAT allows the same clearance to be achieved at the thyroid bed level and the same outcome as with the conventional technique, when dealing with 'low-risk' papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20182356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6998
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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16. Füredi G, Altorjay A, Varga I, Illés I, Kovács C, Békefi P, Molnár A: [Late metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma on the abdominal wall to the small and large bowel]. Magy Seb; 2005 Aug;58(4):241-4
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  • Histology verified anaplastic carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16261871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar sebészet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Seb
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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17. Gogo-Abite M, Nwosu SO: Histopathological characteristics of female breast carcinomas seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt Nigeria. Niger J Med; 2005 Jan-Mar;14(1):72-6
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  • [Title] Histopathological characteristics of female breast carcinomas seen at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast carcinoma is an unpredictable disease in the sense that some patients may present with relatively early disease and die of widespread metastases within six months to one year, while others present with fairy advanced disease and yet survive longer.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize breast carcinomas into prognostic groups using histological features.
  • METHODOLOGY: A total of 269 breast carcinomas in females received during a five-year period (January 1991 to December 1995 inclusive) were analyzed.
  • Archive records (request forms and microscopic slides) of all breast malignancies diagnosed in the department of Anatomical Pathology of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were retrieved and evaluated with respect to histological type, histological grades, and mononuclear cell infiltration within the primary tumour.
  • The modified Bloom-Richardson system of microscopic grading of breast carcinoma was used.
  • RESULTS: The majority of carcinomas showed scanty or absent tubule formation (43.1%) and 59% of cases showed numerous mitotic figures.
  • Forty-nine percent of carcinomas show poorly differentiated or anaplastic nuclei.
  • The majority of the breast carcinomas in this study, 58%, show scanty or absent mononuclear infiltration.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of breast carcinomas in this study are poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma, "not otherwise specified" which exhibit high proliferation ratio and are associated with poor host cellular immune reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15832647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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18. Rodig SJ, Mino-Kenudson M, Dacic S, Yeap BY, Shaw A, Barletta JA, Stubbs H, Law K, Lindeman N, Mark E, Janne PA, Lynch T, Johnson BE, Iafrate AJ, Chirieac LR: Unique clinicopathologic features characterize ALK-rearranged lung adenocarcinoma in the western population. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Aug 15;15(16):5216-23
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  • PURPOSE: The anaplastic large cell kinase gene (ALK) is rearranged in approximately 5% of lung adenocarcinomas within the Asian population.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lung adenocarcinomas with ALK rearrangements are uncommon in the western population and represent a distinct entity of carcinomas with unique characteristics.

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  • (PMID = 19671850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA136851-02; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-135257; United States / PHS HHS / / R01-136851; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA090578; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136851-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136851; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2P50 CA090578-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS198972; NLM/ PMC2865649
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19. Sadow PM, Rumilla KM, Erickson LA, Lloyd RV: Stathmin expression in pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, and in other endocrine tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):97-103
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  • Because there are few immunohistochemical markers that are useful in the diagnosis of malignancy in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas before they metastasize, more markers are needed to characterize these tumors.
  • Stathmin was present in a wide variety of endocrine tumors and was most highly expressed in rapidly proliferating tumors including anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, Merkel cell carcinomas of the skin and small cell carcinomas of the lung.

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  • (PMID = 18461287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Stathmin
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20. Sobrinho-Simões M, Máximo V, Rocha AS, Trovisco V, Castro P, Preto A, Lima J, Soares P: Intragenic mutations in thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2008 Jun;37(2):333-62, viii
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  • As such, this article addresses the following aspects of intragenic mutations in thyroid cancer: thyroid stimulating hormone receptor and guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins of the stimulatory family mutations in hyperfunctioning tumors; mutations in RAS and other genes and aneuploidy; PAX8-PPARgamma rearrangements; BRAF mutations; mutations in oxidative phosphorylation and Krebs cycle genes in Hürthle cell tumors; mutations in succinate dehydrogenase genes in medullary carcinoma and C-cell hyperplasia; and mutations in TP53 and other genes in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Mutation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18502330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 229
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21. Pruyt M, Devriendt D, Vanneste A: Malignant melanoma and adenocarcinoma of a Barrett oesophagus. Acta Chir Belg; 2006 Sep-Oct;106(5):616-8
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  • The diagnosis of a malignant melanoma can be difficult but can be made by tissue examination with a special immunoreaction with several markers to see it expresses S-100, but lacks activity for KER and EMA.
  • S-100 is relatively non-specific as a single immunodeterminant in the diagnostic separation of melanoma and anaplastic carcinoma, but very sensitive.

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  • (PMID = 17168284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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22. Zhang HY, Wang HQ, Liu HM, Guan Y, Du ZX: Regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis by DJ-1 in thyroid cancer cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):535-44
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  • We analyzed DJ-1 expression in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and the effect of DJ-1 on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis.
  • DJ-1 was expressed in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines; small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of its levels significantly sensitized thyroid carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, whereas the forced exogenous expression of DJ-1 significantly suppressed cell death induced by TRAIL.
  • Subsequently, we investigated DJ-1 expression in 52 normal and 74 primary thyroid carcinomas from patients of China Medical University.
  • The protein was not detectable in the 52 specimens of normal thyroid, while 70 out of 74 analyzed carcinomas (33 out of 33 follicular, 17 out of 19 papillary, 12 out of 13 medullar, and 8 out of 9 anaplastic) were clearly positive for DJ-1 expression.
  • Our data demonstrated that DJ-1 is specifically expressed in thyroid carcinomas and not in the normal thyroid tissue.

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  • (PMID = 18430896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / PARK7 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP8 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8
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23. Pallante P, Visone R, Croce CM, Fusco A: Deregulation of microRNA expression in follicular-cell-derived human thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):F91-104
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  • [Title] Deregulation of microRNA expression in follicular-cell-derived human thyroid carcinomas.
  • Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but one of the most frequent malignancies of the endocrine system.
  • Follicular carcinoma is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human cancers.
  • Some years ago, several studies were undertaken to analyze the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in thyroid carcinoma to evaluate a possible role of their deregulation in the process of carcinogenesis.
  • Here, other than summarizing the current findings on microRNA expression in human thyroid carcinomas, we discuss the mechanisms by which microRNA deregulation may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis, and the possible use of microRNA knowledge in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Mutation. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Oncogenes

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  • (PMID = 19942715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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24. Ricciardelli L, Rapicano G, Pinto A, Napolitano G, Feleppa C, Martino G, Martino A: [Small bowel intussusception caused by metastasis from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: case report and literature review]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 Jan-Feb;77(1):63-7
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  • [Title] [Small bowel intussusception caused by metastasis from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Invaginazione ileo-ileale da metastasi di carcinoma anaplastico tiroideo. Caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • The Authors report a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with lung metastasis, brain metastasis and an isolated metastasis to the small bowel leading intestinal obstruction due to small bowel intussusception.
  • The Authors review the international literature about frequency, etiopathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic features and therapy of small bowel metastasis by extra-abdominal malignancies, especially by primary anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Small bowel metastasis from extra-abdominal malignancies are very unusual, especially from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and the etiopathogenesis is still unknown.
  • Clinical findings are typical for abdominal urgency, especially by small bowel obstruction from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Computed Tomography has an important role in detecting the type of intestinal obstruction despite it is often unable to diagnose an isolated metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Ileal Neoplasms / complications. Ileal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intussusception / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16910363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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25. Sidibé el H: [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa]. Sante; 2007 Jan-Mar;17(1):33-9
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  • The paucity of laboratories specializing in endocrinology and of nuclear medicine facilities, the delay in diagnosis that results in compressive or recurrent goiters, and endemic goiters are all typical in Africa.
  • Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic).
  • Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years.
  • Thyroid cancers in Algeria are associated with low socioeconomic status and characterized by a high prevalence of cancers discovered at an advanced stage and of anaplastic carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17897900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 8KQ660G60G / Carbimazole
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26. Wong M, See JY, Sufyan W, Diddapur RK: Splenic infarction. A rare presentation of anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma and a review of the literature. JOP; 2008;9(4):493-8
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  • [Title] Splenic infarction. A rare presentation of anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma and a review of the literature.
  • CONTEXT: Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare variant of ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of advanced anaplastic carcinoma in a 41-year-old man who presented with splenic infarction.
  • He had a prolonged survival of 16 months from diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Splenic infarction is a most unusual acute presentation of pancreatic carcinoma, which may require emergency tumor resection and splenectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Splenic Infarction / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18648141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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27. Bowen TJ, Yakushiji H, Montagna C, Jain S, Ried T, Wynshaw-Boris A: Atm heterozygosity cooperates with loss of Brca1 to increase the severity of mammary gland cancer and reduce ductal branching. Cancer Res; 2005 Oct 1;65(19):8736-46
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  • To test the effect of Atm heterozygosity on mammary gland cancer, mice with complete loss of exon 11 of Brca1 specifically in mammary epithelium (Brca1-MG-Deltaex11) were studied in either Atm heterozygous or Atm wild-type backgrounds.
  • Targeted deletion of Brca1 in mammary epithelium resulted in carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of varying histology with long (>9 months) latency.
  • Latency to tumorigenesis was found to be unchanged in the Brca1-MG-Deltaex11;Atm heterozygous mice compared with Brca1-MG-Deltaex11;Atm wild-type mice.
  • Mammary tumors from Brca1-MG-Deltaex11;Atm heterozygous mice were anaplastic and undifferentiated in all 20 tumors tested, whereas tumors from mice that were Brca1-MG-Deltaex11 but wild-type for Atm displayed variable histologic profiles, with some anaplastic tumors and other differentiated and less invasive tumor types.
  • Previously reported developmental defects for Brca1-deficient mice were also observed in our model with and without Atm heterozygosity, but Brca1-MG-Deltaex11;Atm heterozygous mice displayed decreased ductal branching during puberty, a phenotype that was not observed in Brca1-MG-Deltaex11;Atm wild-type mice.

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  • (PMID = 16204043.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Atm protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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28. Zhou ZY, Sun RC, Yang GY, Yang SD, Yu MH, Liang JB: Giant-cell anaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells of the chest cavity: a distinctive form of thymic carcinoma? Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):363-8
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  • [Title] Giant-cell anaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells of the chest cavity: a distinctive form of thymic carcinoma?
  • Here, the authors describe a case of giant-cell anaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells of the chest cavity-which could be a distinctive form of thymic carcinoma-which expressed CD5 and CD45.
  • The tumor was composed of large areas of necrosis and anaplastic neoplastic giant cells with high mitotic activity, and osteoclast-like cells; there was marked inflammatory cell infiltration.
  • The anaplastic neoplastic giant cells were immunoreactive for CKpan, CD5, CD45, VIM, and p53.
  • Because this tumor is very rare, extensive clinical, radiological, and morphological examinations as well as immunohistochemical studies are essential to make the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Thoracic Cavity / pathology. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20667924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD5; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPRC protein, human
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29. Rossbach HC, Baschinsky D, Wynn T, Obzut D, Sutcliffe M, Tebbi C: Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):681-3
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  • [Title] Composite adrenal anaplastic neuroblastoma and virilizing adrenocortical tumor with germline TP53 R248W mutation.
  • Such tumors in adrenal glands are usually of neuroendocrine-neural type and occur mostly in adults.
  • LFS predisposes to the development of leukemia, sarcomas, adrenocortical and breast carcinomas, brain tumors and, questionably, NB.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Substitution. Aneuploidy. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Glioblastoma / genetics. Humans. Infant. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Pedigree


30. Sanada H, Hayashi A, Tomimitsu S, Ikeda K, Nakanishi K, Hiyama J, Hidaka D, Sawamoto R, Miyagawa Y, Misumi Y, Fujii A, Nakatsubo S, Tsuru M, Omagari J, Koshizuka H: [Estimation of preoperative induction chemoradiotherapy effectiveness for non small-cell lung cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2012-5
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  • In the histological type of lung cancer, there were 12 patients of adenocarcinoma, 7 of squamous cell carcinoma, 1 of adenosquamous carcinoma, 1 of anaplastic carcinoma, and 4 of large cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20037308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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31. Shinmura K, Kageyama S, Tao H, Bunai T, Suzuki M, Kamo T, Takamochi K, Suzuki K, Tanahashi M, Niwa H, Ogawa H, Sugimura H: EML4-ALK fusion transcripts, but no NPM-, TPM3-, CLTC-, ATIC-, or TFG-ALK fusion transcripts, in non-small cell lung carcinomas. Lung Cancer; 2008 Aug;61(2):163-9
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  • [Title] EML4-ALK fusion transcripts, but no NPM-, TPM3-, CLTC-, ATIC-, or TFG-ALK fusion transcripts, in non-small cell lung carcinomas.
  • EML4-ALK gene fusions have recently been discovered in a subset of human lung carcinomas, and fusions of the ALK tyrosine kinase gene with the NPM, TPM3, CLTC, ATIC, and TFG genes have been found in hematological malignancies.
  • To elucidate the role of fusions between ALK and other genes in pulmonary carcinogenesis, we examined 77 non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) for EML4-, NPM-, TPM3-, CLTC-, ATIC-, and TFG-ALK fusion transcripts by RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing analysis.
  • Both patients had a history of smoking, and histologically the carcinomas were adenocarcinoma.
  • No somatic mutations were detected in the mutation cluster regions of the EGFR, K-RAS, and PIK3CA genes in these two carcinomas, however, a Pro177Ser mutation of the p53 gene was detected in the carcinoma that contained the variant 1 EML4-ALK fusion transcripts.
  • In situ PCR of a paraffin block section showed that the carcinoma with expression of the variant 1 actually contained an EML4-ALK fusion gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics


32. Kim SK, Kim DL, Han HS, Kim WS, Kim SJ, Moon WJ, Oh SY, Hwang TS: Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules. Diagn Mol Pathol; 2008 Jun;17(2):118-25
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  • However, 10% to 30% of cases with indeterminate cytology in FNAB need other diagnostic tools to refine diagnosis.
  • In detail, 63 (84.0%) of 75 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) samples showed positive BRAF mutation, whereas 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma, 1 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma did not show BRAF mutation.
  • Out of 27 thyroid nodules classified as 'indeterminate' on cytologic examination preoperatively, 21 (77.8%) cases turned out to be malignant: 18 PTCs (including 2 follicular variant types) and 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas.


33. Provenza C, Young RH, Prat J: Anaplastic carcinoma in mucinous ovarian tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 34 cases emphasizing the crucial impact of stage on prognosis, their histologic spectrum, and overlap with sarcomalike mural nodules. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):383-9
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  • [Title] Anaplastic carcinoma in mucinous ovarian tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 34 cases emphasizing the crucial impact of stage on prognosis, their histologic spectrum, and overlap with sarcomalike mural nodules.
  • The histopathologic features and prognosis of foci/nodules of anaplastic carcinoma are not well known.
  • Slides from 34 consultation cases of mucinous ovarian tumors with foci/nodules of anaplastic carcinoma were reviewed and classified on the basis of their morphologic features.
  • The foci/nodules of anaplastic carcinoma were classified histologically into 3 groups: (a) rhabdoid (n=12) having a diffuse arrangement of cells with large, bright, eosinophilic cytoplasms, eccentric nuclei, and one or more prominent nucleoli;.
  • The presence of foci/nodules of anaplastic carcinoma in unruptured stage I mucinous tumors of the ovary does not necessarily carry an adverse prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18300813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Andry G, Willemse E, Digonnet A, De Keyser C, Vandevelde L, Plat L, Larsimont D, Muylle K, Lemort M: [Thyroid cancers]. Rev Med Brux; 2009 Sep;30(4):279-86
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  • Anaplastic carcinomas are very aggressive, no therapeutic solution, excepted in some selected case for when radical surgery is possible (flap reconstruction) followed by chemoradiation.

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  • [ErratumIn] Rev Med Brux. 2009 Sep-Oct;30(5):482
  • (PMID = 19899374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3639
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale de Bruxelles
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Brux
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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35. Ulisse S, Delcros JG, Baldini E, Toller M, Curcio F, Giacomelli L, Prigent C, Ambesi-Impiombato FS, D'Armiento M, Arlot-Bonnemains Y: Expression of Aurora kinases in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Int J Cancer; 2006 Jul 15;119(2):275-82
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  • [Title] Expression of Aurora kinases in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tissues.
  • An increase in the protein level of the 3 kinases was found, with respect to normal human thyrocytes (HTU5), in the human cell lines derived from follicular (FTC-133), papillary (B-CPAP) and anaplastic (8305C) thyroid carcinomas, but not in cells derived from a follicular adenoma (HTU42).
  • The expression at the protein level of all 3 Aurora kinases was significantly higher in 3 thyroid papillary carcinomas with respect to normal matched tissues obtained from the same patients.
  • Similar modifications, at the mRNA level, could be observed in 7 papillary carcinoma tissues for Aurora-A and B, but not for Aurora-C.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / analysis. Thyroid Gland / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Aurora Kinase C. Aurora Kinases. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor / enzymology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16477625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKC protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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36. Milano A, Chiofalo MG, Basile M, Salzano de Luna A, Pezzullo L, Caponigro F: New molecular targeted therapies in thyroid cancer. Anticancer Drugs; 2006 Sep;17(8):869-79
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  • Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • Both anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas exhibit aggressive behavior and are usually resistant to current therapeutic modalities.
  • Thyroid carcinoma represents a fascinating model and a particularly promising paradigm for targeted therapy because some of the key oncogenic events are activating mutations of genes coding for tyrosine kinases, and these occur early in cancer development.
  • Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have been identified as causative for papillary carcinoma and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, making it an attractive target for selective inhibition in these subtypes.
  • Activating point mutation of B-RAF can occur early in the development of papillary carcinoma.
  • Moreover, papillary carcinomas with these mutations have more aggressive properties and are diagnosed more often at an advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy


37. Abelardo E, Jaramillo M, Sheffield E, Tierney P: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma implantation after fine needle aspiration cytology. J Laryngol Otol; 2007 Mar;121(3):268-70
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma implantation after fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Histopathological studies confirmed anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid and cutaneous needle track seeding of the primary tumour.
  • The patient succumbed to extensive disease 10 weeks after initial diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is a rare report of implantation of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma along the track of fine needle aspiration.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17040599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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38. Pauser U, Kosmahl M, Sipos B, Klöppel G: [Mesenchymal tumors of the pancreas. Surprising, but not uncommon]. Pathologe; 2005 Feb;26(1):52-8
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  • It is important to differentiate these tumors from anaplastic carcinomas and retroperitoneal tumors that infiltrate pancreatic tissue.

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  • (PMID = 15592845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Sevinç AI, Canda AE, Unek T, Canda S, Kocdor MA, Saydam S, Harmancioglu O: Papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking anaplastic thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Thyroid; 2010 Jan;20(1):115-7
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking anaplastic thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are rare and usually identified in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • A second FNAB with ultrasound guidance yielded cytology diagnostic of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma was confirmed by surgical dissection of the mass, and a linear array of tumor was noted in skin and muscle was performed again, and the cytological diagnosis revealed papillary carcinoma.
  • After surgical resection, the histopathological diagnosis determined the nodules to be papillary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Although FNAB is a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, it is important to consider the risk of tumor cell dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Seeding. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20017616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Wasenius VM, Hemmer S, Karjalainen-Lindsberg ML, Nupponen NN, Franssila K, Joensuu H: MET receptor tyrosine kinase sequence alterations in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Apr;29(4):544-9
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  • [Title] MET receptor tyrosine kinase sequence alterations in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Activating mutations affecting the MET receptor tyrosine kinase are present in several types of human cancer, particularly in papillary renal cell carcinoma.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas commonly express high levels of MET mRNA and protein, suggesting that increased MET signaling may be of importance in the molecular pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • To evaluate the role of MET mutations in thyroid carcinoma, we screened MET exons 2 to 21 for mutations in sporadic papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas using denaturing high-performance chromatography.
  • A missense MET sequence alteration T1010I, located in exon 14 encoding for the juxtamembrane domain of MET, was found in 6 (6%) of the 104 thyroid carcinomas examined, whereas all 92 goiter samples had wild-type exon 14 (P = 0.031).
  • Three (6%) of the 53 papillary, 2 (10%) of the 21 follicular, 1 (8%) of the 13 medullary, and none of the 17 anaplastic carcinomas studied had MET(T1010I).
  • We conclude that MET(T1010I) sequence alteration is relatively frequent in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptors, Growth Factor / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Primers / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met

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  • (PMID = 15767811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / MET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
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41. Gartner W, Mineva I, Daneva T, Baumgartner-Parzer S, Niederle B, Vierhapper H, Weissel M, Wagner L: A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients. Hum Genet; 2005 Jul;117(2-3):143-53
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  • In addition, the presence of a 3'-terminally truncated RET proto-oncogene mRNA variant in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias, as well as in a pheochromocytoma, an ovarian carcinoma and a medullary thyroid carcinoma, is demonstrated.
  • Analysis of DNA derived from varying regions within individual anaplastic thyroid carcinomas revealed an allele 1/allele 2 switch of the RFLP banding pattern, indicating loss of heterozygosity at the RET proto-oncogene locus.

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  • (PMID = 15841388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6717
  • [Journal-full-title] Human genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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42. Roche B, Larroumets G, Dejax C, Kwiatkowsi F, Desbiez F, Thieblot P, Tauveron I: Epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of a regional series of 26 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). Comparison with the literature. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Feb;71(1):38-45
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  • [Title] Epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of a regional series of 26 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). Comparison with the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to retrospectively describe the epidemiological and clinical features, therapeutic modalities, prognostic factors and survival figures in a population of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) observed in Auvergne, France.
  • The male/female ratio was 1/2.7 and the average age: 72.1; 76.9% of the cases had thyroid medical history, average tumor size at diagnosis was 7.35 cm with N1 in the course of illness in 61.5% of cases, M1 in 34.6% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19959159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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43. Besic N, Hocevar M, Zgajnar J, Pogacnik A, Grazio-Frkovic S, Auersperg M: Prognostic factors in anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid-a multivariate survival analysis of 188 patients. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2005 Jun;390(3):203-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid-a multivariate survival analysis of 188 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Multivariate studies concerning the prognosis of patients with anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland are scarce.
  • The aim of our study was to determine the prognostic factors associated with survival of patients with anaplastic carcinoma in Slovenia, an iodine-deficient region.
  • METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out on a group of 188 patients (130 female, 58 male; median age 68 years) with anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid who had been treated at a tertiary care centre from 1972 to 2003.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15599758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Ganguly R, Mitra S, Datta AK: Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):337-9
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  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland.
  • Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis.
  • Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers.
  • We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years.
  • The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma.
  • The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma.
  • This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):434-5 [21623130.001]
  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):414-5; author reply 415 [21623114.001]
  • (PMID = 20551551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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45. Haberler C, Laggner U, Slavc I, Czech T, Ambros IM, Ambros PF, Budka H, Hainfellner JA: Immunohistochemical analysis of INI1 protein in malignant pediatric CNS tumors: Lack of INI1 in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and in a fraction of primitive neuroectodermal tumors without rhabdoid phenotype. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Nov;30(11):1462-8
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  • Archival paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of 289 malignant pediatric CNS tumors including medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, choroid plexus carcinomas, germ cell tumors, and AT/RTs were analyzed immunohistochemically for expression of nuclear INI1 protein.
  • In summary, immunohistochemical expression of INI1 protein is lacking in tumors displaying characteristic morphologic features of AT/RT.

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  • (PMID = 17063089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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46. Ruffini E, Asioli S, Filosso PL, Lyberis P, Bruna MC, Macrì L, Daniele L, Oliaro A: Clinical significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in lung neoplasms. Ann Thorac Surg; 2009 Feb;87(2):365-71; discussion 371-2
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  • A significant difference was found between prevalence in non-small cell lung carcinomas versus neuroendocrine tumors (290 of 1,208, 24% versus 4 of 82, 5%; p = 0.0001).
  • Prevalence was similar in adenocarcinomas, squamous-cell carcinomas, and large-cell anaplastic carcinomas.
  • A not significantly better survival in the presence of TIL was observed overall (p = 0.20), becoming significant in squamous-cell carcinomas (p = 0.03).
  • In patients with stage I disease, TIL is associated with a significant survival advantage in squamous-cell carcinomas (p = 0.03).
  • The presence of TIL correlates with an improved survival in squamous cell carcinomas, particularly at early stage.

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  • (PMID = 19161739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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47. Madrazo J, García-Fernández RA, García-Iglesias MJ, Durán AJ, Espinosa J, Pérez-Martínez C: The role of CD44 adhesion factor in canine mammary carcinomas. Vet J; 2009 Jun;180(3):371-6
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  • [Title] The role of CD44 adhesion factor in canine mammary carcinomas.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe CD44 antigen expression in canine mammary carcinomas and to evaluate its prognostic significance in relation to other clinico-pathological variables.
  • Complex (grade I) and anaplastic (grade III) carcinomas exhibited more intense expression of this antigen than did some tubulopapillary and most solid carcinomas (grade II).
  • Although reduced CD44 expression was associated with infiltrative growth and vascular invasion in solid carcinomas, intense expression was also observed in anaplastic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / metabolism. Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Mammary Neoplasms, Animal / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18299241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0233
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44
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48. Burrows N, Resch J, Cowen RL, von Wasielewski R, Hoang-Vu C, West CM, Williams KJ, Brabant G: Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):61-72
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  • [Title] Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in thyroid carcinomas.
  • Its regulation and function in thyroid carcinomas are unknown.
  • We evaluated the regulation of HIF-1 alpha and target gene expression in primary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid carcinoma cell lines (BcPAP, WRO, FTC-133 and 8505c).
  • HIF-1 alpha was not detectable in normal tissue but was expressed in thyroid carcinomas.
  • Dedifferentiated anaplastic tumours (ATCs) exhibited high levels of nuclear HIF-1 alpha staining.
  • High basal and hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1 alpha in FTC-133 cells that harbour a phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) mutation was reduced by introduction of wild-type PTEN.
  • HIF-1 is functionally expressed in thyroid carcinomas and is regulated not only by hypoxia but also via growth factor signalling pathways and, in particular, the PI3K pathway.
  • Given the strong association of HIF-1 alpha with an aggressive disease phenotype and therapeutic resistance, this pathway may be an attractive target for improved therapy in thyroid carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 19808899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C7820/A8696
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Chromones; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 3G0H8C9362 / Cobalt; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases; EVS87XF13W / cobaltous chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2828807
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49. Bergmann F, Esposito I, Michalski CW, Herpel E, Friess H, Schirmacher P: Early undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclastlike giant cells: direct evidence for ductal evolution. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Dec;31(12):1919-25
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  • [Title] Early undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclastlike giant cells: direct evidence for ductal evolution.
  • Undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinomas of the pancreas are rare.
  • Thus, as a result from numerous histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular examinations, frequently performed as single case studies, it has been concluded that undifferentiated carcinomas and osteoclastlike giant cell tumors of the pancreas originate from epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, undifferentiated precursor cells, or stem cells.
  • However, to date, early stage tumors have not been described, most likely because of the fact that at the time of diagnosis the tumors have commonly reached advanced stages with large tumor size.
  • In this report, we present the case of an undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclastlike giant cells, which was incidentally detected at a very early stage in a pancreatitis specimen.
  • Therefore, we suggest that the tumor should be considered as an anaplastic variant of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Smoking. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18043049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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50. Ishiwata I, Ono I, Kiguchi K, Ishiwata C, Soma M, Ishikawa H: Establishment and characterization of a human thyroid carcinoma cell line (HOTHC) producing colony stimulating factor. Hum Cell; 2005 Sep;18(3):163-9
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  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of a human thyroid carcinoma cell line (HOTHC) producing colony stimulating factor.
  • A cell line designated HOTHC was established from an anaplastic carcinoma (giant cell type) of the thyroid gland of 80-year-old woman.
  • The HOTHC cells were transplanted into the subcutis of BALB/c nude mice and produced anaplatic carcinomas (giant cell type) resembling the original tumor.

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  • (PMID = 17022149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7470
  • [Journal-full-title] Human cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colony-Stimulating Factors
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51. Milkovic M, Sarcevic B, Glavan E: Expression of MAGE tumor-associated antigen in thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):45-52
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  • [Title] Expression of MAGE tumor-associated antigen in thyroid carcinomas.
  • There is, however, little information on their expression in thyroid carcinomas.
  • We studied the expression of the MAGE-3 antigen in human thyroid carcinomas to explore the possibility of specific immunotherapy using MAGE peptides.
  • Tumor tissue samples of thyroid carcinomas were obtained from 60 patients.
  • The overall expression rate of MAGE-3 antigen in thyroid carcinomas was 65%.
  • According to histological types of thyroid carcinomas, expression rate of MAGE-3 antigen was as follows: 0% in anaplastic, 20% in medullary, 29% in follicular, and 80% in papillary thyroid carcinomas (p < 0.01).
  • On the other hand, significantly higher expression of MAGE-3 antigen was observed in classical subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinomas and in small papillary tumors sized to 1 cm in diameter.
  • These findings demonstrated that MAGE-3 antigen expression seems to be particularly high in the small, typical papillary carcinomas, thus suggesting that MAGE-3 gene abnormality is an early step in thyroid cancer progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16760579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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52. Mitsiades CS, Hayden P, Kotoula V, McMillin DW, McMullan C, Negri J, Delmore JE, Poulaki V, Mitsiades N: Bcl-2 overexpression in thyroid carcinoma cells increases sensitivity to Bcl-2 homology 3 domain inhibition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Dec;92(12):4845-52
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  • [Title] Bcl-2 overexpression in thyroid carcinoma cells increases sensitivity to Bcl-2 homology 3 domain inhibition.
  • OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We evaluated the sensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cell lines (two papillary, one follicular, two anaplastic, three medullary) in vitro to BH3I-1 and BH3I-2', two cell-permeable inhibitors of the Bcl-2 homology (BH)-3 domain-mediated interaction between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members.
  • The thyroid carcinoma cell line FRO was stably transfected with cDNA for Bcl-2 or constitutively active Akt and evaluated for sensitivity to BH3-domain inhibition.
  • RESULTS: BH3-domain inhibition disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential in thyroid carcinoma cells, induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, and potently sensitized them to sublethal concentrations of doxorubicin and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bcl-2 expression protects thyroid carcinomas against chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
  • Nevertheless, overexpression of Bcl-2 may result in "oncogene addiction" of the cancer cell, which can be exploited by using BH3-domain inhibitors alone or in combination with other agents, including conventional chemotherapeutics (such as doxorubicin) or novel targeted therapies (such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib), for the treatment of aggressive thyroid cancer, including the medullary and anaplastic types.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Genes, bcl-2 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17848408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.7.11.1 / Oncogene Protein v-akt
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53. Fukushima T, Takenoshita S: Roles of RAS and BRAF mutations in thyroid carcinogenesis. Fukushima J Med Sci; 2005 Dec;51(2):67-75
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  • Papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are types of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, develop from the same thyroid follicular epithelial cells and show distinct biological behavior.
  • Although several studies have demonstrated differences in the biological characteristics of these carcinomas, little is known about the genetic backgrounds that underlie these differences.
  • Recently, aberrant activation of RAS-RAF-MEK-MAP kinase signaling pathway is frequently found in thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our series, BRAF mutation was detected exclusively in papillary carcinoma (54%), and was exclusively V599E (a single nucleotide change of A-T at nucleotide 1796).
  • NRAS mutation was observed in follicular carcinoma (50%) and in anaplastic carcinoma (28%), and was exclusively Q61R (a single nucleotide change of A-G at nucleotide 182).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 16555627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-2590
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukushima journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukushima J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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54. Yano Y, Wu W, Kamma H, Fujiwara M, Hara H, Yashiro T, Ueno E, Miwa M, Aiyoshi Y: Expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2 and b1 in the thyroid follicular cells. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(3):229-38
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  • B1 expression did not differ significantly between normal thyroids and thyroid neoplasms, except undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16299406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B; 0 / hnRNP A2
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55. Zarebczan B, Chen H: Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Minerva Chir; 2010 Feb;65(1):59-69
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  • There are several variants, ranging from well-differentiated cancers, such as papillary carcinomas, to poorly differentiated types, which carry a worse prognosis.
  • For those patients with more aggressive tumors, such as metastatic and anaplastic thyroid cancers, surgery rarely offers a definitive cure and alternative treatment methods such as chemotherapy do not improve survival.
  • In this paper, we will review current strategies for managing the various types of thyroid carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 20212418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090217-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090217
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 87
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS213765; NLM/ PMC2901507
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56. Tseleni-Balafouta S, Gakiopoulou H, Fanourakis G, Voutsinas G, Balafoutas D, Patsouris E: Tenascin-C protein expression and mRNA splice variants in thyroid carcinoma. Exp Mol Pathol; 2006 Apr;80(2):177-82
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C protein expression and mRNA splice variants in thyroid carcinoma.
  • Normal and non-neoplastic tissues were devoid of Tn-C, as well as follicular neoplasms, Huerthle-cell and anaplastic carcinomas.
  • Most papillary carcinomas showed a focally intensive extracellular staining, localized in the connective tissue stroma, whereas most medullary carcinomas showed a staining in the connective tissue but also in intracellular location mainly.
  • In conclusion, Tn-C re-expression has been observed in papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas with different staining patterns accompanied by the prevalence of different mRNA splice variants in cell cultures.

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  • (PMID = 16259977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4800
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tenascin
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57. Lazăr D, Tăban S, Sporea I, Dema A, Cornianu M, Lazăr E, Goldiş A, Vernic C: Gastric cancer: correlation between clinicopathological factors and survival of patients. II. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2009;50(2):185-94
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  • The analysis of the potential prognosis factors has included in this study parameters concerning the patient (sex, age), as well as parameters related with the tumor (macroscopic aspect of the tumor according to the Borrman's classification, histological type according to the WHO and Lauren's classifications, degree of tumor differentiation, tumor location, stage of disease, pT and pM parameters according to the TNM classification of AJCC/UICC).
  • We have identified five papillary adenocarcinomas (8.2%), 28 tubular adenocarcinomas (46%), 17 "signet-ring" cell carcinomas (27.8%), eight mucinous adenocarcinomas (13.1%), and three undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinomas.
  • Most gastric carcinomas examined were included in the category of poorly differentiated carcinomas (63.9%).
  • According to the Lauren's classification, we have identified 38 intestinal type gastric carcinomas (62.3%), 17 diffuse type carcinomas (27.9%), and six mixed carcinomas (9.8%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: "Signet-ring" cells carcinomas, and the anaplastic ones, prove in our study to be extremely aggressive histological forms, characterized through low rates of survival.
  • We remarked a significant correlation between the degree of tumor differentiation and survival of patients, the values recorded being significantly lower in medium and poorly differentiated carcinomas (p = 0.00871194 FS).
  • Average survival, calculated in months, is significantly lower in patients with diffuse type carcinomas (11.3 months), in comparison with patients presenting intestinal type carcinomas (20.4 months) (p = 0.0415 S).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19434309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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58. Dresen RC, Beets GH, Vliegen RF, Creytens DH, Beets-Tan RG: Linitis plastica of the rectum secondary to bladder carcinoma: a report of two cases and its MR features. Br J Radiol; 2008 Oct;81(970):e249-51
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  • [Title] Linitis plastica of the rectum secondary to bladder carcinoma: a report of two cases and its MR features.
  • Rectal linitis plastica (RLP) is a circumferentially infiltrating intramural anaplastic carcinoma that results in a rigid constricted rectum with thickened walls.
  • A long delay between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis often occurs because RLP can mimic a lot of diseases and endoscopy and biopsies are often negative, owing to the fact that the mucosa is frequently unaffected in RLP.
  • We present the first report of the MR features of secondary rectal linitis plastica from a bladder carcinoma.
  • It is important to establish the diagnosis of RLP early because of its bad prognosis.
  • The value of MRI in supporting the diagnosis of RLP should not be underestimated.
  • As endoscopy plus biopsy can often be negative, we suggest that, if pelvic MRI shows a concentric double layered thickening of the rectal wall over a long segment, then the diagnosis of RLP should be considered.
  • This should prompt further investigations either to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of RLP by performing endoscopy with deep rectal wall biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Linitis Plastica / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18796553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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59. Fujiwara K, Shirabe K, Wakiyama S, Oya M, Eguchi T, Akaboshi K, Saitou T: [A case of spindle cell type anaplastic carcinoma of the body of the pancreas]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Dec;104(12):1766-71
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  • [Title] [A case of spindle cell type anaplastic carcinoma of the body of the pancreas].
  • We report a resected case of small spindle cell carcinoma of the pancreas, In a Japanese 71-year-old woman with upper abdominal pain, a computed tomography (CT) showed a solid tumor 10 mm in diameter in the body of the pancreas.
  • Although the outcome of spindle cell carcinoma of the pancreas has been reported to be very poor, there may be hope of cure in the patients with small spindle cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18057855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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60. Ferrandina G, Zannoni GF, Martinelli E, Vellone V, Prisco MG, Scambia G: Endometrial carcinoma recurring as carcinosarcoma: report of two cases. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(9):677-81
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  • [Title] Endometrial carcinoma recurring as carcinosarcoma: report of two cases.
  • The emergence of sarcomatous elements is considered the evolution of subclones arising from high grade endometrial carcinomas.
  • Here, we report two cases of primary endometrial carcinomas recurring as carcinosarcoma.
  • Case 1. a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman diagnosed to have a poorly differentiated endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (FIGO stage IB) developed an intra-abdominal recurrence of disease after 17 months from diagnosis.
  • A 56-year-old woman with a diagnosis of grade 3 endometrial adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium (FIGO stage IIIA) experienced pelvic recurrence after five months from completion of chemotherapy.
  • We describe two cases of high grade endometrial carcinomas recurring as carcinosarcoma, thus providing evidence that the metaplastic sarcomatous evolution is a very rare event which can occur in patients with anaplastic endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Chondrosarcoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17646054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Gallego-Pinazo R, España Gregori E, Aviñó Martínez J, Salom Alonso L, Tormo Micó A, Villanueva Martí R, Díaz-Llopis M: [Multidisciplinary management of an anaplastic sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in a 40-year-old woman]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol; 2010 Feb;85(2):76-8
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  • [Title] [Multidisciplinary management of an anaplastic sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid in a 40-year-old woman].
  • [Transliterated title] Abordaje multidisciplinar de un carcinoma sebáceo anaplásico palpebral en una paciente de 40 años.
  • The extemporaneous biopsy was reported as sebaceous carcinoma.
  • DISCUSSION: The precocity in diagnosing sebaceous carcinomas of the eyelids is the main prognostic factor.
  • In our case, both the anaplastic character and the high aggressiveness of the neoplasm were a therapeutic challenge.

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  • (PMID = 20566179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1989-7286
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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62. Drakos E, Rassidakis GZ, Tsioli P, Lai R, Jones D, Medeiros LJ: Differential expression of WT1 gene product in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2005 Jun;13(2):132-7
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  • The tumor suppressor gene wt1 (Wilms tumor 1) encodes a zinc finger transcription factor reported to be expressed in many tumors, including mesotheliomas, carcinomas, and acute leukemias.
  • The T-cell NHLs analyzed were 43 anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs), 26 peripheral T-cell lymphomas unspecified, 13 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas, 6 cutaneous ALCLs, 6 cases of mycosis fungoides, 5 extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas of nasal type, and 4 T-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas.

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  • (PMID = 15894924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / WT1 Proteins
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63. Elisei R, Vivaldi A, Agate L, Ciampi R, Molinaro E, Piampiani P, Romei C, Faviana P, Basolo F, Miccoli P, Capodanno A, Collecchi P, Pacini F, Pinchera A: All-trans-retinoic acid treatment inhibits the growth of retinoic acid receptor beta messenger ribonucleic acid expressing thyroid cancer cell lines but does not reinduce the expression of thyroid-specific genes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;90(4):2403-11
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  • Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy are ineffective for the treatment of advanced thyroid tumors like poorly differentiated papillary, anaplastic, and medullary thyroid cancer.
  • We found that WRO and NPA, derived from follicular and poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinoma, respectively, showed a growth inhibition after 25 and 21 d of RA treatment.
  • The main difference between the all-trans-RA responding cells (WRO and NPA) and the nonresponding cells [ARO, FRO (derived from human anaplastic thyroid tumors) and TT (derived from human medullary thyroid tumor)] was the basal and all-trans-RA induced RA receptor (RAR)beta mRNA expression.
  • Interestingly, 14 thyroid tumors (10 papillary and four anaplastic) showed a significant lower expression of RARbeta mRNA when compared with normal thyroid tissues.
  • In agreement with this result, only 30% of papillary thyroid carcinomas analyzed were positive for RARbeta protein expression with a degree of expression that was much lower than that found in normal thyroid tissue.

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  • (PMID = 15623821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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64. Festa M, Petrella A, Alfano S, Parente L: R-roscovitine sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via regulation of IKK/NF-kappaB pathway. Int J Cancer; 2009 Jun 1;124(11):2728-36
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  • [Title] R-roscovitine sensitizes anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via regulation of IKK/NF-kappaB pathway.
  • Among thyroid carcinomas, highly aggressive undifferentiated or anaplastic carcinomas still await effective therapeutic strategies.
  • These results demonstrate that undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells can be effectively killed by a combination treatment of subtoxic doses of R-roscovitine and TRAIL.
  • The combination of R-roscovitine and TRAIL may represent a novel approach to the treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas resistant to conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Active Transport, Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Carcinoma. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. G2 Phase / drug effects. Humans. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / analysis. bcl-X Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19230027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Purines; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 0 / roscovitine; EC 2.7.11.10 / I-kappa B Kinase; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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65. Kapila RK, Chaudhary A, Sharma S, Sharma SD: Insular carcinoma of thyroid: A case report. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Jul;58(3):290-1
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  • [Title] Insular carcinoma of thyroid: A case report.
  • A histological distinct subset of thyroid carcinoma, which falls between well differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma with respect to cell differentiation and clinical behaviour.
  • It has been categorized as poorly differentiated or insular carcinoma based on its characteristic cell groupings.
  • Insular carcinoma warrants aggressive management with total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation of the residual deposit.
  • We present a case of insular carcinoma, which was diagnosed post operatively based on the histopathological enzyme study.

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  • (PMID = 23120319.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3450416
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Insular Carcinoma / enzyme histochemistry / fine needle aspiration cytology / total thyroidectomy
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66. Hassan I, Osei-Agymang T, Fernández ED, Behr T, Barth P, Ramaswamy A, Mueller HH, Zielke A, Rothmund M: Does fine-needle aspiration cytology optimize the surgical management of thyroid disorders in endemic goiter region? Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(1):34-9
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  • In 15 patients (15%), carcinomas were found in the postoperative histopathological diagnosis (including four follicular carcinomas).
  • In the 48 patients of FNAC groups 3 and 4, nine carcinomas (18.7%) were found (including four follicular carcinomas).
  • In the 28 patients of groups 1 and 2, there was only one papillary carcinoma (3.5%).
  • In the 24 patients of group 0, there were two papillary, two follicular, and one anaplastic carcinomas (total of 20.8%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high prevalence of carcinoma in an endemic goiter region, FNAC disappointed its diagnostic expectation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18202924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Kruk-Zagajewska A, Milecki P, Wierzbicka M: [Advances in the diagnosis of unknown primary carcinoma of the neck]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2005;59(1):77-83
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  • [Title] [Advances in the diagnosis of unknown primary carcinoma of the neck].
  • The diagnosis of carcinoma of unknown primary is set, when histologically the neck metastases are confirmed but the primary focus is not possible to be found or occurs during the follow-up.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma or anaplastic carcinoma recognized in the neck nodes suggest, that the primary focus is localised in the head and neck region.
  • The knowledge of carcinoma cells spreading paths between particular neck regions is crucial for effective diagnostics of tumor localization in upper aerodigestive tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15915923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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68. Layfield LJ, Bentz J: Giant-cell containing neoplasms of the pancreas: an aspiration cytology study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):238-44
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  • Giant-cell containing neoplasms of the pancreas have been divided into two subtypes corresponding to the osteoclastic giant-cell tumor of the pancreas and the pleomorphic giant-cell carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • Despite the better prognosis reported in some series for osteoclastic giant-cell tumors, the most recent edition of the World Health Organization classification lumps the two entities into a single category designated as undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Smears obtained from osteoclastic giant-cell tumors show numerous giant-cells with clustered overlapping, bland appearing nuclei containing prominent nucleoli consistent with an osteoclast-type multinucleated giant-cell.
  • Pleomorphic giant-cell carcinomas are characterized by anaplastic giant-cells displaying marked nuclear pleomorphism.
  • Thus, undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells and pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma may represent a morphologic spectrum with pure osteoclast-like giant-cell tumors at one end and pleomorphic giant-cell carcinoma at the other.
  • Fine-needle aspiration specimens from pure osteoclast-like giant-cell tumors will contain a population of bland multinucleated osteoclastic-like giant-cells that differ markedly from the anaplastic giant-cells of pleomorphic giant-cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335561.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Tamiolakis D, Maroulis G, Simopoulos C, Verettas D, Papadopoulos N, Venizelos J, Lambropoulou M, Koutsougeras G, Karpouzis A, Kouskoukis C: Human embryonal tissues of all three germ layers can express the CD30 antigen. An immunohistochemical study of 30 fetuses coming after therapeutic abortions from week 8th to week 16th of gestation. Cesk Patol; 2006 Jan;42(1):9-15
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  • Originally, expression of the CD30 antigen was shown to be typical of the tumor cells of Hodgkin disease and of anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
  • Since then, several reports have been published describing CD30 expression in non lymphoid tissues and neoplasms, such as embryonal carcinomas, seminomas, cultivated macrophages, histiocytic neoplastic cells, deciduals cells, and mesothelioma cells.

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  • (PMID = 16506595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30
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70. Métayé T, Levillain P, Kraimps JL, Perdrisot R: Immunohistochemical detection, regulation and antiproliferative function of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in thyroid carcinomas. J Endocrinol; 2008 Jul;198(1):101-10
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection, regulation and antiproliferative function of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in thyroid carcinomas.
  • Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in GRK2 in thyroid cancers including papillary, follicular, and anaplastic types, compared with their adjacent normal tissues.
  • In conclusion, thyroid mitogenic factor-stimulated GRK2 accumulation may explain, in part, high GRK2 levels in differentiated carcinoma, because TSH, insulin, or IGF-I is known to be involved in the thyroid cancer progression.

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  • (PMID = 18451066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.15 / G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2
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71. Russo D, Bisca A, Celano M, Talamo F, Arturi F, Scipioni A, Presta I, Bulotta S, Ferretti E, Filetti S, Scaloni A, Damante G, Tell G: Proteomic analysis of human thyroid cell lines reveals reduced nuclear localization of Mn-SOD in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):137-44
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  • Nuclear extracts from the well differentiated TPC-1 (from papillary carcinoma) and the poorly differentiated ARO (from anaplastic carcinoma) cells showed an overall similar pattern of protein expression as revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis.
  • A similar expression pattern of nuclear Mn-SOD was detected by immunohistochemistry in human thyroid tumors, with the lowest or absent detection in anaplastic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Proteomics. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15887859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase
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72. Lee S, Hong SW, Moon WC, Oh MR, Lee JK, Ahn CW, Cha BS, Kim KR, Lee HC, Lim SK: High prevalence of c-RET expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas from the Korean population. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):259-66
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  • [Title] High prevalence of c-RET expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas from the Korean population.
  • First, somatic rearrangements of RET with variable activation genes are frequently found in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Second, germ-line point mutations are responsible for the development of medullary thyroid carcinomas and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2).
  • Therefore, the wild-type RET gene expression and RET/PTC-1, RET/PTC-2, RET/PTC-3 rearrangements were examined in thyroid carcinomas and other thyroid diseases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 8 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 4 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC), 7 follicular adenomas (FAs), 23 hyperplasias, 6 normal thyroid tissues, and 39 normal portions from each tumor were included in this study.

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  • (PMID = 15785245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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73. Pavlisa G, Rados M, Pavlisa G, Pavic L, Potocki K, Mayer D: The differences of water diffusion between brain tissue infiltrated by tumor and peritumoral vasogenic edema. Clin Imaging; 2009 Mar-Apr;33(2):96-101
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  • The differences between peritumoral brain tissue infiltrated by tumor and vasogenic edema were prospectively evaluated by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of peritumoral areas of infiltrative tumors (anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas) to that of peritumoral areas of noninfiltrative tumors (metastatic carcinomas) on 54 patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / pathology. Female. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19237051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Adams WM, Kleiter MM, Thrall DE, Klauer JM, Forrest LJ, La Due TA, Havighurst TC: Prognostic significance of tumor histology and computed tomographic staging for radiation treatment response of canine nasal tumors. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2009 May-Jun;50(3):330-5
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  • A grouping of anaplastic, squamous cell, and undifferentiated carcinomas had a significantly shorter median disease-free survival (4.4 mo) than a grouping of all sarcomas (10.6 months).
  • Disease-free survivals were not significantly different, when all carcinomas were compared with all sarcomas.

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  • (PMID = 19507402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Miccoli P, Materazzi G, Antonelli A, Panicucci E, Frustaci G, Berti P: New trends in the treatment of undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):397-404
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  • [Title] New trends in the treatment of undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant tumours of the thyroid are generally classified as either well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which is composed of papillary and follicular carcinoma, or undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).

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  • (PMID = 17131154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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76. Batistatou A, Scopa CD, Ravazoula P, Nakanishi Y, Peschos D, Agnantis NJ, Hirohashi S, Charalabopoulos KA: Involvement of dysadherin and E-cadherin in the development of testicular tumours. Br J Cancer; 2005 Dec 12;93(12):1382-7
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  • In this study, we examined immunohistochemically the expression of E-cadherin and dysadherin in 120 testicular neoplasms (37 seminomas-26 classic, five spermatocytic and six anaplastic-, 45 embryonal carcinomas, 10 mixed germ cell tumours, two yolk sac tumours, 10 mature and eight immature teratomas and eight non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas), clinical stage I.
  • The intensity, the expression pattern and the percentage of neoplastic cell staining was recorded and correlated with the histologic type and vascular/lymphatic invasion.
  • In 17% of embryonal carcinomas colocalisation of dysadherin and membranous E-cadherin staining was noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / genetics. Carcinoma, Embryonal / physiopathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / genetics. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / physiopathology. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 16333245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / FXYD5 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361540
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77. Boland JM, Erdogan S, Vasmatzis G, Yang P, Tillmans LS, Johnson MR, Wang X, Peterson LM, Halling KC, Oliveira AM, Aubry MC, Yi ES: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunoreactivity correlates with ALK gene rearrangement and transcriptional up-regulation in non-small cell lung carcinomas. Hum Pathol; 2009 Aug;40(8):1152-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunoreactivity correlates with ALK gene rearrangement and transcriptional up-regulation in non-small cell lung carcinomas.
  • Recently, the fusion gene EML4-ALK was identified in non-small cell lung carcinoma, which could be a potential therapeutic target.
  • We investigated the prevalence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein expression in these tumors by immunohistochemistry and correlated the results with data from ALK molecular studies.
  • Immunohistochemistry was also performed on an independent cohort consisting of 150 adenocarcinomas and 150 squamous cell carcinomas to evaluate the utility of anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunostaining as a screening tool.
  • Florescence in situ hybridization for the ALK locus and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for EML4-ALK were performed on tumors positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase by immunohistochemistry.
  • These 2 cases were positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase by immunohistochemistry, whereas the remaining 33 cases were completely negative.
  • In the independent cohort, anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunostaining was positive in 1 of 150 squamous cell carcinomas and in 3 of 150 adenocarcinomas.
  • The 6 cases positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase by immunohistochemistry showed evidence of ALK locus rearrangement by florescence in situ hybridization but were negative for EGFR and KRAS mutation.
  • In conclusion, anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunoreactivity in non-small cell lung carcinomas was associated with transcriptional up-regulation, ALK locus rearrangement, and the presence of EML4-ALK fusion transcript.
  • Anaplastic lymphoma kinase immunohistochemistry may have utility as a screening tool or as a surrogate marker for the molecular techniques to detect the EML4-ALK fusion gene in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Rearrangement. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Up-Regulation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cohort Studies. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Transcription, Genetic

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  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2010 Apr;41(4):614-5; author reply 615-616 [20163822.001]
  • (PMID = 19386350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EML4-ALK fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
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78. Machida Y, Lijima M, Nakamura K, Ota S, Hattori N, Mizuno Y: [A 60-year-old man with intention tremor as an initial symptom followed by cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and dementia]. No To Shinkei; 2005 Aug;57(8):710-9
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  • An anaplastic carcinoma was found in his jejunum.
  • Other diagnosis entertained included MERRF, GSS, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, subacute combined degeneration, spinocerebellar degeneration.
  • Post-mortem examination revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma in the small intestine.
  • The neuropathologist concluded that neuropathological diagnosis was a spinocerebellar ataxia with neuropathological similarities to Friedreich ataxia.
  • [MeSH-major] Dementia / complications. Dementia / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Spinocerebellar Ataxias / complications. Spinocerebellar Ataxias / diagnosis. Tremor / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Brain / pathology. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / complications. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Receptors, Interleukin-2 / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


79. Ziadi S, Trimeche M, Zermani R, Elmay A, Baltagi-Ben Jilani S: [Diagnostic contribution of HBME-1 and anti-cytokeratin-19 antibodies in thyroid pathology: a retrospective study of 163 cases]. Tunis Med; 2005 May;83(5):274-8
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  • RESULTS: 92% (46/50 cases) of papillary carcinomas expressed HBME-1 as well as 50% (8/16 cases) of follicular carcinomas and 15% (6/40 cases) of follicular adenomas.
  • 8 insular carcinomas, 5 anaplastic carcinomas, 20 cases of Basedow disease and lymphocytic thyroiditis, and the 24 cases of nodular goiters did not express it or very focally.
  • Anti-cytokératine-19 marked 92% of papillary carcinomas, 56.2% of follicular carcinomas, 100% of the medullar carcinomas and 45% of follicular adenomas.
  • Whereas the cases of anaplastic carcinomas, Basedow disease, thyroiditis and the cases of nodular goiters were negative or focally marked.
  • CONCLUSION: HBME-1 is an excellent marker for papillary carcinoma which can be helpful in the diagnosis of its follicular variant; the association with anti-cytokératine-19 increases its specificity.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Keratins / analysis. Keratins / immunology. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies. Biomarkers / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16044900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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80. Mitsiades CS, McMillin D, Kotoula V, Poulaki V, McMullan C, Negri J, Fanourakis G, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Ain KB, Mitsiades N: Antitumor effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Oct;91(10):4013-21
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  • [Title] Antitumor effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells in vitro.
  • NF-kappaB has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the most aggressive forms of thyroid carcinoma, i.e. medullary and anaplastic.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We evaluated the effect of bortezomib on a panel of thyroid carcinoma cell lines, originating from papillary, follicular, anaplastic, and medullary carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: Bortezomib induced apoptosis in medullary and anaplastic cell lines with IC(50) values well within the range of clinically achievable concentrations and much lower than respective IC(50) values for other solid malignancies.
  • Sensitivity of thyroid carcinoma cells to bortezomib was partially decreased by overexpression of Bcl-2 or treatment with IGF-I, whereas the combination of bortezomib with chemotherapy (doxorubicin) was synergistic.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data provide both insights into the molecular mechanisms of antitumor activity of proteasome inhibitors and the rationale for future clinical trials of bortezomib, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, to improve patient outcome in medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Boronic Acids / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Proteasome Inhibitors. Pyrazines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16849420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein; 0 / BID protein, human; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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81. Lazăr D, Tăban S, Raica M, Sporea I, Cornianu M, Goldiş A, Vernic C: Immunohistochemical evaluation of the tumor neoangiogenesis as a prognostic factor for gastric cancers. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2008;49(2):137-48
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  • RESULTS: MVD has shown in the gastric carcinomas an average value significantly higher in comparison to the normal mucosa (38.7 vs. 12.5, p<0.001 ES).
  • In the intestinal type we have noticed a much lower average MVD than the average MVD in the diffuse type of gastric carcinomas (36.8 vs. 41.6) (p=0.02478 S).
  • The anaplastic carcinoma and the signet ring cell carcinoma are detaching themselves as histological forms associated to an intense neoangiogenesis activity.
  • The positive immunoreactions for VEGF are significantly more frequent in the gastric carcinomas, in comparison to the normal gastric mucosa (65.6% vs. 6.5%, p<0.001 ES).
  • The immunoreactions to the VEGF protein were positive in 71.1% of the intestinal carcinomas, significantly more frequent in comparison to the diffuse type carcinomas (52.9%) (p=0.018178 S).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results prove the major correlation between the VEGF expression and the 5-year survival rate of the patients with gastric cancer, the survival rate for the carcinomas with VEGF +~++ being significantly lower than for the VEGF negative ones (12.5% vs. 23.8%) (p=0.027983 S).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18516318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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82. Klekner A, Varga I, Bognár L, Hutóczki G, Kenyeres A, Tóth J, Hanzély Z, Scholtz B: [Extracellular matrix of cerebral tumors with different invasiveness]. Ideggyogy Sz; 2010 Jan 30;63(1-2):38-43
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  • Contrarily, brain metastases of anaplastic carcinomas are well-circumscribed intracerebral lesions that can be easily exstirpated in most cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brevican. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lectins, C-Type / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Neuregulins / analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Syndecans / analysis. Tenascin / analysis. Versicans / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20420122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-1442
  • [Journal-full-title] Ideggyógyászati szemle
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ideggyogy Sz
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCAN protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Brevican; 0 / Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neuregulins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Syndecans; 0 / Tenascin; 0 / neuroglycan C, human; 126968-45-4 / Versicans; 148684-98-4 / NCAN protein, human; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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83. Montgomery EA, Shuster DD, Burkart AL, Esteban JM, Sgrignoli A, Elwood L, Vaughn DJ, Griffin CA, Epstein JI: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the urinary tract: a clinicopathologic study of 46 cases, including a malignant example inflammatory fibrosarcoma and a subset associated with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1502-12
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  • [Title] Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the urinary tract: a clinicopathologic study of 46 cases, including a malignant example inflammatory fibrosarcoma and a subset associated with high-grade urothelial carcinoma.
  • By immunohistochemistry (IHC), lesions at least focally expressed anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) (20/35, 57%), AE1/3 (25/34, 73%), CAM5.2 (10/15, 67%), CK18 (6/6, 100%), actin (23/25, 92%), desmin (15/19, 79%), calponin (6/7, 86%), caldesmon (4/7, 57%, rare cells), p53 (10/13, 77%), and most lacked S100 (0/14), CD34 (0/13), CD117 (2/13, 15%), CD21 (0/5), and CD23 (0/3).
  • Most bladder IMTs were managed locally, but partial cystectomy was performed as the initial management in 7 cases and cystectomy in 1 (1 IMT was initially misinterpreted as carcinoma, 1 IMT was found incidentally as a separate lesion in a cystectomy specimen performed for urothelial carcinoma).
  • In 2 cases, tumors of the urinary tract (TURs) showing IMT preceded (1 and 2 mo, respectively) TURs showing sarcomatoid carcinoma with high-grade invasive urothelial carcinoma accompanied with separate fragments of IMT.
  • Both these patients died of their carcinomas.
  • Typical IMTs can be locally aggressive, sometimes requiring radical surgical resection, but none of our typical cases metastasized, although they can rarely arise contemporaneously with sarcomatoid urothelial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Ureter / pathology. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urologic Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17122505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / anaplastic lymphoma kinase
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84. Colonna M, Bossard N, Guizard AV, Remontet L, Grosclaude P, le réseau FRANCIM: Descriptive epidemiology of thyroid cancer in France: incidence, mortality and survival. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2010 Mar;71(2):95-101
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  • Overall and relative survivals by sex and age (diagnosis period 1989-1997; cut-off date 1st January 2002) were obtained from the dedicated and nine other registries.
  • The main increasing subtype was papillary carcinoma.
  • The highest survival (>94%) concerned papillary carcinomas and the lowest (<15%) anaplastic carcinomas.
  • Survivals were generally higher in women than in men; precisely, higher in women for papillary and follicular carcinomas but higher in men for medullary and anaplastic carcinomas.
  • Survivals increased with age, but for medullary carcinomas.
  • Survivals from anaplastic carcinomas were very low whatever the age.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20036351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Investigator] Velten M; Launoy G; Troussard X; Guizard AV; Faivre J; Colonna M; Arveux P; Maynadié M; Danzon A; Gouerou H; Buemi A; Tretarre B; Bara S; Ganry; Grosclaude P; Kadi-Hanifi AM; Molinié F; Monnereau A; Schvartz C; Baldi I; Saves M; Guerrin-Tran E; Ligier K; Dieye M; Plenet J
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85. Levy R, Grafi-Cohen M, Kraiem Z, Kloog Y: Galectin-3 promotes chronic activation of K-Ras and differentiation block in malignant thyroid carcinomas. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Aug;9(8):2208-19
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 promotes chronic activation of K-Ras and differentiation block in malignant thyroid carcinomas.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are deadly tumors that are highly invasive, particularly into the bones.
  • Although oncogenic Ras can transform thyroid cells into a severely malignant phenotype, thyroid carcinomas do not usually harbor ras gene mutations.
  • Therefore, it is not known whether chronically active Ras contributes to thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation, although galectin-3 (Gal-3), which is strongly expressed in thyroid carcinomas but not in benign tumors or normal glands, is known to act as a K-Ras chaperone that stabilizes and drives K-Ras.GTP nanoclustering and signal robustness.
  • Here, we examined the possibility that thyroid carcinomas expressing high levels of Gal-3 exhibit chronically active K-Ras.
  • Using cell lines representing three types of malignant thyroid tumors--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic--we investigated the possible correlation between Gal-3 expression and active Ras content, and then examined the therapeutic potential of the Ras inhibitor S-trans, trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; Salirasib) for thyroid carcinoma.
  • Thyroid carcinoma cells strongly expressing Gal-3 showed high levels of K-Ras.GTP expression, and K-Ras.GTP transmitted strong signals to extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
  • FTS also inhibited anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice.
  • We conclude that wild-type K-Ras.GTP in association with Gal-3 contributes to thyroid carcinoma malignancy and that Ras inhibition might be a useful treatment strategy against these deadly tumors.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20682656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Salicylates; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / farnesylthiosalicylic acid; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 4602-84-0 / Farnesol; 86-01-1 / Guanosine Triphosphate; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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86. Chiu CG, Harrison PB, Filipenko D, Wiseman SM: Thyroid invasion by locally advanced esophageal cancer masquerading as anaplastic carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Jul;18(7):799-800
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  • [Title] Thyroid invasion by locally advanced esophageal cancer masquerading as anaplastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


87. Nara S: A case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with portal vein tumor thrombus. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan;40(1):96-7
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  • [Title] A case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with portal vein tumor thrombus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Portal Vein / radiography. Thrombosis / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20044390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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88. De Vico G, Maiolino P, Cataldi M, Mazzullo G, Restucci B: Nuclear morphometry in relation to lymph node status in canine mammary carcinomas. Vet Res Commun; 2007 Nov;31(8):1005-11
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  • [Title] Nuclear morphometry in relation to lymph node status in canine mammary carcinomas.
  • The assessment of nuclear area and nuclear shape by morphometric analysis, has been investigated in 40 canine mammary carcinomas in relation to their metastatic behaviour to regional lymph-nodes.
  • Node-positive tumours included 6 simple adenocarcinomas, 10 ductular carcinomas, 2 anaplastic carcinomas and 2 carcinomas in mixed tumours; node-negative tumours included 18 adenocarcinomas %96, 10 simple adenocarcinomas, 8 complex adenocarcinomas %96, and 2 carcinomas in mixed tumours.
  • Node-positive tumours showed MNA and mean SDA values significantly higher (p<0.001) than node-negative carcinomas.

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  • [ISSN] 0165-7380
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
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89. Lacroix L, Soria JC, Bidart JM, Schlumberger M: [Oncogenes and thyroid tumors]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Jan;92(1):37-43
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  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas are characterized in 70% of cases by the presence of either a RET/PTC rearrangement, or an activating point mutation of RAS or BRAF genes that induce a constitutive activation of the MAP kinase pathway.
  • Follicular carcinomas are characterized by the presence of a RAS mutation or of a PAX8-PPARgamma rearrangement.
  • Inactivating mutations of the p53 gene are found only in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Oncogenes / genetics. Point Mutation / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15689324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / oncogene protein trk; EC 2.7.10.1 / MET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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90. Tang S, Xu D, Zhou B: Analysis of P53 mutation and invasion front grading in oral squamous cell carcinomas. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Aug;30(4):525-9
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  • [Title] Analysis of P53 mutation and invasion front grading in oral squamous cell carcinomas.
  • We examined P53 mutation and invasion front grading (IFG) in 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs).
  • The presence of P53 mutation indicates the most anaplastic fields in the invasive areas of the tumors, which may predict poor prognosis for the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Mouth Neoplasms / genetics. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 20714883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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91. Wada N, Yoshida A, Miyagi Y, Yamamoto T, Nakayama H, Suganuma N, Matsuzu K, Masudo K, Hirakawa S, Rino Y, Masuda M, Imada T: Overexpression of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint genes hBUB1, hBUBR1 and hMAD2 in thyroid carcinomas with aggressive nature. Anticancer Res; 2008 Jan-Feb;28(1A):139-44
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  • [Title] Overexpression of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint genes hBUB1, hBUBR1 and hMAD2 in thyroid carcinomas with aggressive nature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression levels of MSAC genes (hBUB1, hBUBR1, hBUB3 and hMAD2) were evaluated in 9 follicular thyroid adenomas (FAs), 9 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 21 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 5 anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) and 3 adjacent normal thyroid tissues (NTs) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR.
  • These gene expressions were compared between undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) and differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) and between advanced DTCs and non-advanced DTCs.
  • Advanced DTCs were defined as carcinoma with aggressive nature such as extrathyroid extension, distant metastasis, recurrence or death from the disease.
  • RESULTS: MSAC gene expressions varied in different thyroid tumors and fell in the order of ATC, DTC (PTC and FTC), FA and NT Carcinomas had higher expression compared to adenoma or normal tissue. hBUB1, hBUBR1 and hMAD2 expressions in ATCs were significantly higher than those in DTCs (p<0.005).
  • CONCLUSION: The MSAC genes were overexpressed in thyroid carcinomas with aggressive nature.

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  • (PMID = 18383837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / MAD2L1 protein, human; 0 / Mad2 Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BUB1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Bub1 spindle checkpoint protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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92. Yamanaka K, Ito Y, Okuyama N, Noda K, Matsumoto H, Yoshida H, Miyauchi A, Capurro M, Filmus J, Miyoshi E: Immunohistochemical study of glypican 3 in thyroid cancer. Oncology; 2007;73(5-6):389-94
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  • GPC3 was scarcely expressed in the normal thyroid gland, but was dramatically enhanced in certain types of cancers: 100% in follicular carcinoma (20/20 cases) and 70% in papillary carcinoma (48/69 cases).
  • Expression of GPC3 in follicular carcinoma was significantly higher than that of follicular adenoma (p < 0.0019).
  • In contrast, GPC 3 was not expressed in 17 cases of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • In 69 cases of papillary carcinoma, GPC3 was expressed at an early stage, suggesting that GPC3 expression in thyroid cancer is an early event in developing papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Reference Values. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18511877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans
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93. Nikiforov YE: Editorial: anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid--will aurora B light a path for treatment? J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1243-5
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  • [Title] Editorial: anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid--will aurora B light a path for treatment?
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15699543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / AURKB protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase B; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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94. Khashab MA, Emerson RE, DeWitt JM: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma: a single-center experience. Pancreas; 2010 Jan;39(1):88-91
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for the diagnosis of anaplastic pancreatic carcinoma: a single-center experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas (ACP) is an aggressive variant of ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to describe a single-center experience with the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with or without fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for the diagnosis of ACP.
  • METHODS: The cytology and surgical pathology databases were searched for a diagnosis of ACP between 1992 and 2008.
  • The diagnosis of ACP was confirmed after surgical resection in 2 of these 5, including one in whom cytology demonstrated only adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas has variable endosonographic features.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound-FNA may assist in the cytological diagnosis of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Endosonography. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20050229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Zhao J, Wang MZ, Li LY, Zhang L, Zhong W: [Clinical features of pulmonary malignancies in patients younger than 30 years of age]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2010 Apr;32(2):174-8
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  • The mean time from the onset of disease to confirmed diagnosis was (5.98+/-8.95) months.
  • In 6 patients with carcinomas of salivary gland type, all cases were central; no lymph nodes metastasis was found in the postoperative specimen; and surgical operation was also the main treatment for these patients.
  • Multiple nodules in bilateral lungs were presented in 2 patients with anaplastic large cell lymphomas, in which CD30 was positive in tumor cells; chemotherapy was the main therapy for these two patients.

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  • (PMID = 20450548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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96. Yamada H, Takano T, Ito Y, Matsuzuka F, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Yoshida H, Watanabe M, Iwatani Y, Miyauchi A: Expression of nestin mRNA is a differentiation marker in thyroid tumors. Cancer Lett; 2009 Jul 18;280(1):61-4
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  • Unexpectedly, nestin mRNA was detected in almost all differentiated thyroid tumors and normal thyroid tissues, whereas extremely decreased expression was observed in anaplastic carcinomas, which are the most malignant of the thyroid follicular cell-derived tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19268442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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97. Peters K, Klöppel G: [Undifferentiated pancreatic carcinomas. Leap into chaos]. Pathologe; 2005 Feb;26(1):18-21
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  • [Title] [Undifferentiated pancreatic carcinomas. Leap into chaos].
  • Undifferentiated pancreatic carcinomas are rare anaplastic variants of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.
  • An uncommon variant is undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
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98. Manxhuka-Kerliu S, Devolli-Disha E, Gerxhaliu A, Ahmetaj H, Baruti A, Loxha S, Thaqi H: Prognostic values of thyroid tumours. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2009 May;9(2):111-9
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  • Follicular adenomas have been found in 39, 1% of cases, thyroid carcinomas in 60, 12%, whereas thyroid secondary carcinomas have been found in 0, 72% of cases.
  • As far as histological variants of thyroid carcinomas are concerned, most frequently found were papillary carcinomas in 39,85% of cases; followed by follicular carcinomas in 9,42% of cases; follicular variants of papillary carcinomas in 5,79% of cases; medullary carcinomas in 3,62% of cases, while anaplastic and Hurthle cell carcinomas have been found in 0,72% of cases each.
  • Papillary carcinoma has been found in 80% of female cases.
  • Our data indicate that apart from the fact that papillary carcinomas, well differentiated, and characterised by relatively good prognosis, were most frequent variants, certain morphological variants of it were associated with poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 19485942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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99. Kim IM, Ackerson T, Ramakrishna S, Tretiakova M, Wang IC, Kalin TV, Major ML, Gusarova GA, Yoder HM, Costa RH, Kalinichenko VV: The Forkhead Box m1 transcription factor stimulates the proliferation of tumor cells during development of lung cancer. Cancer Res; 2006 Feb 15;66(4):2153-61
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  • Expression of Foxm1 is found in a variety of distinct human cancers including hepatocellular carcinomas, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, ductal breast carcinomas, and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Forkhead Transcription Factors / physiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


100. Green LD, Mack L, Pasieka JL: Anaplastic thyroid cancer and primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of these rare thyroid malignancies. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Dec 15;94(8):725-36
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  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid cancer and primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of these rare thyroid malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND: To review the current literature on the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and thyroid lymphoma (TL).
  • RESULTS: Both anaplastic carcinoma (ATC) and TL represent rare forms of thyroid cancer.
  • DISCUSSION: Although both ATC and TL are rare, it is important for surgeons to be aware of the need for multimodality therapy when treating these patients and to understand the limited role surgery plays in diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma. Lymphoma. Thyroid Neoplasms. Thyroidectomy






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